Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Phenytoin: An anticonvulsant that is used to treat a wide variety of seizures. It is also an anti-arrhythmic and a muscle relaxant. The mechanism of therapeutic action is not clear, although several cellular actions have been described including effects on ion channels, active transport, and general membrane stabilization. The mechanism of its muscle relaxant effect appears to involve a reduction in the sensitivity of muscle spindles to stretch. Phenytoin has been proposed for several other therapeutic uses, but its use has been limited by its many adverse effects and interactions with other drugs.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Basal Bodies: Structures which form the base of FLAGELLA and CILIA. They contain nine triplets of MICROTUBULES that are arranged around the periphery and that serve as the nucleation center for AXONEME assembly.Schools: Educational institutions.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Tooth DiseasesProgram Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Students, Premedical: Individuals enrolled in a preparatory course for medical school.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Competency-Based Education: Educational programs designed to ensure that students attain prespecified levels of competence in a given field or training activity. Emphasis is on achievement or specified objectives.Patient Simulation: The use of persons coached to feign symptoms or conditions of real diseases in a life-like manner in order to teach or evaluate medical personnel.Education, Distance: Education via communication media (correspondence, radio, television, computer networks) with little or no in-person face-to-face contact between students and teachers. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1997)Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Aphakia, Postcataract: Absence of the crystalline lens resulting from cataract extraction.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.United StatesAmerican Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.Dental Porcelain: A type of porcelain used in dental restorations, either jacket crowns or inlays, artificial teeth, or metal-ceramic crowns. It is essentially a mixture of particles of feldspar and quartz, the feldspar melting first and providing a glass matrix for the quartz. Dental porcelain is produced by mixing ceramic powder (a mixture of quartz, kaolin, pigments, opacifiers, a suitable flux, and other substances) with distilled water. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Legislation, Dental: Laws and regulations pertaining to the field of dentistry, proposed for enactment or recently enacted by a legislative body.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Dental Implantation, Endosseous: Insertion of an implant into the bone of the mandible or maxilla. The implant has an exposed head which protrudes through the mucosa and is a prosthodontic abutment.Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Periodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the histology, physiology, and pathology of the tissues that support, attach, and surround the teeth, and of the treatment and prevention of disease affecting these tissues.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.International Educational Exchange: The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Libraries, DentalFaculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate: A four-year program in nursing education in a college or university leading to a B.S.N. (Bachelor of Science in Nursing). Graduates are eligible for state examination for licensure as RN (Registered Nurse).Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Education, Predental: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to dental school.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Orthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention and correction of dental and oral anomalies (malocclusion).Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Dental Impression Technique: Procedure of producing an imprint or negative likeness of the teeth and/or edentulous areas. Impressions are made in plastic material which becomes hardened or set while in contact with the tissue. They are later filled with plaster of Paris or artificial stone to produce a facsimile of the oral structures present. Impressions may be made of a full complement of teeth, of areas where some teeth have been removed, or in a mouth from which all teeth have been extracted. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Geriatric Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of older people.Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Dental Pulp CalcificationProfessional Role: The expected function of a member of a particular profession.Mouth DiseasesRole Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Dental Abutments: Natural teeth or teeth roots used as anchorage for a fixed or removable denture or other prosthesis (such as an implant) serving the same purpose.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Forensic Dentistry: The application of dental knowledge to questions of law.

Classification of occlusion reconsidered. (1/671)

Katz's quantitative modification of Angle's occlusion classification has been found to have a high intra- and inter-examiner agreement among orthodontists. In the present study an attempt was made to introduce a 'combined' system comprising Katz's modification and overjet/overbite millimetric measurements in order to attain a more meaningful and complete classification of malocclusion than is presently available. A group of 32 raters (16 orthodontists and 16 senior-year students) examined 14 study models twice, with an interval of at least 1 month between examinations. In total, 448 x 2 determinations were performed. The percentage agreement of the Angle, the modified and the 'combined' systems, as well as the performance of the orthodontists versus the students were compared using the paired t-test. The percentage agreement obtained by both orthodontists and students was highest for Katz's modification and lowest for Angle's method. The overjet/overbite measurements affected the agreement in Katz's modified technique. The orthodontists surpassed the students with respect to Angle's method (P = 0.025), whereas no statistically significant difference existed between orthodontists and students regarding Katz's modification or the 'combined' system. It is concluded that in view of the relatively low agreement in the 'combined' method, it cannot be recommended for clinical application. The Katz's modified method, on the other hand, may be a helpful supplement to Angle's classification.  (+info)

The changing face of dental education: the impact of PBL. (2/671)

The past decade has seen increasing demands for reform of dental education that would produce a graduate better equipped to work in the rapidly changing world of the twenty-first century. Among the most notable curriculum changes implemented in dental schools is a move toward Problem-Based Learning (PBL). PBL, in some form, has been a feature of medical education for several decades, but has only recently been introduced into dental schools. This paper discusses the rationale for the introduction of a PBL pedagogy into dental education, the modalities of PBL being introduced, and the implications of the introduction of PBL into dental schools. Matters related to implementation, faculty development, admissions, and assessment are addressed. Observations derived from a parallel-track dental PBL curriculum at the University of Southern California (USC) are presented and discussed. This program conforms to the Barrows (1998) concept of "authentic PBL" in that the program has no scheduled lectures and maintains a PBL pedagogy for all four years of the curriculum. The USC dental students working in the PBL curriculum have attained a high level of achievement on U.S. National Dental Boards (Part I) examinations, significantly superior to their peers working in a traditional lecture-based curriculum.  (+info)

The EXCEL Program: strengthening diversity. (3/671)

The Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (BUSDM) initiated a program in the summer of 1993 to strengthen diversity in the entering class of first-year students. The Experiential Center for Excellence in Learning (EXCEL) Program is a voluntary, one-month-long prematriculation experience that combines didactic, laboratory, study skills, and social activities to prepare participants to transition into the rigorous first-year curriculum. From 1996 to 2000, ninety students participated in EXCEL. The two primary reasons cited for participating were to become familiar with the school, faculty, and classmates and to strengthen basic science background. Participants' ages ranged from twenty to over forty. Fifty-nine percent of participants had been out of college for more than one year; 10 percent had been out of school for three years or more. Thirty percent listed nontraditional predental school majors. Fifty-six percent listed a country other than the United States as country of birth. Of those completing an exit survey, 96 percent reported that EXCEL strengthened their decision to study dentistry, and 97 percent would recommend that future entering BUSDM students participate in EXCEL. The EXCEL Program may serve as a model for increasing diversity in U.S. dental school enrollment.  (+info)

Occupational exposures to blood in a dental teaching environment: results of a ten-year surveillance study. (4/671)

Evaluation of occupational exposures can assist with practice modifications, redesign of equipment, and targeted educational efforts. The data presented in this report has been collected as part of a ten-year surveillance program of occupational exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials in a large dental teaching institution. From 1987 to 1997, a total of 504 percutaneous/non-intact skin and mucous membrane exposures were documented. Of these, 494 (98 percent) were percutaneous, and 10 (2 percent) were mucosal, each involving a splash to the eye of the dental care worker (DCW). Among the 504 exposures, 414 (82.1 percent) occurred among dental students, 60 (11.9 percent) among staff, and 30 (6 percent) among faculty. One hundred ninety-one (37.9 percent) exposures were superficial (no bleeding), 260 (51.6 percent) were moderate (some bleeding), and 53 (10.5 percent) were deep (heavy bleeding). Regarding the circumstances of exposure, 279 (54.5 percent) of the injuries occurred post-operatively (after the use of the device), and most were related to instrument clean-up; 210 (41.0 percent) occurred intra-operatively (during the use of the device); and 23 (4.5 percent) occurred when a DCW collided with a sharp object in the dental operatory (eight cases involved more than one circumstance). The overall exposure rate for the college was 2.46+/-0.11 SD per 10,000 patient visits. The average rate for the student population was 4.02+/-0.20 SD per 100 person-years, with the highest rates being observed among junior year students. The observed rates of occupational exposures to blood and body fluids in this report are consistent with published reports from several other educational settings. Dental teaching institutions are faced with the unique challenge of protecting the student and patient populations against bloodborne infections. Educational efforts must go beyond mere teaching of universal precautions and should include the introduction of safer products and clinical procedures that can minimize the risks associated with the hands-on aspects of the students' learning process.  (+info)

Student operator-assistant pairs: an update. (5/671)

OBJECTIVE: To seek the opinions of undergraduates using the operator-assistant pairs system. DESIGN: A five-year evaluation of third-, fourth- and fifth-year students using a short, anonymous questionnaire OUTCOME MEASURES: This study set out to evaluate, but does not attempt to formally assess, the system. RESULT: Most students enjoyed working in pairs, citing mutual support and collaborative learning as being the main advantages. However, 67% of responding third- year students, 79% of fourth-year students and 54% of fifth-year students indicated that they did not know why paired working had been introduced. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of students found the pairs system advantageous over teacher-led situations. It encouraged greater efficiency, mutual support and help and collaborative learning.  (+info)

Teaching ethics in dental schools: trends, techniques, and targets. (6/671)

The importance of promoting ethical behavior in dental students is reflected in the emphasis on formal ethics teaching within the curricula of most dental schools. Over the last three decades, dental educators have addressed the need for ethics training and examined varied teaching approaches. Today, state-of-the-art ethics education has moved from purely didactic instruction to more interactional teaching methods that promote student introspection and group problem-solving. This paper provides an overview of trends in ethics teaching in dental schools and the current teaching approaches advocated in health science schools. In addition, future needs in dental ethics education are explored including the importance of addressing the unique aspects of the dental education environment.  (+info)

Perceptions of the importance and control of professional problems in the clinical setting. (7/671)

The objective of this study was to identify the relative importance of culturally relevant professional problems and the degree of control over them, as perceived by dentists and dental students in Mexico City, Mexico. The dentists and students ranked 13 problems according to importance and then according to the perceived degree of control over each one. Novice clinicians were less secure about their ability to cope with the legal, financial, and clinical performance problems, whereas experienced clinicians were more concerned about occupational hazards and the dental market and culture. Both reported similar perceptions of their control of the problems. This preliminary information should support introducing into dental schools relevant practice-management courses, targeting continuing education efforts, and instituting professional counseling measures to meet the challenges posed by these problems.  (+info)

Validation of an instrument to measure dental students' use of, knowledge about, and attitudes towards computers. (8/671)

Currently, no validated survey instrument exists to measure dental students' use of, knowledge about, and attitudes towards computers. Several studies have surveyed students about their knowledge and opinions regarding computers, but none of them has established the reliability and validity of the instrument(s) used. A measurement study to validate a preliminary survey for dental students was conducted. The preliminary instrument contained five scales: computer use, information resource use, computer knowledge, capabilities of computer systems, and effects of computers on dental practice. Selected variables were summarized descriptively, and a factor analysis for each scale was performed. In addition, construct validity was assessed through correlational analyses among several variables. Three hundred seventy surveys distributed to students at nine dental schools generated 156 responses (42 percent response rate). Sixty-four percent of respondents were male, 36 percent female. Respondents used computers an average approximately four hours per week, and most had begun using computers in 1991. All survey scales except computer use were unidimensional. Computer use required a two-factor solution that distinguished between clinical and nonclinical uses of computers. The instrument can be used for a demonstration study, but should be continuously refined and validated.  (+info)

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  • The aim of this two-part study was to assess third- and fourth-year dental students' perceptions, self-reported behaviors, and actual charting practices regarding medication documentation in axiUm, the electronic health record (EHR) system. (elsevier.com)
  • Nasal swabs from one in five University of Washington (UAW) Dental School students tested showed evidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , and four of seven dental clinics at the school also tested positive for the bacteria in samples taken from dental chairs and floors. (webmd.com)
  • In their latest investigation conducted at the UAW dental school, the researchers took nasal swabs from 61 dental students and swabbed 95 surfaces considered potential reservoirs for MRSA. (webmd.com)
  • An unrelated study of dental school students and instructors in Buffalo, N.Y., showed an even higher rate of colonization, with 31% of the 84 people showing evidence of MRSA. (webmd.com)
  • In part one of the study, in fall 2015, all 125 third- and 85 fourth-year dental students at one U.S. dental school were invited to complete a ten-item anonymous survey on medication history-taking. (elsevier.com)
  • We see that throughout the years students in dental school don't always take care of their posture while they perform procedures," he said. (inletdental.net)
  • Demand for preventative dental services are on the rise with an increasing number of career opportunities becoming available in the area of Registered Dental Assistants. (ccisd.net)
  • Sept. 29, 2011 -- Dental students in a Seattle study had very high rates of colonization with MRSA , the drug-resistant strain of staph , raising new questions about the prevalence of the bacteria outside of hospitals in community health care settings. (webmd.com)
  • Depression affects a significant proportion of the health profession's students. (jglobaloralhealth.org)
  • Many academic factors such as a high workload, the long duration of academic days, and a high number of examinations, and future study concerns have been reported to be behind medical and dental students' poor psychological health. (jglobaloralhealth.org)
  • LAS CRUCES - The Doña Ana Community College Dental Program will launch a new event aimed at improving oral hygiene for children in the community who have limited resources and no dental insurance. (lcsun-news.com)
  • We have sponsored 'Give Kids a Smile Day' for several years, however, we will host our own stand-alone event for children in the community," said Elmer Gonzalez, Director of the Dental Hygiene Program. (lcsun-news.com)
  • We don't believe this study necessarily represents a systematic problem in dental clinics across the country. (webmd.com)
  • Thirteen (21%) of the students and eight (8.4%) surfaces from four of the seven clinics harbored MRSA. (webmd.com)
  • We know a great deal about the infection control challenges related to MRSA in acute care hospital settings, but we know a lot less about this issue in non-acute care settings such as dental and dialysis centers and ambulatory surgical centers," Srinivasan says. (webmd.com)
  • College Recruiter is the leading job board for college students searching for internships and recent graduates hunting for entry-level jobs and other career opportunities. (collegerecruiter.com)
  • Six of the students chosen are from the DDS Class of 2020: Amber Arshad, Brittany Daniel, Yasmin Hussein, Safa Nawazish, Christian Vargas and Stephanie Zarrasola. (umkc.edu)
  • We're proud to recognize these outstanding dental school students by awarding them for their wonderful achievements," said Karen Robinson, vice president of Corporate Affairs for Delta Dental. (businesswire.com)
  • In addition, Smart Smiles receives financial support from United Way of Greater Milwaukee , Wisconsin Seal-A-Smile , Delta Dental and the Columbia St. Mary's Foundation . (fluoridealert.org)
  • Also, as the authors themselves point out, the student recipients of the injections might possibly have known who had practiced on the model by talking among themselves outside of the classroom. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Each week, four third-year dental hygiene students use the mobile equipment to treat a child in the school nurse's office and provide a 30-minute classroom educational session, including a hands-on "dental plaque" experiment. (adea.org)
  • Please select only one classroom winner and submit the winning entry to: Pennsylvania Dental Association, Attn: NCDHM Poster Contest, 3501 N. Front Street, Harrisburg, PA 17110. (medindia.net)
  • Also, everyone in the class receives a special toothbrush, and teachers receive dental information packets containing suggestions for further classroom activities. (aledotimesrecord.com)
  • Students rotate to the hospital during this required rotation that is conducted by the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Whether your goal is to create a foundation for lifelong learning, make professional connections or learn more about managing student debt, AGD has the resources you need to be successful in dental school and beyond. (agd.org)
  • It is this sensation of resistance that helps students learn how much pressure to use when drilling. (leeds.ac.uk)
  • With these valuable resources, you'll learn to perform all dental office functions! (elsevier.com)
  • In December, a Mock Congress debate demonstrated how bills can be passed into law, and a student-run "Teach Me How to Lobby" lunch-and-learn event is in the works for late January. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Students learn through a variety of approaches, according to their learning styles. (scielo.br)
  • This study was undertaken to find out the students' perception of the impact of various lecture delivery methods used in our college. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • It also includes student loan forgiveness programs for those who have graduated from college and need alternatives for repayment. (edfed.com)
  • The method is an "advocacy academy," a yearlong push consisting of educational events geared toward helping fellow dental students understand the legislative process. (fluoridealert.org)
  • There would appear to be an urgent need for enhancing awareness and knowledge about DE within the Yemeni dental community. (uib.no)

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