Hydroxyl Radical: The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.DeoxyriboseProtein Footprinting: A method for determining points of contact between interacting proteins or binding sites of proteins to nucleic acids. Protein footprinting utilizes a protein cutting reagent or protease. Protein cleavage is inhibited where the proteins, or nucleic acids and protein, contact each other. After completion of the cutting reaction, the remaining peptide fragments are analyzed by electrophoresis.Hydroxybenzoates: Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Benzoic Acid: A fungistatic compound that is widely used as a food preservative. It is conjugated to GLYCINE in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Dimethyl Sulfoxide: A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.Gentisates: Salts and esters of gentisic acid.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.PicratesMannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Hypochlorous Acid: An oxyacid of chlorine (HClO) containing monovalent chlorine that acts as an oxidizing or reducing agent.Spin Trapping: A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Iron Chelating Agents: Organic chemicals that form two or more coordination links with an iron ion. Once coordination has occurred, the complex formed is called a chelate. The iron-binding porphyrin group of hemoglobin is an example of a metal chelate found in biological systems.Pulse Radiolysis: Use of a pulse of X-rays or fast electrons to generate free radicals for spectroscopic examination.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Hydroxylation: Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Singlet Oxygen: An excited state of molecular oxygen generated photochemically or chemically. Singlet oxygen reacts with a variety of biological molecules such as NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS; causing oxidative damages.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Deoxyguanosine: A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Pyrogallol: A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Biphenyl CompoundsProstatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Methylurea Compounds: Urea compounds which are substituted with one or more methyl groups.Peroxidase: A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Pholiota: A genus of basidiomycetous mushroom in the family Strophariaceae, exhibiting a bipolar mating system.PhenanthrolinesMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.AnserinePhotolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Electrolysis: Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Citrullus: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE known for the edible fruit.Lactoferrin: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Hypoxanthines: Purine bases related to hypoxanthine, an intermediate product of uric acid synthesis and a breakdown product of adenine catabolism.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.PeroxidasesDiuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Tiopronin: Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.Benserazide: An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE that does not enter the central nervous system. It is often given with LEVODOPA in the treatment of parkinsonism to prevent the conversion of levodopa to dopamine in the periphery, thereby increasing the amount that reaches the central nervous system and reducing the required dose. It has no antiparkinson actions when given alone.Catechols: A group of 1,2-benzenediols that contain the general formula R-C6H5O2.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Glucose Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Paraquat: A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.HydroquinonesThiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.ZymosanMolsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
  • 13- Demiryürek AT, Cinel İ, Kahraman S, Tecder-Ünal M, Göğüş N, Aypar Ü, Kanzık İ. (1998) Propofol and intralipid interact with reactive oxygen species: A chemiluminescence study. (gantep.edu.tr)
  • Oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the carbon-centred radicals arising from them is important to the process of aging, and age-related diseases are generally caused, exacerbated or mediated by oxidative stress. (ebscohost.com)
  • In order to obtain a novel preclinical anti-AD drug candidate, we synthesized a series of novel hydroxyl chalcone analogs which possessed anti-free radical activity, and screened their effects on scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and OH free radicals in vitro . (mdpi.com)
  • Although the bio-mimetic activities of CeNPs have been extensively studied in vitro, in vivo interactions and associated protein corona formation are not well understood. (mdpi.com)
  • The antioxidative properties of a novel curcumin analogue (2 E ,6 E )-2,6-bis(3,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (MCH) were assessed by several in vitro models, including superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and PC12 cell protection from H 2 O 2 damage. (mdpi.com)
  • Because copper catalyzes the conversion of H 2 O 2 to hydroxyl radicals in vitro, it has been proposed that oxidative DNA damage may be an important component of copper toxicity. (asm.org)
  • Hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation by neutrophils in vitro requires exogenous iron. (biochemj.org)
  • The samples such as ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were tested using six in vitromodels such as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, nitric oxide radical, iron chelating, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of C. retusa by spectrophotometrically. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of different anethole concentrations on the in vitro culture of caprine preantral follicles enclosed in ovarian tissue. (scielo.br)
  • In order to recover and use these follicles, preantral follicle culture is an important tool to study in vitro folliculogenesis, including the effect of different substances ( 2 ). (scielo.br)
  • Studies demonstrated that follicles cultured in vitro have lower developmental capability than those grown in vivo ( 3 ). (scielo.br)
  • Several studies have shown that high ROS levels produced during in vitro culture impair follicle development by damaging their cellular and molecular structures (for review, see Agarwal et al. (scielo.br)
  • This included 19 in vitro studies, 15 animal studies and two human studies. (deepdyve.com)
  • OH radicals from nitrous acid (HONO) in atmospheric hydrometeors was explored by two techniques, steady-state irradiation, and laser flash photolysis (LFP). (springer.com)
  • Most notably hydroxyl radicals are produced from the decomposition of hydroperoxides (ROOH) or, in atmospheric chemistry, by the reaction of excited atomic oxygen with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the early 2000s, environmental scientists studying methane emissions noticed something unexpected: the global concentrations of atmospheric methane (CH4)--which had increased for decades, driven by methane emissions from fossil fuels and agriculture--inexplicably leveled off. (eurekalert.org)
  • When atmospheric concentrations of methane increase, it may not be correct to chalk it up solely to an increase in methane emissions, says Caltech's Christian Frankenberg, co-corresponding author of a study on the decadal trends of methane concentrations that was published the week of April 17 in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (eurekalert.org)
  • The PNAS study is titled "Ambiguity in the causes for decadal trends in atmospheric methane and hydroxyl. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hydroxyl radicals can be produced in solution by an electrical discharge within a conventional atmospheric pressure electrospray ionization (ESI) source. (wikipedia.org)
  • The calculated atmospheric half-life of 1,2-dichloropropane for the reaction with OH radicals is 34.9 days, based on an OH radical concentration of 5 x 10e5 molecules/cm3 and 24 hour photoday. (europa.eu)
  • If global levels of hydroxyl decrease, global methane concentrations will increase--even if methane emissions remain constant, the researchers say. (eurekalert.org)
  • OH mediated degradation of dimethyl phthalate in aqueous solution: experimental and theoretical studies. (springer.com)
  • Arranged in ten chapters, the book presents detailed studies that can help readers understand the attack and degradation mechanisms of polymer membranes and mitigation strategies. (wiley.com)
  • Electron spin resonance (ESR) in combination with spin trapping techniques was utilized to detect free radicals. (cdc.gov)
  • The inhibitory activity on hydroxyl radical generated in a cell-free chemical system (FeSO4/H2O2) was investigated by a fluorescence spectrophotometer using a highly fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein. (nih.gov)
  • Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis involves an imbalance between free radical formation and destruction. (mdpi.com)
  • Compound C7 , 4,2'-dihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxychalcone was found to have potent activity in these anti-free radical activity tests. (mdpi.com)
  • The work reported here was to investigate free radical-induced damage in the retinal tissues and related protective phenomenon. (edu.hk)
  • Elevated NO* production is potentially threatening to the retina, which is more susceptible to free radical-induced LPO than kidney and liver. (edu.hk)
  • Formation of free radical intermediates from 1--methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion(MPP+) has been studied using spin-trapping techniques. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The influence of gas supply and flow rate, solution pH, and ionic strength on the aeration efficiency, free radical generation, and contaminant removal (take methylene blue as an example) are elucidated. (springer.com)
  • Substantial evidence now exists that intrinsic free-radical scavenging contributes to the receptor-independent neuroprotective effects of estrogens. (pnas.org)
  • Substantial evidence now exists that estrogen neuroprotection is related to or complemented by the intrinsic free-radical scavenging antioxidant capacity of the hormone due to its A-ring phenolic hydroxy group ( 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • As reported, energy metabolism and reactive free radicals accumulation are involved in the pathophysiology of fatigue [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The results support the hypothesis that mutant SOD induced-neurodegeneration is associated with disturbances of neuronal free radical homeostasis. (jneurosci.org)
  • 1994) Characterization of a method for the detection of drugs with free radical scavenging activity using porcine leukocytes. (gantep.edu.tr)
  • 1998) Effect of free radical production and scavengers on occlusion-reperfusion induced arrhythmias. (gantep.edu.tr)
  • Toxin effects on DA mitochondria were not dependent upon ATP, calcium, free radical species, JNK, or caspase3/PKC pathways but were completely blocked by the thiol-anti-oxidant N -acetyl-cysteine or membrane-permeable glutathione. (jneurosci.org)
  • Free radicals oxidize blood vessel walls, protein molecules, DNA, carbohydrates, and membrane lipids, changing the way cells interact with their environment and reproduce. (news-medical.net)
  • Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has proved an effective means of directly determining the level of free radicals in food 4 . (news-medical.net)
  • However, the free radical scavenging activity of coffee had not been evaluated using this technique. (news-medical.net)
  • Myocardial 'reperfusion injury' has been partly attributed to the production of free radicals which are cytotoxic towards cells. (curehunter.com)
  • Anyone over 18 years old or over can take the products contained in the Complete Detoxification Kit, especially those who want to support normal liver detoxification activity, help maintain healthy glutathione levels and provide the body with strong antioxidant protection to fight the negative effects of free radicals. (shop.com)
  • First, it quenches free radicals created when the liver neutralizes toxins in Phase 1 of detoxification. (shop.com)
  • The naïve notion (promulgated by the free radical theory), that EMODs are inherently toxic, is counterintuitive to very basis of the evolutionary concept itself. (ispub.com)
  • In fact, recent findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have repeatedly failed to support the free radical theory and some trial results have even shown harmful effects and increased risk of mortality from antioxidant use. (ispub.com)
  • From helping maintain healthy cholesterol levels, joint flexibility, cardiovascular health and circulation, nutraMetrix Isotonix OPC-3 helps the body function at its peak by combating free radicals throughout your body. (nutrametrix.com)
  • These results clearly indicated that C. retusa is effective against free radical mediated diseases as a natural antioxidant. (ijpsonline.com)
  • ROS are free radicals involved in many human diseases. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The underlying theory that has been long accepted says that antioxidants may improve health (and eventually prolong lifespan) by lowering the level of oxidative stress present in the organism because they eliminate free radicals, usually by 'donating' a free electron. (longecity.org)
  • This method used a nanosecond laser to photochemically generate a burst of hydroxyl radicals in situ in-cell suspension to oxidize the amino acids on the protein surface. (bireme.br)
  • A pilot study to evaluate an innovative in situ treatment technology was implemented at Letterkenny Army Depot, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, for a limestone bedrock aquifer contaminated with chlorinated solvents. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In organic synthesis, hydroxyl radicals are most commonly generated by photolysis of 1-hydroxy-2(1H)-pyridinethione. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of reaction with the hydroxyl radical often determines how long many pollutants last in the atmosphere, if they do not undergo photolysis or are rained out. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of Nanosecond Laser Photolysis Protein Footprinting to Study EGFR Activation by EGF in Cells. (bireme.br)
  • Here, we further optimized an ultrafast laser photolysis hydroxyl radical footprinting method and applied it to study the interaction of EGF and EGFR in live mammalian cells. (bireme.br)
  • Our footprinting data agreed with the two relevant EGFR crystal structures, indicating that this in-cell laser photolysis footprinting technique is a valid approach to study the structural properties of integral membrane proteins directly in the native environment. (bireme.br)
  • These chlorinated carbonyl compounds may be lost by further reaction with OH radicals, by photolysis, or by wet deposition. (europa.eu)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an antimicrobial chemotherapy employing H2O2 photolysis-developed to treat peri-implantitis-on biofilm-contaminated titanium surfaces in association with osteoblastic cell proliferation on the treated surface. (gu.se)
  • The monomer radical cations, formed in neutral aqueous solutions, are a strong one-electron oxidant and are able to oxidize I - with a bimolecular rate constant value of 6.4 × 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . (ias.ac.in)
  • The method utilizes hydroxyl radicals to oxidize solvent accessible sites in macromolecules. (rsc.org)
  • These radicals exist for about a microsecond and efficiently oxidize solvent-exposed protein segments, changing the protein's mass. (nature.com)
  • To further explore the OH radical scavenger activity of taurine and hypotaurine, their ability to prevent lipid peroxidalion was evaluated using linoleic acid as a model lipid and silica as an occupational source of OH radicals and other oxidants. (cdc.gov)
  • Our studies suggest that the antioxidant properties of CGA may involve a direct scavenging effect of CGA on *OH. (cdc.gov)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that some of those analogues have higher antioxidant activity than curcumin [ 5 , 9 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • For chard varieties that do contain betalains, recent studies have reconfirmed the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of these phytonutrients. (whfoods.org)
  • In this study we examine cholinesterase inhibitory activity as well as antioxidant activity of dried fruit extract including crude methyl extract and its sub fractions (Chloroform fraction, Petroleum ether fraction, Ethyl acetate fraction and aqueous fraction) of A. augusta. (omicsonline.org)
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant potential, total flavonoid and phenolic content in extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retua(Vahl. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Hence the present study was designed to estimate the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of aerial parts of Cordia retusa (Vahl. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In a recent study, scientists have shown that organic cultivation of Swiss chard can help avoid this unwanted outcome. (whfoods.org)
  • These study findings are consistent with the approach to food quality that we have taken on our website since day one: we encourage consumption of certified organic foods (or their equivalent) whenever possible. (whfoods.org)
  • The chemical reaction generated by this solution creates a hydroxyl radical, which is extremely effective in oxidizing complex organic compounds. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Hydroxyl radical footprinting (HRF) has been successfully used to study the structure of both nucleic acids and proteins. (rsc.org)
  • A wealth of radiation damage studies for nucleic acids has been provided by a strong community of radiation chemists, and mechanisms have been deduced from experiments on individual nucleotides in isolation through to irradiation of whole cells and tissues. (iucr.org)
  • The field is relatively new, particularly for protein studies, with only a few publications on the development and application of HRF on live cells. (rsc.org)
  • Time-resolved hydroxyl radical protein footprinting employing mass spectrometry analysis was developed in the late 1990s in synchrotron radiolysis studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method was the first employed to apply protein footprinting to the study of a protein complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • By adjusting the time for radiolysis or which protein ions spend in the discharge source, a time-resolved approach is possible which is valuable for the study of protein dynamics. (wikipedia.org)
  • RP-MS/Protein footprinting studies of protein complexes can also employ computational approaches to assist with this modeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that the PDX1.3 gene (encoding a key enzyme in vitamin B 6 biosynthesis) is up-regulated by UV-B. We showed that this up-regulation also occurs at the protein level in UV-B exposed Col-0 wild-type plants. (diva-portal.org)
  • In order to study the role of G-proteins in UV-B signal transduction pathways, UV-B irradiated G-protein mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana were studied. (diva-portal.org)
  • Quantitative comparison of damage to protein and DNA crystals separately is challenging, but many of the issues are circumvented by studying pre-formed biological nucleoprotein complexes where direct comparison of each component can be made under the same controlled conditions. (iucr.org)
  • When it comes to protein-folding studies, mass spectrometry can provide much structural information. (nature.com)
  • 2 now report a solution to this problem in their study of the submillisecond folding of the barstar protein, published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society . (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Improving the time resolution of mass spectrometry in protein-folding studies. (nature.com)
  • The hydroxyl radical is often referred to as the "detergent" of the troposphere because it reacts with many pollutants, decomposing them through "cracking", often acting as the first step to their removal. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance methane, which reacts relatively slowly with hydroxyl radical, has an average lifetime of >5 years and many CFCs have lifetimes of 50 years or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • We expect that these and future results using this experimental system will be useful in developing a more detailed interpretation of RNA structure based on hydroxyl radical cleavage experiments. (jbsdonline.com)
  • Instead, the most likely explanation has less to do with methane emissions and more to do with changes in the availability of the hydroxyl (OH) radical, which breaks down methane in the atmosphere. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers also would like to see the trends they detected verified with a more detailed study of both methane sources and sinks. (eurekalert.org)
  • The hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 5,5-dimethy-1-pyrroline-N-oxide as hydroxyl radicals trapping agents. (nih.gov)
  • In the photoinduced charge injection or electron transfer process in DNA, it is generally assumed that photoexcitation induces a charge separation between the intercalated photosensitizer and an adjacent guanine base, leading to a contact radical ion pair as the crucial intermediate ( 17 - 21 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Their study shows that nitrous acid is formed in fertilized soil and released to the atmosphere, whereby the amount increases with increasing soil acidity. (mpg.de)
  • In the air, nitrous acid leads to the formation of hydroxyl radicals oxidizing pollutants that then can be washed out. (mpg.de)
  • Now, researchers at the Max Planck Institute in Mainz and colleagues in Beijing have discovered the origin of a bulk part of the nitrous acid that is acting beside ozone as a source of hydroxyl radicals. (mpg.de)
  • The hydroxyl radical spin trap molecule was 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide. (cdc.gov)
  • 2004). Another molecule from this group is lycopene , results of studies are mixed but the data from The Health Professionals Follow-up Study indicate a reduced risk of prostate cancer (Giovannucci, Liu, Platz, Stampfer, & Willett, 2007). (longecity.org)
  • The latter studies underpin the development of current radiotherapies in the treatment of a range of cancers, but the full mechanistic X-ray damage landscape from atoms to organisms is far from complete. (iucr.org)
  • Other animal studies of Alzheimer's disease also suggest that curcumin may reduce levels of amyloid and oxidized proteins and prevent cognitive deficits. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mouse studies that evaluated the effects of dietary curcumin on inflammation, oxidative damage, and plaque pathology demonstrated that both low and high doses of curcumin significantly lowered oxidized proteins and interleukin-1beta, which is a proinflammatory cytokine elevated in the brains of these mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Based on these findings they can also explain why previous studies had measured high levels of HONO in the air above fertilized agricultural soil. (mpg.de)