Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Ethidium: A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.Hydrocarbons, BrominatedIpratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Atropine Derivatives: Analogs and derivatives of atropine.Butylscopolammonium Bromide: Antimuscarinic quaternary ammonium derivative of scopolamine used to treat cramps in gastrointestinal, urinary, uterine, and biliary tracts, and to facilitate radiologic visualization of the gastrointestinal tract.Pyridostigmine Bromide: A cholinesterase inhibitor with a slightly longer duration of action than NEOSTIGMINE. It is used in the treatment of myasthenia gravis and to reverse the actions of muscle relaxants.2-Hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl Bromide: A chemical reagent that reacts with and modifies chemically the tryptophan portion of protein molecules. Used for 'active site' enzyme studies and other protein studies. Sometimes referred to as Koshland's reagent.Scopolamine Derivatives: Analogs or derivatives of scopolamine.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Hexadimethrine Bromide: A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.Bromine: A halogen with the atomic symbol Br, atomic number 36, and atomic weight 79.904. It is a volatile reddish-brown liquid that gives off suffocating vapors, is corrosive to the skin, and may cause severe gastroenteritis if ingested.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Palladium: A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.Acriflavine: 3,6-Diamino-10-methylacridinium chloride mixt. with 3,6-acridinediamine. Fluorescent dye used as a local antiseptic and also as a biological stain. It intercalates into nucleic acids thereby inhibiting bacterial and viral replication.beta-Aminoethyl Isothiourea: A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.Bromine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Intercalating Agents: Agents that are capable of inserting themselves between the successive bases in DNA, thus kinking, uncoiling or otherwise deforming it and therefore preventing its proper functioning. They are used in the study of DNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.AcetophenonesThiazolesAmino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.PhenanthridinesFormazans: Colored azo compounds formed by the reduction of tetrazolium salts. Employing this reaction, oxidoreductase activity can be determined quantitatively in tissue sections by allowing the enzymes to act on their specific substrates in the presence of tetrazolium salts.Cholinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Glycopyrrolate: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in some disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and to reduce salivation with some anesthetics.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Pipecuronium: A piperazinyl androstane derivative which is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS). It is used as a muscle relaxant during ANESTHESIA and surgical procedures.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tropanes: N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.Bromates: Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.Thermolysin: A thermostable extracellular metalloendopeptidase containing four calcium ions. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) 3.4.24.27.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Noxae: Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Halogens: A family of nonmetallic, generally electronegative, elements that form group 17 (formerly group VIIa) of the periodic table.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hydrocarbons, HalogenatedAcridine Orange: A cationic cytochemical stain specific for cell nuclei, especially DNA. It is used as a supravital stain and in fluorescence cytochemistry. It may cause mutations in microorganisms.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Pancuronium: A bis-quaternary steroid that is a competitive nicotinic antagonist. As a neuromuscular blocking agent it is more potent than CURARE but has less effect on the circulatory system and on histamine release.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Triethyltin Compounds: Organic compounds composed of tin and three ethyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.Propantheline: A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic, in rhinitis, in urinary incontinence, and in the treatment of ulcers. At high doses it has nicotinic effects resulting in neuromuscular blocking.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Sodium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Emepronium: A muscarinic antagonist used mainly in the treatment of urinary syndromes. It is incompletely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Bromine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain bromine as an integral part of the molecule.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Amination: The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Benzyl CompoundsCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.Pepsin A: Formed from pig pepsinogen by cleavage of one peptide bond. The enzyme is a single polypeptide chain and is inhibited by methyl 2-diaazoacetamidohexanoate. It cleaves peptides preferentially at the carbonyl linkages of phenylalanine or leucine and acts as the principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice.Alkylation: The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.Hydrocarbons, IodinatedBorates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Phosphines: Inorganic or organic compounds derived from phosphine (PH3) by the replacement of H atoms. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Vecuronium Bromide: Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.Phospholipases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.Oxyphenonium: A quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent with peripheral side effects similar to those of ATROPINE. It is used as an adjunct in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcer, and to relieve visceral spasms. The drug has also been used in the form of eye drops for mydriatic effect.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Androstanols: Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.AcridinesAllyl CompoundsTrimethyl Ammonium Compounds: QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS containing three methyl groups, having the general formula of (CH3)3N+R.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Methyl Chloride: A hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent. It has been used as an aerosal propellent, as a refrigerant and as a local anesthetic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p1403)Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Cetylpyridinium: Cationic bactericidal surfactant used as a topical antiseptic for skin, wounds, mucous membranes, instruments, etc.; and also as a component in mouthwash and lozenges.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Quinacrine: An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.PeroxidasesChromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bromosuccinimide: A brominating agent that replaces hydrogen atoms in benzylic or allylic positions. It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones and in controlled low-energy brominations. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed; Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed,).Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Ozone Depletion: A shift in the balance between production and destruction of STRATOSPHERIC OZONE that results in a decline of the amount of OZONE in the lower stratosphere.Neuromuscular Blocking Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Alkenes: Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)Pyridinium CompoundsDouble-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Bromobenzenes: Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Halogenation: Covalent attachment of HALOGENS to other compounds.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents: Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Silanes: Compounds similar to hydrocarbons in which a tetravalent silicon atom replaces the carbon atom. They are very reactive, ignite in air, and form useful derivatives.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Alkanes: The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Wiley, G. A.; Hershkowitz, R. L.; Rein, B. M.; Chung, B. C. (1964). "Studies in Organophosphorus Chemistry. I. Conversion of ... New route to phenols, primary alcohols and bromides". Chemistry Letters. 10 (2): 243-246. doi:10.1246/cl.1981.243. ...
Intermediate chlorides, bromides and iodides exist. They contain gallium in oxidation states +1, +2 and +3. Ga3Cl7 This ... GaCl2, GaBr2 and GaI2 These are the best known and most studied intermediate halides. They contain gallium in oxidation states ... Their proper names are gallium(III) fluoride, gallium(III) chloride, gallium(III) bromide and gallium(III) iodide. GaF3 GaF3 is ...
The Schumacher Process Schumb WC, Young RC (April 1930). "A study of the reaction of hydrogen bromide with silicon". Journal of ... It may be prepared by heading crystalline silicon with gaseous hydrogen bromide at high temperature. It spontaneously combusts ...
2000). "On-line gas chromatographic studies of Rf, Zr, and Hf bromides". Radiochimica Acta. 88 (12_2000): 837. doi:10.1524/ract ... Studies on the same reaction by a team at Dubna, lead to the observation in 2000 of alpha decays from 261Rf and spontaneous ... In a 1994 study at GSI using the lead-206 isotope, 255Rf as well as 254Rf were detected. 253Rf was similarly detected that year ... More recently, a study of hassium isotopes allowed the synthesis of atoms of 263Rf decaying with a shorter half-life of 8 ...
The bromide appears to behave similarly to the more heavily studied chloride. Mucobromic acid can be synthesized by bromination ... Wasserman, H. H.; Precopio, F. M. (1952). "Studies on the mucohalic acids .1. The structure of mucoxychloric acid". J. Am. Chem ...
Potassium bromide (KBr) is commonly used for this purpose. The substance being tested is thoroughly mixed with specially ... The light absorbed in the infrared region does not correspond to electronic excitation of the substance studied, but rather to ... Spectrophotometry in infrared light is mainly used to study structure of substances, as given groups give absorption at defined ... This makes it possible also to study the isotopic composition of a sample with infrared spectrophotometry. Atomic absorption ...
A 1995 economic study declared that banning methyl bromide without an alternative method of controlling nematodes would cost ... Mna+Pic provided equal or better Meloidogyne control than methyl bromide plus pic, for sting nematode, they are equal to MBR ... Proceedings of the USDA Workshop on Alternatives to Methyl Bromide. 45 (2). Arlington, VA. pp. 43-47. Archived from the ... 1994). Alternatives to methyl bromide: Assessments of research needs and priorities. Tree Planters' Notes. ...
1-Naphthylamine is reacted with cyanogen bromide to give 2. Treatment of this intermediate with 3-ethyl-N-methylaniline leads ... Synthesis and structure-activity studies of N,N'-diarylguanidine derivatives. N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-(3-ethylphenyl)-N'- ... but despite positive results in animal studies, human trials showed limited efficacy, as well as undesirable side effects such ... "Synthesis and structure-activity studies of N,N'-diarylguanidine derivatives. N-(1-naphthyl)-N'-(3-ethylphenyl)-N'- ...
In vivo imaging studies in live animals have been performed for the first time with the use of a monomeric protein derived from ... Ethidium bromide, fluorescein and green fluorescent protein are common tags. The most commonly labelled molecules are ... The development of methods to detect and identify biomolecules has been motivated by the ability to improve the study of ... Within the past century, Ethidium bromide and variants were developed in the 1950s, and in 1994, fluorescent proteins or FPs ...
Rodriguez, Amalia (2003). "Water-Ethylene Glycol Alkyltrimethylammonium Bromide Micellar Solutions as Reaction Media: Study of ... "Encapsulation of Myoglobin in a Cetyl Trimethylammonium Bromide Micelle in Vacuo: A Simulation Study". Biochemistry. 48 (5): ...
2. A study of the cinchona alkaloids in potassium bromide disks. J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm Assoc 1960;49:497-502. Hayden AL. ... 2. A study of the cinchona alkaloids in potassium bromide disks". Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association. American ... He had also undertaken postgraduate studies at Howard University, and worked at the NIH from 1952 to 1958. The Haydens had two ... Spectrophotometry and crystallography studies were conducted independently by three teams, including scientists from MIT. The ...
In one study the usual regioselectivity of an alkyne hydrozirconation is reversed with the addition of zinc chloride: One ... It was prepared in a reaction of the cyclopentadienyl magnesium bromide and zirconium(IV) chloride. Zirconocenes are used as ... Organozirconium compounds have been widely studied, in part because they are useful catalysts in Ziegler-Natta polymerization. ...
Cyanogen bromide is a solid that is prepared by reacting bromine with hydrocyanic acid salts; it has been used as a chemical ... pesticide against insects and rodents and as a reagent for the study of protein structure. Cyanogen halides have been found to ... Cyanogen chloride Cyanogen bromide Cyanogen fluoride Iodine cyanide (also called cyanogen iodide) "Cyanogen halide". ...
He studied under Benjamin Brodie and Andrew Duncan, graduating from medical school at Edinburgh University in 1821. Locock ... He published an 1857 paper in The Lancet outlining the use of potassium bromide as a treatment for epilepsy. In 1860 Locock had ... He is also credited with the introduction of potassium bromide as a treatment for epilepsy. Charles Locock was born to Henry ...
Deuterium-labelling studies show that the reaction proceeds through a carbene mechanism. Lithium-Bromide exchange is followed ...
... although more carefully controlled studies are needed. A later study showed it is an effective antispasmodic when test-applied ... Anisotropine, Atropine, Clidinium bromide are also the most commonly used modern antispasmodics. Pharmacotherapy may be used ... Some studies have shown that medications have been effective in decreasing spasticity, but that this has not been accompanied ... Peppermint oil has been traditionally used as an antispasmodic, and a review of studies on the topic found that it "could be ...
He studied and taught at Columbia University for 50 years. The full tenure of Thomas' career was at Columbia University, where ... Thomas, A. W. (1917). A noteworthy effect of bromides upon the action of malt amylase. Journal of the American Chemical Society ... Sherman, H. C., & Thomas, A. W. (1915). Studies on amylases. VIII. The influence of certain acids and salts upon the activity ... Little, R. W., Thomas, A. W., & Sherman, H. C. (1943). Spectrophotometric studies on the storage of vitamin A in the body. ...
Kinetics of the Reaction of Dimethylmagnesium with Benzophenone and of Methylmagnesium Bromide-Magnesium Bromide with ... having observed an increased incidence of cancer in controlled animal studies, but not in epidemiological studies of workers ... Animal studies in rats suggest that the greatest health risk is associated with inhalation of vapors in the pure form. Like ... In a 1978 mortality study conducted on workers exposed to 1,4-dioxane, the observed number deaths from cancer was not ...
One study found it to comprise 2.4% of the fresh essential oil. Elemicin is also present in the oils of the spices nutmeg and ... Elemicin has been synthesized from syringol and allyl bromide using Williamson ether synthesis and Claisen rearrangement. The ...
There, she studied the effect of radium bromide on cancerous tumors in rats. Menten and two other scientists published the ... After studying with Michaelis in Germany she entered graduate school at the University of Chicago where she obtained her PhD in ... Menten, ML., "A study of the oxidase reaction with a-naphthol and paraphenylenediamine." Journal of Medical Research, Vol 40 ( ... Maud Menten was born in Port Lambton, Ontario and studied medicine at the University of Toronto (B.A. 1904, M.B. 1907, M.D. ...
Intensively studied DNA intercalators include berberine, ethidium bromide, proflavine, daunomycin, doxorubicin, and thalidomide ... Luzzati, V.; Masson, F.; Lerman, L. S. (1961). "Interaction of DNA and proflavine: A small-angle x-ray scattering study". ... the ionic form of ethidium bromide found in aqueous solution) unwinds DNA by about 26°, whereas proflavine unwinds it by about ...
Most studies with TEA seem to have been performed using either its chloride or bromide salt without comment as to any ... 1948). "Action of tetraethylammonium bromide." Lancet 251 15-18. R. Birchall et al. (1947). "Clinical studies of the ... An extensive study of the toxicology of tetraethylammonium chloride in mice, rats and dogs was published by Gruhzit and co- ... A. J. P. Graham (1950). "Toxic effects in animals and man after tetraethylammonium bromide." Br. Med. J. 2 321-322. A. M. Boyd ...
Marković, R.; Minić, D. M. (1997). "Conductometric and thermal studies of fused Zn (II) salts containing methyl substituted ... Solubility of hydrogen chloride under atmospheric pressure and comparison with zinc chloride - N-ethylpyridinium bromide ...
Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Bromides: Kinetic Studies under Synthetically Relevant Conditions". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124: 14104- ... The simplest case of saturation kinetics is the well-studied Michaelis-Menten model for enzyme kinetics. While a reaction may ... Reaction calorimetry has also been applied as an efficient method for mechanistic study of individual reactions including the ... isotope effect studies, computational analysis, or any number of alternative approaches. Finally, it is important to note that ...
A Case Study on the Origins of Competing Reduction in the Palladium-Catalyzed Amination of Aryl Halides", J. Am. Chem. Soc., ... Proposed was a catalytic cycle involving oxidative addition of the aryl bromide. In May of the same year, Buchwald published an ... The following year, back to back studies from each lab showed that the couplings could be conducted with free amines in the ... These studies have revealed a divergent reaction pathways depending on whether monodentate or chelating phosphine ligands are ...
Study 035[edit]. The study's goal was to show the different effects of different antiviral treatments. 97 patients were ... Just like Study 035, patients couldn't be in the study if they had prior protease inhibitor treatment or lamivudine for more ... This study took a look at clinical efficiency of the different treatments. Patients had to have CD4 cell counts less than 200 ... AIDS Clinical Trials Group 320 Study Team". The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (11): 725-33. doi:10.1056/ ...
Subsequent studies on rats and mice confirmed that it causes tumors of the kidney, thyroid, and other organs. Instead of ... OLD GOLD safe bread brands, unsafe ones & more info on Bromide dangers. Advertisement. The Tesla Shield The Holistic ... OLD GOLD safe bread brands, unsafe ones & more info on Bromide dangers ...
Ipratropium Bromide Atrovent Inhalers. The administered salbutamol and ipratropium bromide doses used in this study are. the ... ipratropium bromide; ipratropium bromide, (endo,anti)-Isomer;. 60205-81-4 (Ipratropium); 60251-88-9 (bromide, (exo,syn)-isomer ... To determine whether longer treatment with ipratropium bromide might aid recovery a study was undertaken in 106 patients with ... Ipratropium Bromide Atrovent. Ipratropium Bromide - patient information, description, dosage and .... hmm well you can always ...
Pyridostigmine Bromide 60mg) £1.45 pill - Neurological Disorders @ Trusted Tablets Pharmacy : No Prescription. How to Buy ... Women with MuSK-MG Can Have Safe Pregnancies, Small Study Suggests - Myasthenia Gravis News. Myasthenia Gravis NewsWomen with ... Pyridostigmine Bromide tablet. What is this medicine?. PYRIDOSTIGMINE can help with muscle strength. It is used to treat ... Dosing Completed in Phase 1 Study of GTP-004 for Myasthenia Gravis Treatment Side Effects - Myasthenia Gravis News. Myasthenia ...
4,5 It is also being studied as an investigational drug to treat HIV infection. 2. As an investigational HIV drug, ... Get Pyridostigmine Bromide Coupon Card by print, email or text and save up to 75% off Pyridostigmine Bromide at the pharmacy. ... Pyridostigmine bromide is approved only for …. Pyridostigmine bromide is not an exotic or experimental drug. The Food and Drug ... Pyridostigmine Bromide may be prescribed for . Myasthenia Gravis; The dosage form available for Pyridostigmine Bromide is Oral ...
... of the present study was to determine the cardiac electrophysiologic effects of a single dose of pyridostigmine bromide in an ... Fifteen patients who had been indicated for diagnostic cardiac electrophysiologic study underwent two studies just before and ...
Descrição: The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of an anticholinesterase agent, pyridostigmine bromide ( ... Effects of Cholinergic Stimulation with Pyridostigmine Bromide on Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathic Mice. Cuba, Marília Beatriz ... Effects of Cholinergic Stimulation with Pyridostigmine Bromide on Chronic Chagasic Cardiomyopathic Mice ...
Where else is bromide found? ". Bromide compounds, especially potassium bromide, were frequently used as sedatives in the 19th ... Okay, this is just a cell study, with all of the inherent limitations of a cell study, but if taking iodine to fight breast ... In Vega-Riveroll Ls 2010 study, the researchers studied the effects of supplementing with iodine prior to tumor removal.. The ... 2015 STUDY STRENGTHENS PROPOSAL TO USE IODINE FOR BREAST CANCER. - 6-IL ANTI-TUMOR KEY ACTIVATES PPARG. ...
F. Keep Pyridostigmine Bromide Extended-release Tablets in a dry place with the silica gel enclosed. REFERENCES 1. Osserman KE ... Genkins G. Studies in myasthenia gravis: Reduction in mortality rate after crisis. JAMA. tolterodine ireland tolterodine ... As with any compound containing the bromide radical, a skin rash may be seen in an occasional patient. Such reactions usually ... The immediate effect of a 180 mg Pyridostigmine Bromide Extended-release Tablet is about equal to that of a 60 mg ...
... Mallampati S. Reddy, Manish P. Joshi, Sunil P. Dave, ... The bromide levels were about 0.086-0.2 g in the root, 0.175-0.443 g in stem and 0.287-0.432 g in leaves per g of dry plant ... The bromide present in various parts of these plants was determined by simple and eco-friendly techniques for the first time. A ... This paper deals with the bromide uptake and its accumulation effect on the growth of Salicornia brachiata, Suaeda nudiflora, ...
This study was taken to investigate by comparison with old muscle relaxantes and Vecuronium which is new non-depolarizing ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... Aclidinium Bromide / Formoterol Fumarate. Experimental: Aclidinium Bromide / Formoterol Fumarate Aclidinium Bromide 400 μg / ... Aclidinium Bromide / Formoterol Fumarate. Experimental: Aclidinium Bromide / Formoterol Fumarate Aclidinium Bromide 400 μg / ... Study of Aclidinium Bromide/Formoterol Fumarate Compared With Salmeterol/Fluticasone Propionate in Patients With Chronic ...
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... 1-year Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Glycopyrronium Bromide (NVA237) in Chronic Obstructive ... Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More ... Study Description Study Design Arms and Interventions Outcome Measures Eligibility Criteria Contacts and Locations More ...
... ethidium bromide solution) in the study of the viability of Cryptococcus neoformans strains. Mycopathologia (Den Haag), 96: 91- ... Vitally staining with ethidium bromide and propidium iodite. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 29: 45-48, 1981. [ Links ]. 4. CORRÊA, B ... WARING, M.J. - Complex formation between ethidium bromide and nucleic acids. J. molec. Biol., 13: 269-282, 1965. [ Links ]. ... 5. CORRÊA, B.; PURCHIO, A.; PAULA, C.R. & GAMBALE, W. - evaluation of a fluorescent method in the study of the viability of ...
Efficacy and safety of twice-daily aclidinium bromide in COPD patients: the ATTAIN study. Paul W. Jones, Dave Singh, Eric D. ... phase III study (124 mL at study end) [8]. The 12-week study showed clinically significant improvements in dyspnoea with ... Study design. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase III study conducted in nine ... Efficacy and safety of twice-daily aclidinium bromide in COPD patients: the ATTAIN study ...
At ,0.3 mg/L cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) negatively impacted degradation of the reference compound aniline. We used ... and bioaccessibility of the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide in a sorbent-modified biodegradation study. ... All Chemicals & Salts Acetates Aluminides Ammonium Sulfates Antimonides Arsenates Benzoate Bromates Bromides Carbonates ... At >0.3 mg/L cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) negatively impacted degradation of the reference compound aniline. We used ...
The study period was from 2012-2015. Patients with at least 1 yr of history were eligible. Using the pooled-study population, ... Patient characteristics of new initiators of glycopyrronium bromide (GLY) - A multinational, multi-database real-world drug- ... utilization study. Katia M.C. Verhamme, Maria De Ridder, Lars Pedersen, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Francesco Lapi, Peter Rijnbeek ... Patient characteristics of new initiators of glycopyrronium bromide (GLY) - A multinational, multi-database real-world drug- ...
STUDY DESIGN: Children with acute asthma (N = 210) age 1 to 18 years admitted to the ACA were assigned to the intervention or ... Ipratropium bromide plus nebulized albuterol for the treatment of hospitalized children with acute asthma.. Craven D1, Kercsmar ... To determine whether the addition of repeated doses of nebulized ipratropium bromide (IB) to a standardized inpatient asthma ...
Almirall and Forest Laboratories announced positive top-line results from its Phase 3 study of inhaled aclidinium in patients ... Phase 2b and 3 studies of aclidinium bromide for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( ... Phase 2b and 3 studies of aclidinium bromide for the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( ... Additionally, two Phase 2b dose-ranging studies comparing fixed-dose combinations (aclidinium bromide / formoterol) to ...
Animal studies have shown biliary excretion, specifically in cats, [2] but the importance of this pathway in humans remains ... Similarly, in another study describing the pharmacokinetics of rocuronium after a single bolus injection to patients with liver ... This study demonstrates some alterations in the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profile of repeated doses of rocuronium in ... 12] Thus, the influence of isoflurane, specifically on the initial doses, was probably more important in this study than in ...
... emission spectroscopy has been used to study the 193 nm photolysis of vinyl bromide (C(2)H(3)Br) and vinyl chloride (C(2)H(3)Cl ... The reaction products of the 193 nm photolysis of vinyl bromide and vinyl chloride studied by time-resolved Fourier transform ... "The Reaction Products of the 193 Nm Photolysis of Vinyl Bromide and Vinyl Chloride Studied by Time-Resolved Fourier Transform ... "The Reaction Products of the 193 Nm Photolysis of Vinyl Bromide and Vinyl Chloride Studied by Time-Resolved Fourier Transform ...
The Solution to Your Study Problems. Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, ... Potassium bromide has the same lattice structure as NaCl. Given the ionic radii of K+ (133 pm) and Br− (196 pm), calculate the ...
The Solution to Your Study Problems. Bartleby provides explanations to thousands of textbook problems written by our experts, ...
14 CLINICAL STUDIES In U.S. clinical studies, a total of 1137 patients received rocuronium bromide, including 176 pediatric, ... Rocuronium bromide has not been studied in MH-susceptible patients. Because rocuronium bromide is always used with other agents ... The use of rocuronium bromide in Cesarean section has been studied in a limited number of patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1 ... see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. In U.S. studies, laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation following rocuronium bromide administration ...
Rocuronium bromide has not been studied in MH-susceptible patients. Because rocuronium bromide is always used with other agents ... 14 CLINICAL STUDIES. In U.S. clinical studies, a total of 1137 patients received rocuronium bromide, including 176 pediatric, ... The use of rocuronium bromide in Cesarean section has been studied in a limited number of patients [see Clinical Studies (14.1 ... see Clinical Studies (14.3)]. In U.S. studies, laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation following rocuronium bromide administration ...
Link to relevant study record(s). Description of key information. The mean average median diameter was determined to be 66.9- ...
  • Subsequent studies on rats and mice confirmed that it causes tumors of the kidney, thyroid, and other organs. (curezone.org)
  • and (4) potential effect of pyridostigmine bromide in oxidative stress, addressing as subtitle the influence of pyridostigmine bromide on the superoxide-hydrogen peroxide imbalance model. (intechopen.com)
  • however, this discussion needs to be better elucidated and may be more discussed as there is interaction between the pyridostigmine bromide and an endogenous oxidative imbalance caused by it or even by the possible interaction of this with genetic variations present in the antioxidant metabolism. (intechopen.com)
  • Pyridostigmine bromide (PB) is a reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and the first line of choice for the treatment of symptoms associated with myasthenia gravis (MG) and other neuromuscular junction disorder prophylactic treatment in the Persian Gulf War, for prevention of post-traumatic stress and heat and pesticide exposure. (intechopen.com)
  • Subjects will receive an acute administration of pyridostigmine bromide, calculated on their body weight at clinical exam (1 mg/kg, 60mg max starting dose), and will be monitored for 2 hours post administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A common experience among Persian Gulf War veterans was exposure to pyridostigmine bromide (PB) for prophylaxis against nerve gas exposure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The cathodic and anodic peak potentialswere related to the concentration of bromide ions involved in making bromide-modifiedsilver electrode. (mdpi.com)
  • With these changes, it could be shown that the electrolytic reactor not only lowered the concentration of bromide in the water but when ozonated, the amount of bromate formed was reduced in direct proportion to the amount of bromide removed for an equal dose of ozone. (elsevier.com)
  • The response to a combination of tiotropium bromide and olodaterol was assessed at sub-maximal contractile tone induced by carbachol. (medworm.com)
  • To determine whether the addition of repeated doses of nebulized ipratropium bromide (IB) to a standardized inpatient asthma care algorithm (ACA) for children with status asthmaticus improves clinical outcome. (nih.gov)
  • Doses of rocuronium bromide injection should be individualized and a peripheral nerve stimulator should be used to monitor drug effect, need for additional doses, adequacy of spontaneous recovery or antagonism, and to decrease the complications of overdosage if additional doses are administered. (nih.gov)
  • 1 mg/kg] in patients receiving repeated iv fractional doses of pancuronium bromide prolonged the duration of skeletal muscle relaxation with consequent reductionofthetotal dosage of pancuronium bromide. (who.int)
  • CA DPR claims that the new regulations will improve protection from long-term methyl bromide exposure. (panna.org)
  • In reality, CA DPR's proposed regulations raise so-called "acceptable" sub-chronic methyl bromide exposure limits nine fold for children (from 1 ppb to 9 ppb) and eight fold for adult workers (from 2 ppb to 16 ppb). (panna.org)
  • H A and dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), a cationic surfactant, in aqueous solutions of pH 3.2, 6.4 and 10.0 were measured over a wide range of DTAB concentrations by equilibrium dialysis at 27°C and 37°C and are discussed. (ac.ir)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use ROCURONIUM BROMIDE INJECTION safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • See full prescribing information for ROCURONIUM BROMIDE INJECTION. (nih.gov)
  • Rocuronium bromide injection is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent indicated as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate both rapid sequence and routine tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. (nih.gov)
  • Rocuronium bromide injection is indicated for inpatients and outpatients as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate both rapid sequence and routine tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. (nih.gov)
  • The reaction products of the 193 nm photolysis of vinyl bromide and vinyl chloride studied by time-resolved Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Time-resolved Fourier transform infrared (TRFTIR) emission spectroscopy has been used to study the 193 nm photolysis of vinyl bromide (C(2)H(3)Br) and vinyl chloride (C(2)H(3)Cl). (ox.ac.uk)
  • The silver bromide is much more sensitive than the chloride, so that the printing can be done in artificial light. (dictionary.com)
  • In situ study of water-induced segregation of bromide in bromide-doped sodium chloride by scanning polarization force microscopy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ignaczak, A. Comparison of temperature effect on electroreduction of tert-butyl chloride and tert-butyl bromide -Theoretical study. (alfa.com)
  • Each 3 mL Sterile Unit-dose Vial contains 0.5 mg of ipratropium bromide (0.017%) and 3 mg 1 albuterol sulfate (0.083%) in an isotonic, sterile, aqueous solution containing sodium chloride and 1 N hydrochloric acid to adjust to pH 4. (drugs.com)
  • Samia A. A. El Halawany , Pharmacological studies of verapamil interactions with neuromuscular blocking activity of pancuronium bromide and succinylcholine chloride, Med. (who.int)
  • Binding energies (Δ E ) were calculated for each of the optimized geometries, yielding an attractive Δ E value of −92.39, −27.14, −23.16, and −13.37 kcal mol −1 for fluoride, chloride, bromide, and iodide, respectively, which is in accord with our experimental results. (rsc.org)
  • A kinetic study of phase transition between phases I and II in ammonium chloride and ammonium bromide has been carried out using time-resolved powder diffraction (TRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (edu.au)
  • Clark, SM 2016, ' A kinetic study of the I to II phase transition in ammonium chloride, ammonium bromide and ammonium iodide ', Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids , vol. 451, pp. 161-167. (edu.au)
  • ROCKVILLE, Md., April 25 -- The FDA has approved methylnaltrexone bromide (Relistor) injection for treatment of opioid-induced constipation, a common condition among patients on continuous medication for pain relief in late-stage illness. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Methylnaltrexone bromide blocks opioid receptors on the intestinal muscle cells thus allowing the bowels to function normally. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The FDA said patients who were treated with methylnaltrexone bromide had a significantly higher rate of elimination than those receiving placebo. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The safety and effectiveness of methylnaltrexone bromide have not been studied in pediatric populations. (medpagetoday.com)
  • This is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Methylnaltrexone Bromide industry with a focus on the Chinese market. (medgadget.com)
  • The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Methylnaltrexone Bromide manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry. (medgadget.com)
  • Through the statistical analysis, the report depicts the global and Chinese total market of Methylnaltrexone Bromide industry including capacity, production, production value, cost/profit, supply/demand and Chinese import/export. (medgadget.com)
  • In the end, the report makes some important proposals for a new project of Methylnaltrexone Bromide Industry before evaluating its feasibility. (medgadget.com)
  • Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2018-2023 Global and Chinese Methylnaltrexone Bromide industry covering all important parameters. (medgadget.com)
  • Table Methylnaltrexone Bromide Product Capacity, Production, and Production Value etc. (medgadget.com)
  • In view of its band gap of 2.2 eV and its stability, methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr 3 ) is a possible candidate to serve as a light absorber in a subcell of a multijunction solar cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2 The 2.2 eV band gap 3 makes methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr 3 ) a possible candidate to serve as a photoactive layer in a top cell of a multijunction solar cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • ATTYGALLE, AB, Studies on immobilization of alfa- amylase to cyanogen bromide activated sephadex g 200, University of Sri Lanka (Colombo Campus) UC(MED), 1977: 50p. (mahidol.ac.th)
  • Alfa-amylase showed optimal activity at pH 6.0 Cyanogen bromide was prepared and was used to activate sephadex G200 at pH 11.5. (mahidol.ac.th)
  • The volume of the cyanogen bromide activated gel, at this pH decreased by about 50 percent, compared to that of the unactivated Sephadex G200. (mahidol.ac.th)
  • Alfa-amylase was coupled to cyanogen bromide activated Sephadex G200 at pH8.3 and 7.0. (mahidol.ac.th)
  • Cetrimonium Bromide is a quaternary ammonium salt. (ewg.org)
  • Show all 53 recent products that contain CETRIMONIUM BROMIDE. (ewg.org)
  • A potential therapeutic agent for human head and neck cancer (HNC), cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), was identified through a cell-based phenotype-driven high-throughput screen (HTS) of 2000 biologically active or clinically used compounds, followed by in vitro and in vivo characterization of its antitumor efficacy. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Written informed consent to participate to this prospective, randomized, institutionally approved study was obtained from 50 ASA physical status 1 or 2 patients (26 cirrhotic patients and 24 normal patients), aged 18-65 yr, scheduled for elective surgery, mostly otolaryngologic, with an anticipated duration of 1-3 h. (asahq.org)
  • Patients who during the last 7 days had received medications known to interfere with neuromuscular function were not studied, but corticosteroids and beta-adrenergic blockers were allowed in cirrhotic patients. (asahq.org)
  • Study participants were adult patients with moderate asthma taking medium-dose ICS. (spiriva.com)
  • The prospective study was undertaken at Government Rajaji Hospital attached to Madurai Medical College in Obstetrics and Gynaecological Department, 150 consecutive primigravidae were selected at random manner from the patients admitted in the clean labour ward that includes both booked and unbooked cases. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Following criteria were utilized in selecting patients for this study--Full term pregnancy with established labour pains in Primigravid, Vertex presentation, Cervix more than 3 cm dilated and 75% effaced. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These patients have fewer flare-ups under aclidinium bromide. (eurekalert.org)
  • In contrast to the G-BA's specifications, all patients included in these studies could continue ongoing treatment with an ICS, irrespective of their severity grade and the frequency of exacerbations. (eurekalert.org)
  • not studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment. (drugs.com)
  • Controlled clinical studies and other clinical experience have shown that inhaled albuterol, like other β-adrenergic agonist drugs, can produce a significant cardiovascular effect in some patients. (drugs.com)
  • Prevalence and Characteristics of Pain in Patients of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study in China. (medworm.com)
  • At visit 1 all patients were provided with a short acting β2-agonist (salbutamol/albuterol) which they were instructed to use throughout the study as rescue medication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study was carried out to evaluate: (1) whether nebulized ipratropium (0.5 mg) plus salbutamol (2.5 mg) (Combivent) confers additional bronchodilation over nebulized salbutamol (2.5 mg) alone in patients with acute asthma and (2) whether adjustment for prognostic indicators of outcome influences any benefit seen with ipratropium. (nih.gov)
  • A double-blind, two-center, randomized, single-dose study was performed in 338 patients with asthma, aged 18 to 55 years, who attended the emergency department for treatment of acute asthma. (nih.gov)
  • offLabelAdultGuideSupport=There is limited information regarding Off-Label Guideline-Supported Use of Propantheline bromide in adult patients. (wikidoc.org)
  • offLabelAdultNoGuideSupport=There is limited information regarding Off-Label Non-Guideline-Supported Use of Propantheline bromide in adult patients. (wikidoc.org)
  • fdaLIADPed=There is limited information regarding FDA-Labeled Use of Propantheline bromide in pediatric patients. (wikidoc.org)
  • Tiotropium, a closely related medication, has also been studied for use in patients with asthma. (epnet.com)
  • Study patients will undergo a program of prehabilitation exercise for 6 days per week prescribed for them by an exercise physiologist, for up to 4 weeks prior to surgery. (tripdatabase.com)
  • ECHA organiseert raadplegingen om van alle geïnteresseerde partijen feedback te krijgen en om zo breed mogelijke wetenschappelijke informatie te verzamelen voor de regelgevingsprocedures. (europa.eu)
  • This work investigates the performance of a single-effect absorption chiller utilizing an aqueous lithium bromide solution as the working fluid and driven by hot fluid rejected from either a geothermal power plant or the outlet of a thermal solar collector. (sdewes.org)
  • In the replicated experiments eight fumigant treatments were evaluated each year, including the nonfumigated control and commercial standard methyl bromide plus chloropicrin mixture. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In summary, Garca-Mndez stated: "Replacements for methyl bromide will require more than one fumigant component as well as a higher level of management of pest populations in the fields during rotational crop production. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The largest agricultural source of bromine in soil within the United Kingdom is probably derived from the use of bromomethane (methyl bromide) as a soil fumigant. (inchem.org)
  • Dermal absorption of fumigant gases during HAZMAT incident exposure scenarios-Methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride, and chloropicrin. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Dangerous proposals to expand use of methyl bromide, a highly toxic and ozone depleting fumigant pesticide, are moving forward in California and in the U.S. Congress, representing serious backsliding away from protective public health and environmental standards. (panna.org)
  • Methyl bromide is not the only dangerous fumigant in wide use in the state. (panna.org)
  • Tiquizium bromide ϳɷ The reaction of 2-piperidineethanol (I) with acrylonitrile (II) gives N-(2-cyanoethyl)piperidine-2-ethanol (III), which by treatment with SOCl2 is converted into the chloronitrile (IV). (yp900.com)
  • The Grignard reaction of (VI) with 2-thienylmagnesium bromide gives thienyl-3-quinolizidinyl methanol (VIII), which is dehydrated with HCl ethanol to afford 3-(di-2-thienylmethylene)quinolizidine (IX). (yp900.com)
  • Detection of Metabolites of Vecuronium Bromide in Visceral Samples Solves A Typical Death Mystery- (Toxicokinetics- Studies Using Gc-Ms Technique). (bvsalud.org)
  • Metabolite fragments of vecuronium bromide a muscle relaxant were surprisingly observed in Viscera material, Blood sample and Skin piece from Leftt cubital fossa from this young girl, whose death is questioned. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the possible use of single walled carbon nanotubes as an alternative adsorbent material for the removal of EtBr from drinking water. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Atrovent (ipratropium bromide) Nasal Spray is an anticholinergic agent indicated for the symptomatic relief of rhinorrhea ( runny nose ) associated with allergic and nonallergic perennial rhinitis in adults and children age 6 years and older. (rxlist.com)
  • VALLADOLID, SPAIN -- Methyl bromide, an odorless, colorless gas used as an agricultural pesticide, was introduced in the 1980s as an effective way to control weeds and increase fruit yields. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A 2002 study of prostate cancer among more than 55,000 agricultural workers and professional pesticide applicators singled out methyl bromide for its increased prostate cancer risk, particularly related to higher exposures. (panna.org)
  • Pesticide hazard evaluation experts at California's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment concluded that this study was highly flawed and recommended keeping the more protective 1 ppb sub-chronic exposure limit. (panna.org)
  • The adsorption of water on Br-doped NaCl crystals has been studied in situ using scanning polarization force microscopy, a noncontact electrostatic atomic force microscopy operation mode. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study describes that the bromide ions showvery good redox behavior with silver electrode. (mdpi.com)
  • Positive potential shift of the bromide ions was seen when different proteins wereadded to the solution using a silver electrode. (mdpi.com)
  • A linearlyincreasing cathodic peak current of bromide ions was seen when the concentration ofsuperoxide dismutase was increased in the test solution. (mdpi.com)
  • Mass Spectrometer Study of Equilibria Involving Ions. (nist.gov)
  • The properties of ions Cs2X+, Cs3X2+, CsX2−, and Cs2X3− (X = Br or I) have been studied using the density functional theory and Möller-Plesset perturbation theory of the 2nd and 4th order. (ac.tz)