Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Fibromyalgia: A common nonarticular rheumatic syndrome characterized by myalgia and multiple points of focal muscle tenderness to palpation (trigger points). Muscle pain is typically aggravated by inactivity or exposure to cold. This condition is often associated with general symptoms, such as sleep disturbances, fatigue, stiffness, HEADACHES, and occasionally DEPRESSION. There is significant overlap between fibromyalgia and the chronic fatigue syndrome (FATIGUE SYNDROME, CHRONIC). Fibromyalgia may arise as a primary or secondary disease process. It is most frequent in females aged 20 to 50 years. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1494-95)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Catastrophization: Cognitive and emotional processes encompassing magnification of pain-related stimuli, feelings of helplessness, and a generally pessimistic orientation.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Eye Pain: A dull or sharp painful sensation associated with the outer or inner structures of the eyeball, having different causes.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Sciatica: A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; L4, L5, S1, or S2, often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Trigeminal Neuralgia: A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation: The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.Acupuncture Analgesia: Analgesia produced by the insertion of ACUPUNCTURE needles at certain ACUPUNCTURE POINTS on the body. This activates small myelinated nerve fibers in the muscle which transmit impulses to the spinal cord and then activate three centers - the spinal cord, midbrain and pituitary/hypothalamus - to produce analgesia.Tramadol: A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Oxycodone: A semisynthetic derivative of CODEINE.Cyclohexanecarboxylic AcidsBupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Injections, Intra-Articular: Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Analgesia, Patient-Controlled: Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Facial Neuralgia: Neuralgic syndromes which feature chronic or recurrent FACIAL PAIN as the primary manifestation of disease. Disorders of the trigeminal and facial nerves are frequently associated with these conditions.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Injections, Epidural: The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome: A symptom complex consisting of pain, muscle tenderness, clicking in the joint, and limitation or alteration of mandibular movement. The symptoms are subjective and manifested primarily in the masticatory muscles rather than the temporomandibular joint itself. Etiologic factors are uncertain but include occlusal dysharmony and psychophysiologic factors.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: A syndrome characterized by severe burning pain in an extremity accompanied by sudomotor, vasomotor, and trophic changes in bone without an associated specific nerve injury. This condition is most often precipitated by trauma to soft tissue or nerve complexes. The skin over the affected region is usually erythematous and demonstrates hypersensitivity to tactile stimuli and erythema. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1360; Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Spinal DiseasesElectric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation.Paresthesia: Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.Causalgia: A complex regional pain syndrome characterized by burning pain and marked sensitivity to touch (HYPERESTHESIA) in the distribution of an injured peripheral nerve. Autonomic dysfunction in the form of sudomotor (i.e., sympathetic innervation to sweat glands), vasomotor, and trophic skin changes may also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1359)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Pelvic Girdle Pain: Discomfort associated with the bones that make up the pelvic girdle. It occurs frequently during pregnancy.Massage: The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Joint DiseasesRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neuralgia, Postherpetic: Pain in nerves, frequently involving facial SKIN, resulting from the activation the latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN). The two forms of the condition preceding the pain are HERPES ZOSTER OTICUS; and HERPES ZOSTER OPHTHALMICUS. Following the healing of the rashes and blisters, the pain sometimes persists.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Ketorolac: A pyrrolizine carboxylic acid derivative structurally related to INDOMETHACIN. It is an NSAID and is used principally for its analgesic activity. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Central Nervous System Sensitization: An increased response to stimulation that is mediated by amplification of signaling in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS).Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Musculoskeletal Manipulations: Various manipulations of body tissues, muscles and bones by hands or equipment to improve health and circulation, relieve fatigue, promote healing.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Breakthrough Pain: Acute pain that comes on rapidly despite the use of pain medication.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hydromorphone: An opioid analgesic made from MORPHINE and used mainly as an analgesic. It has a shorter duration of action than morphine.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Prilocaine: A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.TRPV Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Hypnosis: A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.ArthritisSpinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Autonomic Nerve Block: Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Pancreatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS that is characterized by recurring or persistent ABDOMINAL PAIN with or without STEATORRHEA or DIABETES MELLITUS. It is characterized by the irregular destruction of the pancreatic parenchyma which may be focal, segmental, or diffuse.Chiropractic: An occupational discipline founded by D.D. Palmer in the 1890's based on the relationship of the spine to health and disease.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Needles: Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.Amitriptyline: Tricyclic antidepressant with anticholinergic and sedative properties. It appears to prevent the re-uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin at nerve terminals, thus potentiating the action of these neurotransmitters. Amitriptyline also appears to antagonize cholinergic and alpha-1 adrenergic responses to bioactive amines.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
  • It is characterized by symptoms including pain (most common is a burning pain), tenderness, and swelling of an extremity associated with varying degrees of sweating, warmth and/or coolness, flushing, discoloration, and shiny skin. (themighty.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare topical 5% lidocaine patch with placebo patch in the treatment of myofascial pain syndrome of the upper trapezius. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • CONCLUSIONS: The application of the 5% lidocaine patch is probably superior to the placebo patch in relieving pain and in reducing associated neck disability for a period of longer than 1 wk for treating patients with myofascial pain syndrome of the upper trapezius. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • DESIGN: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 60 participants were randomly assigned, placing 31 subjects in the 5% lidocaine patch group and 29 subjects in the placebo patch group. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • And from there on out, for the next 18 years (I am 30, so yes, I am still dealing with the repercussions of the statement made 18 years ago), I have been questioning myself every time I feel physical pain. (themighty.com)
  • There was no significant difference between the two groups in the VRS, the Pressure Pain Threshold, the ranges of motion, and the Neck Disability Index. (ncku.edu.tw)
  • At day 14, the experimental group continued to improve in the VRS (1.06), but the pain of the placebo group aggravated (VRS, 1.5). (ncku.edu.tw)
  • A new scientific study suggests that crabs can feel and remember pain . (slashdot.org)
  • Instead, the new research 'suggests that people with neck pain have many options when choosing how to improve it,' Janet Freburger told Reuters Health. (chicagotribune.com)
  • But a new study suggests a surprising benefit of 30-minute snoozes on the sleep-deprived: less sensitivity to pain. (runnersworld.com)
  • It suggests to me that this remains an unresolved issue that requires a larger and/or longer study even with MRI-based measurement approaches," he said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This is an important finding because increasing evidence suggests that chronic pain is a problem to the extent that you remember it, and this study is the first time such remembered pain has been shown using a translational - both rodent and human subject - approach," said Loren Martin, the first author on the paper and an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Toronto Mississauga. (montrealgazette.com)
  • An experimental study at the Columbia Interventional Pain Center in Columbia, Missouri, suggests that injecting bone marrow grafts into the spine may hold the cure to back pain. (opposingviews.com)
  • The superiority of both forms of acupuncture suggests a common underlying mechanism that may act on pain generation, transmission of pain signals or processing of pain signals by the central nervous system and that is stronger than the action mechanism of conventional therapy,' the authors conclude. (cbc.ca)
  • Ginger may reduce the pain associated with muscle injury after exercising, offering amateur and professional athletes a natural pain reliever, suggests new data. (nutraingredients.com)
  • While one study suggests looking away may stop the pain , Dr. Sharma says thinking of a positive memory can also help. (huffingtonpost.ca)
  • Dr. Sharma suggests stress balls are a great way to distract yourself from the pain -- while keeping your body at minimal movement during an injection. (huffingtonpost.ca)
  • This pilot study suggests the potential value of a plant-based diet intervention, including weekly support classes, for treating painful diabetic neuropathy. (nature.com)
  • The study found that higher trait mindfulness correlated with greater deactivation of the posterior cingulate cortex. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Meanwhile, the control group that wrote about dental pain set relatively low bail amounts, hovering around $300, Randles and his team found. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Two randomized control trials - considered medicine's gold standard for evidence - found that qigong, a type of gentle stretching and breathing, reduced low-grade neck pain, when patients were compared to a group that did not do qigong. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Interestingly, one study found that patients who were supervised during strengthening exercises did no better than a neck pain group assigned to do exercises at home. (chicagotribune.com)
  • For those who suffered from whiplash-associated neck pain, a study found little difference between a group assigned to do exercises and a group just given advice about self care. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Overall, the trials found that for mild neck pain (considered grades 1 and 2), unsupervised range of motion exercise, over-the-counter painkillers and manual massage were about equally effective. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Other research by Dr. Krishna C. Srivastava, a world-renowned researcher on the therapeutic effects of spices, at Odense University in Denmark, found that ginger is an effective and superior anti-pain remedy. (care2.com)
  • Two widely used nutritional supplements for arthritis pain do not effectively soothe patients' aching arthritic knees, a large federal study has found. (nytimes.com)
  • But the study found that the patients who took celecoxib had a statistically significant improvement in their symptoms. (nytimes.com)
  • Acupuncture with a laser or needle is no better than sham acupuncture at treating chronic knee pain in people over 50, an Australian study has found. (bmj.com)
  • Mindfulness meditation can help ease anxiety, depression and pain, but scientists found little evidence that meditation helped other conditions including substance abuse or sleep and attention problems. (courant.com)
  • The popular dietary supplement glucosamine showed no evidence of structural benefits on MRI among patients with chronic knee pain typical of osteoarthritis, a randomized trial found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The study found that although women are slightly more sensitive to physical pain in general, men remember it more deeply and are likelier to be more stressed in dealing with the same pain in the future. (montrealgazette.com)
  • A class of drugs prescribed to treat conditions including migraines, chronic pain and bipolar disorder may increase suicidal tendencies , a large study has found. (go.com)
  • Doctors found the drugs gabapentin (brand name Neurontin), lamotrigine (Lamictal), oxcarbazepine (Trileptal) and tiagabine (Gabitril), often prescribed for pain, bipolar disorder and epilepsy, appeared to increase suicide risk significantly while topiramate (Topomax), which is commonly prescribed for migraines, increased the suicide risk but less so than the other drugs. (go.com)
  • Similar gaps were found for all pain sites measured, and coffee's apparent pain-mitigation effect held up regardless of whether the subjects had chronic pain or not. (latimes.com)
  • No statistical relation was found between type of pain (spontaneous or stimulated) and pulp condition. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been found to work better than ibuprofen for menstrual pain, without the side effects. (inquisitr.com)
  • The study, which was funded by the National Institutes of Health found that patients who took. (yogajournal.com)
  • The Chinese exercise regimen Tai Chi helps reduce fatigue and arthritis pain, a new study has found. (medindia.net)
  • A correlation was found between pain scores of the first and the second eye procedures. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, when we put these individuals into the brain imaging scanner, we found that those who had widespread pain had increased gray matter and brain connectivity within sensory and motor cortical areas, when compared to pain-free controls. (eurekalert.org)
  • London, Dec 4 : When newborn babies are under stress, their brains show a heightened response to pain, but the baby is unlikely to show it by crying, a new study has found. (newkerala.com)
  • But the current study found that yoga worked no better than intensive stretching alone, suggesting that it's the physical exercise, not the mindfulness component, that matters. (time.com)
  • They found that patients who had their opioid dosage increased did not have meaningful improvements in pain, compared with patients who continued to take the same dose. (news-medical.net)
  • Another study by the same group, involving both veterans and privately insured patients, found that higher opioid doses were associated with worse pain outcomes. (news-medical.net)
  • He found patients or their parents reported a mean pain level of 5.52 out of 10. (kpbs.org)
  • A Harvard Medical School study also found acupuncture helped with pain management and agitation in children undergoing ear surgery including tube placement. (kpbs.org)
  • TRPV4 is widely expressed in sensory neurons found in the trigeminal ganglion, which is responsible for all sensations of the head, face and their associated structures, such as teeth, the tongue and temporomandibular joint," said senior study author Wolfgang Liedtke, M.D., PhD, associate professor of neurology and neurobiology at Duke. (scienceblog.com)
  • The 2016 CDC chronic pain guidelines co-authored by Chou, the Oregon university internist, found that most controlled studies of opioids lasted less than six weeks. (inforum.com)
  • A study published in March in Nature Biotechnology found that the Apple platform and a smartphone app were fairly accurate in gathering data about asthma patients, relative to existing patient studies. (technologyreview.com)
  • This particular piece of research was published in the November-December, 2016 edition of the journal General Hospital Psychiatry: Psychiatry, Medicine and Primary Care and involved the study of almost 200,000 adults worldwide. (chiroeco.com)
  • We think that Tylenol is blocking existential unease in the same way it prevents pain, because a similar neurological process is responsible for both types of distress," Randles wrote in an email to LiveScience. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Opioids like Vicodin, oxycodone or fentanyl patches were tested, along with nonopioids like generic Tylenol, ibuprofen and prescription pills for nerve or muscle pain. (newsday.com)
  • Nonopioids included generic Tylenol, ibuprofen and prescription pills for nerve or muscle pain. (newsday.com)
  • This study adds to the growing body of evidence that something unique is happening with how meditation reduces pain. (newswise.com)
  • TUESDAY, Oct. 1, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- One in three people with lupus uses opioid painkillers even though there is little evidence that they reduce the pain of rheumatic diseases, a new study finds. (medicinenet.com)
  • Further research in the Journal of Pain also report that ginger is an effective natural anti-inflammatory that helps reduce pain and inflammation. (care2.com)
  • The Daily Mail reported on a Chinese study in 2010 about an injection of methylene blue, which is believed to lower nitric oxide levels and prevent and/or reduce inflammation in osteoarthritis. (opposingviews.com)
  • The Huffington Post recently noted that there are a number of studies that associate ibuprofen and other NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs) with inflammation in the small intestine, ulcers, bleeding, holes in the stomach or intestine, and leaky gut syndrome , which can "lead to stomach ulcers that can result in upper gastrointestinal bleeding, the need for surgery and blood transfusions. (inquisitr.com)
  • Arm function, inflammation, and pain were assessed prior to and for three days after exercise. (nutraingredients.com)
  • All NSAIDs reduce pain and inflammation by blocking enzymes called Cox-1 and Cox-2 that make chemical compounds called prostaglandins . (i4u.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to see if MRI can identify areas of inflammation in the spine after an injection of ferumoxytol. (massgeneral.org)
  • They created inflammation in the temporomandibular joints of the mice, and then measured bite force exerted by the mice to assess jaw inflammation and pain, similar to how TMJD pain is gauged in human patients. (scienceblog.com)
  • The mice that had the most TRPV4 appeared to have the most pain, but they all had similar evidence of temporomandibular joint inflammation and bone erosion in the jawbone as a consequence of the inflammation. (scienceblog.com)
  • So, the team wanted to see whether people's individual innate predisposition to mindfulness correlates with less sensitivity to pain, and, if so, what brain mechanisms are at play. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Zeidan and team started from the hypothesis that "trait mindfulness," or a person's predisposition to being mindful, would correlate with lower pain sensitivity and higher deactivation of a brain circuit called the default mode network. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But naps did restore pain sensitivity to baseline levels, essentially reversing the effects of poor sleep on physical suffering. (runnersworld.com)
  • Higher opioid doses can lead to a variety of side effects, such as constipation, dizziness, increased sensitivity to pain, and increased risk of substance use disorder. (news-medical.net)
  • Anti-NGFs, which are injectable, work by blocking a protein called nerve growth factor, which is thought to cause an increased sensitivity to pain. (medpagetoday.com)
  • At six months, response rate was 47.6 per cent in the verum acupuncture group, 44.2 per cent in the sham acupuncture group and 27.4 per cent in the conventional therapy group,' reads the study. (cbc.ca)
  • But when it comes to using acupuncture needles on children after a tonsillectomy, a new study by a San Diego surgeon has proven it's an effective alternative for drug-free pain management. (kpbs.org)
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • One would expect progressive-onset MS to present with gradual onset of symptoms that eventually reach threshold for clinical detection, which would be consistent with the results of the study. (hon.ch)
  • The pain sensation only results once the signal reaches the cortex. (yaledailynews.com)
  • The results directly contradict a 2008 recommendation by the Neck Pain Task Force in Canada. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Not every participant saw the same degree of benefit, and more research will be needed to confirm the results of the small study, says Matthew Edlund, MD, director of the Center for Circadian Medicine in Sarasota, Florida, and author of The Power of Rest . (runnersworld.com)
  • Previous studies had methodological flaws, and their results were contradictory. (nytimes.com)
  • Numerous studies have sought to determine whether or not glucosamine is effective, and results have conflicted and may have been influenced by publication bias in industry-sponsored trials. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The results from our study suggest that chronic post-thoracotomy pain may be associated with more intensive and extensive nociceptive input due to thoracic surgery. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Devinsky said that the results were complicated by the various conditions included in the study. (go.com)
  • The study results were announced at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Pain Medicine, reports Express.co.uk . (opposingviews.com)
  • The authors of the study, which was published this week in the journal BMC Research Notes, cautioned that since the study wasn't designed to test coffee's influence on pain, the results come with many uncertainties. (latimes.com)
  • The interesting thing about the study is the results for the second monthly cycle. (inquisitr.com)
  • The results of the study will be formally presented Monday at the annual scientific meeting of the American College of Rheumatology in Atlanta, Georgia. (medindia.net)
  • Results showed that exercise-induced pain was reduced by 25 per cent after daily supplements of raw ginger, and by 23 per cent after supplementation with the heat-treated form. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The results echo less rigorous studies and bolster guidelines against routine use of opioids for chronic pain. (newsday.com)
  • Oska Wellness, a technology company committed to developing consumer health and wellness products, has released a third-party, independent study showing significant results that Oska Pulse can reduce pain and improve mobility in a phase I clinical trial. (news-medical.net)
  • As everyone knows, experimental results in rats don't always translate to the same results in humans, but the study in the PNAS raises yet another red flag about opioids that should give people pause when weighing whether to take them. (nhregister.com)
  • The results were published in the Jan. 9, 2020, issue of the journal Pain . (news-medical.net)
  • Two uncontrolled diet intervention studies showed promising results in individuals with diabetic neuropathy. (nature.com)
  • The hospital has asked the medical journals to retract the 21 studies, some of which reported favorable results from the use of painkillers like Pfizer Inc.'s PFE -1.40% Bextra and Merck MRK -0.70% & Co.'s Vioxx -- both since withdrawn -- as well as Pfizer's Celebrex and Lyrica. (wsj.com)
  • The results from his study show promise. (kpbs.org)
  • The results suggest that TRPV4 and its expression in trigeminal sensory neurons contribute to TMJD pain in mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • The studies yielded startling results, suggesting that genetics play a much larger role in disc degeneration than previously thought. (innovations-report.com)
  • The results are reported in the November-December 2004 issue of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. (innovations-report.com)
  • The results from the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project show that more than 4 billion people live in countries where regulations leave cancer patients suffering excruciating pain. (redorbit.com)
  • The new study also includes two surveys about pain tolerance and pain history, but this is the first time the company has asked people to do an experiment on their own and report the results. (technologyreview.com)
  • It is well documented that physical pain can lead to feelings of depression, but a new study from the University of Alberta shows the reverse can be true, as well. (prohealth.com)
  • We've known for a long time that pain can lead to depression, and now we're finding that each is a risk for the other," Carroll said. (prohealth.com)
  • We're wondering if depression leads people to cope passively when they experience the kinds of mild pain episodes that most of us are periodically subject to. (prohealth.com)
  • The team notes the changes in brain gray matter volume and functional connectivity were identical to outcomes present in fibromyalgia patients, but were not seen in the pain-free control group. (eurekalert.org)
  • But John Wilbanks, chief common officers at the open-science nonprofit Sage Bionetworks, says that depending on how the study is designed, patient-reported outcomes can be reliable. (technologyreview.com)
  • We've been talking about the importance of this study for the last two or three years," said Dr. John Klippel, president and chief executive of the Arthritis Foundation. (nytimes.com)
  • Relevant to the care of individuals with arthritis and related disorders, major topics are evidence-based practice studies, clinical problems, practice guidelines, health care economics, health care policy, educational, social, and public health issues, and future trends in rheumatology practice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our study shows that there are significant benefits of the Tai Chi course for individuals with all types of arthritis, including fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis," said Leigh Callahan, the study's lead author and associate professor in the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine. (medindia.net)
  • zufus, there is no arthritis present in any of the pain zones, that has been established and verified with 3 bones scans in 3 years. (healingwell.com)
  • Washington, Nov 08 (ANI): A new study has suggested that women can continue popping aromatase inhibitors (AI), popular breast cancer drugs, as these drugs do have any risk of inflammatory arthritis or autoimmune disease, as previously thought. (thaindian.com)
  • There was 64 to 75 percent reduction in opioid dosage for MC users and complete stoppage of opioid use for chronic non-cancer pain by 32 to 59 percent of MC users, when compared to patients without additional use of MC. (norml.org)
  • The fact that opioids did worse is really pretty astounding," said Roger Chou, an internist at Oregon Health & Science University and a co-author of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines on opioid use for chronic pain, who was not involved in the recent study. (inforum.com)
  • 1965. Pain mechanisms: A new theory. (springer.com)
  • 1988. Stability and instability of central pain mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • If remembered pain is a driving force for chronic pain and we understand how pain is remembered, we may be able help some sufferers by treating the mechanisms behind the memories directly. (montrealgazette.com)
  • The study was not intended to elucidate the mechanisms by which a dietary intervention might lead to clinical changes or to separate which parts of the intervention might be responsible for any observed benefit. (nature.com)
  • The study provides new evidence on the brain mechanisms involved in the pain-reducing (analgesic) effects of supportive or social touch, according to Marina López-Solà, PhD, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and colleagues at the University of Colorado Boulder. (newswise.com)
  • They believe that gaining insight into the brain mechanisms of pain reduction by social or supportive methods "is a first step toward understanding when and in whom each of these interventions may work best. (newswise.com)
  • The Oska Pulse's 'Sequential Protocol Programming' delivers four frequencies specifically related to muscle relaxation, bone tissue circulation, capillary dilation and pain reduction. (news-medical.net)
  • Authors identified "a much higher reduction in opioid dosage, reduced emergency room visits, and hospital admissions for chronic non-cancer pain by MC [medical cannabis] users, compared to people with no additional use of MC. (norml.org)
  • Authors concluded, "Given the current opioid epidemic in the USA and medical cannabis's recognized analgesic properties, MC could serve as a viable option to achieve opioid dosage reduction in managing non-cancer chronic pain. (norml.org)
  • The fMRI scans showed distinct effects of handholding on brain activity in response to pain, including a reduction in the brain's "neurologic pain signature" (NPS): a brain marker previously validated to specifically track experienced pain in healthy subjects. (newswise.com)
  • The mice without the Trpv4 gene had a smaller reduction in bite force - biting with almost full force - suggesting that they had less pain. (scienceblog.com)
  • Identifying a sound, scientific explanation for hypnosis effect might increase acceptance and use of this safe pain-reduction option in clinical settings. (innovations-report.com)
  • However, Schulz-Stubner noted that more detailed fMRI images are needed to definitively identify the exact areas involved in hypnosis-induced pain reduction, and he hoped that the newer generation of fMRI machines would be capable of providing more answers. (innovations-report.com)
  • Conversely, in those who said they had felt more pain, this brain region was more active. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The research, published in the medical journal Brain , demonstrated that turning on a receptor in the brain and spinal cord counteracts chronic nerve pain in male and female rodents. (psychcentral.com)
  • The study, published today in Neuron , combined functional imaging, recordings of electrical activity in the brain and genetics to examine how neurons respond to a variety of stimuli in mice studies. (upi.com)
  • Learning more about the distinctive features of circ-HTMRs could contribute to rapid, accurate localization of brain regions activated in mechanical pain, and ultimately to the rational design of new approaches to pain therapy. (upi.com)
  • This remarkable discovery resulted from a study in which in which physicians underwent brain scans while they believed they were actually treating patients. (psychcentral.com)
  • The physicians underwent fMRI scans while they experienced the painful heat stimulation so that investigators could see exactly which brain regions were activated during first-person perception of pain. (psychcentral.com)
  • They honed in on a specific molecule that helps prevent chronic pain signals from reaching the brain, without blocking normal pain messages that alert people to danger. (enn.com)
  • Zielhofer's idea was to find a way to trick the body into intercepting pain signals before they cause havoc in the brain. (enn.com)
  • It prevents most of the pain signals from reaching the brain, where pain becomes conscious," said Zeilhofer, whose study appears in the journal Nature. (enn.com)
  • Problem is, they must not be used in chronic pain patients because of undesired effects that they have in the brain," Zeilhofer said in an e-mail. (enn.com)
  • The scans showed the drugs reduced pain in these brain regions. (enn.com)
  • Does widespread pain stem from the brain? (eurekalert.org)
  • Harris and colleagues examined if widespread pain, thought to be a marker of centralization in the nervous system, actually originates in the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Urological chronic pelvic pain syndrome patients with widespread pain showed increased brain gray matter volume and functional connectivity involving the sensorimotor and insular cortices. (eurekalert.org)
  • Not only do they have widespread pain, but also they have brain markers indistinguishable from fibromyalgia patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • Stressed babies might appear not to respond to pain, as their brain is still processing it. (newkerala.com)
  • At the same time, they measured the babies' pain response using EEG brain activity and facial expression. (newkerala.com)
  • Grace explained that the body may be "recognizing opioids as something that's foreign and needs to be eliminated and so it's triggering this immune response causing the release of these pain molecules that are then increasing the perception of pain in the brain. (nhregister.com)
  • Behavioral and brain responses to pain were evaluated under two conditions: while the women held hands with a "committed, monogamous" romantic partner or while they held a rubber squeeze-ball. (newswise.com)
  • Supportive touch also seemed to target pain-evoked changes in interconnected brain regions involved in stress, emotion, and attention. (newswise.com)
  • They believe that reducing stress-related brain responses during pain may be a key contributor to reducing the subjective experience of pain through social touch. (newswise.com)
  • Handholding altered the state of brain connectivity throughout the painful experience, including connections between circuits involved in pain perception and those related to thinking about one's self and relationships with others. (newswise.com)
  • Holding hands with a close romantic partner during pain exerts several protective brain and behavioral effects, " Dr. López-Solà and colleagues conclude. (newswise.com)
  • As neurons and the brain receive sensory information like pain, a response is distributed to different parts of the brain. (chiroeco.com)
  • The changes in brain activity suggest that hypnosis somehow blocks the pain signal from getting to the parts of the brain that perceive pain. (innovations-report.com)
  • The major finding from our study, which used fMRI for the first time to investigate brain activity under hypnosis for pain suppression, is that we see reduced activity in areas of the pain network and increased activity in other areas of the brain under hypnosis," said Sebastian Schulz-Stubner, M.D., Ph.D., UI assistant professor (clinical) of anesthesia and first author of the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • The pain network functions like a relay system with an input pain signal from a peripheral nerve going to the spinal cord where the information is processed and passed on to the brain stem. (innovations-report.com)
  • From there the signal goes to the mid-brain region and finally into the cortical brain region that deals with conscious perception of external stimuli like pain. (innovations-report.com)
  • Processing of the pain signal through the lower parts of the pain network looked the same in the brain images for both hypnotized and non-hypnotized trials, but activity in the top level of the network, which would be responsible for "feeling" the pain, was reduced under hypnosis. (innovations-report.com)
  • Under hypnosis, fMRI showed that brain activity was reduced in areas of the pain network, including the primary sensory cortex, which is responsible for pain perception. (innovations-report.com)
  • The imaging studies also showed increased activation in two other brain structures - the left anterior cingulate cortex and the basal ganglia. (innovations-report.com)
  • More practically, for clinical use, it helps to dispel prejudice about hypnosis as a technique to manage pain because we can show an objective, measurable change in brain activity linked to a reduced perception of pain," he added. (innovations-report.com)
  • Even though getting a massage is an increasingly popular way to alleviate pain and stress, very little work has been done to understand the molecular underpinnings of this healing process. (theatlantic.com)
  • However, almost all clinicians who treat chronic pain observe that some people do quite well on opioids. (nature.com)
  • These studies suggest that A3AR activation by highly selective small molecular weight A3AR agonists such as MRS5698 activates a pain-reducing pathway supporting the idea that we could develop A3AR agonists as possible new therapeutics to treat chronic pain," Salvemini said. (psychcentral.com)
  • If you have neck pain, whether it started two days ago or two weeks ago, one of the best things you can do is gently move and stretch your neck muscles,' said study author Dr. Pierre Cote, an epidemiologist at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology in Oshawa. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Another trial appeared to show that Iyengar yoga, which includes classical yoga poses, helped with milder forms of neck pain. (chicagotribune.com)
  • For persistent grade 1 and 2 neck pain and whiplash pain, supervised qigong and combined strengthening, range of motion and flexibility exercises are better than doing nothing. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Mindfulness can be an effective way to alleviate chronic pain, which is a condition that affects over 25 million people in the United States, according to current estimates. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • We now know that some people are more mindful than others, and those people seemingly feel less pain," he adds. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People thus predisposed to mindfulness also experienced less pain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For example, several studies suggest that most people taking opioids long-term do not benefit from them (see go.nature.com/2vylvkp ). (nature.com)
  • When people feel overwhelmed with uncertainty in life or distressed by a lack of purpose, what they're feeling may actually be painful distress," said study researcher Daniel Randles, a doctoral student in psychology the University of British Columbia. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The majority of people had significant improvements in pain, swelling, and morning stiffness by eating ginger daily. (care2.com)
  • When people have been asking about glucosamine and chondroitin, we tell them this is the most important study ever done," Dr. Klippel said. (nytimes.com)
  • By targeting just two of the GABA spinal receptors, they might be able to make a drug that could be used for chronic pain without losing potency or making people sleepy. (enn.com)
  • Anything that can truly relieve this type of pain will be greatly welcomed by the many people who are experiencing it. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Health professionals are now advising people to look away, according to a study from the Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin and the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf . (huffingtonpost.ca)
  • Many people get hooked while taking opioids prescribed for injuries or other short-term pain and move on to cheaper, more accessible illicit drugs like heroin. (newsday.com)
  • ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Pain is the most common reason people seek medical care, according to the National Institutes of Health. (eurekalert.org)
  • Oska Pulse is a safe, easy-to-use, portable and wearable health technology product designed to help reduce muscle stiffness, temporarily relieve minor pain and increase mobility for people who have acute or chronic pain. (news-medical.net)
  • Oska Pulse, with proprietary eTec™ Pulse Technology, is a small, portable, hands-free wearable device that safely optimizes Pulsed Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) therapeutic technology, a longtime therapy used by medical practitioners to help people live a more active, pain-free and drug-free lifestyle. (news-medical.net)
  • There are two broad ways people can cope with pain, Carroll said. (prohealth.com)
  • Previous research has suggested that multiple genetic factors are at play in chronic pain, and that certain groups of people report pain more often than others. (technologyreview.com)
  • Wasan says he isn't aware of any published studies in which lots of people have done a cold pressor test at home. (technologyreview.com)
  • It's a very humbling study for someone who puts in stents," said Dr. Brahmajee K. Nallamothu, an interventional cardiologist at the University of Michigan. (tampabay.com)
  • Pain, therefore, is not the end product of a simple, linear sensory transmission system, but is a dynamic process that involves continuous interactions among complex ascending and descending systems. (springer.com)
  • 1968. Sensory, motivational, and central control determinants of pain: A new conceptual model. (springer.com)
  • Aug. 16 (UPI) -- A recent study by the National Institutes of Health has identified a new class of sensory neurons responsible for mechanical pain. (upi.com)
  • The IASP definition of pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage" is derived from a 1964 definition by Harold Merskey, and it was first published in 1979 by IASP in PAIN, number 6, page 250. (wikipedia.org)