Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Triploidy: Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Tetraploidy: The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Noscapine: A naturally occurring opium alkaloid that is a centrally acting antitussive agent.Achillea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE that has long been used in folk medicine for treating wounds.Thalictrum: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain isoquinoline alkaloids and triterpene glycosides.Cleome: A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.Endoreduplication: A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Genes, Duplicate: Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Genes, Chloroplast: Those nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity which are located within the CHLOROPLAST DNA.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Portulacaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. There are no true petals; each flower has two to six sepals. They produce betacyanin and betaxanthin pigments and lack anthocyanins.Tragopogon: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The root and shoots have been used for food.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Apomixis: Asexual reproduction resulting in the formation of viable seeds from FLOWERS without fertlization (i.e. use of POLLEN). Progeny plants produced from apomictic seeds are perfect clones of the parent.Onagraceae: The evening primrose plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Flower parts are mostly in fours and the ovary is inferior.Aneugens: Agents which affect CELL DIVISION and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS resulting in the loss or gain of whole CHROMOSOMES, thereby inducing an ANEUPLOIDY.Reproductive Isolation: Mechanisms that prevent different populations from exchanging genes (GENE FLOW), resulting in or maintaining GENETIC SPECIATION. It can either prevent mating to take place or ensure that any offspring produced is either inviable or sterile, thereby preventing further REPRODUCTION.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Dipsacaceae: A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Ecotype: Geographic variety, population, or race, within a species, that is genetically adapted to a particular habitat. An ecotype typically exhibits phenotypic differences but is capable of interbreeding with other ecotypes.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Cyclin D3: A broadly expressed type D cyclin. Experiments using KNOCKOUT MICE suggest a role for cyclin D3 in LYMPHOCYTE development.Organophosphates: Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Thysanoptera: An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Polyploidy in Solanum Melongena Linn. CYTOLOGIA. Vol. 5 (1933-1934) No. 4 P 453-459 Chromosome Studies in Nicandra Physaloïdes ... she did chromosome studies of a wide range of garden plants. Her studies on chromosome numbers and ploidy in many cases threw ... Her obituary states "She was devoted to her studies and research until the end of her life." Aptly chosen lines from the Rig ... In her family, girls were encouraged to engage in intellectual pursuits and in the fine arts, but Ammal chose to study botany. ...
A synoptical study of the Greenland flora. Meddelelser om Grønland 163, 1: 1-32. 1959. Experimental and cytological studies on ... Secondary polyploidy and ecotypical differentiation in Sarothamnus scoparius. New Phytologist 57: 311-317. 1958. [9] Keywords: ... Experimental and cytological studies on plant species. IV. Further studies in short-lived herbs. Biologiske Skrifter / ... A study on the flora and plant-geography of South Greenland and East Greenland between Cape Farewell and Scoresby Sound. ...
It has also been studied in alfalfa, shrews, Brazilian rodents, and an enormous variety of other animals and plants. In one ... Another process resulting in differing chromosomal counts is polyploidy. This results in cells which contain multiple copies of ...
Studies on the significance of polyploidy. III. Deschampsia and Aira. Hereditas 25: 185-192. Hagerup, O. (1940) Studies on the ... Hagerup, O. (1938) Studies on the significance of polyploidy. II. Orchis. Hereditas 24: 258-264. Hagerup, O. (1939) On the ... He studied botany at the University of Copenhagen from 1911 under the professors Eugenius Warming, Christen C. Raunkiær, L. ... Many of Hagerup's studies were concerned with plant species of the Ericaceae, Empetraceae and related families, or ''Bicornes ...
202-205) Ramsey, Justin; Ramsey, Tara S. (August 2014). "Ecological studies of polyploidy in the 100 years following its ... He had studied the coloration of butterflies, and believed he had discovered non-adaptive features which could not be explained ... He studied how environmental stress affected the development of plants, and he wrote that the variations induced by such ... Packard argued that the loss of vision in the blind cave insects he studied was best explained through a Lamarckian process of ...
ISBN 0-674-02713-2. Ramsey, Justin; Ramsey, Tara S. (August 2014). "Ecological studies of polyploidy in the 100 years following ... Mihulka, S.; Pyšek, P. (2001). "Invasion history of Oenothera congeners in Europe: a comparative study of spreading rates in ... The understanding that the observed changes in hybrids of the plant were caused by chromosome duplications (polyploidy) rather ...
Research focuses on the study of major crop species such as sorghum and cotton, as well as other species such as Bermuda Grass ... Research topics include whole genome genetic mapping and physical mapping; polyploidy; ancient whole genome duplications; ...
In his cytogenetic laboratory, he researched cell structure and experimented with artificial polyploidy. Michurin studied the ...
Like many of his other studies, Dobzhansky's work on reproductive isolation was aimed at studying the process of evolution in ... The effects of polyploidy between two different species causes hybridization and even greater evolution. Natural selection in ... and thought that he was studying nature." Meanwhile, naturalists were "like a man who undertakes to study the principles of the ... The study of evolution was present, but greatly neglected at the time. Dobzhansky illustrates that evolution regarding the ...
Genomic studies from the 1960s onwards showed that it does in fact belong in Elymus. Elymus hystrix is found along the East ... Elymus hystrix has four copies of its genome, exhibiting a type of polyploidy called tetraploidy. Elymus hystrix was first ...
While at the University of Alberta he developed his research program on evolutionary studies in Antennaria (Asteraceae). He has ... become a well-known authority on the genus Antennaria and its associated polyploidy and apomixis. He has contributed taxonomic ...
To rapidly study the molecular basis for physiological, biochemical, and reproductive mechanisms in plants, for example in ... For chromosome doubling and induction of polyploidy, for example doubled haploids, tetraploids, and other forms of polyploids. ... Nonetheless, tissue regeneration via organogenesis has also proved to be advantageous for studying regulatory mechanisms of ...
The extreme in polyploidy occurs in the fern genus Ophioglossum, the adder's-tongues, in which polyploidy results in chromosome ... Some studies suggest that selection is more likely to favor diploidy in host species and haploidy in parasite species. The ... Though polyploidy in humans is not viable, mixoploidy has been found in live adults and children. There are two types: diploid- ... A study comparing the karyotypes of endangered or invasive plants with those of their relatives found that being polyploid as ...
She was a gifted student, and studied science at University College, London from 1924, winning various awards and scholarships ... In 1944 Curtis published Variations in Pultenaea juniperina, the first record of polyploidy in an Australian native plant. This ... Her doctoral thesis was titled Studies in Experimental Taxonomy and Variation in Certain Tasmanian Plants which was a ... pioneering work in cytology and polyploidy. Following from her doctoral award in London she travelled to the United States ...
This work was extended by studies in 1965 and 1966. Lewis and Moore reported that Clarkia tenella was divided into four ... Lewis, Harlan (1946). "Polyploidy in the Californian Delphiniums". American Journal of Botany. 33 (10): 817-844. Lewis, Harlan ... His PhD work in Delphinium was reported in an abstract in 1946, titled "Polyploidy in the Californian Delphiniums"; here he ... Another paper was a taxonomic study that changed some of the nomenclature in Clarkia, combining species of Clarkia with Godetia ...
These reviews were highly influential and provided a basis for others to study the role of polyploidy in evolution. In 1939, ... Like the genera that Stebbins had previously studied, Crepis commonly hybridized, displayed polyploidy (chromosome doubling), ... By the third year of his undergraduate study, he had decided to major in botany. Stebbins started graduate studies at Harvard ... However, by looking at the history of polyploidy in plant families, he argued that polyploidy was only common in herbaceous ...
After multiple studies by independent agencies and scientists, no correlation between polyploidy and irradiation of food could ... A large number of studies have been performed; meta-studies have supported the safety of irradiated food. The below experiments ... Some studies by the irradiation industry show that for some properly treated fruits and vegetables irradiation is seen by ... However, multiple studies suggest that an increased rate of pathogen growth may occur when irradiated food is cross- ...
Bailey, J (2013). "Case studies of classic examples of hybridisation and polyploidy The Japanese knotweed invasion viewed as a ... She undertook doctoral studies on quaternary botany between 1940 and 1943, supported by a Rigby and a Francis Maitland Balfour ... New Phytologist 68 (1) 197- Conolly, A.P., Godwin, H. and Megaw, E.M. (1950) Studies in the Post-Glacial History of British ... She attended the University of Cambridge (Newnham College) from 1936 to 1940 and studied Natural Sciences. However, it was the ...
Gottlieb's further studies on polyploidy were concerned with the fates of those genes that were duplicated by an ... "Contemporary and future studies in plant speciation, morphological/floral evolution and polyploidy: honouring the scientific ... he also pioneered studying gene duplication in diploids. He conducted many studies on various genes in several species, ... In this same study with Layia he found that phosphoglucomutase (PGM) also had one gene controlling plastid PGM, and duplicated ...
In a vastly different study, Xenopus embryos was used to study the effects of tissue tension on morphogenesis, an issue that ... The genus is also known for its polyploidy, with some species having up to 12 sets of chromosomes. All species of Xenopus have ... While Xenopus laevis is the most commonly used species for developmental biology studies, genetic studies, especially forward ... are commonly used in direct studies of human disease genes and to study the basic science underlying initiation and progression ...
Polyploidy events will result in higher levels of heterozygosity, and, over time, can lead to an increase in the total number ... A recent study generated the sea lamprey genetic map, which yielded strong support for the hypothesis that a single whole- ... A polyploidy event 160 million years ago is theorized to have created the ancestral line that led to all modern flowering ... Studies suggest that the common ancestor of Poaceae, the grass family which includes important crop species such as maize, rice ...
The results of the study were published in 1926. L.F. Randolph and B. McClintock 1926, 'Polyploidy in Zea mays' L. in American ... Charles W. Fox and Jason B. Wolf (Editors) Evolutionary Genetics : Concepts and Case Studies: Concepts and Case Studies (2006 ... He then studied cytology with Lester in the Botany Department and minored in Plant Breeding with Emerson. In 1920, he attend ... Cytological studies of Hordeum sativum x Hordeum bulbosum' in J. Heredity Vol.42 (pages125-134). In 1954, he went to Europe and ...
1] Moore, R. J. (1949). Cytotaxonomic studies in the Loganiaceae. III Artificial hybrids in the genus Buddleia. L. Am. J. Bot. ... Moore, R. J. (1961). Polyploidy, phylogeny and photoperiodism in Old World Buddleja. Evolution. Vol. 15, No. 3, Sept. 1961. ...
These studies revealed that multiple hybridization and polyploidy events as well as chloroplast capture have occurred in the ... Tanaka (2010) Hybridization and polyploidy of an aquatic plant, Ruppia (Ruppiaceae), inferred from plastid and nuclear DNA ...
She was noted for study of ferns and algae. Irene Manton was the daughter of dental surgeon, George Manton and embroidress and ... The work with ferns, which addressed hybridisation, polyploidy, and apomixis, included her 1950 book, Problems of cytology and ... She had to apply for special permission to continue her PhD studies away from Cambridge when she obtained the position at ... "An electron microscopic study of the spermatozoid of Sphagnum." J Exp. Botany, Vol 3 (1952) pp 265- DOI: 10.1093/jxb/3.3.265 ...
Polyploidy occurs in cells and organisms when there are more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes. Most organisms are normally diploid, meaning they have two sets of chromosomes - one set inherited from each parent. Polyploidy may occur due to abnormal cell division. It is most commonly found in plants, but it does sometimes happen in animals.[1] Some estimates suggest that 30-80% of living plant species are polyploid, and many lineages show evidence of ancient polyploidy (paleopolyploidy) in their genomes.[2] Huge increases in angiosperm (flowering plants) diversity have coincided with the timing of ancient genome duplications shared by many species.[3] 15% of angiosperm and 31% of fern speciation events are accompanied by ploidy increase.[4][5]. Polyploid plants arise spontaneously in nature. Many polyploids are fitter than their parental species, and may display novel variation or morphologies that contribute to speciation and ...
As with many grasses, polyploidy is common in wheat.[9] There are two wild diploid (non-polyploid) wheats, T. boeoticum and T. urartu. T. boeoticum is the wild ancestor of domesticated einkorn, T. monococcum.[10] Cells of the diploid wheats each contain 2 complements of 7 chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father (2n=2x=14, where 2n is the number of chromosomes in each somatic cell, and x is the basic chromosome number). The polyploid wheats are tetraploid (4 sets of chromosomes, 2n=4x=28), or hexaploid (6 sets of chromosomes, 2n=6x=42). The tetraploid wild wheats are wild emmer, T. dicoccoides, and T. araraticum. Wild emmer is the ancestor of all the domesticated tetraploid wheats, with one exception: T. araraticum is the wild ancestor of T. timopheevi.[11] There are no wild hexaploid wheats, although feral forms of common wheat are sometimes found. Hexaploid wheats developed under domestication. Genetic analysis has shown that the original hexaploid wheats were the result of ...
Since chromosome segregation is driven by microtubules, colchicine is also used for inducing polyploidy in plant cells during cellular division by inhibiting chromosome segregation during meiosis; half the resulting gametes, therefore, contain no chromosomes, while the other half contains double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., diploid instead of haploid, as gametes usually are), and lead to embryos with double the usual number of chromosomes (i.e., tetraploid instead of diploid). While this would be fatal in most higher animal cells, in plant cells it is not only usually well tolerated, but also frequently results in larger, hardier, faster-growing, and in general more desirable plants than the normally diploid parents; for this reason, this type of genetic manipulation is frequently used in breeding plants commercially.. When such a tetraploid plant is crossed with a diploid plant, the triploid offspring are usually sterile (unable to produce fertile seeds or spores), although many ...
... (also referred to as endoreplication or endocycling) is replication of the nuclear genome in the absence of mitosis, which leads to elevated nuclear gene content and polyploidy. Endoreplication can be understood simply as a variant form of the mitotic cell cycle (G1-S-G2-M) in which mitosis is circumvented entirely, due to modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. Examples of endoreplication characterized in arthropod, mammalian, and plant species suggest that it is a universal developmental mechanism responsible for the differentiation and morphogenesis of cell types that fulfill an array of biological functions. While endoreplication is often limited to specific cell types in animals, it is considerably more widespread in plants, such that polyploidy can be detected in the majority of plant tissues. Endoreplicating cell types that have been studied extensively in model organisms Endoreplication, endomitosis and polytenization are three somewhat different ...
Wheats" in Daniel Zohary, Maria Hopf, Domestication of Plants in the Old World: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe and the Nile Valley. 3a ed. (Oxonii: Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 9780198503569) pp. 42- ...
... , commonly called Canadian hawkweed, Canada hawkweed, narrowleaf hawkweed, or northern hawkweed, is a plant in the genus Hieracium. Its pointed leaves have toothed margins, where the teeth can appear almost hooked. The flowers of the plant are yellow.. ...
... (sometimes spelled frikeh) or farik (Arabic: فريكة‎ / ALA-LC: farīkah) (pronounced free-kah[needs IPA]) is a cereal food made from green durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) that is roasted and rubbed to create its unique flavor. It is an ancient dish derived from Levantine and North African cuisines, remaining popular in many countries of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where durum wheat originated. The wheat is harvested while the grains are yellow and the seeds still are soft; it is then piled and sun-dried. The piles are carefully set on fire so only the straw and chaff burn. Under these conditions, the high moisture content of the seeds prevents them from burning. The roasted wheat is then threshed and sun-dried to make the flavor, texture, and color uniform. This threshing or rubbing process of the grains gives this food its name, farīk or "rubbed". Finally, the seeds are cracked into smaller pieces so they resemble a green bulgur. Freekeh is mentioned in an early ...
... (Nicotiana tabacum) as en plaantenslach an hiart tu det famile faan a naachtskaadplaanten (Solanaceae). Faan aal a tabakslacher woort fööraal Virginia-tabak uunbaud. Hi as ans ütj jo tau slacher Nicotiana sylvestris an Nicotiana tomentosiformis iinkrüsagt wurden[1].. ...
The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller Model, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller Model, is a model of the evolution of genetic incompatibility, important in understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation during speciation and the role of natural selection in bringing it about. The theory was first described by William Bateson in 1909, then independently described by Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1934, and later elaborated in different forms by Herman Muller, H. Allen Orr and Sergey Gavrilets. The model states that genetic incompatibility is most likely evolved by alternative fixation of two or more loci instead of just one, so that when hybridization occurs, it is the first time for some of the alleles to co-occur in the same individual. For example, imagine two populations that only recently separated geographically. Both sides are starting with the same genotype AABB. One population can then evolve to aaBB, through the transition state AaBB, while the other evolves to AAbb, through the transition state ...
Planhigyn blodeuol Monocotaidd a math o wair yw Byswellt y dŵr sy'n enw gwrywaidd. Mae'n perthyn i'r teulu Poaceae. Yr enw gwyddonol (Lladin) yw Paspalum distichum a'r enw Saesneg yw Water finger-grass.[1] Gall dyfu bron mewn unrhyw fan gan gynnwys gwlyptiroedd, coedwigoedd a thwndra. Dofwyd ac addaswyd y planhigyn gan ffermwyr dros y milenia; chwiorydd i'r planhigyn hwn yw: india corn, gwenith, barlys, reis ac ŷd. ...
ಆಹಾರ ಧಾನ್ಯೊಡ್ ಒ೦ಜಿ ಧಾನ್ಯ ಗೋಧಿ. ಕನ್ನಡೊಡ್ ಗೋಧಿ ಪನ್ಪೆರ್. ಇ೦ಗ್ಲಿ‍‍‍ಶುಡು Wheat ಪನ್ಪೆರ್. ಉ೦ದು ತೂವರೆಗ್ ಕೆಸರಿ ಕ೦ದು ಬಣ್ಣ ಇಪ್ಪು೦ಡು. ನೆತ್ತ ವೈಜ್ಞಾನಿಕ ಪುದರ್ Triticum spp. ಪ೦ಜಾಬುಡು ಗೋಧಿನು ಜಾಸ್ತಿ ಬುಳೆಪೆರ್. ಅತ್ತಾವ್೦ದೆ ಗೋಧಿನ್ ಬಿಸ್ಕಿೞ್ ತಯಾರ್ ಮಲ್ಪರೆ, ಬೊಕ್ಕ ಕೋರಿಗ್, ಪೆತ್ತಗು ಆಹಾರ ತಯಾರ್ ಮಲ್ಪೆರೆ ಉಪಯೋಗಿಸುವೆರು. ಗೋಧಿ ತಿನ್ನು೦ಡ ಶರೀರ ಗಟ್ಟಿ ಆಪು೦ಡ್. ...
Ostika (oštrica, lat. Aegilops), Rod korisnog jednogodišnjeg raslinja iz porodice travovki. Dvadesetak priznatih vrsta rasprostranjeno je od Makaronezije preko mediteranskih država do Himalaja i istoćne Kine. ...
... (also referred to as endoreplication or endocycling) is replication of the nuclear genome in the absence of mitosis, which leads to elevated nuclear gene content and polyploidy. Endoreplication can be understood simply as a variant form of the mitotic cell cycle (G1-S-G2-M) in which mitosis is circumvented entirely, due to modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) activity. Examples of endoreplication characterized in arthropod, mammalian, and plant species suggest that it is a universal developmental mechanism responsible for the differentiation and morphogenesis of cell types that fulfill an array of biological functions. While endoreplication is often limited to specific cell types in animals, it is considerably more widespread in plants, such that polyploidy can be detected in the majority of plant tissues. Endoreplicating cell types that have been studied extensively in model organisms Endoreplication, endomitosis and polytenization are three somewhat different ...
  • Although it is less common in mammals, some tissues - including heart muscle cells, platelet progenitor megakaryocytes, and liver parenchyma - develop a certain degree of polyploidy during their normal life cycle. (jci.org)
  • ABSTRACT During the past decade there has been a tremendous resurgence of interest in polyploidy that has in large part been stimulated by the development of increasingly powerful genetic and genomic tools. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Abstract Up until now, there have not been many studies of single Gyrodactylus manipulations on salmonids performed in order to study the establishment, development and reproduction of the parasites. (uio.no)
  • The emerging paradigm is that polyploidy - through alterations in genome structure and gene regulation - generates genetic and phenotypic novelty that manifests itself at the chromosomal, physiological, and organismal levels, with long-term ecological and evolutionary consequences. (springer.com)
  • Since evolutionists need an increase in information in the genome in order to go from molecules to man, polyploidy is postulated to be a mechanism to increase genetic information available to a population. (answersingenesis.org)
  • The result has been numerous new insights into the genomic and genetic consequences of polyploidy. (uncommondescent.com)
  • The aim of this study is to assess whether 3q26 gain as a single genetic marker can predict the natural prognosis of high-grade CIN, by performing a review of the literature and pilot study. (springer.com)
  • In studies of heredity, the portions of the genetic component that are passed and not passed to offspring, respectively. (tripod.com)
  • Over the three years since its inception, our research team has collected and analyzed skin swabs from over 2400 individual amphibians, and isolated over 120 Bd cultures for genetic and phenotypic studies. (umich.edu)
  • Studies carried out using these technologies in fish populations have revealed high levels of genetic variation distributed throughout the fish genome. (fao.org)
  • Molecular data and the dynamic nature of polyploidy. (ualberta.ca)
  • This is another phylogenetic study where relationships are being better resolved by the vastly greater number of character traits that can be tracked by using markers provided in some way by molecular genetics to resolve relationships where the limited number and traditional anatomical, biochemical, and physiological traits are uninformative (too few traits spread too far to sufficiently resolve differences). (physicsforums.com)
  • Soltis, D.E. Review of the Application of Modern Cytogenetic Methods (FISH/GISH) to the Study of Reticulation (Polyploidy/Hybridisation). (mdpi.com)
  • Dr. Duronio said the study demonstrated that genes being turned on and off in a cyclical manner was important for cells to continue endocycling and become polyploid. (bioquicknews.com)
  • In this regard, recent advances in adapting the transgenesis approach to Xenopus have allowed for in vivo studies of the impact of loss and gain of function of specific genes at the level of the whole organism, further enhancing the potential uses of Xenopus as an important biomedical model system. (mdpi.com)
  • We found polyploidy in liver cells did not strongly affect the activity of some oncogenes, but it did protect against the loss of tumor suppressor genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The duplication of all genes in a genome is the most obvious consequence of polyploidy. (plantcell.org)
  • Conventional genetically engineered mouse models enable the study of tumor growth in vivo, but they are neither readily scalable nor sufficiently quantitative to unravel the magnitude and mode of action of many tumor-suppressor genes. (stanford.edu)
  • I have studied the role of the gene APC (adenomatous polyposis Coli) in various mice model of cancer (mammary, liver and colorectal). (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • Epigenetic can be defined as a change of the study in the regulation of gene activity and expression that are not driven by gene sequence information. (academicjournals.org)
  • And that might be important for, say, liver regeneration or liver diseases, where it's thought that polyploidy in liver cells may be important for liver function, either for liver detoxification or other aspects of liver biology. (bioquicknews.com)
  • While an understanding ofbeegeneticswouldrequirethedevelopmentofartificialinsemination, which did not occur until almost a century after the work of Dzierzon, the genetics of wasps could be studied much earlier because wasp matings can be arranged without difficulty. (jhu.edu)
  • 1935. Keywords: methodology, vegetation cytological studies on Campanula rotundifolia. (wikipedia.org)
  • officinarum recombinants Arabidopsis 300 Mbp sugarcane sorghum maize rice Wheat cultivar 1600 Mbp 5500 Mbp 800 Mbp 34000 Mbp 10000 Mbp Where is polyploidy going? (slideshare.net)
  • officinarum recombinants sugarcane Human Wheat cultivar 6000 Mbp 34000 Mbp 10000 Mbp Where is polyploidy going? (slideshare.net)
  • n = 10, 8, and 9, respectively) and their allopolyploid hybrids (AB, AC, and BC) as demonstrated in a classical cytogenetic study by U, N agahara (1935) . (genetics.org)
  • 3. Basic BreedingGISH on cultivars 80% S. officinarum S. spontaneum S. officinarum S. spontaneumspontaneum 15% S. S. officinarum recombinants 2n = 80 5% recombinants2n = 40 - 128 modern cultivars Sugarcane cultivarsWhere is polyploidy going? (slideshare.net)
  • 8. A whole lot of copies… S. spontaneum S. officinarum recombinants sugarcane cultivar 10000 MbpWhere is polyploidy going? (slideshare.net)
  • Study co-author Dr. Robert J. Duronio, professor of biology and genetics at UNC and a member of the UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center said, "Many organisms achieve growth by increasing cell size rather than cell number. (bioquicknews.com)
  • The apple, one of the most ubiquitous and culturally important temperate fruit crops, provides us with a unique opportunity to study the process of domestication in trees. (plos.org)
  • In the present study we investigated the pharmacodynamic effects and in vivo activity of SNS-314 in human tumor xenograft models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In addition to the suppression of histone H3 phosphorylation, determination of tumor cell polyploidy and apoptosis may be useful biomarkers for this class of therapeutic agent. (aacrjournals.org)
  • More recently, PHA-680632, a more potent inhibitor of Aurora A (IC 50 , 27 nmol/L) than Aurora B or Aurora C (IC 50 , 135 and 120 nmol/L, respectively), has been described, although the phenotypic effects induced in tumor cells by this compound (i.e., decreased phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser 10 and polyploidy) are consistent with inhibition of Aurora B ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 28565236 Some studies have found intermediate heritabilities for fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in traits, but almost all of these are flawed and/or based on laboratory experiments. (jove.com)