Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Decidua: The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal: A highly malignant subset of neoplasms arising from the endometrial stroma. Tumors in this group infiltrate the stroma with a wide range of atypia cells and numerous mitoses. They are capable of widespread metastases (NEOPLASM METASTASIS).Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Mice, Inbred C57BLParacrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Tumor Microenvironment: The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Chemokines, CXC: Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Cell SeparationBlotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Osteoclasts: A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Mice, Inbred BALB CB-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1: One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lymphotoxin beta Receptor: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Chemokine CXCL13: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.RANK Ligand: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Mesonephros: One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Osteocytes: Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors: Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.PiperazinesMembrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha: A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Trophoblasts: Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Prostatic Hyperplasia: Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.Endometrial Stromal Tumors: Neoplasms of the endometrial stroma that sometimes involve the MYOMETRIUM. These tumors contain cells that may closely or remotely resemble the normal stromal cells. Endometrial stromal neoplasms are divided into three categories: (1) benign stromal nodules; (2) low-grade stromal sarcoma, or endolymphatic stromal myosis; and (3) malignant endometrial stromal sarcoma (SARCOMA, ENDOMETRIAL STROMAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Collagenases: Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Myofibroblasts: Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Lymphopoiesis: Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Matrix Metalloproteinase 2: A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gelatinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Osteoprotegerin: A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B: A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Keratitis, Herpetic: A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/4669)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (2/4669)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in human bone marrow. (3/4669)

The expression of neurotrophins and their receptors, the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75LNGFR) and the Trk receptors (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC), was investigated in human bone marrow from 16 weeks fetal age to adulthood. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, all transcripts encoding for catalytic and truncated human TrkB or TrkC receptors were detected together with trkAI transcripts, whereas trkAII transcripts were found only in control nerve tissues. Transcripts for the homologue of the rat truncated TrkC(ic113) receptor were identified for the first time in human tissue. Stromal adventitial reticular cells were found immunoreactive for all neutrophin receptors. In contrast, hematopoietic cell types were not immunoreactive for p75LNGFR but showed immunoreactivity for one or several Trk receptors. TrkA immunoreactivity was found in immature erythroblasts. Catalytic TrkB immunoreactivity was observed in eosinophilic metamyelocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Truncated TrkB immunoreactivity was found in erythroblasts and megacaryocytes. Immunoreactivity for both catalytic and truncated TrkC receptor was observed in promyelocytes, myelocytes, some polymorphonuclear cells and megacaryocytes. Neutrophin transcript levels appeared higher at fetal than at adult stages, no variation in Trk family transcript levels was observed. The local expression of neurotrophin genes suggests a wide range of paracrine and/or autocrine mode of action through their corresponding receptors within the bone marrow.  (+info)

Marker molecules of human endometrial differentiation can be hormonally regulated under in-vitro conditions as in-vivo. (4/4669)

An established cell culture system of isolated human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells has been used to study the effects of oestrogen and progesterone, as well as their antagonists, upon endometrial cells. Normal hormonal regulation in vivo was investigated simultaneously in endometrial tissue samples taken at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Several marker molecules analysed by immunohistochemistry appeared to depend strongly on endocrine regulation and could be traced in culture. Immunohistochemically, basic parameters of cell biology were identified in vitro, e.g. cell proliferation (Ki-67), adhesion molecules (beta3 integrin) and paracrine factors (leukaemia inhibitory factor). The most reliable parameters to assess hormonal influences were oestrogen and progesterone receptor molecules. Immunohistochemical localization could be improved by molecular biological analysis using RT-PCR. In the presence of oestrogen, a significant expression of hormone receptors was also shown by RT-PCR, and withdrawal of oestrogens and addition of gestagen, i.e. medroxyprogesterone acetate, caused receptor downregulation. Addition of the anti-oestrogen ICI 182.780 to cell-culture medium significantly decreased the synthesis of progesterone receptors.  (+info)

Expression of the oxytocin receptor in relation to steroid receptors in the uterus of a primate model, the marmoset monkey. (5/4669)

The dynamics of the receptors for oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and oxytocin (OTR) in the marmoset uterus have been analysed throughout the entire cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri obtained during the early, mid/late and late proliferative phase, and the early, mid and late secretory phase and early pregnancy were examined by immunohistochemistry (OTR, ER, PR) and autoradiography (OTR). A massive upregulation of the ER in the cell nuclei of glandular epithelium and stromal cells during the mid proliferative phase was succeeded by a declining staining intensity and positively stained cell number in the secretory phase. PR immunoreactivity increased in the late proliferative phase and early secretory phase, mainly within the cell nuclei, and then declined in both intensity and cell number towards the mid to late secretory phase. Myometrium showed a similar staining pattern for the steroid receptors. OTR were expressed weakly in stroma throughout the entire cycle, increasing slightly in the secretory phase. Glandular epithelium showed positive staining only during the periovulatory period. Myometrial OTR expression was weak during the proliferative phase, increased towards the secretory phase, and was maximal in the late secretory phase. Myometrial tissue adjacent to endometrium was most strongly stained. A cyclic shift evidently occurred in the pattern of steroid receptors, perhaps reflecting the steroid environment or the luteinizing hormone increase associated with ovulation.  (+info)

Detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus DNA sequences in multiple myeloma bone marrow stromal cells. (6/4669)

Whether Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with multiple myeloma (MM) remains controversial. We assayed for KSHV DNA sequences in long-term bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from 26 patients with MM and 4 normal donors. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers which amplify a KSHV gene sequence to yield a 233-bp fragment (KS330233 within open reading frame 26) was negative in all cases. Aliquots of these PCR products were used as templates in subsequent nested PCR, with primers that amplify a 186-bp product internal to KS330233. BMSCs from 24 of 26 (92%) patients with MM and 1 of 4 normal donors were KSHV PCR+. DNA sequence analyses showed interpatient specific mutations (2 to 3 bp). Both Southern blot and sequence analyses confirmed the specificity of PCR results. The presence of the KSHV gene sequences was further confirmed by amplifying T 1.1 (open reading frame [ORF] K7) and viral cyclin D (ORF 72), two other domains within the KSHV genome. Immunohistochemical studies of KSHV PCR+ MM BMSCs demonstrate expression of dendritic cell (DC) lineage markers (CD68, CD83, and fascin). Serological studies for the presence of KSHV lytic or latent antibodies were performed using sera from 53 MM patients, 12 normal donors, and 5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/KSHV+ patients. No lytic or latent antibodies were present in sera from either MM patients or normal donors. Taken together, these findings show that KSHV DNA sequences are detectable in BMSCs from the majority of MM patients, but that serologic responses to KSHV are not present. Ongoing studies are defining whether the lack of antibody response is caused by the absence of ongoing infection, the presence of a novel viral strain associated with MM, or underlying immunodeficiency in these patients.  (+info)

In vitro hematopoietic and endothelial cell development from cells expressing TEK receptor in murine aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. (7/4669)

Recent studies have shown that long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first appear in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Our immunohistochemistry study showed that TEK+ cells existed in the AGM region. Approximately 5% of AGM cells were TEK+, and most of these were CD34(+) and c-Kit+. We then established a coculture system of AGM cells using a stromal cell line, OP9, which is deficient in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). With this system, we showed that AGM cells at 10.5 days postcoitum (dpc) differentiated and proliferated into both hematopoietic and endothelial cells. Proliferating hematopoietic cells contained a significant number of colony-forming cells in culture (CFU-C) and in spleen (CFU-S). Among primary AGM cells at 10.5 dpc, sorted TEK+ AGM cells generated hematopoietic cells and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1(+) endothelial cells on the OP9 stromal layer, while TEK- cells did not. When a ligand for TEK, angiopoietin-1, was added to the single-cell culture of AGM, endothelial cell growth was detected in the wells where hematopoietic colonies grew. Although the incidence was still low (1/135), we showed that single TEK+ cells generated hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells simultaneously, using a single-cell deposition system. This in vitro coculture system shows that the TEK+ fraction of primary AGM cells is a candidate for hemangioblasts, which can differentiate into both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells.  (+info)

A novel stromal cell-dependent B lymphoid stem-like cell line that induces immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. (8/4669)

A stroma-dependent B lymphoid cell line (B31-1) has been established by coculturing sorted stem cells on a novel bone marrow stromal cell line (TBR31-1). B31-1 cells express B220, but do not express other B lymphoid differentiation markers including CD43, heat stable antigen (HSA), or surface immunoglobulin (Ig) M (sIgM), and their Ig heavy chain (IgH) gene loci are germ-line in configuration. The addition of interleukin (IL)-7 or coculture with another stromal cell line, ST2, induces D-J rearrangement of the IgH gene and B lymphocyte differentiation markers. B31-1 cells restore an in vivo repopulation activity to lethally irradiated mice, and the repopulated cells differentiate to HSA+ pre-B cells.Continuous coculture results in two distinct populations, B220(-) c-Kit+ cells and B220(+) c-Kit+ cells; B220(-) c-Kit+ cells are self-renewed and differentiate to B220(+) c-Kit+ cells, while B220(+) c-Kit+ cells produce only B220(+) c-Kit+ cells. Both B220(-) and B220(+) cells similarly express the IgH germ-line transcript (Imu), mRNAs for recombinase (TdT, Rag-1, and Rag-2), and lymphoid-specific transcription factors (Pax-5, EBF, E12/E47, Oct-2, and Ikaros), but the DNA binding activity of Pax-5, EBF, Oct-2, and E2A are low in B220(-) cells and while high in B220(+) cells. These results suggest the existence of at least two active states in the IgH locus before the induction of IgH gene rearrangement during B lymphopoietic development.  (+info)

  • In addition, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) and MSC secreted exosomes in mediating intercellular communication between MSCs and parenchymal cells of the brain, and their effects on the regulation of neurovascular remodeling and white matter remodeling after stroke are discussed. (springer.com)
  • Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are a subset of nonhematopoietic adult stem cells, readily isolated from various tissues and easily culture-expanded ex vivo . (hindawi.com)
  • However, the interplay between MSCs and virus is like a double-edge sword, and it also provides beneficial effects such as allowing the proliferation and function of antiviral specific effector cells instead of suppressing them, serving as an ideal tool for study of viral pathogenesis, and protecting hosts against viral challenge by using the antimicrobial activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Here, we therefore review favorable and unfavorable consequences of MSCs and virus interaction with the highlight of safety and efficacy for applying MSCs as cell therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • Given the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs, together with their low MHC class I expression, MSCs have been utilized to prevent and/or treat steroid-resistant graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) that have failed treatment with conventional immunosuppressant drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • In particular, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential for cellular therapy, as they possess the abilities to proliferate as well as to differentiate. (intechopen.com)
  • MSCs are present in all tissues interacting with tissue cells and easy to isolate and expand in culture. (intechopen.com)
  • This mesodermal cell layer contains mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which develop into connective tissue (mesenchyme) and it maintains the progenitor stem cells that persist after birth [ 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that play a pivotal role in various phases of lung development and lung homeostasis, and potentially also lung regeneration. (rug.nl)
  • MSCs do not only self-renew and differentiate into renew tissues, but also have anti-inflammatory and paracrine properties to reduce damage and to support tissue regeneration, constituting a promising cell-based treatment strategy for the repair of damaged alveolar tissue in emphysema. (rug.nl)
  • This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the (pre)clinical studies on MSC effects in emphysema and discuss the current challenges regarding the optimal use of MSCs for cell-based therapies. (rug.nl)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are one of major components of the tumour microenvironment. (nature.com)
  • Therefore, our data demonstrated that sustained expression of CXCL12 by MSCs in the primary tumour site inhibits metastasis through reduction of CXCR7, while, in the presence of TGFβ, this CXCL12 effect of MSCs on tumour cells is relieved. (nature.com)
  • Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of MSC effects on malignant cells through which crosstalk between MSCs and TGFβ regulates tumour metastasis. (nature.com)
  • Many types of cells, such as immune cells, endothelial progenitor cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), are recruited to the stroma of developing tumours. (nature.com)
  • 8 Experimental evidence has shown that the direct effects of MSCs on tumour cells can enhance tumour metastasis. (nature.com)
  • The complexity of MSCs in regulating different types of tumour development, such as breast cancer, was associated with their ability to secrete plentiful growth factors that support tumour growth and angiogenesis, as well as their role in moulding the tumour immune microenvironment by facilitating monocyte and macrophage infiltration, and suppressing anti-tumour T-cell activity. (nature.com)
  • The contributions of MSCs to breast cancer metastasis are mostly mediated through their ability to produce a number of factors, such as CCL5, CXCL12, which in turn exert paracrine actions on breast cancer cells that resulted in their invasion and/or distant organ metastasis. (nature.com)
  • Substantial evidence exists demonstrating the immunosuppressive function of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), but inconsistent clinical results suggest that better understanding of MSC-mediated immunosuppression and identification of features predictive of immunosuppressive capacity would advance MSC-based therapeutics. (pnas.org)
  • To identify features associated with immunosuppressive capacity in MSCs, we developed a robust in vitro assay that uses principal-component analysis to integrate multidimensional flow cytometry data into a single measurement of MSC-mediated inhibition of T-cell activation. (pnas.org)
  • Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can potently suppress immune responses in vitro and in animal models of human disease ( 1 , 2 ), but to date MSC-based therapies have produced mixed results in clinical trials for treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • This research study will evaluate the safety and activity of mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) infusion compared to saline-only infusion in reducing the immune suppression necessary to achieve optimal renal function in renal transplant recipients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigator will obtain exploratory immune response markers to estimate the effect of autologous MSCs on the T- and B-cell response following living donor kidney transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Phase II Clinical Trial to Assess the dose-response and Efficacy of Umbilical Cord-derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) in Severe Renal Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are currently being investigated for use in a wide variety of clinical applications. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Aggregation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into 3D spheroids enhances their antiinflammatory properties. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are inherently immunomodulatory through production of inhibiting soluble factors and expression of immunosuppressive cell surface markers. (frontiersin.org)
  • To assess whether activated MSC can modulate adaptive immunity, MSCs were pulsed with islet auto-antigen (GAD65) peptide to stimulate GAD65-specific T-cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Activated HLA-DR3-expressing MSCs pulsed with GAD65 peptide inhibited proliferation of HLA-DR3-restricted GAD65-specific T-cells, while this HLA class II expression did not induce cellular alloreactivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conditioning of antigen-specific T-cells by activated and antigen-pulsed MSCs prevented T-cells to proliferate upon subsequent activation by dendritic cells, even after removal of the MSCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • In sum, activation of MSCs with inflammatory stimuli turns these cells into suppressive cells capable of mediating adaptive regulation of proinflammatory pathogenic T-cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are non-hematopoietic cells that can easily be sourced from various tissues, including bone marrow ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Interestingly, MSCs have also been investigated for their potential to regenerate beta-cells, or to contribute to regeneration of beta-cells, which is another strategy to counter T1D ( 5 , 6 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Although mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been applied clinically to treat cardiac diseases, it is unclear how and to which extent transplanted MSCs exert their beneficial effects. (wiley.com)
  • We detected an Epstein Barr virus (EBV) associated B cell lymphoproliferative lesion in the rectum of a patient 4 years after local administration of MSCs for his perianal fistulas. (rug.nl)
  • Insception Lifebank's Scientific Director, Dr. Rogers, explains in this short animation how Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) and especially those derived from umbilical cord tissue, are showing exciting potential to treat COVID-19. (insception.com)
  • MSCs), with the latter responsible for the maintenance of the non-hematopoietic bone marrow cells. (stemcell.com)
  • MSCs, also termed multipotent marrow stromal cells or mesenchymal stromal cells, are a heterogeneous population of plastic-adherent, fibroblast-like cells, which can self-renew and differentiate into bone, adipose and cartilage tissue in culture. (stemcell.com)
  • 10-18 Accumulating evidence indicates a perivascular location for these MSC-like cells in all tissues, implying that all MSCs are pericytes 19 that closely encircle endothelial cells in capillaries and microvessels in multiple organs. (stemcell.com)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) play an important role in tissue repair and maintenance and provide an attractive candidate for cell-based therapies. (arvojournals.org)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells, found in situ within all adult mammalian supportive stromal tissue compartments, where they play a key role in the organization and maintenance of tissue integrity and in the physiological/pathological tissue repair . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • ECM composition and remodelling depend in part on the activity of proteolytic enzymes that selectively digest individual components of the matrix, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are constitutively expressed by a wide range of cell types, including BM-MSCs, MSCs from adipose tissue and from other tissues [14, 18- (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We have recently demonstrated that BM-MSCs are also able to produce S1P through sphingosine kinase (SphK) activation and to release it similarly to many other cell types . (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Our further investigation revealed that in vitro coculture of macrophages and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) increase the expression of IL-6 mRNA in ESC, which might further enhance the proliferation of ESC and subsequently result in the formation of ectopic endometrial implants in adenomyosis. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In vitro effects of benzene metabolites on mouse bone marrow stromal cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The effects of benzene (71432) metabolites on bone marrow stromal cells were investigated in-vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that benzene metabolites are toxic to mouse bone marrow stromal cells in-vitro. (cdc.gov)
  • Bone marrow adherent cell types, collectively referred to as stromal cells, appear to be key players in such escape, mainly because CLL malignant cells, which rapidly undergo spontaneous apoptosis when cultured in vitro, survive, migrate, and resist cytotoxic agents in co-culture with bone marrow stromal cells. (dovepress.com)
  • Interestingly, TSLP preferentially stimulated the proliferation and survival of CD4 + single positive thymocytes and peripheral T cells in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • Additionally, CD4 + T cells from TSLPR KO mice expanded less efficiently than WT CD4 + T cells in irradiated hosts, and TSLP preferentially expanded CD4 + T cells both in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Finally, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-based experiments showed TSLP-dependent expansion of CD4 + T cells both in vitro and in vivo. (rupress.org)
  • Indeed, secretions from quiescent ECs muted the proliferative and invasive phenotype of lung and breast cancer cells in vitro and reduced cancer cell protumorigenic and proinflammatory signaling. (sciencemag.org)
  • From mouse lymph nodes, we established a VCAM-1 + ICAM-1 + MAdCAM-1 + reticular cell line that can produce CXCL13 upon LTβR stimulation and support primary B cell adhesion and migration in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • In vitro dTc proliferation and tumoricidal capacity in the presence of KIT+ tumor cells were measured. (harvard.edu)
  • Human anti-KIT dTc were efficient at lysing GIST in vitro compared to untransduced T cells. (harvard.edu)
  • The overall aim of this work was to attempt to induce early angiogenesis in human dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCS) in vitro and in vivo using a biomimetic approach based on combining scaffolds comprised of ECM components with DPSCs as a first step towards a tissue engineering strategy for dental pulp regeneration. (bl.uk)
  • We have shown that hypoxia preconditioning provides generalized protection to corneal stromal cells against induced apoptosis in vitro and in an ex vivo cornea model. (molvis.org)
  • The term BM stromal cells is also used to describe the adherent cell population established from the in vitro culture of BM, and the predominant cell present in such an adherent cell population is generally the adventitial reticular/fibroblast-like cell. (springer.com)
  • Dittel, B. N. and LeBien, T. W. (1995) Reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on bone marrow stromal cells isolated from marrow transplant recipients correlates with a reduced capacity to support human B lymphopoiesis in vitro. (springer.com)
  • ARA55 expression was higher in PZ-old cells compared with PZ-young cells in vitro. (urotoday.com)
  • 2-5 In the late 1960s, Friedenstein and colleagues established that single cell suspensions of BM stroma could generate colonies of adherent fibroblast-like cells in vitro. (stemcell.com)
  • 7,8 Functional in vitro characterization of the stromal compartment by Dexter et al. (stemcell.com)
  • Maturation and stimulation with TSLP or polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in vitro upregulated the expression of both TSLPR and IL-7Ralpha chains in DC but not in chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells(+) CD4(+) T cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Gaede K.I., Mamat U., Schlaak M. et al (1999) Analysis of differentially regulated mRNAs in monocytic cells induced by in vitro stimulation, J. Mol. (scirp.org)
  • Intravenous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells preconditioned with early phase stroke serum: current evidence and study protocol for a randomized trial. (springer.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of therapy-resistant graft-versus-host disease. (springer.com)
  • Plasticity of marrow-derived stem cells. (springer.com)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Stem Cells International, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • There are different types of stem cells that have been classified according to their potency. (intechopen.com)
  • Multipotent stem cells that is, embryonic cells from the 14th day onward, have the ability to form all the differentiated cell types of a given tissue. (intechopen.com)
  • The stem cells that maintain only one lineage are described as unipotent [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the greatest potential to differentiate into all cell types. (intechopen.com)
  • In the present study we tested a new thymidine analog, 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU), for labeling and tracking of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), specifically adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC). (nih.gov)
  • Still, there are considerable challenges before effective stem cell treatment can be realized in emphysema patients. (rug.nl)
  • Human primary stromal cells (mesenchymal stem and progenitor cells) are produced by expanding bone marrow mononuclear cells (MNCs) in culture and cryopreserved following the first passage in culture. (stemcell.com)
  • Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic multipotential cells that support Hematopoetic stem cells . (jove.com)
  • As stem cells can be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves, their use in medical therapies has been proposed. (patientslikeme.com)
  • The tissue would be processed to extract the stromal layer of cells that contain stem cells. (mayo.edu)
  • They have been widely used clinically to improve the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants and to treat graft-vs. -host disease ( 2 , 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Bone marrow stromal cells are one of several adult stem cells, and their unique characteristics make them promising candidates for clinical applications. (drexel.edu)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells reside in bone marrow and develop into all the types of blood cells in the body. (drexel.edu)
  • Other supportive cells in the marrow provide support and nutrition to these stem cells. (drexel.edu)
  • Personal cell therapy for interstitial cystitis with autologous stromal vascular fraction stem cells. (urotoday.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate whether autologous stem-cell-based therapy may mitigate the symptoms of interstitial cystitis. (urotoday.com)
  • Stromal vascular fraction (SVF) rich in stem cells and derived from autologous adipose tissue was deployed into 109 men and women with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome as a surgical procedure. (urotoday.com)
  • This stem-cell-rich biologic product was injected both systemically and regionally into pelvic floor targets. (urotoday.com)
  • Correspondence: Jan E. Brinchmann, M.D., Ph.D., Norwegian Center for Stem Cell Research and Institute of Immunology, Oslo University Hospital-Rikshospitalet, P.O. Box 1121 Blindern, 0317 Oslo, Norway. (wiley.com)
  • On the other hand, multiple transduction cycles or antibiotic-based selection methods may alter the stem cell phenotype. (ovid.com)
  • In contrast, CD14, CD79α and the embryonic stem cell markers Oct-4, SSEA (stage specific embryonic antigen) -1, -3, -4, TRA (tumor rejection antigen) -1-60 and -1-81 are not expressed. (dovepress.com)
  • The gene for stem cell factor (SCF), the natural ligand for KIT, was cloned into 1st generation (SCF-CD3ζ, 1st gen) and 2nd generation (SCF-CD28-CD3ζ, 2nd gen) CIR constructs. (harvard.edu)
  • Mammalian bone marrow (BM) is a complex milieu of rare pluripotent stem cells, developmentally restricted stem cells, a range of immature to mature cells in distinct lymphohematopoietic lineages, and nonlymphohematopoietic cells (1) . (springer.com)
  • Since stem/progenitor cells recruited either from bone marrow or residing in nearby tissues can contribute to pathological processes we investigated endosialin in MSC using a novel monoclonal antibody. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • 5 While differentiating from hematopoietic stem cells, megakaryocytes migrate between 2 distinct microenvironments: the endosteal niche and the vascular niche. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Osteoblasts are derived from mesenchymal stem cells and the tightly regulated process is controlled by a cascade of transcription factors [ 3 , 4 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • A research study from the Farber Institute for Neurosciences and the Department of Neuroscience at Thomas Jefferson University determines bone marrow stromal stem cells may aid in stroke recovery. (nutritionreview.org)
  • The study examining the effects of a systematic administration of either rat (allogenic) or human (xenogenic) bone marrow stem cells (MSC) administered to laboratory rats one day after their simulated strokes found "significant recovery" of motor behavior on the first day. (nutritionreview.org)
  • The timing of stem cell treatment was critical to the magnitude of the positive effects," said the study's lead author, Lorraine Iacovitti, Ph.D., professor, Department of Neuroscience at Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University. (nutritionreview.org)
  • According to Dr. Iacovitti, there has been little research into just how stem cell transplantation modifies inflammatory and immune effects as well as promotes regenerative effects, such as blood vessel growth. (nutritionreview.org)
  • The research team concluded that there was "little doubt" that the administration of stem cells can modify the cellular and molecular landscape of the brain and blood, limiting damage and protecting the stroke-injured brain. (nutritionreview.org)
  • A major function of the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis is chemoattraction during leukocyte trafficking and stem cell homing, in which local tissue gradients of SDF-1 attract circulating hematopoietic and tissue-committed somatic stem cells ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CXCR4 is expressed in human embryonic stem cells destined to become endoderm ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Stem cells derived from diabetes patients often loose most of their regenerative potential. (ahajournals.org)
  • Human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) are a potential cell source of stem cell therapy for many serious diseases and hMSC spheroids have emerged to replace single cell suspensions for cell therapy. (rsc.org)
  • We first demonstrated that poly( N -isopropylacrylamide- co -acrylic acid) (p(NIPAAm-AA)) was not toxic to hMSCs and the microgel-formed constructs facilitated formation of uniform stem cell spheroids. (rsc.org)
  • Pevsner-Fisher M., Morad V., Cohen-Sfady M. et al (2007) Toll-like receptors and their ligands control mesenchymal stem cells function, Blood, 109, 1422-1432. (scirp.org)
  • Waterman R Waterman RS, Tomchuk SL et al (2010) A New Mesenchymal Stem Cell Paradigm: Polarization into a Pro-Inflammatory MSC-1 or an Immunosupressive VSC-2 Phenotipe, PLOS ONE, 5, 1-14. (scirp.org)
  • Stromal cells found within epithelial tumors can have a significant impact on the growth, vascularization, invasiveness and metastatic potential of the cancer. (jax.org)
  • Immunohistochemical evaluation of tumors grown subcutaneously in NSG and NRG mice demonstrated that human colon cancer epithelial cells remained highly proliferative. (jax.org)
  • Immunohistochemistry and direct fluorescence confirmed that mouse-derived stromal cells enter the human colon tumors following re-engraftment into the NSG -GFP secondary hosts. (jax.org)
  • Tumors showed disrupted cell organization, decreased cell viability, blood vessel loss, necrosis and mouse leukocyte infiltration. (jax.org)
  • In spite of major improvements in clinical management, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) can still be deadly due to metastasis and recurrences, which confirms the unmet need of reliable follow-up modalities. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In addition to a mass of cancer cells, tumors contain several other types of cells known collectively as stromal cells. (news-medical.net)
  • The research in this three-year NSF grant will utilize his lab's patented technology to make 3D culture models that mimic the morphology of tumors and reproduce the interactions between stromal and cancer cells. (news-medical.net)
  • This research examined how conjugated dietary fatty acids infuence stromal cells to inhibit blood vessel growth in rat mammary tumors. (aicr.org)
  • The laser beam can dissect tumors one cell at a time. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry for human endosialin in xenograft tumors following co-injection of MSC and cancer cells identified MSC in tumor stroma. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • T helper 2 (Th2) cells are defined by their ability to produce the hallmark cytokine IL-4. (pnas.org)
  • Here we report that a substantial proportion of naive CD4 + T cells in spleen and lymph node express receptors for the epithelium-derived inflammatory cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP). (pnas.org)
  • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) signals via a receptor comprising the interleukin (IL)-7 receptor α chain and a distinctive subunit, TSLP receptor (TSLPR), which is most related to the common cytokine receptor γ chain, γ c . (rupress.org)
  • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that was originally identified as a growth factor in the supernatant of the Z210R.1 thymic stromal cell line that could support the development of immature NAG8/7 B cells to the B220 + /IgM + stage ( 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • Conclusions: Results demonstrate that FL is produced spontaneously by BM stromal cells and that FL production is regulated by cytokine stimulation but not by ionizing radiations. (irsn.fr)
  • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an interleukin (IL)-7-like cytokine that triggers dendritic cell-mediated T helper (Th)2 inflammatory responses through a receptor consisting of a heterodimer of the IL-7 receptor alpha (IL-7Ralpha) chain and the TSLP receptor (TSLPR), which resembles the cytokine receptor common gamma chain. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Gorskaya, U. , Danilova, T. , Mezentseva, M. , Shapoval, I. and Nesterenko, V. (2011) Effect of antigens on colony forming efficiency of stromal clonogenic cells and expression of cytokine genes in primary cultures of bone marrow and spleen of mice. (scirp.org)
  • Allergen exposure primes IL-4 + Th2 cells in lymph node, but production of effector cytokines including IL-5 and IL-13 is thought to require additional signals from antigen and the environment. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to organizing T and B cell segregation and expressing lymphocyte survival factors, stromal cells support the migration and interactions between antigen presenting cells and naïve T and B cells during the initiation of immune responses and influence the outcome between tolerance and immunity. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Recombinant fragment, corresponding to a region within amino acids 1-146 of Human Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1. (abcam.com)
  • Flow cytometric analysis revealed that pMSC expressed surface antigens also found on hMSC, including CD90, MSCA-1 (TNAP/W8B2 antigen), CD44, CD29 and SLA class I. Clonogenic outgrowth was significantly enriched following selection of CD271+ cells from BM of human and pig (129 ± 29 and 1961 ± 485 fold, respectively). (wiley.com)
  • There are currently no images for Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1/CD157 Antibody (AF4710). (novusbio.com)
  • CD157, also known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1 (BST-1), is a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchored membrane protein that belongs to the CD38 family (1). (novusbio.com)
  • A gene on chromosome 4p15 that encodes bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-GPI-anchored molecule that facilitates pre-B-cell growth by synthesising cyclic ADP-ribose, a second messenger that elicits calcium release from intracellular stores. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The majority of TSLPR(+) cells were DC co-expressing blood DC antigen-1 (BDCA-1) or BDCA-2. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Injection of S. typhimurium antigen complex to mice CBA increased 5 times colony forming efficiency (CFE) and, respectively, content of stromal precursor cells (CFU-F) in femur bone marrow and 9 times in spleen of these animals with maximum at the first day. (scirp.org)
  • We used IL-4 and IL-13 dual-reporter mice to show that naive CD4 + T cells cultured in the presence of IL-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) generate a population of IL-4 neg IL-13 pos Th2 cells that develop from IL-4 neg precursors and express the Th2 effector cytokines IL-5 and IL-9. (pnas.org)
  • Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an important factor responsible for the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and asthma. (mdpi.com)
  • Moon P-D, Han N-R, Lee JS, Kim H-M, Jeong H-J. Effects of Linalyl Acetate on Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin Production in Mast Cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Like IL-7 KO mice, IL-7Rα KO mice exhibit severely reduced thymic cellularity and defective T cell maturation ( 2 , 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • In addition, daily injection of TSLP into γ c KO mice increased both thymic and splenic cellularities by enhancing the expansion of both T and B cells, with the accumulation of CD4 + T cells in the periphery. (rupress.org)
  • Seeding of thymic microenvironments defined by distinct thymocyte-stromal cell interactions is developmentally controlled. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, the ideal strategy should target not only T cells, which are the main players of alloimmunity, but regulate in a concerted action also B cells, dendritic cells and macrophages, which all contribute to both the acute and chronic alloimmune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • The results identify associations of thymocytes with I-A- macrophages in the cortex as the earliest discernible cell-cell interactions during thymopoiesis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The remaining ADSCs showed a partial dependence on dendritic cells (DCs) for survival. (jci.org)
  • B cells form follicles (B zone) and occasionally develop germinal centers during antigenic stimulation, while the majority of T cells accumulate adjacent to the follicles (T zone) and survey cognate Ags presented by dendritic cells (DCs). (jimmunol.org)
  • Two distinct stromal cell types, residing in different compartments and producing specific chemokines, play key roles in the localization of lymphocytes: in the B zone, follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) expressing CXCL13 and in the T zone, FRCs expressing CCL19 and CCL21 ( 7 , 8 , 9 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • After a significant delay, this recognition stage is followed by concomitant interactions of T cells with I-A+ epithelial cells in the cortex and bone marrow-derived I-A+ dendritic cells in the medulla. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dendritic cells activated by TSLP prime development of CD4(+) T cells into Th2 cells contributing to the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Osteoblasts, the bone-forming cells, derive from multipotential bone marrow stromal precursors called colony-forming units-fibroblastic (CFU-F). CFU-F rapidly adhere to plastic upon culture ex vivo, adhesion of such stromal precursors to bone in vivo is likely to be an early event in the anabolic response to bone stimulatory factors. (bl.uk)
  • Reticular fibroblastic and vascular stromal cells, important for secondary lymphoid organ formation and organization, express RANK and undergo hyperproliferation, which is abrogated by RANKL neutralization. (jimmunol.org)
  • Although devoid of direct effects on cells of hematopoietic origin, hIL-17 and the product of its viral counterpart, ORF13, stimulate epithelial, endothelial, and fibroblastic cells to secrete cytokines such as IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, as well as prostaglandin E2. (rupress.org)
  • We have also identified PDPN-expressing BM arteriolar stromal cells, tentatively termed as BM fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC)-like cells. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We also report alterations in the proportion and number of fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) between skin-draining and mesenteric lymph nodes. (harvard.edu)
  • Two major types of stromal cells related to early cancer development, cell lines HS5 and HS27a, are helpful in studying tumor cell growth and stromal interactions by deciphering crosstalk between stromal cells and clonal cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Hossein Tavana, Ph.D., an associate professor of biomedical engineering at The University of Akron (UA), has received a single-PI grant in the amount of $328,426 from the National Science Foundation (NSF) - his third federal grant this year - to study the role of stromal cells in cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • These results suggest that stromal/osteoblastic cells are IL-18-responsive cells and that IL-18 may inhibit osteoclastogenesis by up-regulating OPG expression, without stimulation of ODF production, in stromal/osteoblastic cells. (nih.gov)
  • In vivo, high TSLP levels promote the development of a similar population of IL-4 neg IL-13 pos T cells that also express Gata3 , Il5 , and Il3 transcripts. (pnas.org)
  • In vivo, high TSLP levels acted directly on CD4 + T cells to induce the development of IL-13-SP and IL-4 + IL-13 + double-positive populations in lymph node. (pnas.org)
  • C ) Confocal microscopic images of cadherin-11 expression (green) at adherens junctions on day-2 ex vivo SVF cell cultures. (jci.org)
  • Reversion of the malignant phenotype of human breast cells in three-dimensional culture and in vivo by integrin blocking antibodies. (springer.com)
  • In vivo, the consistent results were also found: PZ-old cells promoted prostate cancer cells growth, but this effect receded when knocking down ARA55 expression in PZ-old cells. (urotoday.com)
  • The development of fibroblast colonies in monolayer cultures of guinea-pig bone marrow and spleen cells. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that mesenchymal cadherin-11 modulates stromal fibroblast function. (jci.org)
  • Le Hir M, Hegyi I, Cueni-Loffing D, Loffing J, Kaissling B. Characterization of renal interstitial fibroblast-specific protein 1/S100A4-positive cells in healthy and inflamed rodent kidneys. (springer.com)
  • We now report that human colonic fibroblast cell lines produce significant amounts of PGI 2 and that fibroblast lines derived from normal-appearing colonic mucosa of hereditary nonpolyposis CRC individuals produce 50-fold more PGI 2 than normal fibroblast lines derived from individuals with nonhereditary CRC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present studies were performed to characterize PG production by human pericryptal fibroblast cell lines and to test the hypothesis that stromal PGs affect epithelial function and contribute to colon carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HLS cultures containing cells of predominantly fibroblast lineage can be grown on fibroin-based materials, but this process is dependent upon additional ECM factors such as those provided by serum. (arvojournals.org)
  • Whether adventitial reticular cells constitute a single cell type with origin in a common mesenchymal precursor is not known, but they manifest many attributes of fibroblast-like cells (3) . (springer.com)
  • Stroma is made up of the non-malignant cells, but can provide an extracellular matrix on which tumor cells can grow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers now recognize that therapies developed using these homogeneous cell lines, which are devoid of stroma, translate poorly to the clinic. (jax.org)
  • The overall maintenance of tumor growth and structural architecture suggested that the human stromal cells were dynamically replaced by mouse-derived stroma. (jax.org)
  • Studies of the interactions between tumour cells and the tumour stroma in regulating tumour metastasis have been the subject of intense investigations. (nature.com)
  • A dynamic and mutualistic interaction between tumour cells and the surrounding stroma promotes the initiation, progression, metastasis and chemoresistance of solid tumours. (nih.gov)
  • Angiogenesis is a key in cancer progression and its regulators are released both by the tumor cells and the stroma. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this study, human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were established in mice creating a tumor with species-specific cancer and stroma cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • ENL and ENL+GEN decreased both stroma- and cancer cell-derived VEGF, whereas cancer cell-derived PlGF increased. (diva-portal.org)
  • These results suggest that ENL has potent effects on breast cancer growth, even in combination with GEN, by downregulating E2-stimulated angiogenic factors derived both from the stroma and the cancer cells, whereas dietary GEN does not possess any antiestrogenic effects. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, the transcription and translation of VEGF were paradoxically increased by siHIF-1α, suggesting that VEGF expression in stromal cells is not down-stream of HIF-1α. (molvis.org)
  • Cellular therapy with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has recently emerged as a promising strategy to regulate anti-donor immune responses, allowing immunosuppressive drug minimization and tolerance induction. (frontiersin.org)
  • The therapeutic effect of ADSCs has been attributed to its secretion of paracrine factors, which can regulate the metabolism of target cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The present invention relates to an improved three-dimensional cell culture system in which cells are grown on a three-dimensional matrix while cycling the cultures between metabolically favorable and metabolically unfavorable (but noncytotoxic) conditions. (google.com)
  • Bone marrow cell suspensions were prepared from male B6C3F1-mice and cultured with hydroquinone (123319), benzoquinone (106514), catechol (120809), phenol (108952), and 1,2,4-benzenetriol (533733) at concentrations from 0.0000015 to formed in the presence of these metabolites was determined and compared with values from untreated stromal cell cultures. (cdc.gov)
  • Marrow samples from 89 patients with aplastic anemia (AA) were evaluated for their ability to grow stromal layers in standard long- term marrow cultures (LTMCs). (bloodjournal.org)
  • Primary cultures of HLS cells were established in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with either 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or 2% B27 supplement. (arvojournals.org)
  • The hematopoietic cells are not activated and respond to immunization by foreign Ag and adjuvant. (jimmunol.org)
  • The interaction between stromal cells and tumor cells is known to play a major role in cancer growth and progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stromal cells (in the dermis layer) adjacent to the epidermis (the very top layer of the skin) release growth factors that promote cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loss of these stromal growth factors when the cancer moves throughout the body prevents the cancer from invading other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • 17 Beside its role in supporting tumour growth and angiogenesis, CXCL12 was demonstrated to be important in helping select metastatic tumour cells for bone metastasis. (nature.com)
  • Stromal cells exposed to metabolites at these same concentrations were also cultured simultaneously with fresh bone marrow cells in agar to measure the effect on the ability of stromal cells to support growth of granulocyte monocyte colony forming cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Hydroquinone completely inhibited cell growth at concentrations above 0.0000125mole, and benzoquinone had the same effect at a concentration of 0.00005mol. (cdc.gov)
  • Research in recent years has shown that stromal cells play a major role in cancer growth and progression. (news-medical.net)
  • Treatments have only focused on the cancerous cells and largely neglected the stromal cells that contribute to tumor growth and persistence despite treatments. (news-medical.net)
  • May be involved in pre-B-cell growth. (abcam.com)
  • Ontologies such as peptidases, cell adhesion, cell death/cell cycle, growth factors, cytoskeletal organization, defense/immune system, signal transduction, and transcriptional regulation which are related to the development of endometriosis were represented by these genes. (scirp.org)
  • Indeed, solid tumor cells' growth and expansion can influence neighboring cells' behavior, leading to a modulation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) activities and remodeling of extracellular matrix components. (mdpi.com)
  • Furthermore, MSC can support the survival and growth of leukemic cells within bone marrow participating in the leukemic cell niche. (mdpi.com)
  • S-V cells from newborn pigs replicated faster and appeared more responsive to serum borne factors influencing S-V cell growth and development in culture. (oregonstate.edu)
  • CD157 was discovered in a bone marrow stromal cell line where it facilitates pre-B-cell growth (2, 3). (novusbio.com)
  • These cells form a uniform polarizing monolayer when cultured on Transwell filters, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is found predominantly at the basolateral surface, as it is in all polarized epithelial cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Basolateral but not apical delivery of the epidermal growth factor receptor ligand transforming growth factor α results in up-regulation of COX-2 and production of PGs that are released exclusively into the basolateral medium of polarized HCA-7 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We presently extend this body of work to studies of human limbal stromal cell (HLS) growth on fibroin in the presence and absence of serum. (arvojournals.org)
  • However, protection of cortical neurons [ 15 , 16 ], pancreatic cancer cells [ 16 ], and retinal photoreceptors require HIF-1α, which is generally associated with upregulation of protective growth factors such as VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and EPO (erythropoietin). (molvis.org)
  • Dittel, B. N. and LeBien, T. W. (1995) The growth response to Il-7 during human B cell ontogeny is restricted to B-lineage cells expressing CD34. (springer.com)
  • Stromal cells in the peripheral zone (PZ) of the prostate from older males (PZ-old) could significantly promote Prostate cancer (PCa) growth compared with stromal cells from young males (PZ-young). (urotoday.com)
  • After knocking down ARA55 expression in PZ-old cells, the PCa growth- promoting effect from the PZ-old cells was diminished, which may be explained by the decreased the progressive cytokines secretion (FGF-2, KGF, IGF-1) from PZ-old stromal cells. (urotoday.com)
  • An understanding of the factors that control β-cell growth and survival could provide new rational approaches for the treatment of diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The major sources of S1P are represented by activated platelets and by cells subjected to a various degree of damage or stimulation by different growth factors, thus suggesting a potential role for the sphingolipid in many physiological and pathological conditions [17, 25- (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Here we describe 'Estimation of STromal and Immune cells in MAlignant Tumours using Expression data' (ESTIMATE)-a method that uses gene expression signatures to infer the fraction of stromal and immune cells in tumour samples. (nature.com)
  • A higher percentage of immune cells was found in the white pulp of mice on day 16 of infection, suggesting a role for these cells in the development of crisis. (ajtmh.org)