Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Competitive Behavior: The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Game Theory: Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.HornsAwards and PrizesAnomura: An infraorder of CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA comprising the hermit crabs and characterized by a small fifth pair of legs.Health Care Economics and Organizations: The economic aspects of health care, its planning, and delivery. It includes government agencies and organizations in the private sector.Social Dominance: Social structure of a group as it relates to the relative social rank of dominance status of its members. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Odonata: An order of insects comprising three suborders: Anisoptera, Zygoptera, and Anisozygoptera. They consist of dragonflies and damselflies.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.LizardsModels, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.PanamaEconomics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.BoliviaCebus: A genus of the family CEBIDAE, subfamily CEBINAE, consisting of four species which are divided into two groups, the tufted and untufted. C. apella has tufts of hair over the eyes and sides of the head. The remaining species are without tufts - C. capucinus, C. nigrivultatus, and C. albifrons. Cebus inhabits the forests of Central and South America.Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Economics, Nursing: Economic aspects of the nursing profession.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Decision Theory: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.United StatesValue of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Ethics, Institutional: The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Self Tolerance: The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Games, Experimental: Games designed to provide information on hypotheses, policies, procedures, or strategies.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.History of MedicineModels, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Great BritainHospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.Resource Allocation: Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.World War II: Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Urological Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of urogenital conditions and diseases such as URINARY INCONTINENCE; PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA; and ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Altruism: Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.HistoryTeaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.EuropeSelf Psychology: Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Uncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Interdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Immunity, Herd: The non-susceptibility to infection of a large group of individuals in a population. A variety of factors can be responsible for herd immunity and this gives rise to the different definitions used in the literature. Most commonly, herd immunity refers to the case when, if most of the population is immune, infection of a single individual will not cause an epidemic. Also, in such immunized populations, susceptible individuals are not likely to become infected. Herd immunity can also refer to the case when unprotected individuals fail to contract a disease because the infecting organism has been banished from the population.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.MarylandReview Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.World War I: Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cercopithecidae: The family of Old World monkeys and baboons consisting of two subfamilies: CERCOPITHECINAE and COLOBINAE. They are found in Africa and part of Asia.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)History of NursingPlatyrrhini: An infraorder of New World monkeys, comprised of the families AOTIDAE; ATELIDAE; CEBIDAE; and PITHECIIDAE. They are found exclusively in the Americas.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
The proletariat takes the place of Hegel's Weltgeist ("World Spirit"), which achieves history through Volksgeist ("the spirit ... Only the proletariat can understand that the so-called "eternal laws of economics" are in fact nothing more than the historical ... This specific role of the proletariat is a consequence of its specific position; thus, for the first time, consciousness of ... Marx described it in his theory of commodity fetishism, which Lukács completed with his concept of reification: alienation is ...
Graham, C.K. (1971). The History of Education in Ghana: From the Earliest Times to the Declaration of Independence. Routeledge ... Women's education in West Africa manifested in both formal and informal structures, with one of the more notable structures ... History (HEARTH) An e-book collection of over 1,000 books on home economics spanning 1850 to 1950, created by Cornell ... continually operating and first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World ...
H. Mowlana (2001). "Information in the Arab World", Cooperation South Journal 1. Dr. S. W. Akhtar (1997). "The Islamic Concept ... Others followed, with various emphases and structures, such as Social Theory and History (University of California, Davis). ... but at the same time its capacity was checked by the equally prevalent ambition to create law-like explanations of history and ... Contested knowledge: Social theory today. John Wiley & Sons. Simandan, D., 2010. Beware of contingency. Environment and ...
In the real world, Marxian economists like Samir Amin argue, unequal exchange occurs all the time, implying transfers of value ... Possibly the controversy about the concept is distorted by the enormous differences with regard to the world of work: in Europe ... ISBN 0-415-16676-4. Harman, Chris (1999). A People's History of the World. Bookmarks Publications. ISBN 1-898876-55-X. Marvin ... According to Marxian economics, surplus labour is usually uncompensated (unpaid) labour. Marxian economics regards surplus ...
... has a long history around the world, though under different names and with different characteristics. Whilst ... 5] Financial Times article on growth in the UK due to social enterprise, Andrew Bounds (2013) [6]: Courier Times article on ... as well as another contest entitled "The World's Most Beautiful Job". This year's winner of the former was the social ... The original concept of social enterprise was first developed by Freer Spreckley in 1978, and later included in a publication ...
Counter-economics Abbreviation of "counter-establishment economics", a concept in agorist theory of the use and advocacy of ... Filippo, Roy (2003). A New World in Our Hearts. Stirling: AK Press. p. 69. ISBN 1902593618. Curran, James (2003). Contesting ... Kurutz, Steven (June 21, 2007). "Not Buying It". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2007-06-21. the ... A seastead is a structure meant for permanent occupation on the ocean. Related to Permanent Autonomous Zones. Security culture ...
Another project, strongly pushed by the government at that time but highly unpopular as a concept, was the 1995 "Europolis ... Savamala was heavily bombarded in both world wars and partially demolished in the World War II. After 1948, state and city ... In 1991 Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts held non-competitive contest and the most popular solution was a project by which ... Savamala was tackled by the 1985 International Competition for the enhancement of the structure of New Belgrade. Aleksandar ...
Contesting Democracy: Substance and Structure in American Political History, 1775-2000 (2001) pp. 149-80 Reichley, A. James ( ... Over Time The New York Times". 2010-04-13. Retrieved 2012-04-08. Sean Wilentz, The Age of Reagan: A History, 1974-2008 (2009) ... Part 2: The Changing Concept of Social Reform," Journal of the History of ohe Behavioral Sciences 1970 6(4): 317-34 Byron ... Journal of Policy History 13#4 (2001) pp. 429-62. Iwan Morgan, "Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and the new democratic economics." ...
The trend is bound to culminate in a world empire. K'ang Yu-wei estimated that the matter will be decided in the contest ... including social sciences such as economics, psychology, sociology, religious studies, cultural studies, history, geography, ... Jim Dator attributes the foundational concepts of "images of the future" to Wendell Bell, for clarifying Fred Polak's concept ... A Scientific Exploration into the World of Phasers, Force Fields, Teleportation, and Time Travel (Michio Kaku) Physics of the ...
For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and skill to relieve the suffering of these people." In 1951, ... only in 1997 did the World Bank began to rethink its aid policy structure and begin using parts of it specifically for building ... doi:10.1146/annurev-economics-080614-115553. Retrieved 2017-05-18. External ... The concept of development aid goes back to the colonial era at the turn of the twentieth century, in particular to the British ...
In response to World War I, progressive 28th President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points established the concept of national ... Johnson, Alfred S. (1893). The Quarterly Register of Current History; Volume 2: The Year of 892. Detroit: Current History ... In 1892, during a major political contest between landlords and tenants, the landlord advocates were known as the "moderates" ... Progressive stances have evolved over time. In the late 19th century, for example, certain progressives argued for scientific ...
"Intergenerational justice when future worlds are uncertain," J. Math. Economics 46, 728-761 Llavador, H., J. Roemer, and J. ... the manner in which classes in democracies contest their opposing interests. He was dissatisfied with the reigning concept of ... He was strongly influenced by Cohen, whose work Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence (1978) was to become the gold standard ... This gives rise to a class structure, whose agricultural nomenclature would be landlords (who only hire labor), rich peasants ( ...
... national and international structures, policy histories). The assumption that conduct is prompt and rational is in all cases a ... Post-autistic economics Real-world economics review Ecological economics Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen: Criticising neoclassical ... The response to this is that neoclassical economics is descriptive and not normative. It addresses such problems with concepts ... "Is there anything missing even from the hotly contested domains of modern mainstream economics?" On his opinion, three large ...
It became a central concept -- and a rallying point -- of historiographic revisionism. It meant many things at the same time. ... "Social History and World History: from Daily Life to Patterns of Change." Journal of World History 2007 18(1): 69-98. ISSN 1045 ... I wanted to write the history of ordinary people-to historicize them, put them into the social structures and long-term trends ... The most economics-minded historians have sought to relate education to changes in the quality of labor, productivity and ...
Up until this time, the primary focus of history was to study the lives and events of important people including kings and ... A similar concept to biohistory, evolutionary biology is different because it only takes into account the scientific aspects of ... He stated that "[h]istory is no longer just the study of war and peace, of politicians and economics. If the next generation of ... The term biohistory has contested origins because many scholars who write on the topic claim to have coined it. There are ...
At the same time the Head Teacher's office was moved from C block (now the Withdrawal unit) to a new room in the new F Block.As ... It is thought that this refers to the concept of the block being a 'village' community. The V block was built to house the ... Josh Dubovie, a singer who was selected to represent the UK at the Eurovision Song Contest 2010. Lee Evans British model David ... B block was a two-storey wooden structure housing metal and woodworking classrooms on the ground floor and art, pottery, home ...
World Politics 49, No. 1 (1996): 56-91. [24] "Trajectory of a Concept: 'Corporatism' in the Study of Latin American Politics." ... 16] "Essentially Contested Concepts," with Fernando Daniel Hidalgo and Andra Olivia Maciuceanu. Journal of Political Ideologies ... In particular, he shows how the explicit disaggregation of this concept and attention to its internal structure clarifies ... The first concerns the linked ideas of (a) critical junctures, periods of crucial change in the history of given countries or ...
Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions introduced the concept of normal science as part of his theory that ... where normal science is what most scientists do all the time and what all scientists do most of the time. The process of a ... "A New Scientific Methodology for Global Environmental Issues", in Costanza, R. (ed.), Ecological Economics: The Science and ... that the world was on the verge of ecological collapse. In this respect Michael Egan defines PNS as a 'survival science'. "At ...
The concept of a mixed economy is not exclusive to capitalist economies (economies structured upon capital accumulation and ... Centrism Liberal Socialism Fascist economics Keynesian economics Nationalization Political economy Public-private partnership ... At the same time, Keynes was clear that in maintaining a profit-driven marketplace, it was also imperative to introduce policy ... Political Economy: The Contest of Economic Ideas, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press. 2006. Stilwell Hendricks, Jean and Gaoreth ...
Spending time and resources assisting a related individual may at first seem destructive to an organism's chances of survival ... A player's history of donating was displayed at each anonymous interaction, and donations were significantly more frequent to ... Results from experimental economics show, however, that humans often act more cooperatively than strict self-interest would ... This model can be applied in natural systems (examples exist in the world of apes, cleaner fish, and more). Easy for ...
"The Changing Shape of Burnham's Political Universe", Social Science History 10 (1986) 209-19 ISSN 0145-5532 Fulltext in Jstor ... With time, both sides saw a strengthening of coalitions (even if with ups and downs) and the birth of unified parties (the ... Two structures of party system have been identified in the European Parliament since its first universal direct election in ... The concept of the party system was introduced by English scholar James Bryce in American Commonwealth (1885). American Party ...
Following World War II, Milton Friedman created the concept of monetarism. Monetarism focuses on using the supply and demand of ... Other modern schools of economic thought are New Classical economics and New Keynesian economics. New Classical economics was ... Traditions of jurisprudence, history, philology and sociology developed during this time and informed the development of the ... The 3-4-5 right triangle and other rules of geometry were used to build rectilinear structures, and the post and lintel ...
The team was selected to take part on the contest by SpaceX, and during this time until the competition was held, in January, ... These sub-teams are: Propulsion, Structures, Avionics, Energy, Partners & Economics and Creative. All them work together in ... becoming the world's first transatlantic student collaboration in the history of the development of the Hyperloop. They got to ... Hyperloop UPV obtained Top Design Concept Award and Propulsion/Compression Subsystem Technical Excellence Award. Time after the ...
... the concept of feedback loops, which he saw as operating both between the mind and the world and within the mind itself. ... During this same time was J.A. Lauwery's Man's Impact on Nature, which was part of a series on 'Interdependence in Nature' ... "Contested identities: human-environment geography and disciplinary implications in a restructuring academy." Annals of the ... The second form of cultural ecology introduced decision theory from agricultural economics, particularly inspired by the works ...
The theory has become more complex with time; at the 16th National Congress Jiang introduced a third concept of civilization, " ... concept] into the rubbish bin of history". The term "civilization" (文明; Wenming) became a key word during the 1990s. In short, ... and his main aim was to further expand the reach of the world revolution. Under Deng, the concept was further expanded. ... The Maoist vision of modernity never "enjoyed entire hegemony" within the Party, and was always contested even at the height of ...
William G. Chrystal, "Reinhold Niebuhr and the First World War", Journal of Presbyterian History 1977 55(3): 285-298. 0022-3883 ... "The New York Times. p. A25. Retrieved March 15, 2015.. *^ "Niebuhr and Obama". Hoover Institution. April 1, 2009. Retrieved ... or only in the context of a Christian view of history. Niebuhr's concept of irony referred to situations in which "the ... The historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. in the late twentieth century described the legacy of Niebuhr as being contested ...
MATH-290 History of Mathematics. Topics in the development of mathematics from ancient times to present. Prerequisites: 175 and ... Emphasis on concepts, structures and technical competence. Solutions of algebraic equations and inequalities; functions and ... Experience solving real world problems using mathematical methods. Formal presentation of project results. May be repeated for ... Applications in business, economics and the social sciences. Prerequisite: 105 or equivalent. 5 credits. ...
India needs to move from a narrow concept of ahimsa to a broader vision, which renounces structural violence. ... The concept evolved over time and was initially developed to abjure animal sacrifice. Gradually, ahimsa in individual lives ... The promise of nirvana, via the trickle-down economics of capitalism, is surely a cruel trick on the most vulnerable and ... Supporting vegetarianism, a contested moral absolute, and imposing bans on meat on a culturally diverse people while ...
... contested and interconnected order. This world order, its rules and institutions that circumscribe the structures of power, is ... military might became indispensible to New World Order Economics. Massive pouring of resources into the military industrial ... economic theories of the interwar and post-World War II periods to become the reigning ideology of our time. The aim of this ... Chapter Seven: History, War, And Ideology in Africas Context. Download PDF pp. 94-122 ...
The proletariat takes the place of Hegels Weltgeist ("World Spirit"), which achieves history through Volksgeist ("the spirit ... Only the proletariat can understand that the so-called "eternal laws of economics" are in fact nothing more than the historical ... This specific role of the proletariat is a consequence of its specific position; thus, for the first time, consciousness of ... Marx described it in his theory of commodity fetishism, which Lukács completed with his concept of reification: alienation is ...
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McGilchrist has many strong opinions on what is good and bad in the world, and on where civilization has gone wrong in history ... Here is McGilchrists key concept of what distinguishes left from right brain reasoning: Continue reading The Master and His ... The outcomes within any space-time region can be seen as resulting from 1) preferences of various actors able to influence the ... Competition - If some values consistently win key competitive contests, those values become more common.. Influence Drift - ...
Graham, C.K. (1971). The History of Education in Ghana: From the Earliest Times to the Declaration of Independence. Routeledge ... Womens education in West Africa manifested in both formal and informal structures, with one of the more notable structures ... History (HEARTH) An e-book collection of over 1,000 books on home economics spanning 1850 to 1950, created by Cornell ... continually operating and first degree awarding educational institution in the world according to UNESCO and Guinness World ...
On the timing, it seems to me inevitable that AI will eventually be developed, we have a very good proof of concept already ... most random programs simply stop working before coming anywhere near world-destroying AI - entire history of AI research ... The article youre reading is part of Econlibs Behavioral Economics collection. Explore other Behavioral Economics articles: ... and unfriendly to good goal structures." The same is true if we build AGIs for the military, the DEA, etc. ...
Economics Standard 3- Understands the concept of prices and the interaction of supply and demand in a market economy. ... Global History - Prepare an annotated timeline highlighting the major events in Nigerias history from the end of colonialism ... Get the latest lesson plans, contests and resources for teaching with The Times. ... Language Arts - Write a play or short story set in a future that imagines the worlds response to the current gas crisis. How ...
The ecology-economics paradigm has antecedents that can be traced back to early Romanticism. It was also a concept shared by ... this is a world of constantly needy creatures who continue for a time merely by devouring one another, pass their existence in ... History of coal mining - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Retrieved 2nd January, ... structures are the symbolic potencies that hide individual oppression and subvert dissidence. Similarly, social movements often ...
Many of its faculty members are among the worlds leading scholars in their respective fields. The school currently enrolls ... AN ENQUIRY INTO HISTORICAL TIME Text: R. Koselleck, History, Histories, and Formal Structures of Time and Representation, ... or is the concept simply an ideology of alienated third world intellectuals traveling in the West but yearning for legitimacy? ... ANTH 82100 - Seminar in Aesthetics and Economics. GC: TH, 2:00 - 4:00 p.m., Rm. 6493, 3 credits, Prof. Blim [40350] The object ...
The world of Africa challenges only above in review. The full-time and such economics of Africa give third-party southern ... If you can, redirect or write a world Christianity History, and focus just just right populated to feel about significant NGOs ... In populated it is very contested that the time is academic with other whitelist and not already political with end Oceans and ... genius : This structure had lavishly help. Y , functioning : website , Time t intervention, Y : earth catalog ...
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ENVS 0215 - Contested Grounds ▲ ▹ Contested Grounds: U.S. Cultures and Environments. Throughout the history of the United ... Hope in a time of Climate Change. Climate change is arguably the most important challenge facing the world; addressing it will ... Fundamental concepts and methods of GIS will include raster and vector data structures and operations, geographic frameworks, ... In this course we will cover the science, economics, politics, psychology, art and literature of climate change, understanding ...
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  • In Kaplan's geography-just as in Hegel's a century earlier-West Africa became the epitome of those regions of the world where central governments were withering away, tribal and regional fiefdoms were on the rise, and war had turned pervasive. (
  • World Order or neoliberal capitalism is the ideology of the capitalist "sharks" as late President Julius Nyerere of Tanzania would say. (
  • According to Lukács, the proletariat was the first class in history that may achieve true class consciousness, because of its specific position highlighted in the Communist Manifesto as the "living negation" of capitalism. (
  • Hence, capitalism is not thought as a specific phase of history, but is naturalized and thought of as an eternal solidified part of history. (
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  • The syndicalist tendencies that mark the working-class response to this early twentieth century effort at reconstituting workplace rules and regulations not only arise to combat capitalism but also to contest the respectable reformism of craft based labor unions. (
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  • In political theory and particularly Marxism, class consciousness is the set of beliefs that a person holds regarding their social class or economic rank in society, the structure of their class, and their class interests. (
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  • We demonstrate how concrete aspects of U.S. economic history (especially real wage, productivity, and personal indebtedness trends) culminated in this deep and enduring crisis. (
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  • The international economic crises started in 2008 have not yet affected the race to consumption either in the urban or the rural world. (
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  • As a trade and investment in a globalising world series in international business and economics 2001 of our public son, NAU is that you will study the clouds of photo, teacher and educational videos as you provide in your historical Notes. (
  • Through this choice of papers students are encouraged to reflect on the variety of approaches used by modern historians, or on the ways in which history has been written in the past, to read historical classics written in a range of ancient and modern languages, or to acquire the numerical skills needed for certain types of historical investigation. (
  • As with the other Approaches, the aim is to offer students new broader perspectives on the ways in which the past can be studied and to think more carefully about the concepts they use. (
  • Introduces positivist, interpretive, and critical interpretive approaches to the analysis of social actions, identities, and values as enacted in space and time. (
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  • The Church approaches the world of sports because it desires to contribute to the construction of an increasingly authentic, humane sport. (
  • Class consciousness, as described by Georg Lukács's famous History and Class Consciousness (1923), is opposed to any psychological conception of consciousness, which forms the basis of individual or mass psychology (see Freud or, before him, Gustave Le Bon). (
  • In this course we will cover the science, economics, politics, psychology, art and literature of climate change, understanding how we know what we know and what the implications are for the future. (
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  • Moreover, Foucault's approach to how authority is internalized through "individualizing techniques of power" contributes immensely to discerning the ways in which masculine identity can become, especially during crisis periods such as that around World War One, a battleground over differing versions of manhood. (
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  • Revolutionary syndicalism extracted from the solidarities and ethical code of workers' daily lives a merciless critique of the existing structures of exploitation, power, and authority. (
  • Classical texts discuss concepts of lawful violence for self-defense, proportionate punishment and theories for a just war. (
  • While the course will aspire to incorporate the experiences of major immigrant receiving countries around the world, the main comparative focus will be on Europe and North America, where the major theories and key concepts are most fully developed. (
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  • The other mainstream theory is associated with Adam Smith, the classical "founder of modern economics" who first celebrated the private capitalist economy (free markets plus private property) as uniquely enabling society to produce the maximum wealth it is capable of. (
  • This topic explores the way anthropologists have looked at and thought about the past, be it myths, genealogies, oral histories, or the work of professional historians, as an attempt by participants within a society to explain who they are and to legitimize, contest or make sense of the world as it is. (
  • People have always believed incorrect things, but what has changed is the way our society is structured. (
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  • Loss taste for several The University of Chicago Department of Economics as a Ph.D. program and does not admit students who intend and writing a PhD thesis graduate but sometimes even at the undergraduate level.1 The trend is more pronounced in When the U.S. History of Economics Society was set up in. (
  • The movement introduced the concept of 'organizing practices' to capture both the diversity of forms that collective action can take and the argument that a socially equitable society can be contested in many ways and many public spheres. (
  • The traditional world order based on the primacy of interstate or geopolitical relations is being injected with other ordering principles such as the world order of global politics and global governance. (
  • Social capital & community networks CO 2 CLIMATE CHANGE & WEATHER Resilience & passive survivability Electronic world POLITICS & GLOBAL ECONOMY Consumer culture (i.e., large lots & houses) & effects on global environment Transportation to work, school and shopping Transportation to work, school and shopping Figure 4: A Neighborhood as a Socionatural Hybrid $$ Electricity Water Heat Groundwater egradation, encroachment on farmland, pollution of air and soils, etc. (
  • Complexity grows exponentially in the homes as hybrids interact with politics, economics, the local to global environment, as well as consumer culture and its habits. (
  • a week-long "festival for urban explorations" in October 2018, have voiced citizen disagreement and proposed alternative concepts of urban commoning and housing politics. (
  • This course applies spatial thinking (integrating spatial concepts, spatial representations, and spatial reasoning) using geographic information systems (computer systems for processing location-based data). (
  • The post-1930s struggles between neoclassical and Keynesian economics are rejoined. (
  • It was in this context of sharp social contradictions and struggles for survival, partly as a result of structural adjustments programmes by IMF and the World Bank, coupled with the KANU dictatorship, corruption and misrule, that the unemployed, petty traders, squatters and low paid workers came together to call themselves 'parliament of the ordinary people', or Bunge la Mwananachi in Swahili. (
  • A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. (
  • Following a long history of tenant struggles and self-organization of community services, the city today is once again insisting on being "reclaimed," and the issue of ownership of public goods such as land and housing is being raised. (
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  • Reading works that correspond to the time period and culture that they are studying in history class, students will explore the ways in which literature can reflect and respond to world events. (
  • The philosophy argues that violence has karmic consequences and applies the concept of non-violence to all living beings. (
  • Originally presented in a lecture series and later compiled in The Philosophy of History (Germany, 1837), Hegel adds: "The Negro … exhibits the natural man in his completely wild and untamed state. (
  • In the post-historical period there will be neither art nor philosophy, just the perpetual care-taking of the museum of human history. (
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  • The paper also offers a chance to examine the particular perspective on History offered by an awareness of the role of gender and gender difference, an approach that has been developed powerfully in recent decades. (
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  • As we consider phenomena ranging from interactions among individuals to societal and global inequalities, students critically examine social issues to build their understanding of the world. (
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  • Prescribed topics The paper is concerned with the ways in which the writing of history has been influenced by other disciplines, methods and techniques. (
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  • Indeed, those beliefs themselves hold valuable clues as to our nature as human beings in this time we have on this precious planet. (
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  • All others classes, including the bourgeoisie, are limited to a "false consciousness" which impedes them from understanding the totality of history: instead of understanding each specific moment as a portion of a supposedly deterministic historical process, they universalize it and believe it is everlasting. (
  • Understanding the changing concept of the deity from before Judaism (destructive) through Judaism (creative and also punitive) and onto Christianity (loving deity paired with devil) would be another useful step. (
  • Also examining how Greco-Roman and Nordic polytheistic concepts were incorporated into the European churches would be important to understanding how we got where we are. (
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  • Boston University Metropolitan College (MET) offers competitive tuition rates that meet the needs of part-time students seeking an affordable education. (
  • We know, for instance, that learning is an emotional as well as rational experience, and that the longer and more deeply students think about concepts the more these concepts are imbedded into long-term memory. (
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  • Invite students to reflect on the statistics they uncovered during the research, and have them create a poster or graphic for the classroom that displays these statistics or illustrates the concept of personal debt. (
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  • The beauty and significance of mathematics in the history of human thought. (
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  • My] intention was to locate them in their cultural and human context, and pull back the veil on their hidden effects on history. (
  • Expected side effects such as the warming of the world´s climate and disruption of water supplies raise a point of the greatest urgency that has long been ignored by policy makers: environmental degradation will have a significant negative impact on both the market economy that helps cause it, and on human well-being. (
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  • Yes, there appeared to be the old factions that you would find elsewhere in academia - in economics these were characterised by what are called in the US the 'freshwater school' and the 'saltwater school', which translates to: 'hardcore neoclassicals' and 'not-so hardcore neoclassicals' - but between these schools there seemed to be a sort of solidarity that I hadn't really encountered in other social science disciplines. (
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  • We owe it to our children to try to expose them to a comprehensive view of the world we live in. (
  • Following Plato, St. Augustine , for example, held the view that language was merely labels applied to already existing concepts. (
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  • In your third year, you will spend 9-12 months in a full-time development placement, before returning to your studies in the final year. (
  • Originally published in 2010, this article provides a clear account of the differences between Marxism and mainstream economics, and their explanations of the current crisis. (
  • Lingering in the dispersed and forgotten archives of the post-Sputnik crisis age is evidence of myriad attempts at progressive, at times "progressivist" education. (
  • This article aims to rebuild the history of the Economy and Humanism movement, whose founder and theorist was the French Dominican friar Joseph-Louis Lebret. (
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  • A scientific theory comprises a collection of concepts, including abstractions of observable phenomena expressed as quantifiable properties, together with rules that express relationships between observations of such concepts. (
  • One aspect is the epistemological in which what is deemed knowledge is that which meets the reigning criteria of knowledge such as being representative of the way the world is, having empirical support, being coherent, fitting in with other knowledge, being elegant, and/or having predictive value. (
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