A condition that is characterized by inflammation, ulceration, and perforation of the nose and the PALATE with progressive destruction of midline facial structures. This syndrome can be manifested in several diseases including the nasal type of EXTRANODAL NK-T-CELL LYMPHOMA and GRANULOMATOSIS WITH POLYANGIITIS.
Small, nonspecific nerve cells scattered in the periventricular GRAY MATTER, separating the medial part of the thalamus from the EPENDYMA of the THIRD VENTRICLE. The group includes the paraventricular nucleus, paratenial nucleus, reuniens nucleus, rhomboidal nucleus, and subfascular nucleus.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The X-shaped structure formed by the meeting of the two optic nerves. At the optic chiasm the fibers from the medial part of each retina cross to project to the other side of the brain while the lateral retinal fibers continue on the same side. As a result each half of the brain receives information about the contralateral visual field from both eyes.
Anterior midline brain, cranial, and facial malformations resulting from the failure of the embryonic prosencephalon to undergo segmentation and cleavage. Alobar prosencephaly is the most severe form and features anophthalmia; cyclopia; severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY; CLEFT LIP; CLEFT PALATE; SEIZURES; and microcephaly. Semilobar holoprosencepaly is characterized by hypotelorism, microphthalmia, coloboma, nasal malformations, and variable degrees of INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Lobar holoprosencephaly is associated with mild (or absent) facial malformations and intellectual abilities that range from mild INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY to normal. Holoprosencephaly is associated with CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES.
A cartilaginous rod of mesodermal cells at the dorsal midline of all CHORDATE embryos. In lower vertebrates, notochord is the backbone of support. In the higher vertebrates, notochord is a transient structure, and segments of the vertebral column will develop around it. Notochord is also a source of midline signals that pattern surrounding tissues including the NEURAL TUBE development.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
An abnormal opening or fissure between two adjacent teeth.
Birth defect that results in a partial or complete absence of the CORPUS CALLOSUM. It may be isolated or a part of a syndrome (e.g., AICARDI'S SYNDROME; ACROCALLOSAL SYNDROME; ANDERMANN SYNDROME; and HOLOPROSENCEPHALY). Clinical manifestations include neuromotor skill impairment and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY of variable severity.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.
Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate (PALATE, HARD) and the posterior soft palate (PALATE, SOFT).
A transmembrane domain containing ephrin. Although originally found to be specific for the EPHB3 RECEPTOR it has since been shown to bind a variety of EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. During embryogenesis ephrin-B3 is expressed at high levels in the ventral neural tube. In adult tissues, it is found primarily in the BRAIN and HEART.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The outer margins of the ABDOMEN, extending from the osteocartilaginous thoracic cage to the PELVIS. Though its major part is muscular, the abdominal wall consists of at least seven layers: the SKIN, subcutaneous fat, deep FASCIA; ABDOMINAL MUSCLES, transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat, and the parietal PERITONEUM.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Abnormal increase in the interorbital distance due to overdevelopment of the lesser wings of the sphenoid.
Signaling proteins that are ligands for the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. They are membrane-bound proteins that are attached to the CELL MEMBRANE either through a GLYCOINOSITOL PHOSPHOLIPID MEMBRANE ANCHOR or through a transmembrane domain. Many of the ephrins are considered important intercellular signaling molecules that control morphogenic changes during embryogenesis.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A large family of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases that are structurally-related. The name of this family of proteins derives from original protein Eph (now called the EPHA1 RECEPTOR), which was named after the cell line it was first discovered in: Erythropoietin-Producing human Hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Members of this family have been implicated in regulation of cell-cell interactions involved in nervous system patterning and development.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.
Methods to repair breaks in abdominal tissues caused by trauma or to close surgical incisions during abdominal surgery.
A contactin subtype that plays a role in axon outgrowth, axon fasciculation, and neuronal migration.
Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.
Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Signaling ligands that act in opposition to NODAL PROTEIN. During vertebrate development they regulate the degree of left-right asymmetry by controlling the spatiotemporal influence of NODAL PROTEIN.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An eph family receptor found at high levels in adult THYMUS and RETINA. In embryonic tissues it is found in many developing organs.
A hernia caused by weakness of the anterior ABDOMINAL WALL due to midline defects, previous incisions, or increased intra-abdominal pressure. Ventral hernias include UMBILICAL HERNIA, incisional, epigastric, and spigelian hernias.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A large family of structurally-related transcription factors that were originally discovered based upon their close sequence homology to an HMG-box domain found in SEX-DETERMINING REGION Y PROTEIN. Many SOX transcription factors play important roles in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION. The numerous members of this family are organized in several subgroups according to structural identities found within the proteins.
The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Pathologic process consisting of a partial or complete disruption of the layers of a surgical wound.
The infratentorial compartment that contains the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM. It is formed by the posterior third of the superior surface of the body of the sphenoid (SPHENOID BONE), by the occipital, the petrous, and mastoid portions of the TEMPORAL BONE, and the posterior inferior angle of the PARIETAL BONE.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A protrusion of abdominal structures through the retaining ABDOMINAL WALL. It involves two parts: an opening in the abdominal wall, and a hernia sac consisting of PERITONEUM and abdominal contents. Abdominal hernias include groin hernia (HERNIA, FEMORAL; HERNIA, INGUINAL) and VENTRAL HERNIA.
A cyst in the neck caused by persistence of portions of, or by lack of closure of, the primitive thyroglossal duct. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
An eph family receptor found widely expressed in embryonic and adult tissues. High levels of EphB2 receptor are observed in growing AXONS and NERVE FIBERS. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
A facial expression which may denote feelings of pleasure, affection, amusement, etc.
An early embryonic developmental process of CHORDATES that is characterized by morphogenic movements of ECTODERM resulting in the formation of the NEURAL PLATE; the NEURAL CREST; and the NEURAL TUBE. Improper closure of the NEURAL GROOVE results in congenital NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
A condition resulting from congenital malformations involving the brain. The syndrome of septo-optic dysplasia combines hypoplasia or agenesis of the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM and the OPTIC NERVE. The extent of the abnormalities can vary. Septo-optic dysplasia is often associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic and other diencephalic structures, and HYPOPITUITARISM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.
The inferior region of the skull consisting of an internal (cerebral), and an external (basilar) surface.
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
A family of proteins that mediate axonal guidance. Semaphorins act as repulsive cues for neuronal GROWTH CONES and bind to receptors on their filopodia. At least 20 different molecules have been described and divided into eight classes based on domain organization and species of origin. Classes 1 and 2 are invertebrate, classes 3-7 are vertebrate, and class V are viral. Semaphorins may be secreted (classes 2, 3, and V), transmembrane (classes 1, 4, 5, and 6), or membrane-anchored (class 7). All semaphorins possess a common 500-amino acid extracellular domain which is critical for receptor binding and specificity, and is also found in plexins and scatter factor receptors. Their C termini are class-specific and may contain additional sequence motifs.
The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Paired, segmented masses of MESENCHYME located on either side of the developing spinal cord (neural tube). Somites derive from PARAXIAL MESODERM and continue to increase in number during ORGANOGENESIS. Somites give rise to SKELETON (sclerotome); MUSCLES (myotome); and DERMIS (dermatome).
Protrusion of tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the bone, muscular tissue, or the membrane by which it is normally contained. Hernia may involve tissues such as the ABDOMINAL WALL or the respiratory DIAPHRAGM. Hernias may be internal, external, congenital, or acquired.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
An eph family receptor found primarily in the nervous system. In the embryonic BRAIN EphB1 receptor expression occurs in the mantle layer and increases with the progression of embryogenesis. In adult brain it is found in the several regions including the CEREBELLUM; CEREBRAL CORTEX; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS; and PUTAMEN.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Ependymal derivative located at the junction of the THIRD VENTRICLE and the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT; and the SOMATOSTATIN SECRETING CELLS.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A tube of ectodermal tissue in an embryo that will give rise to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, including the SPINAL CORD and the BRAIN. Lumen within the neural tube is called neural canal which gives rise to the central canal of the spinal cord and the ventricles of the brain. For malformation of the neural tube, see NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS.
Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A guanine nucleotide exchange factor from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
Cell surface receptors for invertebrate peptide hormones or neuropeptides.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion.
Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.
The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.
Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Congenital or acquired asymmetry of the face.
The bone that forms the frontal aspect of the skull. Its flat part forms the forehead, articulating inferiorly with the NASAL BONE and the CHEEK BONE on each side of the face.
The founding member of the EPH FAMILY RECEPTORS. It was first cloned from an erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and is highly conserved among many mammalian species. Overproduction of the EphA1 receptor is associated with tumors and tumor cells of epithelial origin. It is also expressed at high levels in LIVER; LUNG; and KIDNEY; which is in contrast to many other members of the Eph receptor that are found primarily in tissues of the nervous system.
The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.
A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The large hole at the base of the skull through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
A forkhead transcription factor that regulates expression of metabolic GENES and is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. Mutations in HNF-3beta have been associated with CONGENITAL HYPERINSULINISM.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
A congenital or acquired condition of underdeveloped or degeneration of CARTILAGE in the LARYNX. This results in a floppy laryngeal wall making patency difficult to maintain.
Neoplasms located in the brain ventricles, including the two lateral, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Ventricular tumors may be primary (e.g., CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS and GLIOMA, SUBEPENDYMAL), metastasize from distant organs, or occur as extensions of locally invasive tumors from adjacent brain structures.
General term for a number of inherited defects of amino acid metabolism in which there is a deficiency or absence of pigment in the eyes, skin, or hair.
The facial skeleton, consisting of bones situated between the cranial base and the mandibular region. While some consider the facial bones to comprise the hyoid (HYOID BONE), palatine (HARD PALATE), and zygomatic (ZYGOMA) bones, MANDIBLE, and MAXILLA, others include also the lacrimal and nasal bones, inferior nasal concha, and vomer but exclude the hyoid bone. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p113)
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
Cells of epithelial origin possessing specialized sensory functions. They include cells that are found in the TASTE BUDS; OLFACTORY MUCOSA; COCHLEA; and NEUROEPITHELIAL BODIES.
Procedures for the improvement or enhancement of the appearance of the visible parts of the body.
A layer of cells lining the fluid-filled cavity (blastocele) of a BLASTULA, usually developed from a fertilized insect, reptilian, or avian egg.
A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Collections of small neurons centrally scattered among many fibers from the level of the TROCHLEAR NUCLEUS in the midbrain to the hypoglossal area in the MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A dead body, usually a human body.
An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.
Layers of connective tissue of variable thickness. The superficial fascia is found immediately below the skin; the deep fascia invests MUSCLES, nerves, and other organs.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A long, narrow, and flat bone commonly known as BREASTBONE occurring in the midsection of the anterior thoracic segment or chest region, which stabilizes the rib cage and serves as the point of origin for several muscles that move the arms, head, and neck.
A congenital abnormality of the central nervous system marked by failure of the midline structures of the cerebellum to develop, dilation of the fourth ventricle, and upward displacement of the transverse sinuses, tentorium, and torcula. Clinical features include occipital bossing, progressive head enlargement, bulging of anterior fontanelle, papilledema, ataxia, gait disturbances, nystagmus, and intellectual compromise. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp294-5)
One critical system implicated in this line of research involves the cortical midline structures (CMS), which include the ... Northoff, G., Bermpohl, F. (2004). "Cortical midline structures and the self". Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(3), 102-107. ... "Personality Functioning and the Cortical Midline Structures - An Exploratory fMRI Study". PLOS One, 7(11), 1-8. McAdams, C. J ... Greater activation in these structures has been found when people made trait judgements about themselves as opposed to others, ...
Urine leakage may indicate stress incontinence and the weakening of pelvic structures. The opening should be midline, pink, and ... Prolapsed structures can appear when abdominal pressure increases or they can protrude without bearing down. The perineum, the ... At this point of the pelvic exam, the examiner will insert the speculum to visualize other internal structures: the cervix, ... When the woman is requested to 'bear down', the presence of prolapsed structures such as the bladder (cystocele), rectum ( ...
An abductor moves a bone away from the midline; an adductor moves a bone closer to the midline. A levator raises a structure; a ... "Structure of Skeletal Muscle , SEER Training". training.seer.cancer.gov. Zammit, PS; Partridge, TA; Yablonka-Reuveni, Z ( ... ISBN 978-0-321-50042-7. Lieber, Richard L. (2002) Skeletal muscle structure, function, and plasticity. Wolters Kluwer Health. ... depressor moves a structure down. A supinator turns the palm of the hand up; a pronator turns the palm down. A sphincter ...
The absence of testosterone results in the diminution of the Wolffian structures. The Müllerian structures remain and develop ... Portions of the pituitary tissue may remain in the nasopharyngeal midline. In rare cases this results in functioning ectopic ... These two structures are apparent by 16 to 17 days of gestation. Around the 24th day of gestation, the foramen cecum, a thin, ... At approximately 24 to 32 days of gestation the median anlage develops into a bilobed structure. By 50 days of gestation, the ...
The pineal gland is a midline brain structure that is unpaired. It takes its name from its pine-cone shape. The gland is ... The structure of the pineal eye in modern lizards and tuatara is analogous to the cornea, lens, and retina of the lateral eyes ... In the zebrafish the pineal gland does not straddle the midline, but shows a left-sided bias. In humans, functional cerebral ... The loss of parietal eyes in many living tetrapods is supported by developmental formation of a paired structure that ...
To increase the chance of a damaging plastic deformation on impact of the knob, the handle is a stiff structure, the lack of ... The side osteoderms almost touch each other at the top surface; at the underside a midline hiatus is present. At the rear of ... They form a V-like structure, the branches angled at about 20°. Their joint facets are rotated to above and embrace the neural ... At the left osteoderm of the third pair, a layered structure is visible at its base, resembling the construction of horn bases ...
Humans have two substantiae nigrae, one on each side of the midline. The SN is divided into two parts: the pars reticulata ( ... The substantia nigra (SN) is a basal ganglia structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward and ... The two are sometimes considered parts of the same structure, separated by the white matter of the internal capsule. Like those ... Amphetamine is similar in structure to dopamine and trace amines; as a consequence, it can enter the presynaptic neuron via DAT ...
... no midline pauses, multiple midline pauses; waning, growth, beauty, harshness, life and death, beginning and end." This sonnet ... Sonnet 11 exhibits this structure. The sonnet has four feminine endings (accepting the Quarto's contraction of "grow'st" and " ... The midline reversal and feminine ending together impart an abrupt falling rhythm on the end of the line, as though the phrase ... a midline reversal, and a final extrametrical syllable (or feminine ending). However, their coincidence, together with their ...
"Multimodal MRI suggests that male homosexuality may be linked to cerebral midline structures". PLOS ONE. 13 (10): e0203189. ... "Gay brains structured like those of the opposite sex". New Scientist. Retrieved 2020-07-18. Savic, Ivanka; Berglund, Hans; ... research Savic carried out in 2018 and 2019 suggests that male homosexuality may be related to cerebral midline structures of ... Savic has carried out neuroimaging research to compare the brain structure of homosexual and heterosexual men and women. In ...
... the role of cortical midline structures and mirror neurons". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 11 (4): 153-157. doi:10.1016/j.tics. ... This process depends on the observer's ability to code or structure the information in an easily remembered form or to mentally ... Discreet trial training (DTT) is a structured and systematic approach utilized in helping individuals with autism spectrum ... Sigafoos, Jeff; Carnett, Amarie; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E. (2019), "Discrete trial training: A structured learning ...
"Cortical midline structures and autobiographical-self processes: an activation-likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis". ... suggesting that brain stem structures play a basic role in the feeling process. He has continued to investigate the neural ...
It results in delayed ossification of midline structures of the body, particularly membranous bone.[citation needed] A new ... abnormal ear structures with hearing loss, supernumerary ribs, hemivertebrae with spondylosis, small and high scapulae, ...
There are several areas within the cortical midline structure that are believed to be associated with the self-reference effect ... Also, in addition to their perceived role in several forms of self-representation, cortical midline structures are also ... The analysis uncovered activity within several cortical midline structures in activities in which participants performed tasks ... The role of cortical midline structures and mirror neurons". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 11 (4): 153-157. doi:10.1016/j.tics. ...
Udin, LQ; Iacoboni M Lange C Keenan JP (April 2007). "The self and social cognition: the role of cortical midline structures ... Experimental progress is the difference between the hypothetical structure of the research and the structure of its conclusions ... and cortical midline structures that engage in processing information about the self and others in cognitive and evaluative ... Intervention efficacy is the ratio of goal structure to outcome structure of the intervention; Interventional effect ( ...
... the role of cortical midline structures and mirror neurons". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 11 (4): 153-157. doi:10.1016/j.tics. ... Marslen-Wilson, W. (Aug 1973). "Linguistic structure and speech shadowing at very short latencies". Nature. 244 (5417): 522-3. ...
Midline-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MID2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the ... The protein localizes to microtubular structures in the cytoplasm. Its function has not been identified. Alternate splicing of ... "Entrez Gene: MID2 midline 2". Reymond A, Meroni G, Fantozzi A, Merla G, Cairo S, Luzi L, Riganelli D, Zanaria E, Messali S, ...
... describes structures close to the midline, or closer to the midline than another structure. For example, in a human, the arms ... Structures closer to the radius are radial, structures closer to the ulna are ulnar, and structures relating to both bones are ... Similarly, in the lower leg, structures near the tibia (shinbone) are tibial and structures near the fibula are fibular (or ... are used to refer to the closeness to the midline of the dental arch. Terms used to describe structures include "buccal" (from ...
At the outer margin, the galea is a cupped or scoop-like structure, which sits over the outer edge of the labium. They also ... The forcipules arise from the first body segment, curving forward and to the midline. The tip is a pointed fang, which has an ... The labium is a single structure, although it is formed from two fused secondary maxillae. It can be described as the floor of ... The hypopharynx is a somewhat globular structure, arising from the base of the labium. It assists swallowing. It performs the ...
The nucleus reuniens is a component of the thalamic midline nuclear group. In the human brain, it is located in the ... mainly from limbic and limbic-associated structures. It sends projections to the medial prefrontal cortex, the hippocampus, and ... Vertes, R. P.; Hoover, W. B.; Szigeti-Buck, K.; Leranth, C. (2007). "Nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus: Link between the ... Vertes, R. P. (2006). "Interactions among the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and midline thalamus in emotional and ...
The nasal cavity is separated into two halves along the midline by a bone wall. This septum is continued to below by the vomers ... such structures had already been well established in ankylosaurids. The air tracts are however, much simpler than in the ...
The two flocculi are connected to the midline structure called the nodulus by thin pedicles. It is placed on the anteroinferior ...
... the role of cortical mid line structures and mirror neurons". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 11 (4): 153-157. doi:10.1016/j.tics ...
The skin impressions show many folds and a structure of small polygonal scales. On the back a midline frill formed by ... The crest has a low longitudinal ridge on the midline. The maxilla, the tooth-bearing upper jaw bone, is rather elongated in ... ISBN 0-7853-0443-6. Hopson, James A. (1975). "The evolution of cranial display structures in hadrosaurian dinosaurs". ...
P elements are further divided into 2 subtypes: Pa element- blade-like structure Pb element- arched structure Because they are ... An individual element has a single row of many cusps running down the midline along its top side. Approximately 10 of these ... paired asymmetrical structures Sc element- highly asymmetrical, bipennate structures In P elements a pectiniform row of cusps ... Secondly, these structures are present before the rise of the jawed vertebrates. This fact has caused some researchers to ...
... is a surgical manoeuvre to expose structures in the retroperitoneum behind the duodenum and pancreas. In ... It usually has been in contrast with MLRRD (midline Laparotomy and right retroperitoneal space dissection). The Kocher ...
... stiff integumentary structures found on a specimen of Beipiaosaurus were strikingly similar to the integumentary structures of ... The barb ridges on the anterior midline of the follicle fuse together, forming the rachis. The creation of a posterior barb ... Filamentous structures are clearly present in pterosaurs, and long, hollow quills have been reported in specimens of the ... Feather structures are thought to have proceeded from simple hollow filaments through several stages of increasing complexity, ...
The unusual surface appearance of the cerebellum conceals the fact that the bulk of the structure is made up of a very tightly ... it also contains a narrow midline zone called the vermis. A set of large folds are conventionally used to divide the overall ... Thus the most logical way to describe the cellular structure is to begin with the inputs and follow the sequence of connections ... The cerebellum arises from two rhombomeres located in the alar plate of the neural tube, a structure that eventually forms the ...
In its midline, it has a central groove (sulcus), that extends up between the bulbs. It is dark gray-blackish in color and of a ... The strong structure built up by the extremity of the heel and of the bar is named the 'heel buttress'. The sole between the ... It is softer and fibrous in structure and light in color; white in a freshly trimmed hoof, yellowish or gray after exposure to ... The frog is a V shaped structure that extends forwards across about two-thirds of the sole. Its thickness grows from the front ...
The mouse homolog of this gene was localized to specific sites in the midline structures of the forebrain, the midbrain- ... "Temporal and spatial gradients of Fgf8 and Fgf17 regulate proliferation and differentiation of midline cerebellar structures". ... Hoshikawa M, Ohbayashi N, Yonamine A, Konishi M, Ozaki K, Fukui S, Itoh N (Apr 1998). "Structure and expression of a novel ... Xu J, Lawshe A, MacArthur CA, Ornitz DM (1999). "Genomic structure, mapping, activity and expression of fibroblast growth ...
"Temporal and spatial gradients of Fgf8 and Fgf17 regulate proliferation and differentiation of midline cerebellar structures". ... Ohbayashi N, Hoshikawa M, Kimura S, Yamasaki M, Fukui S, Itoh N (Aug 1998). "Structure and expression of the mRNA encoding a ... gene in mice implied the role of this protein in regulating proliferation and differentiation of midline cerebellar structures ...
The skull bone structure can also be subject to a neoplasm that by its very nature reduces the volume of the intracranial ... A posterior fossa tumor leading to mass effect and midline shift. Most of the brain is separated from the blood by the blood- ... Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... the dedifferentiation causes the cells to lose all of their normal structure/function), or cancer stem cells can increase their ...
These include the structure of the jaw and teeth for feeding on land, limb girdles and extremities for land locomotion, lungs ... flat coracoid plate turning in toward the midline. ... 2001). Analysis of vertebrate structure. New York: Wiley. p. ... Their palatal and jaw structures of tetramorphs were similar to those of early tetrapods, and their dentition was similar too, ... Tetrapods had a tooth structure known as "plicidentine" characterized by infolding of the enamel as seen in cross-section. The ...
a b A. R. Ten Cate, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), pp. 86 ... The mandibular central incisor is the tooth located on the jaw, adjacent to the midline of the face. It is mesial from both ... A. R. Ten Cate, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), p. 95. ISBN ... A. R. Ten Cate, Oral Histology: Development, Structure, and Function, 5th ed. (Saint Louis: Mosby-Year Book, 1998), p. 81. ISBN ...
... describes structures close to the midline,[2] or closer to the midline than another structure. For example, in a human, the ... Structures closer to the radius are radial, structures closer to the ulna are ulnar, and structures relating to both bones are ... Similarly, in the lower leg, structures near the tibia (shinbone) are tibial and structures near the fibula are fibular (or ... These terms refer to the distance of a structure from the surface or structure.[2] ...
Phineas job as a stage-coach driver provided that external structure to aid in his recovery.[26] If this is so, Macmillan ... the best fit rod trajectory did not result in the iron crossing the midline as has been suggested by some authors ... Fiber ... Grafman, J. (2002). "The Structured Event Complex and the Human Prefrontal Cortex". In Stuss, D.T.; Knight, R.T. Principles of ... A social recovery hypothesis suggests that Gage's employment as a stagecoach driver in Chile provided daily structure allowing ...
Cleft palate, cleft lip or other midline cranio-facial defects.[3]. *Neural hearing impairment[2] ... The structure of GNRH1. (from PDB: 1YY1​). The underlying cause of Kallmann syndrome or other forms of hypogonadotropic ...
The underlying cause may be a dysfunctional molecular mechanism in the primary cilia structures of the cell, organelles which ...
Midline catheter[edit]. A third type is a midline catheter which is inserted into a peripheral vein and advances through the ... Surrounding structures such as the pleura and carotid artery are also at risk of damage with the potential for pneumothorax or ...
All of the structures remain attached to the testis and form what is known as the spermatic cord by the time the testis is in ... and a midline closure of the labioscrotal folds. This closure forms the wall of the scrotum the external genitalia. The ... This structure attaches to the inferior portion of the testis and extends to the labial sacral fold of the same side at the ... External structures. At six weeks post conception, the differentiation of the external genitalia in the male and female has not ...
The largest structure of the digestive system is the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). This starts at the mouth and ends at ... The stomach, originally lying in the midline of the embryo, rotates so that its body is on the left. This rotation also affects ... Teeth are complex structures made of materials specific to them. They are made of a bone-like material called dentin, which is ... The mouth is the first part of the upper gastrointestinal tract and is equipped with several structures that begin the first ...
Structure[edit]. The rectus abdominis is a very long flat muscle, which extends along the whole length of the front of the ... There are two parallel muscles, separated by a midline band of connective tissue called the linea alba. It extends from the ...
Structure[edit]. The commissural fibers make up tracts that include the corpus callosum, the anterior commissure, and the ... is a tract that connects the two temporal lobes of the cerebral hemispheres across the midline, and placed in front of the ... researchers were able to approximate the location of the anterior commissure where it crosses the midline of the brain. This ...
... which form an arcade structure within the lung called the paleopulmo. It is the only structure found in primitive birds such as ... near the midline into the opening of the urodeum of the cloaca.[61] Although there is no bladder, a dilated pouch of ureter ... Parto P. (2012). "The Structure of the Atrioventricular Node in the Heart of the Female Laying Ostrich (Struthio camelus)". ... Morphology of the common ostrich lung indicates that the structure conforms to that of the other avian species, but still ...
... and the remaining part joins together and forms a ring like structure. Here the affected person would have symptoms associated ...
The tongue evolved with the amphibians from the same structures that form fins in fish.[citation needed] Most amphibians show a ... On the undersurface of the tongue is a fold of mucuous membrane called the frenulum that tethers the tongue at the midline to ... Richards, O. W.; Davies, R. G. (1977). Imms' General Textbook of Entomology: Volume 1: Structure, Physiology and Development, ... In the fourth week a swelling appears from the second pharyngeal arch, in the midline, called the copula. During the fifth and ...
... or cross midline) at the lower medulla, then travels down the spinal cord into the motor neurons that control each muscle. In ... neglect and aphasia are highly correlated with pusher syndrome possibly due to the close proximity of relevant brain structures ... some portions of which do not cross the midline. ...
Structure[edit]. The mylohyoid muscle is flat and triangular, and is situated immediately superior to the anterior belly of the ... The medial fibres of the two mylohyoid muscles unite in a midline raphe (where the two muscles intermesh).[4] ...
If the Weber test is used, in which a vibrating tuning fork is touched to the midline of the forehead, the person will hear the ... If absence or deformation of ear structures cannot be corrected, or if the patient declines surgery, hearing aids which amplify ...
Adduction refers to a motion that pulls a structure or part toward the midline of the body, or towards the midline of a limb. ... Abduction refers to a motion that pulls a structure or part away from the midline of the body. In the case of fingers and toes ... Abduction is the motion of a structure away from the midline while adduction refer to motion towards the center of the body.[13 ... Rotational motions move a structure in a rotational motion along a longitudinal axis, such as turning the head to look to ...
Dysfunction of the spinocerebellum (vermis and associated areas near the midline) presents itself with a wide-based "drunken ... An MRI can sometimes show shrinkage of the cerebellum and other brain structures in people with ataxia. It may also show other ... These deficits can vary depending on which cerebellar structures have been damaged, and whether the lesion is bi- or unilateral ...
It is made up of two lobes that meet in upper midline, that stretch from below the thyroid in the neck to as low as the ... The thymus is also present in most vertebrates, with similar structure and function as the human thymus. Some animals have ... Micrograph of the thymus Structure of the thymus. Micrograph showing a Hassall's corpuscle, found within the medulla of the ... The epithelium forms fine lobules, and develops into a sponge-like structure. During this stage, hematopoietic bone-marrow ...
As a mechanical structure the pelvis may be thought of as four roughly triangular and twisted rings. Each superior ring is ... In primates, the pelvis consists of four parts - the left and the right hip bones which meet in the mid-line ventrally and are ... It includes several structures: the bony pelvis, the pelvic cavity, the pelvic floor, and the perineum. The bony pelvis (pelvic ... ISBN 0-07-137472-8. Palastanga, Nigel; Field, Derek; Soames, Roger (2006). Anatomy and Human Movement: Structure and Function. ...
Chan GK, Liu ST, Yen TJ (November 2005). "Kinetochore structure and function". Trends in Cell Biology. 15 (11): 589-98. doi: ... at approximately the midline of the cell).[40] To ensure equitable distribution of chromosomes at the end of mitosis, the ... Close to the nucleus of animal cells are structures called centrosomes, consisting of a pair of centrioles surrounded by a ... The phragmoplast is a microtubule structure typical for higher plants, whereas some green algae use a phycoplast microtubule ...
... or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function, ... Sagittal MRI slice at the midline.. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce high ... indirectly(directly) image structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system. Neuroimaging falls into two broad categories ... Structural imaging, which deals with the structure of the nervous system and the diagnosis of gross (large scale) intracranial ...
Smart Materials and Structures. IOP Publishing Ltd. 17: 8-9. doi:10.1088/0964-1726/17/1/015050. Archived (PDF) from the ... Traditional open surgery is usually performed through a ventral midline incision below the umbilicus. The incision size varies ...
Many of them have a similar structure to the building blocks of DNA and RNA. The building blocks are nucleotides; a molecule ... These include the winged infusion device, peripheral venous catheter, midline catheter, peripherally inserted central catheter ... Microtubules are an important cellular structure composed of two proteins; α-tubulin and β-tubulin. They are hollow rod shaped ... structures that are required for cell division, among other cellular functions.[40] Microtubules are dynamic structures, which ...
StructureEdit. SectionsEdit. Course of the aorta in the thorax (anterior view), starting posterior to the main pulmonary artery ... The aorta ends by dividing into two major blood vessels, the common iliac arteries and a smaller midline vessel, the median ... to form the final asymmetrical structure of the great arteries, with the 3rd pair of arteries contributing to the common ... then turning posteriorly to course dorsally to these structures. ...
This structure allows the knee to flex and extend, allowing use of basic functions such as walking and running. ... With a tourniquet applied, the tendon is exposed through a midline longitudinal incision extending from the upper patellar pole ...
Overexpression of tbx-c causes expansion of the midline mesoderm and formation of ectopic midline structures at the expense of ... Zebrafish tbx-c functions during formation of midline structures. T. Dheen, I. Sleptsova-Friedrich, Y. Xu, M. Clark, H. Lehrach ... Zebrafish tbx-c functions during formation of midline structures. T. Dheen, I. Sleptsova-Friedrich, Y. Xu, M. Clark, H. Lehrach ... Zebrafish tbx-c functions during formation of midline structures. T. Dheen, I. Sleptsova-Friedrich, Y. Xu, M. Clark, H. Lehrach ...
Temporal and spatial gradients of Fgf8 and Fgf17 regulate proliferation and differentiation of midline cerebellar structures ... Temporal and spatial gradients of Fgf8 and Fgf17 regulate proliferation and differentiation of midline cerebellar structures ... Temporal and spatial gradients of Fgf8 and Fgf17 regulate proliferation and differentiation of midline cerebellar structures ... Temporal and spatial gradients of Fgf8 and Fgf17 regulate proliferation and differentiation of midline cerebellar structures ...
Strong predilection of infected macrophages and CD8+ T cells was typical of the deeper midline and mesial temporal structures ... along with unique nature of provirus gag gene sequences derived from macrophages in the midline and mesial temporal structures ... co-localization of macrophages and CD8+ T cells along with HIV P24 antigen in the deeper midline and mesial temporal structures ... From: Evidence for predilection of macrophage infiltration patterns in the deeper midline and mesial temporal structures of the ...
Objective: A series of destructive and tumefactive lesions of the midline structures have been recently added to the spectrum ... N2 - Objective: A series of destructive and tumefactive lesions of the midline structures have been recently added to the ... AB - Objective: A series of destructive and tumefactive lesions of the midline structures have been recently added to the ... Methods: We studied 11 consecutive patients with erosive and/or tumefactive lesions of the midline structures referred to our ...
1.6 Midline structures. 1.7 Cisterns. 1.8 Basal ganglia and thalamus. 1.9 Brainstem ...
Useful for: Evaluating midline structures CSF: Dark White Matter: White. Gray Matter: Gray ... However, like CT, abnormalities are described by their relationship to the intensity of a reference structure (brain tissue, ... Contrast, in the form of gadolinium, can be administered to highlight different structures or pathology. The following images ... If an abnormality is similar to a reference structure, we describe it as isointense. ...
The core extends to and involves anatomical structures beyond the vertebrae. The hips are also significantly involved, because ... Comments on Midline Stability, Part 1: More Than the Core. Comments. Share. Print. Comment thread URL copied!. Comment thread ... The concept of midline stability is well known in the CrossFit community, with trainer seminars including it as a topic of ... Midline Stability, Part 2 will offer a more detailed look at the anatomy of the core and explain how indirectly associated ...
The HSNL/R axon pairs are separated into the left and right fascicles of the VNC by a midline structure initially made of ... 1976) The structure of the ventral nerve cord of Caenorhabditis elegans. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 275:327-348, doi: ... Regulation of Axonal Midline Guidance by Prolyl 4-Hydroxylation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nanna Torpe and Roger Pocock ... 2I). We could not detect any marked changes in the structure of the hypodermal ridge in dpy-18 mutant animals in the EM study, ...
... risk for schizophrenia and developmental delay is associated with shape and microstructure of midline white-matter structures ... risk for schizophrenia and developmental delay is associated with shape and microstructure of midline white-matter structures ... c Volumetric change associated with white-matter structures strongly represented in PC8 rendered on the JHU atlas, with ... are consistent with the notion that a significant alteration in developmental trajectories of midline white-matter structures ...
She has this bony hard little tooth like structure behind her bottom teeth on the midline. Went to pediatrician he didnt know ... Could just be bone structure. I have a similar thing but mine is slightly right of midline and it is just bone. As long as its ... Could just be bone structure. I have a similar thing but mine is slightly right of midline and it is just bone. As long as its ... She has this bony hard little tooth like structure behind her bottom teeth on the midline. Went to pediatrician he didnt know ...
Cortical midline structures.png 634 × 532; 324 KB. *. Cuneus animation small.gif 150 × 150; 528 KB. ...
Midline structures. * Basal Ganglia. * Limbic System. * Cranial Nerves. * Visual System. * Ventricles. * Thalamic nuclei ...
The deviation of midline structures (DML) to the septum pellucidum level was above 15mm in 39.3% of patients. The ... Some studies report that the deviation of the midline structures is considered a predictor of prognosis 2424. Fearnside MR, ... We observed a statistically significant correlation between the deviation of the midline structures at CT and prognosis (Table ... We observed a statistically significant correlation between the deviation of the midline structures observed in the tomography ...
A levator raises a structure; a depressor moves a structure down. A supinator turns the palm of the hand up; a pronator turns ... An abductor moves a bone away from the midline; an adductor moves a bone closer to the midline. ... a b c d Lieber, Richard L. (2002) Skeletal muscle structure, function, and plasticity. Wolters Kluwer Health. ...
Identify anatomical structures 1 - 24. 18. 19. 17. 20. 21. 16. 22. 15. 23. Fig. 1.10 A midline Post-contrast Sagittal T 1 ... Identify anatomical structures 1 - 24. 18. 19. 17. 20. 21. 16. 22. 15. 23. Fig. 1.10 A midline Post-contrast Sagittal T 1 ... amplitude and midline. the functions y = a sin t + k and y = a cos t + k have amplitude , a , and the midline is the horizontal ... hh and its role in midline cell fate mg neurons wg and its potential role (or lack thereof) in midline cell fate. hh activates ...
A, pharyngeal tumor (arrow), normal intracranial midline structures; B, right parapharyngeal tumor (arrow) extending into the ...
Structures were localized according to the stereotaxic atlas of Paxinos and Watson (1997). Single-unit activity of neurons ... 0.3-0.6 mm from midline] for the placement of a recording electrode. An additional hole was drilled for the placement of a ... Structure-activity relationship of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, ether-linked analogues, and related compounds. J Biol Chem 274: 2794 ... Matsuda LA, Lolait SJ, Brownstein MJ, Young AC, Bonner TI (1990) Structure of a cannabinoid receptor and functional expression ...
... midline episiotomies extend into this structure.. Synonym(s): centrum tendineum perineiTA, perineal body, Savage perineal body ...
Diffuse Midline Gliomas Diffuse midline gliomas are fast-growing tumors. They form in the brainstem, thalamus, spinal cord, and ... They arise from a structure in the brain called the choroid plexus. Learn more about choroid plexus tumors. ...
Midline structures are intact. No distal rectus abdominis muscle atrophy is present. No inguinal hernia is identified by MRI.. ...
midline structures; truncal ataxia, nystagmus, head tilting.. wide-based (cerebellar) gait & defective truncal coordination. ... when lymphatics dont connect to venous, bud abnoramlly, or retain embryonic growth potential & expand into adjacent structures ...
There is no shift of midline structures. Bony structures of cranial vault are unremarkable. Impression: 1) Acute EDH of maximum ... significant mass effect is seen.No obvious midline shift noted. Mild diffuse cerebral oedema is seen. Small amount of soft ... significant mass effect is seen.No obvious midline shift noted. 2) Mild diffuse cerebral oedema is seen. 3) Small amount of ...
The results of the experiment show that for Cairene Arabic the internal structure of prosodic words in terms of feet determines ... The results of the experiment show that for Cairene Arabic the internal structure of prosodic words in terms of feet determines ... This structure effect is complemented by a frequency effect for stress patterns. ... This structure effect is complemented by a frequency effect for stress patterns. ...
Affects midline structures 9 What is Klinefelter Syndrome 47, XXY Poorly developed secondary sexual characteristics Infertile ...
... body form or midline structures. We find that the mutations can be classified on the basis of whether they perturb ... The gut tends to remain midline. There frequently is a remarkable bilateral duplication of liver and pancreas. Embryos with ...
Three main structures are commonly investigated when measuring midline shift. The most important of these is the septum ... In fact, midline shift is a measure of ICP; presence of the former is an indication of the latter. Presence of midline shift is ... The other two important structures of the midline include the third ventricle and the pineal gland, which are both centrally ... Midline shift is a shift of the brain past its center line. The sign may be evident on neuroimaging such as CT scanning. The ...
a) On average, brain regions showing enhanced reactivity to smoking vs neutral cues include midline cortical structures as well ... On average, brain reactivity for the smoking,neutral contrast was increased in cortical midline structures including the medial ... Moran JM, Heatherton TF, Kelley WM (2006). Modulation of cortical midline structures by implicit and explicit self- relevance ... On average, brain reactivity to smoking vs neutral cues induced activity in the insula, bilateral angular gyri, and midline ...
Northoff G. and Bermpohl F. (2004). Cortical midline structures and the self. Trends in cognitive sciences, 8(3): 102-107. ... Brain Structure and Function, 221(3): 1555-1571.. *Lamm C. and Majdandžić J. (2015). The role of shared neural activations, ... Qin P. and Northoff G. (2011). How is our self related to midline regions and the default-mode network?. Neuroimage, 57(3): ... Northoff G. and Panksepp J. (2008). The trans-species concept of self and the subcortical-cortical midline system. Trends in ...
Northoff, G., and Bermpohl, F. (2004). Cortical midline structures and the self. Trends Cogn. Sci. 8, 102-107. doi: 10.1016/j. ... 2008). The resting brain and our self: self-relatedness modulates resting state neural activity in cortical midline structures ... Amygdala has been proposed as a key structure in the human brain facilitating social life (Adolphs, 2010; Bickart et al., 2014 ... FFG is a main structure sending afferent information to amygdala with a principal role in the perception of faces and emotional ...
One critical system implicated in this line of research involves the cortical midline structures (CMS), which include the ... Northoff, G., Bermpohl, F. (2004). "Cortical midline structures and the self". Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(3), 102-107. ... "Personality Functioning and the Cortical Midline Structures - An Exploratory fMRI Study". PLOS One, 7(11), 1-8. McAdams, C. J ... Greater activation in these structures has been found when people made trait judgements about themselves as opposed to others, ...
  • In dpy-18 mutant animals, the axons of specific ventral nerve cord neurons do not respect the ventral midline boundary and cross over to the contralateral axon fascicle. (jneurosci.org)
  • Therefore, we suggest that the molecular environment of dpy-18 mutant animals causes aberrant signaling and defective axon guidance at the ventral midline. (jneurosci.org)
  • They can be ventral or dorsal midline defects. (medscape.com)
  • I propose a three-dimensional structure of the vortex wake in which these vortices from the caudal notch are elongated by the dorso-ventral cupping motion of the tail, producing a structure like a hairpin vortex in the caudal fin vortex ring. (biologists.org)
  • Located on the ventral midline of the embryonic neural tube, the floor plate is a specialized glial structure that spans the anteroposterior axis from the midbrain to the tail regions. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Organizing center consisting of a small group of cells located at the ventral midline of the neural tube that influences the development of the nervous system, governing the specification of neuronal cell types and directing axonal trajectories. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The midline mesectoderm (or ventral midline) is a cell population extending along the ventral surface of the embryo. (sdbonline.org)
  • During germ band elongation these two rows intermingle, forming a single row of eight ventral midline cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • cartilage of the larynx, the thyroid cartilage, is made of two plates fused anteriorly in the midline. (britannica.com)
  • The variables assessed were age, mechanism of injury, presence of pupillary changes, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score on admission, CT scan findings (volume, type and association of intracranial lesions, deviation from the midline structures and classification in the scale of Marshall and Rotterdam). (scielo.br)
  • among the factors studied, only the presence of mydriasis with absence of pupillary reflex, scoring 4 and 5 in the Glasgow Coma Scale, association of intracranial lesions and diversion of midline structures (DML) exceeding 15mm correlated statistically as predictors of poor prognosis. (scielo.br)
  • Midline shift is often associated with high intracranial pressure (ICP), which can be deadly. (wikipedia.org)
  • It describes the situation where the midline of the intracranial anatomy is no longer in the midline and is the result of pushing or pulling forces within either side of the intracranial compartment. (radiopaedia.org)
  • One critical system implicated in this line of research involves the cortical midline structures (CMS), which include the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and the posterior cingulate cortex including the adjacent precuneus (see insert). (wikipedia.org)
  • The other two important structures of the midline include the third ventricle and the pineal gland, which are both centrally located and caudal to the septum pellucidum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the lateral ventricles flank the third ventricle, and these structures form the major parts of the brain 's ventricular system. (wisegeek.com)
  • The third ventricle, normally a slit-like midline structure, can become dilated. (epmonthly.com)
  • Disruption of dorsal midline structures inhmmrmorphants. (xenbase.org)
  • Furthermore, our data reveal Fgfr1 expression in proliferative zones containing BLBP+ cells of the anterior midline, hippocampus, cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum of P0.5 mice, in addition to the early-formed GFAP+ astrocytes of the anterior midline. (peerj.com)
  • Anatomically, the human cerebellum has the appearance of a separate structure attached to the bottom of the brain, tucked underneath the cerebral hemispheres . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies have included a nearby structure in the midline, the posterior cingulate cortex. (psychologytoday.com)
  • L4-L5: mild diffuse circumferential disc bulge with a superimposed shallow posterior midline herniation. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Overexpression of tbx-c causes expansion of the midline mesoderm and formation of ectopic midline structures at the expense of lateral mesodermal cells. (biologists.org)
  • In dominant-negative experiments, the midline mesoderm is reduced with the expansion of lateral mesoderm to the midline. (biologists.org)
  • These data and analysis of midline (ntl−/− and flh−/−) and lateral mesoderm (spt−/−) mutants suggest that tbx-c may function during formation of the notochord. (biologists.org)
  • In the chronic stage of TBI, self-initiation, energization, and physical complaints related to a specific pattern of volume loss in midline and lateral regions known to be involved in motivation, apathy, and attention. (nih.gov)
  • the female pelvis as well as drawing structures of the lateral pelvic wall. (coursera.org)
  • Acute EDH of maximum thickness 1.7 cm is seen in RT parietal region.No significant mass effect is seen.No obvious midline shift noted. (medhelp.org)
  • There is no shift of midline structures. (medhelp.org)
  • Midline shift is a shift of the brain past its center line. (wikipedia.org)
  • Presence of midline shift is an indication for neurosurgeons to take measures to monitor and control ICP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immediate surgery may be indicated when there is a midline shift of over 5 mm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors detect midline shift using a variety of methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the midline shift is often easily visible with a CT scan, the high precision of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is not necessary, but can be used with equally adequate results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three main structures are commonly investigated when measuring midline shift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identifying the location of these structures on a damaged brain compared to an unaffected brain is another way of categorizing the severity of the midline shift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Midline shift measurements and imaging has multiple applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Midline shift is a finding described on transverse (axial) slices from CT and MRI studies. (radiopaedia.org)
  • is there midline shift? (radiopaedia.org)
  • This pattern consists of ipsilateral calvarial enlargement and thinning, bilateral ventricular dilatation and contralateral shift of midline structures. (aappublications.org)
  • In other words, these two midline structures share the same embryonic origin. (pnas.org)
  • Prefrontal midline, cingulate, medial temporal, right inferior parietal and basal ganglia/thalamic volumes were associated with measures of initiative, energization, and physical complaints. (nih.gov)
  • abstract = "Objective: A series of destructive and tumefactive lesions of the midline structures have been recently added to the spectrum of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). We examined the clinical, serological, endoscopic, radiological, and histological features that might be of utility in distinguishing IgG4-RD from other forms of inflammatory conditions with the potential to involve the sinonasal area and the oral cavity. (elsevier.com)
  • Methods: We studied 11 consecutive patients with erosive and/or tumefactive lesions of the midline structures referred to our tertiary care center. (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Five patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), three with cocaine-induced midline destructive lesions (CIMDL), and three with IgG4-RD were studied. (elsevier.com)
  • This route allows midline access and visibility to the suprasellar, retrosellar and parasellar space while obviating brain retraction, and makes possible to treat transsphenoidally a variety of relatively small midline skull base and parasellar lesions traditionally approached transcranially. (springer.com)
  • The primary embryologic defect in all neural tube defects is failure of the neural tube to close, affecting neural and cutaneous ectodermal structures. (medscape.com)
  • These neural tube defects can be open (neural structures that communicate with the atmosphere) or closed (skin covered). (medscape.com)
  • Cardiac malformations and midline skeletal defects in mice lacking filamin A. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results suggest that tbx-c plays a role in formation of the midline mesoderm, particularly, the notochord. (biologists.org)
  • This common population of HN-CNH cells gives rise to three types of midline descendants: notochord, floor plate, and dorsal endoderm. (pnas.org)
  • Here we find that HNF3 β, an important gene in the development of the midline structures, is continuously expressed in the HN-CNH cells and their derivatives, floor plate, notochord, and dorsal endoderm. (pnas.org)
  • The conclusion was drawn that the notochord is inducing a floor plate in the midline of the neural plate. (pnas.org)
  • This view was further supported by the fact that grafts of notochord laterally to the neural tube resulted in the induction of a floor plate-like structure, together with that of extramotoneurons in the alar plate ( 13 , 15 , 22 - 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • The ectoderm located caudally to Hensen's node is thus split and the presumptive basal plates of the future neural tube are transiently joined in the midline by a mass of cells which, for a while, includes both the notochord and the floor plate and corresponds to the structure designated by Pasteels ( 7 , 8 ) as the cordoneural hinge (CNH). (pnas.org)
  • The notochord is a midline mesodermal structure with an essential patterning function in all vertebrate embryos. (nature.com)
  • Diffuse midline gliomas are fast-growing tumors. (cancer.gov)
  • Learn more about brainstem and diffuse midline gliomas. (cancer.gov)
  • The thyroid gland is usually palpable in the midline below the thyroid cartilage. (aafp.org)
  • Specifically, the amniotic fluid can have a caustic and destructive effect on the open neural structures. (medscape.com)
  • As described, the primary defect is a failure of the neural folds to fuse in the midline and form the neural tube, which is neuroectoderm. (medscape.com)
  • However, the subsequent defect is the maldevelopment of the mesoderm, which, in turn, forms the skeletal and muscular structures that cover the underlying neural structures. (medscape.com)
  • this structure spans the anteroposterior axis from the midbrain to the tail regions, separating the left and right basal plates of the developing neural tube, and serves as an organizer to ventralize tissues in the embryo as well as to guide neuronal positioning and differentiation along the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Functionally, the structure serves as an organizer to ventralize tissues in the embryo as well as to guide neuronal positioning and differentiation along the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • This condition causes several abnormalities along the midline of the body, including widely spaced eyes (ocular hypertelorism), difficulty breathing or swallowing, brain malformations, distinct facial features, and genital abnormalities in males. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bony structures of cranial vault are unremarkable. (medhelp.org)
  • Attenuation' used in CT does not apply in MR. However, like CT, abnormalities are described by their relationship to the intensity of a reference structure (brain tissue, CSF etc. (google.com)
  • They arise from a structure in the brain called the choroid plexus. (cancer.gov)
  • This unit covers the surface anatomy of the human brain, its internal structure, and the overall organization of sensory and motor systems in the brainstem and spinal cord. (coursera.org)
  • Functional Correlates of Midline Brain Volume Loss in Chronic Traumatic Brain Injury. (nih.gov)
  • This study related outcome assessed across several domains to brain structure derived from quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (nih.gov)
  • The thalamus is a centrally-located brain structure consisting of a large number of neuron clusters ("nuclei") with diverse functions and connections. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The thalamus is a paired structure joined at the midline and sitting very near the center of the brain . (scholarpedia.org)
  • In addition, emotionally relevant material produces further processing in limbic brain structures of the frontal lobes. (mit.edu)
  • We report our current knowledge of the endoscopic anatomy of the midline skull base as seen from the endonasal perspective, in order to describe the surgical path and structures whose knowledge is useful during the operation. (springer.com)
  • anatomy The word 'anatomy' derives from the Greek ana (up) and tome (a cutting) - hence ' dissection ' - and it can be defined as the science of the structure of a body learned by dissection. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The word can thus be applied to any structure, and we can talk about the anatomy of a plant, an insect, or even a machine, but here the term will be restricted to the structure of the human being. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here two Greeks, Herophilus and Erasistratus, were celebrated for their experience of anatomy acquired by the dissection of condemned criminals, and they described many structures of the human body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It was there that a revolution in anatomy took place with the publication, in 1543, by Andreas Vesalius , then aged only 28, of his book De Fabrica Corporis Humani (The Structure of the Human Body). (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, medial means closer to the midline. (eorthopod.com)
  • Structures on the medial side usually have medial as part of their name, such as the medial meniscus . (eorthopod.com)
  • Band of fibrous tissue that holds structures together abnormally. (studystack.com)
  • Lola regulates midline crossing of CNS axons in Drosophila. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has been shown that the floor plate is conserved among vertebrates with homologous structures in invertebrates such as the fruit fly Drosophila and the nematode C. elegans. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • She has this bony hard little tooth like structure behind her bottom teeth on the midline. (babycenter.com)
  • The ligaments, all taken together, are the most important structures controlling stability of the knee. (eorthopod.com)
  • Ultrasound reveals a normal uterus and left adnexal structures. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • We identified her sigmoid colon which was significantly adhesed to the side wall as well as to her adnexal structures including her uterus. (aapc.com)
  • We were able to completely mobilize the colon away from the sidewall of the adnexal structures. (aapc.com)
  • They give rise to midline structures of the CNS, including pioneering neurons of the intersegmental connectives. (sdbonline.org)
  • Researchers speculate that the altered midline-1 protein affects how the cells divide and migrate along the midline of the body during development, resulting in the features of Opitz G/BBB syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 1997) which, along with left-right abnormalities, cause marked perturbation in gastrulation, body form or midline structures. (hindawi.com)
  • These results suggest that crucial functional changes in chronic TBI may be associated with volume loss in established midline-frontal and attentional circuits. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, emotional words produced activation in orbital and midline frontal structures. (mit.edu)
  • and structures which are inferior to the pelvic floor are in the perineum. (coursera.org)
  • [ 9 ] Although aponeurotic suturing in the midline was noted to be able to reduce anterior projection of the abdominal wall, it did little to reduce the diameter of the waist. (medscape.com)
  • Nearby nuclei or structures left blank are not parts of thalamus. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The concept of midline stability is well known in the CrossFit community, with trainer seminars including it as a topic of discussion for nearly two decades. (crossfit.com)
  • The intertransversarii, rotatores, multifidis, and interspinalis contribute to midline stability at the intervertebral level. (crossfit.com)
  • The revetment made by interlocking concrete is superior to the traditional one, which has a flexible structure with high overall stability and can be applied to all kinds of landforms. (hindawi.com)
  • 14. Identify anatomical structures 1 - 24. (slideserve.com)
  • It remains unclear how neuronal circuits adapt during development by changing their anatomical structure - varying size, adding branches, or producing new synaptic connections - as opposed to adaptation in intrinsic functional properties like ion channel expression and distribution. (elifesciences.org)
  • A nasal dilator is constructed as a single body truss having a resilient member structure comprising a plurality of overlaid, island-placed, or overlapping. (patents.com)
  • A similar structure is found in crocodilians, but, in most other tetrapods, the oral and nasal cavities are not truly separate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The extensions (palatine processes) meet at the midline, merging dorsally with nasal septum and rostrally with primary palate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 1992 ) Relationship between Wnt-1 and En-2 expression domains during early development of normal and ectopic met-mesencephalon. (biologists.org)
  • The majority of the MID1 gene mutations change a single protein building block (amino acid) in the midline-1 protein. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These mutations lead to a decrease in midline-1 function, which prevents protein recycling. (medlineplus.gov)
  • References to the adult structures are made according to the works of Hylton Scott (1958), Andrews (1965a, 1965b), Koch et al . (scielo.org.ar)
  • Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and kinematic measurements were performed during swimming at 1.2 body lengths s -1 to describe the streamwise vortex structure, to quantify the contributions of each fin to the vortex wake, and to assess the importance of three-dimensional flow effects in swimming. (biologists.org)
  • Since earliest times, man may have been curious about the inner structure and workings of his body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Contrast, in the form of gadolinium, can be administered to highlight different structures or pathology. (google.com)
  • The result is stretching and thinning of these structures and diastasis of the rectus muscle. (medscape.com)
  • We utilized these eQTL, and specifically cis -eQTL, to develop a novel nonparametric method for association analysis in structured populations like the MDP. (genetics.org)
  • The charmingly named 'lethal midline granuloma' (now more commonly, but less dramatically, known as ' polymorphic reticulosis'), is one of the medical conditions from which one can suffer. (everything2.com)
  • The MID1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called midline-1. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Midline-1 is responsible for recycling certain proteins, including protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), integrin alpha-4 (ITGA4), and serine/threonine-protein kinase 36 (STK36). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The two daughter cells reside side by side adjacent to the midline, forming two rows of eight cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • The four types of papillae on the human tongue have different structures and are accordingly classfied as circumvallate (or vallate), fungiform, filiform, and foliate. (wikipedia.org)
  • CT shows a 12.4 x 12.0 x 10 cm complex mass within the pelvis with peripheral cystic structures. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Accurate diagnosis of a neck mass requires a knowledge of normal structures. (aafp.org)
  • How changes in neuronal structure and connectivity contribute to the maintenance of appropriate circuit function remains unclear. (elifesciences.org)
  • Each of the progeny cells, however, adopts a specific fate, and will proceed to fulfill a very specific role, identical for each segment, in the structuring and function of the central nervous system. (sdbonline.org)
  • The team from the Faculty of Life Sciences studied how cells in the skin and heart are bound together through structures called desmosomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • After invagination, the eight midline cells, four from each side, become positioned side by side, in two rows of four cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • Could just be bone structure. (babycenter.com)
  • I have a similar thing but mine is slightly right of midline and it is just bone. (babycenter.com)