The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The removing of alkyl groups from a compound. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
A physiochemical process which occurs in a wide range of organisms which unlike BASAL METABOLISM is not required for or essential to short-term survivability but to long-term general well-being of the organism.
A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Functionalization of exogenous substances to prepare them for conjugation in PHASE II DETOXIFICATION. Phase I enzymes include CYTOCHROME P450 enzymes and some OXIDOREDUCTASES. Excess induction of phase I over phase II detoxification leads to higher levels of FREE RADICALS that can induce CANCER and other cell damage. Induction or antagonism of phase I detoxication is the basis of a number of DRUG INTERACTIONS.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae, order MUCORALES. Some species cause systemic infections in humans.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A physiologically active metabolite of VITAMIN D. The compound is involved in the regulation of calcium metabolism, alkaline phosphatase activity, and enhances the calcemic effect of CALCITRIOL.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A deaminated metabolite of LEVODOPA.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.
Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.
Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Analogs or derivatives of morphine.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Synthesized from endogenous epinephrine and norepinephrine in vivo. It is found in brain, blood, CSF, and urine, where its concentrations are used to measure catecholamine turnover.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A lipoxygenase metabolite of ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is a highly selective ligand used to label mu-opioid receptors in both membranes and tissue sections. The 12-S-HETE analog has been reported to augment tumor cell metastatic potential through activation of protein kinase C. (J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 274(3):1545-51; J Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86(15):1145-51)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class primarily found in PLANTS. It catalyzes reactions between linoleate and other fatty acids and oxygen to form hydroperoxy-fatty acid derivatives.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A 20-carbon-chain fatty acid, unsaturated at positions 8, 11, and 14. It differs from arachidonic acid, 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid, only at position 5.
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
2- or 4-Hydroxyestrogens. Substances that are physiologically active in mammals, especially in the control of gonadotropin secretion. Physiological activity can be ascribed to either an estrogenic action or interaction with the catecholaminergic system.
A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC
A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).
Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Sympathomimetic, vasoconstrictor agent.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.
The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.
Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of acetic acid, perfumes, and flavors. It is also an intermediate in the metabolism of alcohol. It has a general narcotic action and also causes irritation of mucous membranes. Large doses may cause death from respiratory paralysis.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
Derivatives of acetic acid with one or more fluorines attached. They are almost odorless, difficult to detect chemically, and very stable. The acid itself, as well as the derivatives that are broken down in the body to the acid, are highly toxic substances, behaving as convulsant poisons with a delayed action. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Broad spectrum antifungal agent used for long periods at high doses, especially in immunosuppressed patients.
An inhibitor of drug metabolism and CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYME SYSTEM activity.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A group of nitrogen mustard compounds which are substituted with a phosphoramide group or its derivatives. They are usually cytotoxic and used as antineoplastic agents.
Materials incorporated mechanically in plastics (usually PVC) to increase flexibility, workability or distensibility; due to the non-chemical inclusion, plasticizers leach out from the plastic and are found in body fluids and the general environment.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An amphetamine derivative that inhibits uptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters. It is a hallucinogen. It is less toxic than its methylated derivative but in sufficient doses may still destroy serotonergic neurons and has been used for that purpose experimentally.
A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
A group of naturally occurring amines derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of the natural amino acids. Many have powerful physiological effects (e.g., histamine, serotonin, epinephrine, tyramine). Those derived from aromatic amino acids, and also their synthetic analogs (e.g., amphetamine), are of use in pharmacology.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Organic compounds that have the general formula R-SO-R. They are obtained by oxidation of mercaptans (analogous to the ketones). (From Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 4th ed)
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
A very strong halogenated derivative of acetic acid. It is used in acid catalyzed reactions, especially those where an ester is cleaved in peptide synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
Salts and esters of hippuric acid.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Compounds that bind to and inhibit that enzymatic activity of LIPOXYGENASES. Included under this category are inhibitors that are specific for lipoxygenase subtypes and act to reduce the production of LEUKOTRIENES.
The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.
Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.
A non-steroidal ESTROGEN generated when soybean products are metabolized by certain bacteria in the intestines.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A potent lipoxygenase inhibitor that interferes with arachidonic acid metabolism. The compound also inhibits formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase, carboxylesterase, and cyclooxygenase to a lesser extent. It also serves as an antioxidant in fats and oils.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.
An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.
Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.
The aglucon moiety of a saponin molecule. It may be triterpenoid or steroid, usually spirostan, in nature.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
1974). Carbon-l3 Magnetic Resonance Study. Structure of the Metabolites of Orally Administered Quinidine in Humans. Journal of ... Carbon-l3 Magnetic Resonance Study. Structure of the Metabolites of Orally Administered Quinidine in Humans. ... Carbon-l3 Magnetic Resonance Study. Structure of the Metabolites of Orally Administered Quinidine in Humans ... Urinary cadmium and stroke - a case-cohort study in Danish never-smokers. ...
In this study, a bioanalytical method was proposed and evaluated to identify and quantify benzo[a]pyrene and its hydroxy- ... metabolites. This method is based on coupling a microfl ... In this study, a bioanalytical method was proposed and ... The fragmentation patterns established in this study can also be used to identify and quantify PAH metabolites in other ... Asphalt-fumes; Polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons; Benzopyrenes; Chromatographic-analysis; Animal-studies; Metabolites; ...
The soil metabolite N,N-dimethylsulfamide (DMS) is formed from two fungicidal substances: tolylfluanid and dichlofluanid. ... According to the EU guidance document on relevant metabolites in groundwater, DMS is a ... attenuation along subsurface flow paths based on modeling and monitoring of a pesticide metabolite from three case studies ...
Metabolites remarkably affected by chronic kidney diseases: Study reveals. The fact that the TCA cycle is significantly ... "Importantly, our study identified that a group of molecules called tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites are ... He said this because there is another study which proved that dozens of small molecules called metabolites are altered in this ... This study was done by the University of Washington, the University of California San Diego and The University of Texas Health ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促
Mothers of children with autism have many significantly different metabolite levels, study finds Now, a study by researchers at ... Study shows high folate levels associated with improved cognition in older adults A new study led by researchers from The Irish ... Study suggests vitamin B12 as a SARS-CoV-2 antiviral Researchers in the UK and Spain have used a novel drug screening approach ... Study says vitamin-magnesium combo may reduce severity of COVID-19 in seniors The COVID-19 pandemic that began in late December ...
A multi‐disciplinary research institute studying ways to improve the lives, health and development of children and youth. ... Intraindividual variability of striatal (1)H-MRS brain metabolite measurements at 3 T. ...
According to the researchers, this approach can be used to study practically all of a plants metabolites at the same time. ... The study relates to FAPESPs Thematic Project "Morphoanatomical, metabolomic and molecular studies as subsidies to the ... A study switches from genetic to metabolic analysis to reconstitute evolutionary process A new method for analyzing a living ... A study switches from genetic to metabolic analysis to reconstitute evolutionary process. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do ...
Among authors: wang sattler r. Metabolites. 2019 Mar 5;9(3):44. doi: 10.3390/metabo9030044. Metabolites. 2019. PMID: 30841604 ... Ageing Investigation Using Two-Time-Point Metabolomics Data from KORA and CARLA Studies. Chak CM, Lacruz ME, Adam J, Brandmaier ... Identification of serum metabolites associated with risk of type 2 diabetes using a targeted metabolomic approach. Floegel A, ... Circulating Metabolites Differentiate Acute Ischemic Stroke from Stroke Mimics. Tiedt S, Brandmaier S, Kollmeier H, Duering M, ...
Study of secondary grape metabolites, such as polyphenol compounds (anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols), volatile compounds ... The Vitis viníferas studied in the present work are less frequent red grape varieties cultivated in small vineyards in southern ... characterization and enological potential of less frequent red grape Uruguayan varieties by study secondary metabolites. E. ...
The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of exhaled breath volatile metabolites (BVM) and gastrointestinal symptoms in ... This protocol allows to analyze the time-course of released bioactive metabolites that could be proposed as new biomarkers of ... The fermentation of dietary fibre (DF) leads to the production of bioactive metabolites, the most volatile ones being excreted ... The targeted analysis revealed that CG increased exhaled butyrate and 5 other BVM - including the microbial metabolites 2,3- ...
Total concentration of DDT and its metabolites in the water samples varied from not detected to 8.0 ng/L (mean of 0.90±1.66 ng/ ... From: Distribution and fate of HCH isomers and DDT metabolites in a tropical environment-case study Cameron Highlands-Malaysia ...
Vote-counting reports for metabolites. And explore plot to detect discrepancies between studies at a first glance. ... P-values and fold-change are combined to obtain a global significance on each metabolite. Produces a volcano plot summarising ...
To further increase metabolite coverage and achieve high accuracy of metabolite quantification, the present proof-of-principle ... This study investigated the in vitro mechanism of action of a commercial citrus EO, Brazilian orange terpenes (BOT), on an ... Metabolites, 10(9) (2020-08-29). Untargeted metabolomics is expected to lead to a better mechanistic understanding of diseases ...
In vitro studies reported variable durations of autoinhibition from a few seconds (Limberger et al., 1991; Agneter et al., 1994 ... and dopamine metabolites, suggesting similar rates of DA synthesis (Dickinson et al., 1999). Moreover,in vivo microdialysis ... In vivo versus in vitro studies. The time course of DA autoinhibition in vivo represents our major observation. DA released in ... The time course of autoinhibition was studied in two groups of mice having D2 receptors: four D2+/+ mice and 10 WT mice. ...
Integrated analysis of transcript, protein and metabolite data to study lignin biosynthesis in hybrid aspen ...
2. Effect of Environmental Change on Secondary Metabolite Production in Lichen-Forming Fungi. By Christopher Deduke, Brinda ... 9. The Fire in the Mediterranean Region: A Case Study of Forest Fires in Portugal. By Ana Cristina Gonçalves and Adélia M.O. ... meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. ...
The study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, discovered the beef contained 22 metabolites that the plant-based ... For the study, Duke University researchers used 36 samples. 18 samples of grass-fed beef and 18 samples of plant-based meat. ... But this recent study shows theyre really nothing alike. We knew this. Obviously, plant-based meat isnt going to resemble ... Several metabolites known to be important to human health were found either exclusively or in greater quantities in beef, ...
Our study reveals one way in which vitamin D metabolites can dramatically influence the immune system. ... Cell study. By studying cells from mice and people, the researchers found vitamin D caused dendritic cells to produce more of a ... Immune study sheds light on vitamin D effects. Scientists have uncovered fresh insights into how vitamin D affects the immune ... The study, published in Frontiers of Immunology, was funded by the Medical Research Council, Biotechnology and Biological ...
In the 2012 paper, (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK was referred to as HNK4a and, in a study of 67 patients, plasma levels of HNK4a did not ... The metabolite is called (2S,6S;2R,6R)-HNK. But is this a real breakthrough or a red herring? ... My own suspicion is that the antidepressant effects of ketamine may be driven not by a metabolite but as a kind of ... However, getting regulatory approval for such a study, which would technically (as far as I know) be a first-in-man trial of ...
This study showed that DPG is readily biodegradable and that no persistent metabolite can be expected. ... Link to relevant study record(s). Description of key information. According to a GLP OECD (301D) study, 1,3-diphenylguanidine ... However, data assessment was difficult because the studies were poorly documented. In two studies (Chou et al., 1983 ; Kondo, ... That is the reason why a full GLP OECD 301D study was commissioned in 2015. ...
Beethoven moved to Vienna in 1792, where he studied for a time with Joseph Haydn in lieu of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who had ... The absence of drug metabolites suggests Beethoven avoided opiate painkillers. ... although recent studies have shown that some lead poison victims have suffered from hearing loss as well. The hair analyses did ...
In a study recently published in Nature, a research team headed by the groups of Dr. Eran Elinav of the Department of ... According to the researchers, the post-obesity microbiome is characterized by a persistent deficiency in metabolites called ... In the Nature study, the scientists reported on their creation of a machine-learning algorithm based on the mouse microbiome, ... "Our studies, which were performed in mice, showed that obesity triggers a persistent change in the microbial composition of the ...
The study of metabolites and their interactions is called metabolomics, Dr. Johnsons area of expertise. "Metabolites give us ... "Tumors have metabolic activity and make metabolites that can produce energy for cell growth." In the first such study ever done ... The proteins sink, the metabolites float. The researchers run the metabolites through a mass spectrometer to get a survey of ... Metabolites are molecules formed or used during the process of metabolism. They can be produced by diet, hormones, genetic or ...
Another study (funded by Sabinsa, a company that has a patent on the forskohlin derived Forslean) found that forskolin did ... 4. 5-AT (5-Etioallocholen-3b,7b,17b-Triol): A steroid metabolite and a derivative of DHEA, theres some speculation that 5-AT ... Several studies have validated 7-Ketos effects on weight loss (see Journal of Exercise Physiology, Volume 2, Number 4, October ... Nonetheless, an abstract is not a peer-reviewed study, and thats what must be performed before we can be sure of 5-ATs ...
We study environmental microbiology and plant associated bacteria and other symbioses. ... Anne Willems studied biology at Ghent University and obtained a PhD in microbiology in January 1991 at the Lab. of Microbiology ... the diversity of bacterial endophytes of plants and their potential contribution to cold tolerance and secondary metabolite ... We also studied the diversity and function of bacteria associated with macro- and micro-algae, including diatoms.. A long ...
Study Phase ICMJE Phase 2 Study Design ICMJE Allocation: Randomized. Intervention Model: Crossover Assignment. Masking: Single ... Blood samples will be collected to measure the amount of active metabolite of PF-04217329 in the plasma following dosing. ... ABOUT THIS STUDY. This study will characterize the effect of PF-04217329, alone and in combination with latanoprost, on ... Study Arms ICMJE *Experimental: PF-04217329 + placebo Active study drug + latanoprost vehicle ...
Similar studies were performed with a metabolite of vorapaxar (M20). Vorapaxar and M20 were competitive PAR1 antagonists that ... The present study provides a comprehensive in vitro pharmacological characterization of vorapaxar interaction with the PAR1 ... and competitive binding studies. The calculated Kd and Ki values for vorapaxar increased in the presence of plasma, indicating ...
Another food metabolite causing digestive problems. Previous research into fructan yielded some evidence that it does cause ... Emily Lunardo studied medical sociology at York University with a strong focus on the social determinants of health and mental ... The study in question used 59 individuals who self-diagnosed themselves with gluten-intolerance. They were each given a muesli ... They hope their study will help prompt clinicians to reconsider prescribing people gluten-free diets for gluten-sensitivity. ...
In a dermal in vitro study on rat skin, the main metabolite detected wasp-hydroxybenzoic acid (Bando et al., 1997). Within 12 h ... Excretion of propylparaben and its metabolites was investigated in several studies in cats, dogs and rats(Phillips et al., 1978 ... In a further feeding study in rats, propylparaben and its metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were detected in blood with a ... In a study in rats, the blood concentration of propylparaben reaches a maximum after 30 minutes and then constantly declines ( ...
  • the result, published in an August 2017 article on Scientific Reports , suggests that researchers might reconstitute more accurately the whole speciation process making use of a relatively unexplored bias in the study of evolutionary science: metabolomics. (
  • Metabolomics refers to an area of study focusing on the chemical substances synthesized by a living organism -- a byproduct of its metabolism -- which is used to map chemical compounds inherent to a given species. (
  • Integrating Two-Dimensional Gas and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for Untargeted Colorectal Cancer Metabolomics: A Proof-of-Principle Study. (
  • The study of metabolites and their interactions is called metabolomics, Dr. Johnson's area of expertise. (
  • In the first such study ever done, she and her colleagues used metabolomics and mass spectrometry to explore the marked differences between right-sided colon cancer in males and females. (
  • This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research , Canada Foundation for Innovation , and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC) , a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. (
  • The science involved is called metabolomics and will look at metabolites, cannabinoids, turpenes and 42 other aspects of each sample, he says. (
  • In conclusion, metabolomics revealed that abundance of 171 out of 190 profiled metabolites differed between beef and a commercially-available plant-based meat alternative, despite comparable Nutrition Facts panels. (
  • This new area of research is known as metabolomics and it measures small molecules in the blood called metabolites. (
  • At the Metabolomics Society Meeting 2017, Bruker announced a new solution for the quantification of metabolites in urine using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). (
  • Urine is an important body fluid in metabolomics due to little interference with metabolite binding proteins. (
  • Metabolomics may be used to address this in genome wide association studies (GWAS) as the metabolome is downstream of the genome and interacts with diet, pathophysiology and environment. (
  • We analyzed these small molecules in the blood and urine of non-diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease and compared the results to samples obtained from a group of healthy individuals," said by Stein Hallan, M.D., first author of the study published in EBioMedicine. (
  • In an oral feeding study in male cats, the test substance (168 mg/kg bw) was considered to be rapidly absorbed based on an excretion of about 87% of the test substance within 24 h via urine (Phillips et al. (
  • 1978). In a further feeding study in rats, propylparaben and its metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were detected in blood with a maximum after 30 minutes and further metabolites were detected in the urine with maxima between 90 minutes and 4 h (Derache and Gourdon, 1963). (
  • After oral administration of 168 - 1000 mg/kg bw, main metabolites detected were p-hydroxybenzoic acid immediately after application of the test substance and p-hydroxyhippuric acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and conjugates with glucuronic acid in urine within 4 h after application of the test substance. (
  • Professor Claudio Luchinat at the University of Florence, a co-founder of the Magnetic Resonance Center (CERM), said: "Metabolite quantification in human urine has proven a challenging task due to complex compositional changes from test person to test person, and even from the same person at different time points. (
  • The new routines introduced for urine quantification also take into account substantial matrix changes going from neonates to children/adults, which all affect metabolite chemical shifts and lead to varying overlap situations due to ionic matrix changes in these two different age classes. (
  • This is further evidence of expanding of our analysis support providing automatic quantification of a variety of metabolites in urine directly after the measurement. (
  • Yuan and his team studied metabolites by regular urine testing , during the research funded by the U.S. National Cancer Institute. (
  • About 75% of the dose was excreted unchanged in the feces, 16% in the urine as metabolites and 1.9% was expired as 14 CO 2 . (
  • Metabolites in the urine were identified as MOTM and metabolites of 2-ethylhexanol. (
  • After ingestion, the body breaks down phthalates into metabolites that are quickly excreted in urine and can be analyzed. (
  • UMass Amherst researchers examined levels of 11 phthalate metabolites in urine samples from 419 women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer after Year 3 of the WHI. (
  • Two or three urine samples from each participant - from baseline, Year 1 and Year 3 - were measured, addressing two of the challenges of studying phthalate exposure, Reeves says. (
  • Previous studies examined urine samples after a breast cancer diagnosis, when exposure could have come from medical equipment or medication. (
  • Half of phthalate metabolites are excreted in urine within 12 to 24 hours of exposure, Reeves says. (
  • Even though researchers analyzed several urine samples from each person taken a few years apart, Reeves says the study had limitations. (
  • Comparison of model SS metabolite concentrations with measured values using 1000x sampling from the Gausian distribution of the measured values based on multiple replicates per measured conditions. (
  • Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. (
  • Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = −2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = −4.33, −1.05) and b = −2.69 (95% CI = −4.22, −1.16) per log unit increase. (
  • Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. (
  • Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children's intellectual development at age 7 years. (
  • So it makes sense that if elite athletes had more of a specific metabolite to break down that acid, they wouldn't have to slow down as frequently to recover, and would be able to go faster longer. (
  • Finally, there was a strong relationship between ripening-associated transcripts and specific metabolite groups, such as TCA-cycle organic acids and sugar phosphates, underlining the importance of the respective metabolic pathways during fruit development. (
  • In parallel, urinary metabolites of propylparaben were detected within 30 minutes after administration, indicating a limited distribution and a rapid metabolism of propylparaben. (
  • In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. (
  • The fermentation of dietary fibre (DF) leads to the production of bioactive metabolites, the most volatile ones being excreted in the breath. (
  • This protocol allows to analyze the time-course of released bioactive metabolites that could be proposed as new biomarkers of DF fermentation, potentially linked to their biological properties. (
  • Among these bioactive metabolites, anthracycline antibiotics such as prodigiosin are known to exhibit antitumor, antioxidant, and immunosuppressive ac tivities. (
  • Evidence for a protein transported through the secretory pathway en route to the higher plant chloroplast. (
  • They look for patterns and connections by putting the metabolites into a pathway analysis that reveals their links and shared networks. (
  • Clinical studies of FOCM/TS pathway metabolites in individuals with ASD have consistently found a lower ratio of S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM) to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), which is evidence of a lower DNA methylation capacity, as well as a lower ratio of reduced GSH to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG), indicative of higher intracellular oxidative stress. (
  • Tumors have metabolic activity and make metabolites that can produce energy for cell growth. (
  • We introduce the concept of metabolic activity coupling (MAC), which finds implicative relations between the momentary production and consumption of different metabolites. (
  • The metabolite changes were reflected in the flux analysis that revealed a general decrease in metabolic activity during ripening. (
  • However, there were several distinct patterns of metabolite profile, and statistical analysis demonstrated that metabolites in the same (or closely related) pathways changed in abundance in a coordinated manner, indicating a tight regulation of metabolic activity. (
  • In the 2012 paper, (2 S ,6 S ;2 R ,6 R )-HNK was referred to as HNK4a and, in a study of 67 patients, plasma levels of HNK4a did not differ between clinical responders and non-responders ( p = 0.88). (
  • The factors, or reasons, that allow a person to participate in a clinical study. (
  • The factors, or reasons, that prevent a person from participating in a clinical study. (
  • The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center is a lead academic organization in the network, participating in a phase I program integrated with a phase II program that allows network-funded sites the flexibility to expand phase I clinical studies quickly. (
  • Professor H. Nishino, formerly head of the chemo prevention division of the Japanese National Cancer Institute in Tokyo and currently at the University of Medicine in Kyoto, Japan examined liver cancer prevention in high risk liver cancer patients (hepatitis C virus carriers, those with cirrhosis and/or those having a family history) in a five-year clinical study. (
  • Large sample cohorts in clinical studies demand automated solutions capable of measuring and analysing with the highest information content and quantitative reproducibility. (
  • There is an increased demand of technologies being able to analyse large numbers of samples due to increased cohorts in clinical studies. (
  • The authors discussed a variety of anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical cardiometabolic measures as well as gut microbiota and metabolites that studies have used to determine metabotypes. (
  • The popular party drug has shown promise in stopping suicidal thoughts in a number of small clinical studies. (
  • The C3 epimers of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have lower bioactivity than the primary metabolites and, unless they are chromatographically separated, can cause clinical vitamin D levels to be overestimated. (
  • The fact that the TCA cycle is significantly impacted by chronic kidney disease supports the view of CKD as a state of mitochondrial dysfunction and that is why metabolites remarkably affect chronic kidney disease. (
  • Importantly, our study identified that a group of molecules called tri-carboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites are significantly affected in chronic kidney disease. (
  • The fact that the TCA cycle is significantly impacted in chronic kidney disease supports the view of CKD as a state of mitochondrial dysfunction," said study senior co-author Kumar Sharma, M.D., FAHA, chief of nephrology and founding director of the Center for Renal Precision Medicine at UT Health San Antonio. (
  • In fact, no other ketamine metabolite significantly predicted response, although one (HNK4c) was associated with non-response. (
  • In addition, further studies have shown that DHEA improves memory significantly increases the performance capabilities, strengthens the immune system, decreased body fat, supports production of estrogen and testosterone, and increases libido. (
  • Significantly altered metabolite pathways associated with differential metabolites were glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, and taurine and hypotaurine metabolism. (
  • Conclusions: Urinary amino acid metabolites were significantly altered in children with ASD. (
  • Identification and quantification of urinary benzo[a]pyrene and its metabolites from asphalt fume exposed mice by microflow LC coupled to hybrid quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (
  • Study of secondary grape metabolites, such as polyphenol compounds (anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols), volatile compounds present in grapes in both free and glycoside forms (monoterpenols, norisoprenoids, benzenoids), allowed us to characterize grape varieties and to suggest the best winemaking practices to maximize their enological potential. (
  • These include catechins, which are polyphenolic antioxidant plant metabolites, specifically flavonoids called flavan-3-ols. (
  • The fragmentation patterns established in this study can also be used to identify and quantify PAH metabolites in other biological fluids. (
  • The study, published in Frontiers of Immunology, was funded by the Medical Research Council, Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, Natural Environment Research Council and Wellcome. (
  • Metabolites give us information about biological processing within a sample or within a tissue," she said. (
  • They are able to produce secondary metabolites with di verse chemical structures and biological activities. (
  • University of Helsinki researchers report a comprehensive pilot study on the metabolic effects of full vegan diet on young children. (
  • Now, a study by researchers at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Arizona State University, and the Mayo Clinic found that mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder had several marked different metabolite levels two to five years after they gave birth compared to mothers of normally developing children. (
  • Based on a study supported by Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP) through regular research grant , the article confirms a hypothesis on the origin and migration routes of Espeletia along the northern Andes proposed by researchers at the US National Museum of Natural History, part of the Smithsonian Institution, in the 1990s, which was hitherto partially supported by molecular markers. (
  • For the study, Duke University researchers used 36 samples. (
  • By studying cells from mice and people, the researchers found vitamin D caused dendritic cells to produce more of a molecule called CD31 on their surface and that this hindered the activation of T cells. (
  • According to the researchers, the post-obesity microbiome is characterized by a persistent deficiency in metabolites called flavonoids, whose job is to promote energy expenditure and the breakdown of fat. (
  • The researchers run the metabolites through a mass spectrometer to get a survey of everything in the sample-perhaps 20,000 variables-which can be separated into various groups. (
  • The researchers discovered that colorectal cancer cells on the right side generate metabolites that enable more aggressive growth in women, than in men. (
  • 7 Keto DHEA is one of more than 150 metabolites of DHEA and is as "ultimate DHEA" by some researchers. (
  • Researchers from several American academic institutions are studying the relationship between dietary change and breast cancer events and all-cause mortality. (
  • In this new study, the Hopkins researchers administered either MDMA or salt water to the monkeys twice a day for four days. (
  • In a related study, researchers found that heavy MDMA users have memory problems that persist for at least two weeks after they have stopped using the drug. (
  • The study began in 2015, about two weeks before the Boston Marathon, when researchers analyzed a sample size of 15 elite athletes' poop as well as 10 sedentary control participants who weren't running any marathons. (
  • Prospective cohort studies allow researchers to calculate disease incidence in proper time sequence, establishing exposure level before outcome is known, which provides stronger evidence than other study types. (
  • The proteins sink, the metabolites float. (
  • Co-first author Jing Ke, a scientific engineering associate at JGI, added, "Looking beyond secondary metabolites, CRAGE can be used to engineer microbes for the production of proteins, RNAs, and other molecules with a huge range of applications. (
  • Roughly 40 percent of those scientists have studied life science in some form, with many making x-ray diffraction measurements on crystals of proteins, nucleic acids, viruses, and other substances critical to understanding life. (
  • The cells in an organism have the same genome, but exhibit the most varied functions and morphologies, which are related to differences in the expression pattern of proteins and metabolites of those cells. (
  • The results showed the presence of proteins related to drought stress and the presence of secondary metabolites differentially expressed in the control when compared to treatment plants. (
  • This study was conducted to determine the rate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated efflux of digoxin analogues and metabolites, and to assess the effects of macrolide antibiotics on this efflux. (
  • Eighteen brominated sponge-derived metabolites and synthetic analogues were analyzed for antilarval settlement of Balanus improvisus. (
  • Analogues of hemibastadin-1 (6) were synthesized and tested for structure activity studies. (
  • The targeted analysis revealed that CG increased exhaled butyrate and 5 other BVM - including the microbial metabolites 2,3-butanedione and 3-hydroxybutanone - with a peak observed 6 h after CG intake. (
  • Our studies, which were performed in mice, showed that obesity triggers a persistent change in the microbial composition of the gut. (
  • CRAGE is a highly efficient means of transplanting BGCs originating from one organism into many different potential production hosts simultaneously in order to identify microbial strains that are naturally capable of producing the secondary metabolite under laboratory conditions. (
  • He said this because there is another study which proved that dozens of small molecules called metabolites are altered in this diseases. (
  • The differential metabolites were further analyzed by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis and metabolic pathways analysis. (
  • Our novel method for finding EMs containing several predefined reactions can be used to identify pathways that synthesize a desired target from one or more source metabolites. (
  • Two biochemical pathways of interest in the study of ASD are the folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) and transsulfuration (TS) pathways ( Figure 1 ). (
  • The metabolite data alone allowed investigations of likely routes through the metabolic network, and, as an example, we analyze the operational feasibility of different pathways of ascorbate synthesis. (
  • The Smithsonian hypothesis was confirmed by an analysis of the secondary metabolites (i.e., the chemical compounds involved in plants' adaptations to the ecosystem), which pointed to patterns of geographic distributions and chemical diversifications in the Andean paramos. (
  • The study compared 190 metabolites (chemical compounds capable of being used by the body) in meat and plant-based alternatives. (
  • Glandular trichomes contribute to the high resistance of wild tomato species against insect pests not only thanks to the metabolites they produce but also because of morphological and developmental features which support the high production of these defense compounds. (
  • Secondary metabolites - the compounds produced by microbes to mediate internal and external messaging, self-defense, and chemical warfare - are the basis for hundreds of invaluable agricultural, industrial, and medical products. (
  • Now, a team of microbiologists and genomicists led by the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has invented a genetic engineering tool, called CRAGE, that could not only make studying these compounds much easier, but also fill significant gaps in our understanding of how microbes interact with their surroundings and evolve. (
  • Unfortunately, the fascinating world of secondary metabolism has traditionally been very hard to study, because when microbes are brought into the lab, an artificial environment that presents little hardship or competition, they typically don't bother making these compounds. (
  • Plant secondary metabolites are synthesized to act as anti-herbivory compounds in plant tissues. (
  • The structure-activity relationships were studied but no more efficient compounds than the natural product pterulone was obtained. (
  • In this study, a bioanalytical method was proposed and evaluated to identify and quantify benzo[a]pyrene and its hydroxy-metabolites. (
  • 5400 individuals) cohorts and quantify aqueous metabolites and polar lipids using the Biocrates kit in the Fenland cohort (11500 individuals). (
  • As established here, the chromatographic method was able to quickly and accurately quantify both C3 epimers of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 and the primary metabolites in fortified serum. (
  • For their prospective study, the first to measure phthalate exposure before a cancer diagnosis, Reeves and UMass Amherst colleagues turned to the Women Health Initiative (WHI), a long-term national health study involving more than 160,000 postmenopausal women. (
  • The study also recommends future research should take a closer look at postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy because "some potentially positive, yet not statistically significant" associations were noted between the level of phthalate metabolites and breast cancer risk in this subgroup. (
  • The study leader, Jian-Min Yuan, who is an associate professor of public health at the University of Minnesota, said that both NNAL and cotinine are independent factors of higher risk. (
  • A 2019 study published in the journal Nature Microbiology, found differences between happy people and those suffering from depression. (
  • Through an advanced integrative analysis, the team discovered obvious differences in exercise-induced alterations in gut microbiota and its metabolites at both the compositional and functional levels between responders and non-responders. (
  • At 30 days of age, piglets underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedures to analyze structural and metabolite differences. (
  • In Reeves' study, "the samples were collected when everyone was healthy, so that gave us samples that were free of concern that differences in exposure could be related to the diagnosis and treatment. (
  • In addition, several in vivo studies focusing on metabolism and excretion after oral ingestion and on dermal absorption and metabolism. (
  • Geomagnetic disturbances are associated with reduced nocturnal excretion of a melatonin metabolite in humans. (
  • Nocturnal excretion of a urinary melatonin metabolite among electric utility workers. (
  • Nonetheless, an abstract is not a peer-reviewed study, and that's what must be performed before we can be sure of 5-AT's cortisol suppressing qualities. (
  • From the abstract and conclusion, the study appears to suggest that meat is nutritionally better. (
  • In the Nature study, the scientists reported on their creation of a machine-learning algorithm based on the mouse microbiome, which allowed them to predict which mice would suffer from successive cycles of obesity. (
  • Metabolic profiling revealed pronounced shifts in the abundance of metabolites of both primary and secondary metabolism during development. (
  • Multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA), and orthogonal projection to latent structure discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), as well as univariate analysis were used to assess differential metabolites between the ASD and control groups. (
  • Identification of serum metabolites associated with risk of type 2 diabetes using a targeted metabolomic approach. (
  • This study showed that DPG is readily biodegradable and that no persistent metabolite can be expected. (
  • Our study reveals one way in which vitamin D metabolites can dramatically influence the immune system. (
  • Integrated analysis of metabolite and transcript levels reveals the metabolic shifts that underlie tomato fruit development and highlight regulatory aspects of metabolic network behavior. (
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of exhaled breath volatile metabolites (BVM) and gastrointestinal symptoms in healthy volunteers after a single ingestion of maltodextrin (placebo) versus chitin-glucan (CG), an insoluble DF previously shown to be fermented into short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) by the human microbiota in vitro. (
  • One 2014 study showed that when healthy subjects consumed certain types of soluble fiber, the effect on their microbiota suppressed the production of cortisol, a stress hormone linked with anxiety and depression. (
  • Furthermore, a prediction model based on microbiota and its metabolites before exercise accurately predicted personalised glycemic responses to exercise in another 30 subjects with prediabetes. (
  • This study suggested that microbiota and its metabolites serve as an important contributor to the metabolic benefits of exercise intervention, and also identified maladaptation of gut microbiota as a "culprit" for those individuals who do not respond to exercise intervention. (
  • This is one of the first interventional RCT studies providing clear evidence of the role of gut microbiota on metabolic health. (
  • The purpose of this study was to compare four different protocols for generation of tolDC - the antidiabetic drug troglitazone (TGZ DC), NF-κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 (BAY DC), prostaglandin D2 metabolite 15d-PGJ2 (PGJ DC) and a combination of dexamethasone and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (DexVD3 DC) regarding phenotype, cytokine production and T cell stimulatory capacity. (
  • The scientists demonstrated that it is possible to replenish the missing metabolites in mice, with favorable metabolic results. (
  • Discussion: This study demonstrates that prenatal choline deficiency has profound effects by delaying neurodevelopment as evidenced by structural and metabolic MRI assessments. (
  • First, it was apparent that transcript abundance was less strictly coordinated by functional group than metabolite abundance, suggesting that posttranslational mechanisms dominate metabolic regulation. (
  • Another study divided forty healthy women into two groups according to the dominant species of bacteria in their guts. (
  • One British study showed that after just ten days on a fast-food diet, nearly half of the bacterial species in the subject's gut had been completely wiped out. (
  • The site selection for planting this genus requires studies related to characteristics of adaptability of the species to be used. (
  • The secondary metabolite pterulone, isolated from the basidomycete Pterula species 82168 shows an selective and interesting antifungal activity, inhibiting Complex I in the respiration chain. (
  • This study investigated the in vitro mechanism of action of a commercial citrus EO, Brazilian orange terpenes (BOT), on an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolated from pig gut and on Lactobacillus rhamnosus. (
  • The present study provides a comprehensive in vitro pharmacological characterization of vorapaxar interaction with the PAR1 receptor on human platelets. (
  • In a dermal in vitro study on rat skin, the main metabolite detected was p-hydroxybenzoic acid (Bando et al. (
  • In a study in rats, the blood concentration of propylparaben reaches a maximum after 30 minutes and then constantly declines (Derache and Gourdon, 1963). (
  • Metabolites are molecules formed or used during the process of metabolism. (
  • In a dermal metabolism study on human skin, an experimental flux of 4.77 µg/cm²*h was determined for an aqueous solution of propylparaben (370 mg/L) (Dal Pozzo and Pastori, 1996). (
  • The metabolism of propylparaben was investigated in several studies after oral and dermal administration. (
  • The study is published in Cell Metabolism (Link to the publication), a top-tier and internationally recognised academic journal. (
  • However, more general aspects of metabolic change during fruit development have not been studied despite the importance of metabolism in the context of final composition of the ripe fruit. (
  • A study of the quality of commercially available soy supplements suggests that less than 25% of products contain within 90% of labeled isoflavone content. (
  • Older adults who took a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement with zinc and high amounts of vitamin C in a 12-week study experienced sickness for shorter periods and with less severe symptoms than counterparts in a control group receiving a placebo. (
  • Results of studies clearly indicate, however, that the efficacy of these diets is not solely related to the biochemical structure of the individual nutrients they contain. (
  • Anne Willems group We study environmental microbiology and plant associated bacteria and other symbioses. (
  • Anne Willems studied biology at Ghent University and obtained a PhD in microbiology in January 1991 at the Lab. (
  • In this study, we quantified the abundance of a broad range of metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, analyzed a number of the principal metabolic fluxes, and in parallel analyzed transcriptomic changes during tomato fruit development. (
  • Amongst identified metabolites were various nutrients (amino acids, phenols, vitamins, unsaturated fatty acids, and dipeptides) with potentially important physiological, anti-inflammatory, and/or immunomodulatory roles-many of which remained absent in the plant-based meat alternative when compared to beef and vice versa. (
  • Several metabolites known to be important to human health were found either exclusively or in greater quantities in beef, including creatine, spermine, anserine, cysteamine, glucosamine, squalene, and the omega-3 fatty acid DHA. (
  • 2010. Quantitation of mercapturic acid conjugates of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 4-oxo-2-nonenal metabolites in a smoking cessation study. . (
  • Compared with several other technologies such as HPLC-UV and HPLC-fluorescence, the new method is more sensitive and selective, and it can also provide additional useful information on the structures of the metabolites. (
  • Our study found that the levels of different metabolites that make up a man's metabolic 'fingerprint' in the blood were linked with his risk of developing prostate cancer. (
  • The levels of different metabolites present in someone's blood are partly determined by diet and lifestyle. (
  • The purpose of this research study is to determine COVID-19 antibody levels in patients with chronic conditions who receive the COVID-19 vaccine. (
  • If participants will be receiving a vaccine and are interested in the study, we will collect a sample before vaccination, and collect samples at sequential time points post-vaccination to determine antibody levels. (
  • It will be interesting to see what the study and my personal antibodies levels are. (
  • No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. (
  • Nevertheless, there were some correlations between specific transcripts and metabolites, and several novel associations were identified that could provide potential targets for manipulation of fruit compositional traits. (
  • A steroid metabolite and a derivative of DHEA, there's some speculation that 5-AT might have a cortisol-suppressing effect as well. (
  • The plant-based meat, meanwhile, contained 31 metabolites that meat did not include. (
  • Instead, the antidepressant effects can be attributed to a metabolite of the drug, formed in the body after taking ketamine. (
  • NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites. (
  • Ketamine is responsible for blocking the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, which causes an immediate alleviation of depressive effects, while another metabolite in the drug helps the effects last for hours. (
  • It's also a potent antioxidant, and yes, it's probably even fair to say green tea can "enhance" the immune system (see studies here , here and here ). (
  • Her focus is metabolites and their role in human health, particularly in colorectal cancer. (
  • S.V.V. reports a grant from the North Dakota Beef Association to study the impact of diet quality on the relationship between red meat and human health. (
  • S.V.V reports additional grant support from USDA-NIFA-SARE (LS21-357), the Turner Institute of Ecoagriculture, and the Dixon Foundation for projects that link agricultural production systems to the nutritional/metabolite composition of foods and human health. (
  • Using human and mouse genetic approaches as well as advanced molecular and metabolic techniques we want to elucidate how metabolites regulate angiogenesis in vivo (e.g. during development and pathological angiogenesis)(Oberkersch et al. (
  • Here, the part played by autoinhibition in the relationship between impulse flow and dopamine release was studied in vivo in real time. (
  • The present study aimed at describing in vivo the amplitude and time course of DA autoinhibition. (
  • This study will characterize the effect of PF-04217329, alone and in combination with latanoprost, on circadian intraocular pressure and blood pressure in glaucoma patients. (
  • Hoyt and his colleagues Kerem Bingol and Nancy Washton helped characterize one of the previously unknown secondary metabolites produced when Yoshikuni's group tested CRAGE. (
  • Radioactivity was excreted in the feces as unchanged TOTM (85% of the fecal radioactivity), mono- and di(2- ethylhexyl) trimellitate (MOTM and DOTM, respectively), and as unidentified polar metabolites. (
  • In this study, five strains of actinomycetes isolated from soil were revealed to produce red-like pigments. (
  • When "good-guy" bacteria digest certain components of plant foods, they produce chemical substances known as metabolites. (
  • A study published in the journal Inflammopharmacology reviewed recent data related to the role of vitamins and minerals in treating COVID-19 patients. (
  • However, data assessment was difficult because the studies were poorly documented. (
  • According to Abernathy, in order for the FDA to conduct drug safety analysis in a prospective (rather than the current retrospective) fashion, drug sponsors will need a pre-specified data analysis plan and will have to collect DNA samples consistently from study participants. (
  • The study, published in the journal Scientific Reports, discovered the beef contained 22 metabolites that the plant-based substitutes did not have. (
  • so I started wondering why they would even do this study…Surprise surprise, two of the authors have connections to the beef industry. (
  • In this study, 80 subjects consumed a high glycemic load diet for 28 days followed by a low glycemic load diet for 28 days. (
  • After the low glycemic load diet, subjects had a significant improvement in metabolites involved with inflammation. (
  • In the last part of the thesis, we show that the study of isolated subnetworks may result in undesired artifacts, and as an alternative solution, we present a method that projects the flux space onto lower dimension, while preserving key features of the network. (
  • In studies showed that 7 Keto DHEA has a similarly beneficial effect on blood clotting such as aspirin (inhibition of platelet aggregation). (
  • Our large-scale and multi-center study aims to identify metabolic variations between ASD and healthy children and to investigate differential metabolites and associated pathogenic mechanisms. (

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