Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Cognitive Reserve: Capacity that enables an individual to cope with and/or recover from the impact of a neural injury or a psychotic episode.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Mild Cognitive Impairment: A prodromal phase of cognitive decline that may precede the emergence of ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other dementias. It may include impairment of cognition, such as impairments in language, visuospatial awareness, ATTENTION and MEMORY.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Emotional Intelligence: The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Mental Status Schedule: Standardized clinical interview used to assess current psychopathology by scaling patient responses to the questions.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Association: A functional relationship between psychological phenomena of such nature that the presence of one tends to evoke the other; also, the process by which such a relationship is established.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Empathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Apolipoprotein E4: A major and the second most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. In humans, Apo E4 differs from APOLIPOPROTEIN E3 at only one residue 112 (cysteine is replaced by arginine), and exhibits a lower resistance to denaturation and greater propensity to form folded intermediates. Apo E4 is a risk factor for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Dementia, Vascular: An imprecise term referring to dementia associated with CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS, including CEREBRAL INFARCTION (single or multiple), and conditions associated with chronic BRAIN ISCHEMIA. Diffuse, cortical, and subcortical subtypes have been described. (From Gerontol Geriatr 1998 Feb;31(1):36-44)Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Wechsler Scales: Tests designed to measure intellectual functioning in children and adults.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Schizophrenia, Paranoid: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Trail Making Test: The subject's ability to connect 25 numbered and lettered circles in sequence in a specific length of time. A score of 12 or below is suggestive of organic brain damage.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Biomedical Enhancement: The use of technology-based interventions to improve functional capacities rather than to treat disease.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Galantamine: A benzazepine derived from norbelladine. It is found in GALANTHUS and other AMARYLLIDACEAE. It is a cholinesterase inhibitor that has been used to reverse the muscular effects of GALLAMINE TRIETHIODIDE and TUBOCURARINE and has been studied as a treatment for ALZHEIMER DISEASE and other central nervous system disorders.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Independent Living: A housing and community arrangement that maximizes independence and self-determination.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.ReadingCultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Repression-Sensitization: Defense mechanisms involving approach and avoidance responses to threatening stimuli. The sensitizing process involves intellectualization in approaching or controlling the stimulus whereas repression involves unconscious denial in avoiding the stimulus.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Plaque, Amyloid: Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.Mathematical Concepts: Numeric or quantitative entities, descriptions, properties, relationships, operations, and events.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Memantine: AMANTADINE derivative that has some dopaminergic effects. It has been proposed as an antiparkinson agent.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Reality Testing: The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Prodromal Symptoms: Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Psychology, Comparative: The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.Performance-Enhancing Substances: Agents that improve the ability to carry out activities such as athletics, mental endurance, work, and resistance to stress. The substances can include PRESCRIPTION DRUGS; DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS; phytochemicals; and ILLICIT DRUGS.Lewy Body Disease: A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases: Pathological processes or diseases where cerebral MICROVESSELS show abnormalities. They are often associated with aging, hypertension and risk factors for lacunar infarcts (see LACUNAR INFARCTION); LEUKOARAIOSIS; and CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).
Cosmides, Leda (1989-04-01). "The logic of social exchange: Has natural selection shaped how humans reason? Studies with the ... Betrayal trauma theory emerged to integrate evolutionary processes, mental modules, social cognitions, and developmental needs ... cognition, and sense of self and agency is different. The person may experience gaps in the recall of everyday events or ... A Three-Study Exploration". Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy. 6 (6): 675-682. Delker, Brianna; ...
These studies suggest the mind incorporates the tools into the same or similar areas as it does the adjacent hands. Recent ... Johnson, S. (2000). "Thinking ahead: the case for motor imagery in prospective judgements of prehension". Cognition. 74 (1): 33 ... One study showed that with these children (9-, 14-, and 19-month-olds), older children handled spoons so as to optimally and ... In some studies, attempts at understanding tool assimilation are used to argue for the existence of the extended body schema. ...
Wydell, T. N.; Butterworth, B. (1999). "A case study of an English-Japanese bilingual with monolingual dyslexia". Cognition. 70 ... Cognition. 93 (2): 99-125. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2003.11.004. PMID 15147931. PDF Gelman, R.; Butterworth, B. (2005). "Number ... Over 18,000 people took part-the largest number ever to take part in a mathematical cognition experiment. He announced his ... Butterworth, B.; Campbell, R.; Howard, D. (1986). "The uses of short-term memory: A case study". The Quarterly journal of ...
Lewis' study examined 46% of Morton's samples, whereas Gould's earlier study was based solely on a reexamination of Morton's ... Korb, K. B. (1994). "Stephen Jay Gould on Intelligence". Cognition. 52 (2): 111-23. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(94)90064-7. Leach, ... in the initial sentence of the study, Goddard said the study subjects were atypical members of their ethnic groups, who had ... In their study of the Congressional Record and committee hearings related to the Immigration Act, Mark Snyderman and Richard J ...
Further studies will attempt to teach baboons how to use an artificial alphabet. In a 2016 study, a team of biologists from ... Cognition. 125 (2): 219-32. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2012.07.003. PMC 3434310 . PMID 22878117. Pepperberg, IM. (Feb 2013). " ... The sea lions studied were able to learn and use a number of syntactic relations between the signs they were taught, such as ... In a 2013 study, baboons have been shown to have this skill, as well. The discovery has led researchers to believe that reading ...
doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2010.06.010. PMID 20637455. Hall, Lars; Petter Johansson. "Using choice blindness to study decision ... A subsequent study was performed to show the generalizability of these results to more "realistic" circumstances. In this study ... Cognition. 115 (2): 303-313. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2010.01.003. PMID 20129603. Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Dalal, Sarang S.; ... A study conducted by philosopher Eric Schwitzgebel and psychologist Russell T. Hurlburt was set up to measure the extent of ...
... did a research study, published in 2007, titled the Children use canonical sentence schemas: A crosslinguistic study ... Cognition. 12 (3): 229. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(82)90033-6. PMID 6891309. The subjects are monolingual children of professional ... The aim of the study was to show that we must not generalize that the acquiring of English language in children is the same as ... The Berman & Slobin study compared English, German, Spanish, Hebrew and Turkish on a range of dimensions. His project was also ...
Recent studies from the empirical data are prone to consider anosognosia a multi-componential syndrome or multi-faceted ... Cognition. 15 (1-3): 111-44. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(83)90036-7. PMID 6686505. "Anosognosia/anosognosic - Eating Disorders ... There are also studies showing that the maneuver of vestibular stimulation could temporarily improve both the syndrome of ... A study of causative factors". Stroke. 23 (10): 1446-53. doi:10.1161/01.STR.23.10.1446. PMID 1412582. Prigatano, George P.; ...
doi:10.1016/0010-0277(82)90024-5. Garrod, Simon; Anderson, Anthony (1987). "Saying what you mean in dialogue: A study in ... Deutsch, Werner; Pechmann, Thomas (1982). "Social interaction and the development of definite descriptions". Cognition. 11: 159 ... conceptual and semantic co-ordination". Cognition. 27: 181-218. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(87)90018-7. Brennan, Susan; Clark, ...
Wydell TN, Butterworth B (April 1999). "A case study of an English-Japanese bilingual with monolingual dyslexia". Cognition. 70 ... A 2005 study shows that Makita's claim of rarity of incidence of reading disabilities in Japan to be incorrect. In the 1970s, a ... These studies and those of Cohen et al. 1989, suggested abnormal cortical development which was presumed to occur before or ... Orton began studying reading difficulties and determined that there was a syndrome unrelated to brain damage that made learning ...
Neisser, U. (1981). John Dean's memory: A case study. Cognition,9, 102-115. Brown, R.; Kulik, J. (1977). "Flashbulb memories". ... The term originates from a case study conducted on John Dean, a former advisor to Richard Nixon. The case study compares and ... Cognition. 5 (1): 73-99. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(77)90018-X. Neisser, U (1997). "The ecological study of memory". Philosophical ... In this study, Neisser examined the difference in memory between individuals that experience the event, as opposed to ...
"Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics". Retrieved March 28, 2015. "The sausage machine: A new two-stage parsing model". ... 1978) Frazier, L. and Fodor, J.D. "The sausage machine: A new two-stage parsing model." Cognition 6, 291-325. Faculty Webpage ... She is co-editor of the book series Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics, published by Springer. Frazier received her PhD ... Cognition. 6: 291-325. 1978. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(78)90002-1. "Successive cyclicity in the grammar and the parser". Language ...
Cognition. 129: 163-179. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2013.06.010. Thomson P, Jaque S. V. (2014). "Unresolved Mourning, Supernatural ... The theological study of angels is known as "angelology". In fine art, angels are usually depicted as having the shape of human ... Parapsychologists use the term psi to refer to an assumed unitary force underlying the phenomena they study. Psi is defined in ... The supernatural is also often featuring prominently in the study of the paranormal and occultism. A deity (/ˈdiːəti/ ( listen ...
doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2009.03.012. PMID 19426967. Watanabe, Satosi (1969). Knowing and Guessing: A Quantitative Study of ... When applied to human cognition, it translates as follows: the mind actively separates information that applies to more than ... Bruner, J., Goodnow, J. J., & Austin, G. A. (1967). A study of thinking. New York: Science Editions. Feldman, Jacob (2003). " ... doi:10.1046/j.0963-7214.2003.01267.x. Rendell, Larry (1986). "A general framework for induction and a study of selective ...
However, the study also found that when a small number of the highest-quality studies from one laboratory were analyzed, the ... Cognition. 129: 379-91. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2013.07.016. Myers, David G; Blackmore, Susan. "Putting ESP to the Experimental ... Over half of the studies failed to safeguard against sensory leakage and all of the studies contained at least one of the 12 ... The Division of Perceptual Studies, a unit at the University of Virginia's Department of Psychiatric Medicine, studies the ...
In one study patients were required to read one word and then read a second word that followed the first in rapid succession. ... Cognition. 34 (3): 203-277. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(90)90006-6. PMID 2183962. Humphreys, G.W.; Price, C.J. (1994). "Visual ... He studied a patient who easily identified single objects, regardless of size, but claimed that he could only see one object ... Coslett and Saffran studied one patient who was unable to maintain location information for more than one shape. Since only a ...
"William C. Stokoe and the Study of Signed Languages." Sign Language Studies 9.4 (2009): 389-397. Academic Search Premier. Web. ... Cognition. 27 (1): 1-52. doi:10.1016/0010-0277(87)90034-5. PMID 3691016. Klima & Bellugi (1979:27) Armstrong, David; Karchmer, ... Kegl, Judy (2008). "The Case of Signed Languages in the Context of Pidgin and Creole Studies". In Kouwenberg, Silvia; Singler, ... Sign Language Structure: An Outline of the Visual Communication Systems of the American Deaf, Studies in linguistics: ...
... is studied by finding lapses of external attention in participants. One method to study mind-wandering is the ... Smallwood, J.; O'Connor, R.C.; Sudberry, M.V.; Obonsawin, M.C. (2007). "Mind wandering & Dysphoria". Cognition & Emotion. 21 (4 ... Studies indicate that task-unrelated thoughts are common in people with low or depressed mood. Mind-wandering also occurs when ... Studies have linked performance problems in the laboratory and in daily life. Mind-wandering has been associated with possible ...
Animal Cognition. 13 (6): 793-804. doi:10.1007/s10071-010-0328-7. Field study on Sumatran orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii ... The same study estimates a 20,552 km2 occupied area for the Sumatran orangutans, of which only an approximate area range of ... Studies have shown that orangutans in the Ketambe area in Indonesia ate over 92 different kinds of fruit, 13 different kinds of ... Rijksen, H. D. (1978). "A Field Study on Sumatran Orang utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelli, Lesson 1827)". Ecology, Behavior and ...
Brown and Lenneberg published A Study in Language and Cognition in 1954, where they discussed the effect of codability on ... Evidence from Pirahã language and cognition" (PDF), Cognition, 108 (3), pp. 819-24, doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2008.04.007, PMID ... Consequently, they posited that the cognition, or perception, of each color category is also universal. A later study ... Brown, R.; Lenneberg, E. (1954). "A study in language and cognition". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 49 (3): 454- ...
Janoff-Bulman is a professor of psychology at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and focuses her studies on mortality and ... Measuring this type of assumption has been done using the Negative Cognitions about the World subscale of the Posttraumatic ... Mary Alice Mills from the University of Connecticut studied this theory. In her dissertation, she did not find a relationship ... Mills, Mary Alice (January 2010). Shattered Assumptions? A prospective study: The impact of trauma on global beliefs and ...
Studies on primate cognition have provided evidence of what may be interpreted as insight in animals. In 1917, Wolfgang Köhler ... Insight was first studied by Gestalt Psychology, in the early part of the 20th century, during the search for an alternative to ... Recently, insight was studied in a non-laboratory setting. Accounts of insight that have been reported in the media, such as in ... A more recent study suggested that elephants might also experience insight, showing that a young male elephant was able to ...
Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 2003; 1. Neville H, Bavelier, D. Human brain plasticity: evidence from sensory ... Cognition 1991; 39:215-58. Yoshinaga-Itano C. From screening to early identification and intervention: Discovering predictors ...
Studies have targeted categorical perception using humans, monkeys, rodents, birds, frogs. These studies have led to numerous ... Cognition. 95: B1-B14. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2004.07.002. PMID 15694641. Casey, Matthew; Paul Sowden (2012). "Modeling ... Neural imaging studies have shown that these effects are localized and even lateralized to certain brain regions in subjects ... Davies, I.R.L.; Sowden, P.T.; Jerrett, D.T.; Jerrett, T.; Corbett, G.G. (1998). "A cross-cultural study of English and Setswana ...
... and its implication for studies of dog cognition". Animal Cognition. 11 (3): 553-556. doi:10.1007/s10071-007-0128-x. PMID ... Despite claims that dogs show more human-like social cognition than wolves, several recent studies have demonstrated that if ... In 2004, a study reviewed 5 other studies of feral dogs published between 1975 and 1995 and concluded that their pack structure ... However, domestic dogs were responsible for the death of 3 calves over one 5-year study. Other studies in Europe and North ...
Cognition, discrimination, and learning[edit]. Computational modeling of higher cognitive functions has only recently[when?] ... As a result, researchers that study large neural circuits typically represent each neuron and synapse with an artificially ... Browne, A. (1997-01-01). Neural Network Perspectives on Cognition and Adaptive Robotics. CRC Press. ISBN 9780750304559.. ... The Computational Representational Understanding of Mind (CRUM) is another attempt at modeling human cognition through ...
It provides essential reading for upper-level courses on social cognition or social perception and could also serve as an ... Other chapters illustrate how some processes studied in the domain of stereotyping also affect perceptions of individual ... In particular, he studies how people perceive themselves, other people, and groups of people. He is currently editor of the ... It provides essential reading for upper-level courses on social cognition or social perception and could also serve as an ...
He argued that cognition could not be studied scientifically because it could not be observed. So for the first half of the ... This was a lot of the reason this field was criticized against, and why many people believed cognition could not be studied ... Cognitive neuropsychologists study the human mind after brain damage has occurred, and focus more on cognition. Cognitive ... This is when psychologists began to agree that there were scientific ways to study cognition. These new beliefs about cognitive ...
Human cognition has its antecedents in animal cognition. In order to understand the problems of studying cognition, we present ... on the study of human behavioural development in infants and children, and on intercultural studies. The ethological methods of ... 2. The study of human behaviour: Methods. Methodological issues will be discussed as humanethology is based on the comparative ... Human ethology is an integral part of ethology, which is the biological study of animal behaviour. In this lecture the basic ...
... a new study found. The combination of sleep time, screen time and physical activity when considered together have the biggest ... Limiting a childs use of screen time to less than 2 hours a day can have a positive effect on cognition, ...
"Study Identifies Fish Oils Impact On Cognition And Brain Structure." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 19 Aug. 2011. Web ... Jean, N. (2011, August 19). "Study Identifies Fish Oils Impact On Cognition And Brain Structure." Medical News Today. ... The study included 819 individuals, 117 of whom reported regular use of fish oil supplements before entry and during study ... NIH-funded study that followed older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimers Disease for over ...
Most review multiple studies or entire subareas of research and application rather than describing single experimental studies ... On the study of statistical intuitions Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. 35. Variants of uncertainty Daniel Kahneman and Amos ... 5. Studies of representativeness Maya Bar-Hillel. 6. Judgments of and by representativeness Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. ... Overconfidence in case-study judgments Stuart Oskamp. 21. A progress report on the training of probability assessors Marc ...
Study that looks at Vitamin D deficiency and cognition relationship in older adults adds to the existing literature on the ... A new study from Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center published online ahead of print this month in the Journal of the American ... "Although this study cannot establish a direct cause and effect relationship, it would have a huge public health implication if ... "This study provides increasing evidence that suggests there is an association between low vitamin D levels and cognitive ...
Why study Master Brain and Cognition. What is this specialisation about?. We are transported to an imaginary world when we read ... Why study this master programme in Rotterdam?. *You will gain theoretical and methodological knowledge and skills to tackle ... This study programme provided me with an understanding of what it means to be a human being, including all our perfections and ... As psychologists who study this field we ask critical questions. An example of such a critical question is: how are the various ...
Following personalized lifestyle behaviors for 18 months improved memory and thinking skills in people who are at risk or showing early signs of dementia that can lead to Alzheimers.
... By Janice Wood Associate News Editor ... Wood, J. (2018). Study Links More Sugar Consumption to Poorer Cognition in Kids. Psych Central. Retrieved on January 17, 2019, ... Published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, the study found that poorer childhood cognition occurred, ... Study Links More Sugar Consumption to Poorer Cognition in Kids. .jp-relatedposts-post-title h4{font-size:150important}. Related ...
We studied subjects initial responses to normal-form games with various patterns of iterated dominance and unique pure- ... This paper reports experiments designed to study strategic sophistication, the extent to which behavior in games reflects ... "Cognition and Behavior in Normal-Form Games: An Experimental Study," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working ... "Cognition and Behavior in Normal-Form Games: An Experimental Study," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working ...
Affect, Cognition, and Personality: Empirical Studies. Silvan Solomon Tomkins,Carroll Ellis Izard. Snippet view - 1965. ... Affect, Cognition, and Personality: Empirical Studies. Silvan Solomon Tomkins,Carroll Ellis Izard. Snippet view - 1965. ... Affect, Cognition, and Personality: Empirical Studies. Silvan Solomon Tomkins,Carroll Ellis Izard. Snippet view - 1965. ... affective involvement affective orientation analysis of variance anxiety arousal assassination attitude attitudinal cognitions ...
"Cognition and Behavior in Two-Person Guessing Games: An Experimental Study," ISER Discussion Paper 0613, Institute of Social ... "Cognition and Behavior in Two-Person Guessing Games: An Experimental Study," University of California at San Diego, Economics ... "Cognition and Behavior in Normal-Form Games: An Experimental Study," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working ... "Cognition and Behavior in Normal-Form Games: An Experimental Study," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working ...
Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Child Cognition: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. Emre Basatemur, Julian Gardiner, Carrie Williams, ... Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Child Cognition: A Longitudinal Cohort Study. Emre Basatemur, Julian Gardiner, Carrie Williams, ... Body mass index over the adult life course and cognition in late midlife: the Whitehall II Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; ... Maternal Prepregnancy BMI and Child Cognition: A Longitudinal Cohort Study Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ...
... provocative line of research into the cognition and behavior of the domestic dog. Eleven chapters from leading researchers ... Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior. Book Subtitle. The Scientific Study of Canis familiaris. Editors. * Alexandra Horowitz ... Domestic Dog Cognition and Behavior. The Scientific Study of Canis familiaris. Editors: Horowitz, Alexandra (Ed.) ... Part II includes observational and experimental results from studies of social cognition - such as learning and social ...
Understanding emergency medical dispatch in terms of distributed cognition: a case study.. Furniss D1, Blandford A. ... We present a case study in which we developed a method for constructing a DC account of team working in the domain of EMD, ... Such working situations have often been described in terms of distributed cognition (DC), a framework for understanding team ...
McDowell, I., Xi, G., Lindsay, J., & Tukko, H. (2004). Canadian study of health and aging: Study description and patterns of ... This study was supported by the following grants: NIH/NINDS grant numbers R01 NS052470 and R01 NS039538, NIH/NIMH grant number ... In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The Handbook of Aging and Cognition (pp. 315-372). New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google ... Zakzanis, K. K., Mraz, R., & Graham, S. J. (2005). An fMRI study of the trail making test. Neuropsychologia, 43(13), 1878-1886. ...
The findings of the study explored that though the fathers displayed normal behavioural tendencies with nicotine exposure, both ... Fathers nicotine exposure linked to childs poor cognition: Study. The findings of the study explored that though the fathers ... The study found that changes in the fathers sperm exposed to nicotine led to problems in genes that play a role in memory and ... For the study on mice, the team from the varsity exposed male mice to low-dose nicotine in their drinking water for 12 weeks ...
New research conducted by the Cultural Cognition Project at Yale Law School concludes that people s cultural values influence ... The study is the most recent in a series Yale Law researchers have conducted with NSF support to test the cultural cognition ... The Cultural Cognition Project is an interdisciplinary group of scholars interested in studying how cultural values shape ... The Cultural Cognition Project s team of legal scholars, political scientists, and social psychologists used the hotly debated ...
Social Cognition Study. The Western University Social Behaviour Lab is conducting a study about the relationship between social ... This study is designed to assess peoples levels of comfort with social situations. Some of the people who complete this study ... If you have questions about this study, please contact:. Joshua Patenaude. Ph.D. Candidate. Department of Psychology. ... will be offered the opportunity to participate in an additional study for money. ...
Although earlier studies showed that both air pollution and impaired lung function can cause... ... Results of new analysis conducted by German and Swiss researchers suggests that air pollution directly affects cognition and is ... Study concludes air pollution directly affects cognition 19 May 2015 Results of new analysis conducted by German and Swiss ... Vossoughi says that the study was "fairly comprehensive," but suggests further studies are warranted to confirm the findings in ...
Summarizes and compares measures of cognitive health and decline in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and its sister ... Harmonization of Cross-National Studies of Aging to the Health and Retirement Study. Cognition ... Harmonization of Cross-National Studies of Aging to the Health and Retirement Study: Cognition, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND ... Harmonization of Cross-National Studies of Aging to the Health and Retirement Study: Cognition. Santa Monica, CA: RAND ...
... according to a study by researchers at the University of Rhode Island and Brown University. ... attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications may fail to improve cognition in healthy students and actually can impair ... ADHD medications may fail to improve cognition in healthy college students, study shows. *Download PDF Copy ... This first-ever multisite pilot study of the impact of so-called study drugs on college students who do not have ADHD comes ...
COMO: Cognition Study With HIV+ Patients (CTNPT 015) (COMO). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Cognition will be assessed at study entry and 6 months with the following tests: Letter Fluency, Category Fluency, Letter- ... The purpose of this study is to contribute evidence towards the potential to improve cognition in HIV+ individuals experiencing ... Cognition will be measured in all at study entry and 6 months later. ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... Imaging of Cognition, Learning, and Memory in Aging. ... About Studies. *Learn About Studies. *Other Sites About Studies ... Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. ...
  • Methodological issues will be discussed as humanethology is based on the comparative study of humans and related animals (apes), on the study of human behavioural development in infants and children, and on intercultural studies. (elte.hu)
  • This paper reports experiments designed to study strategic sophistication, the extent to which behavior in games reflects attempts to predict others' decisions, taking their incentives into account. (repec.org)
  • Cognition and Behavior in Normal-Form Games:An Experimental Study ," Discussion Papers 00/45, Department of Economics, University of York. (repec.org)
  • Cognition and Behavior in Normal-Form Games: An Experimental Study ," Econometrica , Econometric Society, vol. 69(5), pages 1193-1235, September. (repec.org)
  • Cognition and Behavior in Normal-Form Games: An Experimental Study ," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt0fp8278k, Department of Economics, UC San Diego. (repec.org)
  • Bargaining and market behavior in Jerusalem, Liubljana, Pittsburgh and Tokyo: an experimental study ," Levine's Working Paper Archive 344, David K. Levine. (repec.org)
  • Cognition and Behavior in Two-Person Guessing Games: An Experimental Study ," American Economic Review , American Economic Association, vol. 96(5), pages 1737-1768, December. (repec.org)
  • Cognition and Behavior in Two-Person Guessing Games: An Experimental Study ," Levine's Bibliography 122247000000000113, UCLA Department of Economics. (repec.org)
  • Cognition and Behavior in Two-Person Guessing Games: An Experimental Study ," ISER Discussion Paper 0613, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University. (repec.org)
  • This book highlights the state of the field in the new, provocative line of research into the cognition and behavior of the domestic dog. (springer.com)
  • The study report was released January 13 by the journal Law and Human Behavior and will be published on the journal s website this week in advance of print publication. (webwire.com)
  • Here, we present three eye-movement studies yielding modulations of microsaccadic behavior that challenge the prevailing serial-stage model of sound categorization and offer a new approach to studying the brain's processing of sounds. (jneurosci.org)
  • Yet, visual inspection of the data obtained in these auditory oddball studies suggests that microsaccade behavior differed between target and standard sounds as early as 150 ms. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, there has been persistent controversy regarding possible favorable or adverse effects of statins or of cholesterol reduction on cognition, mood, and behavior (including aggressive or violent behavior). (rand.org)
  • This study discussed the relationship among environmental cognition, attitude, sensitivity, and behavior based on the concept of ecotourism. (witpress.com)
  • Environmental cognition had a significant effect on environmental sensitivity while environmental attitude and environmental sensitivity appeared significantly effect on environmental behavior. (witpress.com)
  • Meanwhile, the results discovered that the relationship between tourists' environmental cognition and behavior was not yet found in this study. (witpress.com)
  • Data for the analyses was obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), a large multi-center, NIH-funded study that followed older adults with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease for over three years with periodic memory testing and brain MRIs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Daiello says, "In the imaging analyses for the entire study population, we found a significant positive association between fish oil supplement use and average brain volumes in two critical areas utilized in memory and thinking (cerebral cortex and hippocampus), as well as smaller brain ventricular volumes compared to non-users at any given time in the study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In other words, fish oil use was associated with less brain shrinkage in patients taking these supplements during the ADNI study compared to those who didn't report using them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sophisticated and theoretically motivated experimental studies can enable a better understanding of the way the brain operates while executing these functions. (eur.nl)
  • Brain and Cognition, 79 (1), 1-11. (springer.com)
  • If your brain is functioning normally in those regions, the medication is unlikely to have a positive effect on cognition and my actually impair cognition. (news-medical.net)
  • Animal models are used to investigate the effects of brain damage, neurological diseases, and novel compounds on cognition. (noldus.com)
  • Several paradigms are used to study the effects of genetics, brain injury, or certain compounds on learning and memory in rodents. (noldus.com)
  • Boosting brain levels of norepinephrine improves cognition in a mouse model of Down syndrome (DS), raising the possibility that a similar treatment in humans could improve mental functioning in affected individuals, according to a study by California researchers. (lww.com)
  • The senior author of the new study said he was surprised to see that raising norepinephrine levels in the brain improved cognitive functioning in the Ts65Dn mice within hours. (lww.com)
  • The work helps clarify the role of hormones in age-related brain disturbances, lead author Victor Henderson , MD, professor of health research and policy and of neurology and neurological sciences, and his colleagues note in the study, published online Nov. 25 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (stanford.edu)
  • Henderson added that the findings don't "necessarily mean that estrogens are irrelevant to cognition, since we have no way of measuring estrogen directly at the brain level. (stanford.edu)
  • By helping pinpoint Ritalin's action in the brain, the study should give drug developers a better road map to follow as they search for safer alternatives. (biologynews.net)
  • It's the higher doses of these drugs that are normally associated with their effects as stimulants, those that increase locomotor activity, impair cognition and target neurotransmitters all over the brain," says Berridge. (biologynews.net)
  • While researchers have long studied the way the ovaries interact in the body and with the brain, the uterus has often been overlooked, according to the researchers, who studied the effects of hysterectomy in female rats. (insidescience.org)
  • A study in Environmental Health Perspectives sheds some light on the potential mechanism by which air pollution may affect brain health. (nih.gov)
  • Since brain volume is really heterogeneous, it is hard to pick up a signal with the cross-sectional design that was used here," says Sheppard, who was not involved with the study. (nih.gov)
  • Learning if controlling blood pressure can have lasting brain-health benefits was the primary concern of the SPRINT Memory and Cognition in Decreased Hypertension, or MIND, component of the study. (umc.edu)
  • To see more employment opportunities with MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, please click here . (jobs.ac.uk)
  • A study by a Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) research team finds that neurogenesis - inducing the production of new neurons - in the brain structure in which memories are encoded can improve cognitive function in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. (massgeneral.org)
  • Their investigation shows that those beneficial effects on cognition can be blocked by the hostile inflammatory environment present in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease and that physical exercise can "clean up" the environment, allowing new nerve cells to survive and thrive and improving cognition in the Alzheimer's mice. (massgeneral.org)
  • COBRA : A prospective multimodal imaging study of dopamine, brain structure and function, and cognition. (diva-portal.org)
  • The present paper introduces the Cognition, Brain, and Aging (COBRA) study, in which cognitive performance and brain structure and function are measured in a cohort of 181 older adults aged 64 to 68 years at baseline. (diva-portal.org)
  • We participate in the Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour , and have particularly close ties to that institute's Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging . (mpi.nl)
  • I'm teaching "Cognitive Neuroscience" this semester, which is the study of how the brain enables the mind. (wesleyan.edu)
  • For the first time, we've showed a relationship between the degree of prefrontal brain activity, the ability to make technological judgments, and success in actually making stone tools," says Dietrich Stout, an experimental archeologist at Emory University and the leader of the study. (emory.edu)
  • The findings are relevant to ongoing debates about the origins of modern human cognition, and the role of technological and social complexity in brain evolution across species. (emory.edu)
  • This study suggests that in the setting of a vulnerable brain, the cognitive deficits after surgery might be irreversible. (healthcanal.com)
  • Cognition Kit takes research out of the lab and into daily life, enabling doctors, scientists and the public to better understand and manage brain health and enhance patient care. (perssupport.nl)
  • Common to social cognition theories is the idea that information is represented in the brain as "cognitive elements" such as schemas, attributions, or stereotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the small, mixed effects on cognition, the drug had much larger effects on mood and bodily responses, increasing positive mood, emotional ratings of the drug effect, heart rate and blood pressure. (news-medical.net)
  • This is a secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective population based cohort of 19 517 children in the United Kingdom. (aappublications.org)
  • Resuscitation at birth and cognition at 8 years of age: a cohort study. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 3232 employed and retired workers (participation rate: 76%) who were 32, 42, 52 and 62 years old at the time of the first measurement (t1, 1996), and who were seen again 5 (t2) and 10 (t3) years later. (bmj.com)
  • We studied subjects' initial responses to normal-form games with various patterns of iterated dominance and unique pure-strategy equilibria without dominance, using a computer interface that allowed them to search for hidden payoff information, while recording their searches. (repec.org)
  • Daiello continues, "These observations should motivate further study of the possible effects of long-term fish oil supplementation on important markers of cognitive decline and the potential influence of genetics on these outcomes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This study provides increasing evidence that suggests there is an association between low vitamin D levels and cognitive decline over time," said lead author Valerie Wilson, M.D., assistant professor of geriatrics at Wake Forest Baptist. (newswise.com)
  • 2007). Apolipoprotein E affects both myelin breakdown and cognition: Implications for age-related trajectories of decline into dementia. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to contribute evidence towards the potential to improve cognition in HIV+ individuals experiencing cognitive decline through personalized change in antiretroviral (ARV) medication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We hear about eating blueberries or doing crossword puzzles to reduce the risk of [cognitive decline], but now we have evidence that controlling blood pressure is a way to reduce that risk," said Dr. Alexander P. Auchus, professor and McCarty Chair of neurology at the University of Mississippi Medical Center and a co-author of the study. (umc.edu)
  • Objective To study whether the use of agents with anticholinergic properties is an independent risk factor for cognitive decline in patients with PD. (bmj.com)
  • In linear regression analyses adjusting for age, baseline cognition and depression, significant associations with decline on MMSE were found for total AA load (standardised β=0.229, p=0.04) as well as the duration of using AA drugs (standardised β 0.231, p=0.032). (bmj.com)
  • Utilizing survey data collected from 202 serving in managerial and/or professional roles, the study found statistically significant relationships between affect-based trust and the willingness to share organizational knowledge and between cognition-based trust and the willingness to use organizational knowledge. (regent.edu)
  • However, few studies have explored the relationship between maternal prepregnancy BMI and neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, with conflicting results. (aappublications.org)
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The results of this study suggest that NTB exhibits good reliability in patients with mild to moderate AD and MCI. (nih.gov)
  • Results of the new study, published in the journal Pharmacy , show that the standard 30 mg dose of Adderall did improve attention and focus - a typical result from a stimulant - but that effect failed to translate to better performance on a battery of neurocognitive tasks that measured short-term memory, reading comprehension and fluency. (brown.edu)
  • Several studies have examined the association between hormone concentrations and cognition, but results have been inconsistent. (stanford.edu)
  • Based on the critical-window theory, along with results of past animal studies showing that the timing of estradiol replacement affects memory, Henderson said he and his colleagues had hypothesized that higher levels of estradiol would be positively associated with memory performance in women who had experienced menopause more recently but not those who had experienced it longer ago. (stanford.edu)
  • These results show a new level of action for cognition-enhancing doses of Ritalin that couldn't have been predicted from single neuron analyses," he says. (biologynews.net)
  • When the second study results had the same effect and the same pattern was there, we knew that we had hit on something important," Bimonte-Nelson said. (insidescience.org)
  • These study results will be presented by Biofortis, a Mérieux NutriSciences company, in a poster session at Experimental Biology 2015 sponsored by the American Society for Nutrition. (newhope.com)
  • We are very excited to be able to share the results from our study with attendees at Experimental Biology," stated DeAnn Liska, senior director of nutrition and scientific affairs at Biofortis. (newhope.com)
  • Results Shift work was associated with impaired cognition. (bmj.com)
  • Here, we present selected results from the baseline assessment along with a discussion of sample characteristics and methodological considerations that determined the design of the study. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results may be used for informing system development, and enable a before-and-after study as the control tower of study will be transformed into a remote tower. (diva-portal.org)
  • There were several interesting results from this part of the OPUS study. (coursera.org)
  • These results provide new evidence on the role of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in ill-structured situations, such as those involved in design cognition. (open.ac.uk)
  • Additionally, these results confirm the suitability of functional neuroimaging for studying such situations. (open.ac.uk)
  • CAMBRIDGE, England, and DEERFIELD, Illinois, Nov. 17, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Takeda and Cognition Kit today announced that the companies will present results from MDD-5003, a pilot study to evaluate cognitive and mood assessment data using an Apple Watch wearable in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) during the 2017 CNS Summit Meeting in Boca Raton, FL to be held on Nov 16-19, 2017. (perssupport.nl)
  • The funders had no role in the planning of the study or interpretation of the results. (bmj.com)
  • The purpose of this paper is to review human and animal studies relating malnutrition to cognitive development, focusing in correlational and interventional data, and to provide a discussion of possible mechanisms by which malnutrition affects cognition. (mdpi.com)
  • METHODS: The literature pertaining to the relationship of cholesterol or statins to several noncardiac domains was reviewed, including the link between statins (or cholesterol) and cognition, aggression, and serotonin. (rand.org)
  • Hence, since the teachers are challenged to set their own aims, choose reading material and different methods, the choice of topic for the present thesis grew out from an attempt to study teachers´ rationale for literature teaching. (bibsys.no)
  • Although the teachers evidently use similar methods in their teaching, the study showed that they have a varied focus. (bibsys.no)
  • This last batch of studies all used similar methods. (panna.org)
  • To answer this, the pair studied PFC neurons in rats under a variety of Ritalin doses, including one that improved the animals' performance in a working memory task of the type that ADHD patients have trouble completing. (biologynews.net)
  • Analyzing the complex patterns of "voices" that emerge is challenging but also powerful, because it allows study of neurons on many levels. (biologynews.net)
  • When they listened to individual PFC neurons, the scientists found that while cognition-enhancing doses of Ritalin had little effect on spontaneous activity, the neurons' sensitivity to signals coming from the hippocampus increased dramatically. (biologynews.net)
  • This is the conclusion of 3 independent studies released today in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives . (panna.org)
  • The importance of the work of Vyutpattivada cannot be emphasized too sufficiently in the context of the Indian theory of verbal cognition or sentence-meaning. (exoticindiaart.com)
  • This thesis has aimed at exploring teacher cognition (attitudes, beliefs, knowledge, and practices) in relation to literature teaching in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms at the upper-secondary level in Norway. (bibsys.no)
  • In order to investigate the teachers´ cognition, their practices have been studied in relation to their attitudes, beliefs and knowledge. (bibsys.no)
  • The seminar intends to discuss the nature of consciousness as expounded in the early system of Vaisesika, which deals with the problem of consciousness in relation to the process of cognition in general. (ochs.org.uk)
  • Know the risks and potential benefits of clinical studies and talk to your health care provider before participating. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Baseline data are summarized from a study examining the psychometric properties of the Neuropsychological Test Battery (NTB) and its subtests, and correlating the NTB with other cognitive and functional assessments. (nih.gov)
  • In this module we will investigate how the OPUS School Meal Study was designed and how the investigators examined the effect of the New Nordic Diet school meals on the well-being, development academic performance, body composition as well as their risk of developing lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. (coursera.org)
  • Building on the literature on epistemic cognition, epistemic beliefs, and historical thinking, three class-level case studies were conducted to investigate features of historical thinking and history-specific epistemic beliefs of high-school students and their teachers. (umd.edu)
  • However, the study continued to follow renal and cognitive outcomes through 2018. (umc.edu)
  • The study also demonstrated that abbreviated daily assessments delivered through the wearable device corresponded with objective Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) cognitive tests and full-length patient reported outcomes, PHQ-9 and PDQ-D, assessed during weeks 1, 3 and 6. (perssupport.nl)
  • Cognition Kit is a software platform for mobile and wearable technology, designed to capture high frequency patient-centered outcomes. (perssupport.nl)
  • The study identified a set of ideas and behaviors that tended to produce cognitive impasse and hindered the development of historical thinking and a series of pedagogical practices, mostly aligned with teachers' goals and beliefs, which might have fostered such outcomes. (umd.edu)
  • Human cognition is a puzzling phenomenon. (eur.nl)
  • This study programme provided me with an understanding of what it means to be a human being, including all our perfections and imperfections. (eur.nl)
  • Students will gain an awareness and knowledge of the main theories of cognition and human performance. (edu.au)
  • A James S. McDonnell Foundation workshop 1 examined the role of TMS in studies of human cognition. (mit.edu)
  • Laus MF, Duarte Manhas Ferreira Vales L, Braga Costa TM, Sousa Almeida S. Early Postnatal Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and Cognition: A Review of Human and Animal Studies. (mdpi.com)
  • In 1998, Hare and Ádám Miklósi, a cognitive ethologist at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, independently published studies showing dogs could understand human pointing. (sott.net)
  • Surprisingly human studies reported that not all Lemon balm extracts show these beneficial cognitive effects, even if the extracts have similar phytochemical specifications (standardization on rosmarinic acid) (1). (teknoscienze.com)
  • The Health ABC study cohort consists of 3,075 Medicare-eligible, white and black, well-functioning, community-dwelling older adults who were recruited between April 1997 and June 1998 from Pittsburgh, Pa. (newswise.com)
  • In studies using affective tasks, patients overactivated regions involved in salience, arousal and habitual responding (anterior cingulate cortex, insula, caudate head and putamen) and underactivated regions implicated in cognitive and behavioral control (medial prefrontal cortex, posterior caudate). (nih.gov)
  • In studies using non-affective cognitive tasks, patients overactivated regions involved in self-referential processing (precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex) and underactivated subcortical regions that support goal-directed cognition and motor control (pallidum, ventral anterior thalamus, posterior caudate). (nih.gov)
  • The Cultural Cognition Project is an interdisciplinary group of scholars interested in studying how cultural values shape public risk perceptions and related policy beliefs. (webwire.com)
  • I have great pleasure in presenting 'Navya-nyaya Theory of Verbal' Cognition', A Critical Study of Gadadhara's Vyutpattivada, to the scholars and students of Indian Philosophy and linguistics. (exoticindiaart.com)
  • It is exclusively devoted to the establishment of Gadadhara's original views on how verbal cognition or sentence-meaning is produced from sentence. (exoticindiaart.com)
  • While Gadadhara's 'Theory of Expressive Power of Words', Saktivada, deals with the individual isolated meanings of general and certain specific words, his 'Theory of Verbal Cognition', Vyutpattivada, deals with the sentence-meaning. (exoticindiaart.com)
  • the highest authority on the Navya-nyaya theory of verbal cognition or sentence-meaning. (exoticindiaart.com)