Semliki forest virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Arbovirus Infections: Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.Togaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.Cimicidae: A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Chikungunya virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.Arboviruses: Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Viral Structural Proteins: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Encephalitis, Arbovirus: Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Encephalitis Virus, Western Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Membrane Fusion Proteins: Proteins that catalyze MEMBRANE FUSION.Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gold Sodium Thiomalate: A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Protein PrecursorsEncephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Demyelinating Diseases: Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Nucleocapsid: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Swallows: The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.ThiomalatesChick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Leporipoxvirus: A genus of the family POXVIRIDAE, subfamily CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, consisting of ether-sensitive viruses of leporids and squirrels. They commonly cause tumors and are usually transmitted mechanically by arthropods. MYXOMA VIRUS is the type species.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Mice, Inbred BALB CCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hemagglutinins, Viral: Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.UridineCysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cryoelectron Microscopy: Electron microscopy involving rapid freezing of the samples. The imaging of frozen-hydrated molecules and organelles permits the best possible resolution closest to the living state, free of chemical fixatives or stains.Monensin: An antiprotozoal agent produced by Streptomyces cinnamonensis. It exerts its effect during the development of first-generation trophozoites into first-generation schizonts within the intestinal epithelial cells. It does not interfere with hosts' development of acquired immunity to the majority of coccidial species. Monensin is a sodium and proton selective ionophore and is widely used as such in biochemical studies.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Encephalomyocarditis virus: The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.Peptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA Viruses: Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou ... The non-structural proteins are encoded at the 5' end, formed during the first of two characteristic rounds of translation. ... virus O'nyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus ... Positive-stranded RNA-virus-transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by viral initiation, and ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The structural proteins are the capsid and two ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), is a member of the alphavirus genus, and Togaviridae family. It was first isolated in 1953 in ... viral coat protein, a variant called E1-A226V. This mutation potentially allows the virus to multiply more easily in mosquito ...
There are three subgroups in this genus: the Semliki Forest virus subgroup (Semliki Forest, O'nyong-nyong and Ross River ... The first is non structural and encodes proteins (nsP1-nsP4) necessary for transcription and replication of viral RNA. The ... while its ectodomain is responsible for binding a cellular receptor. Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in ... species and individuals occurs mainly via mosquitoes making the alphaviruses a contributor to the collection of Arboviruses - ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins.[12] The structural proteins are the capsid and ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, and Semliki ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), is a member of the genus Alphavirus, and family Togaviridae. It was first isolated in 1953 in ... Zoonotic viral diseases (A80-B34, 042-079). Arthropod-borne. Mosquito-borne. Bunyavirales. *Arbovirus encephalitides: La Crosse ...
Newly synthesized structural proteins and genomes self-assemble and accumulate near the inside of the cell membrane. Virions ... Semliki Forest virus. *Sindbis fever. Reoviridae. *Banna virus encephalitis. Tick-borne. Bunyavirales. *Viral hemorrhagic ... Genus Marburgvirus: species and its MVD-causing viruses. Species name. Virus name (Abbreviation). ... Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Feldmann, Heinz (2004). Ebola and Marburg Viruses: Molecular and Cellular Biology. Wymondham, Norfolk, UK: ...
Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Unassigned Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus Cabassou ... The non-structural proteins are encoded at the 5 end, formed during the first of two characteristic rounds of translation. ... virus Onyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon pancreas disease virus Semliki Forest virus ... Positive-stranded RNA-virus-transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by viral initiation, and ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. The structural proteins are the capsid and two ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, Onyongnyong virus, and Semliki ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), is a member of the alphavirus genus, and Togaviridae family. It was first isolated in 1953 in ... viral coat protein, a variant called E1-A226V. This mutation potentially allows the virus to multiply more easily in mosquito ...
The genus Alphavirus incorporates many mosquito vectored arboviruses together with models like Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest ... into replicase proteins nsP1 4 when the 39 encoded structural polyprotein is proteolytically cleaved to the structural proteins ... virus binding to host cell receptor and subsequent fusion to endosomes though the capsid protein encapsulates the viral genome ... Cellular compartmentalization of ERK1/2 and various kinases is constant with all the palmitoylation of those kinases. For AMPK ...
... form reveals a class II fusion protein with distinct features so far unseen in any other crystallized fusion protein; the ... The crystal structure of rubella virus E1 glycoprotein in its post-fusion ... Structure and interactions at the viral surface of the envelope protein E1 of Semliki Forest virus. . Structure 14, 75-86 (2006 ... Structural comparisons show that the class II fusion proteins from alphaviruses and flaviviruses, despite belonging to ...
A common feature shared by these viruses is their ability to rearrange cellular membranes to serve as platforms for genome ... During replication, their genomic +sRNA is employed as template for translation of viral proteins; among them the RNA-dependent ... a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral ... a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral ...
... including dengue virus, West Nile virus and Zika virus. Despite the burden of these pathogens on human populations, the ... Viruses enter the midgut of a mosquito following the mosquitos ingestion of a viremic blood meal. During infection, virus ... thereby inhibiting viral replication and promoting viral clearance. However, whilst antiviral host defense mechanisms limit ... viral replication, the mosquito immune system is unable to effectively clear the virus. As such, these viruses can establish ...
The virus consists of four nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins.[12] The structural proteins are the capsid and ... It is a member of the Semliki Forest virus complex and is closely related to Ross River virus, Onyongnyong virus, and Semliki ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), is a member of the genus Alphavirus, and family Togaviridae. It was first isolated in 1953 in ... Zoonotic viral diseases (A80-B34, 042-079). Arthropod-borne. Mosquito-borne. Bunyavirales. *Arbovirus encephalitides: La Crosse ...
structural studies have also demonstrated that CHIKV E2 protein was tightly associated with E1, a viral protein mostly ... residue G407 was not conserved throughout the alphavirus genus. Based on recent structural analysis of the CHIKV glycoprotein, ... inhibition of Chikungunya and Semliki Forest viruses replication by antiviral compounds: synergistic effect of interferon-alpha ... The ability of viruses to agglutinate erythrocyte is a potentially simple model for the study of virus attachment to cellular ...
Fungal viruses, or mycoviruses, are widespread in all major groups of fungi and next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently ... Here we discuss in depth the molecular features of known viruses infecting R. solani and their potential as biological control ... R. solani harbors a range of dsRNA and ssRNA viruses, either belonging to established families, such as Endornaviridae, ... ssRNA viruses. The majority of mycovirus infections are cryptic with no obvious symptoms on the hosts; however, some ...
Phosphorylation site analysis of Semliki Forest virus nonstructural protein 3. J. Biol. Chem. 275:27775-27783. ... The structural proteins are translated from a subgenomic RNA, which is transcribed later in infection from the viral 26S ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) can severely affect human health by causing debilitating ... Changing patterns of chikungunya virus: re-emergence of a zoonotic arbovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 88:2363-2377. ...
A species in the genus Alphavirus. The complete nucleotide sequence shows a close genetic relationship to Semliki Forest virus ... JUN protein). The viral oncogene is written v-jun and the cellular gene counterpart c-jun. ... together with at least two non-structural proteins (NS1 and nuclear export protein or NS2). Transcription occurs in the host ... Oubangui virus An unclassified arbovirus. Isolated in suckling mice from a pool of female mosquitoes, Culex guiarti, collected ...
It has been observed for many years that cellular binding of a number of alphaviruses (SV, Semliki Forest virus, and eastern ... 1994) Structural determination and characterization of a 40 kDa protein isolated from rat 40 S ribosomal subunit. FEBS Lett. ... The alphaviruses belong to a genus of enveloped RNA viruses which can replicate in insects, birds, and mammals, including ... The viral band was collected and pelleted by centrifugation through a 15% sucrose cushion for 30 min at 240,000 × g. Virus was ...
... this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics ... range from: genome structure and replication; to the application of alphavirus vectors for gene therapy. Essential reading. ... As the first to focus exclusively on alphaviruses, ... proteins and viral RNA and the role of cellular proteins in non ... In addition to the seven structural proteins, three non-structural (NS) proteins, NS1, NS2, NS3 (and a related NS3A) are ...
... this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics ... range from: genome structure and replication; to the application of alphavirus vectors for gene therapy. Essential reading. ... As the first to focus exclusively on alphaviruses, ... Structural studies of the recombinant viral proteinase and ... encoding green fluorescent protein or luciferase allows quantitative analysis of cellular and viral factors that promote virus ...
This review will discuss viral vector and nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA and mRNA vaccines) as new approaches that might be ... This review will discuss viral vector and nucleic acid-based vaccines (DNA and mRNA vaccines) as new approaches that might... ... human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. However, radical changes in the density, age distribution and traveling habits of the ... human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. However, radical changes in the density, age distribution and travelling habits of the ...
... this book serves as an invaluable resource for researchers and clinicians working with alphaviruses and related viruses. Topics ... range from: genome structure and replication; to the application of alphavirus vectors for gene therapy. Essential reading. ... As the first to focus exclusively on alphaviruses, ... proteins (Endy et al., 2010). The structural proteins consist ... A current phylogenetic tree of the genus Flavivirus (Endy et al., 2010) shows that the basal-most lineages are viruses that ...
Viral , Insect Proteins/genetics , Salivary Glands/virology , Virus Replication , Zika Virus/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/ ... For comparison, we infected DKO cells with Semliki Forest virus, which is known to adopt clathrin-mediated endocytosis as its ... BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arthropod-borne (arbo)virus that causes chikungunya fever in humans and ... Zika virus (ZIKV; family Flaviviridae; genus Flavivirus) is a pathogenic mosquito-borne RNA virus that currently threatens ...
Alphavirus uyum Sistemi: Sivrisinek Vektörler Enfeksiyon görselleştirme için Araçlar ... genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein ... ATSs in which an exogenous gene sequence is positioned 5 to the viral structural genes is used for stable protein expression ... Furthermore, in mosquito cells overexpressed LACV NSs was unable to inhibit RNAi against Semliki Forest virus. In mammalian ...
The current viral vectors for the delivery of small regulatory RNAs are based on DNA viruses and retroviruses/lentiviruses. ... Cytoplasmic RNA viruses have been excluded as viral vectors for RNAi therapy because of the nuclear localization of the ... Several studies have been conducted on the tick-borne encephalitis virus and on the Sindbis virus in which microRNA precursors ... The ability of these viruses to recruit Drosha to the cytoplasm during infection resulted in the efficient processing of virus- ...
Sindbis virus, South African Arbovirus No. 86 (S.A.AR86), Girdwood S.A. virus, Ockelbo virus, Semliki Forest virus, Middelburg ... all of the viral structural proteins in the viral coat can be alphavirus or VEE structural proteins (e.g., E1, E2 and capsid), ... Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, Visna/maedi virus) and the Spumavirus genus (e.g., Human foamy virus) and any other virus ... Thus, the inventive viral adjuvants enhance the immune response of a host (e.g., cellular and/or humoral response) against an ...
Replicases of alphaviruses of the Semliki Forest virus complex were able to cross-utilize each others templates as well as ... We confirmed that overexpression of miR-124 increases both SINV structural protein translation and viral production and that ... a fluorescence-based miRNA genome-wide screen in order to identify cellular miRNAs involved in the regulation of arbovirus ... Ross River virus (RRV) belongs to the genus Alphavirus and is prevalent in Australia. RRV infection can cause arthritic ...
Expression of viral structural proteins from the protein expression plasmids was not required for virus rescue, whereas NSs ... Furthermore, in mosquito cells overexpressed LACV NSs was unable to inhibit RNAi against Semliki Forest virus. In mammalian ... The Bunyaviridae is a family of arboviruses including both plant-and vertebrate-infecting representatives. The Tospovirus genus ... we also provide evidence that the induction of total cellular protein shutoff by SBV is determined by multiple viral proteins, ...
... viral autoprotease activity of the alphavirus C protein and thus relies completely upon cellular endopeptidases for structural ... Genus Alphavirus. Type species Sindbis virus. Distinguishing features. Alphaviruses are transmitted between vertebrate hosts ... The alphaviruses were originally described as Group A arboviruses based upon their antigenic cross-relationships. Using ... Semliki Forest virus. Semliki Forest virus 42S. [X04129]. (SFV-42S). Sindbis virus ...
... and viral evolution in both humans and mosquitoes. Here, we review these advances and the innovative treatment and control ... and increased global travel have facilitated the spread of both efficient mosquito vectors and the four dengue virus serotypes ... Knockdown of piRNA pathway proteins results in enhanced Semliki Forest virus production in mosquito cells. J Gen Virol. 2013;94 ... The dengue virus genome. The ~10.7 kb DENV genome encodes three structural proteins (capsid [C], premembrane [prM], and ...
... and five structural proteins (C, E1, E2, E3, and 6K) (6). Among these proteins, NsP4 is coded for the viral RNA-dependent RNA ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a member of the Togaviridae family, genus Alphavirus, which causes febrile debilitating illness ... In vitro inhibition of Chikungunya and Semliki Forest viruses replication by antiviral compounds: synergistic effect of ... Cellular IMPDH enzyme activity is a potential target for the inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication and virus induced ...
  • Despite the burden of these pathogens on human populations, the interactions between viruses and their mosquito hosts remain enigmatic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Reoviridae family is one of the largest families of viruses and includes major human pathogens (e.g., rotavirus) as well as other vertebrate, plant and insect pathogens. (highveld.com)
  • Use of antimicrobial compounds at livestock farms might therefore have an unexpected contradictory effect on the health of animals, by increasing the transmission of viral pathogens by biting midges. (bvsalud.org)
  • Full Text Available The Bunyaviridae family is comprised of more than 350 viruses, of which many within the Hantavirus, Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Tospovirus, and Phlebovirus genera are significant human or agricultural pathogens. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Hantaviruses and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) (genus Phlebovirus) are National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A priority pathogens in the United States. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) disproportionately affect the world's poorest populations, and are caused by a diverse array of viral, bacterial, protozoan, and helminthic pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • So, we have included recent data explaining the mechanism by, even though viruses have evolved elegant hideouts, host cells are still able to develop dsRNA receptors-dependent antiviral response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recognition of viral double-strand RNA (dsRNA) molecules by intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or retinoic acid inducible gene I-like receptors (RLRs) is a central event which entails the early steps of the immune response elicited during viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • RIG-I, the leading member of the RLRs, is activated upon dsRNA recognition generating the production of an anti-viral state in the infected-cell and in the surrounding tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since we consider TLR3, RIG-I, and MDA-5 as "major sentries" of viral dsRNA molecules, a brief revision of their specific anti-viral action will be presented in this report. (frontiersin.org)
  • R. solani harbors a range of dsRNA and ssRNA viruses, either belonging to established families, such as Endornaviridae , Tymoviridae , Partitiviridae , and Narnaviridae , or unclassified, and some of them have been associated with hypervirulence or hypovirulence. (mdpi.com)
  • BTV virions (550S) are architecturally complex structures composed of 7 discrete proteins that are organised into two concentric shells, the outer and inner capsids, and a genome of 10 dsRNA segments. (highveld.com)
  • VP2 and VP5 are removed, to yield a transcriptionally active 470S core particle which is composed of two major proteins VP7 and VP3, and the three minor proteins VP1, VP4 and VP6 in addition to the dsRNA genome. (highveld.com)
  • In general, the mechanism of RNAi, and its small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway mainly involved in the innate defense against viruses and transposable elements [ 11 ], starts with the cytoplasmic processing of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) by a complex involving the ribonuclease III (RNase III) Dicer, TAR RNA-binding protein (TRBP), and PKR activator (PACT), to produce siRNAs with 20-24 nt in length, and 3′ dinucleotide overhangs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tripartite interactions among insect vectors, midgut bacteria, and viruses may determine the ability of insects to transmit pathogenic arboviruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Viral vectors have become the best option for the delivery of therapeutic genes in conventional and RNA interference-based gene therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The current viral vectors for the delivery of small regulatory RNAs are based on DNA viruses and retroviruses/lentiviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cytoplasmic RNA viruses have been excluded as viral vectors for RNAi therapy because of the nuclear localization of the microprocessor complex and the potential degradation of the viral RNA genome during the excision of any virus-encoded pre-microRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene therapy is currently being used in clinical trials and viral vectors that are derived from wild type viruses, which have evolved over million years to carry genetic material from one cell to another cell, have been considered the best option for transgene delivery [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Climate change, rapid urbanization and increased global travel have facilitated the spread of both efficient mosquito vectors and the four dengue virus serotypes between population centers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their three-segmented genomes enable reassortment with related viruses, which may result in novel viruses with altered host or tissue tropism and virulence. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, for several viral agents it's been observed both, a complex rearrangement of cellular membranes and a strong innate immune antiviral response induction. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review provides an updated and concise summary of recent studies on mosquito antiviral immune responses, which is a key determinant for successful virus transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arbidol (ARB) is an antiviral drug originally licensed in Russia for use against influenza and other respiratory viral infections. (larticledirectory.com)
  • Despite this, an effective tetravalent (eliciting immunity against all four serotypes) vaccine remains elusive [ 12 - 15 ], as does an antiviral that is effective against the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 12225924 Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses are increasingly significant public health problems, and novel methods are needed to control pathogen transmission. (jove.com)
  • Comparisons of binding sites in cytoplasmic vs. viral nucleocapsids demonstrate that budding causes discrete changes in Cp-gRNA interactions. (bvsalud.org)
  • This review presents an overview of several important emerging or re-emerging bunyaviruses and describes what is known about bunyavirus -vector interactions based on epidemiological, ultrastructural, and genetic studies of members of this virus family. (worldwidescience.org)
  • The global transcriptome profiling will provide a deep understanding of BTV pathogenesis and virus-vector interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Tospovirus genus accommodates plant-infecting bunyaviruses , which not only replicate in their plant host, but also in their insect thrips vector during persistent propagative transmission. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Alphavirus uyum Sistemi: Sivrisinek Vektörler Enfeksiyon görselleştirme için Araçlar Aaron Phillips 1 , Eric Mossel 1 , Irma Sanchez-Vargas 1 , Brian Foy 1 , Ken Olson 1 1 Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University Alphavirus uyum sistemlerini kullanarak in vitro ve erişkin sivrisinek floresan gazetecilere ifade etmek için yöntemler açıklanmıştır. (jove.com)
  • The second part of this review will briefly describe the role of these NSs proteins in modulation of innate immune responses in mammals and elaborate on a hypothetical scenario to explain if and how NSs proteins from vertebrate-infecting bunyaviruses affect RNA silencing. (worldwidescience.org)
  • Upon activation by double-stranded RNA, 2'5'-OAS polymerizes ATP into pppA(2'p5'A)n(2'5'A). 2'5'A then activates a cellular endonucle-ase, 2'5'-OAS-dependent RNase L, which then degrades both cellular and viral RNAs at UU or AU nucleotides. (rrnursingschool.biz)
  • We are now developing virus-resistant mosquito lines by transformation with transposable elements that express effector RNAs from mosquito-active promoters. (jove.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the relevance of these findings with an emphasis on the potential use of cytoplasmic RNA viruses as vehicles for the efficient delivery of therapeutic small RNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, however, these carbohydrates are important in the cell surface binding of a number of bacteria, parasites, and viruses ( 52 ). (asm.org)
  • This suggests that the constraints on arboviruses imposed by alternating cycles between vertebrates and arthropods resulted in more conservative evolution. (nature.com)
  • This suggests that the ancestor of the genus may have been a 'mosquito-only' virus that later acquired the ability to infect vertebrates. (caister.com)
  • This topology does not suggest whether vector-borne or non-vectorborne transmission was ancestral, but the basal position of the 'mosquito-only' viruses suggests that mosquito-borne transmission among vertebrates may have preceded the loss of vector transmission. (caister.com)
  • There is a stop codon present between the nsP3 and nsP4 genes in the majority of alphaviruses resulting in a limited amount of nsP1234 generated by inefficient read-through. (ictvonline.org)
  • The 5'-terminus carries a methylated nucleotide cap and the 3'-terminus has a polyadenylated tail, therefore resembling cellular mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virion associated lipids are derived from the host cell membranes during the process of virus maturation and budding. (ictvonline.org)
  • Bluetongue (BT) is a major non-contagious disease of ruminants transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides genus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1962-Rubella virus is isolated in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little is known about the three-dimensional organization of rubella virus, which causes a relatively mild measles-like disease in children but leads to serious congenital health problems when contracted in utero 1 . (nature.com)
  • By contrast, in the absence of this constraint, the strictly human rubella virus seems to have drifted considerably into a unique niche as sole member of the Rubivirus genus. (nature.com)
  • Elucidation of antigenic epitopes on the rubella virus. (ubc.ca)
  • Shuni virus (SHUV) is an orthobunyavirus related to SBV that is associated with neurological disease in horses in southern Africa and recently caused an outbreak manifesting with neurological disease and birth defects among ruminants in Israel. (bvsalud.org)
  • A multitude of research efforts focuses on the improvement of established and the discovery of new vaccines such as the HPV (human papilloma virus) vaccine in 2006. (frontiersin.org)