Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A highly malignant subset of neoplasms arising from the endometrial stroma. Tumors in this group infiltrate the stroma with a wide range of atypia cells and numerous mitoses. They are capable of widespread metastases (NEOPLASM METASTASIS).
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The milieu surrounding neoplasms consisting of cells, vessels, soluble factors, and molecules, that can influence and be influenced by, the neoplasm's growth.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Group of chemokines with paired cysteines separated by a different amino acid. CXC chemokines are chemoattractants for neutrophils but not monocytes.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Cell separation is the process of isolating and distinguishing specific cell types or individual cells from a heterogeneous mixture, often through the use of physical or biological techniques.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A large multinuclear cell associated with the BONE RESORPTION. An odontoclast, also called cementoclast, is cytomorphologically the same as an osteoclast and is involved in CEMENTUM resorption.
Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
One of the six homologous proteins that specifically bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions. The function of this protein is not completely defined. However, several studies demonstrate that it inhibits IGF binding to cell surface receptors and thereby inhibits IGF-mediated mitogenic and cell metabolic actions. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1993;204(1):4-29)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for B-LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR5 RECEPTORS.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B and OSTEOPROTEGERIN. It plays an important role in regulating OSTEOCLAST differentiation and activation.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.
BENZOIC ACID amides.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Mature osteoblasts that have become embedded in the BONE MATRIX. They occupy a small cavity, called lacuna, in the matrix and are connected to adjacent osteocytes via protoplasmic projections called canaliculi.
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
Neoplasms derived from the primitive sex cord or gonadal stromal cells of the embryonic GONADS. They are classified by their presumed histogenesis and differentiation. From the sex cord, there are SERTOLI CELL TUMOR and GRANULOSA CELL TUMOR; from the gonadal stroma, LEYDIG CELL TUMOR and THECOMA. These tumors may be identified in either the OVARY or the TESTIS.
A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.
A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds containing a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4, often used in pharmaceuticals as smooth muscle relaxants, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and antihistamines, but can also be found as recreational drugs with stimulant and entactogen properties.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.
A PDGF receptor that binds specifically to both PDGF-A chains and PDGF-B chains. It contains a protein-tyrosine kinase activity that is involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.
Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.
Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.
Increase in constituent cells in the PROSTATE, leading to enlargement of the organ (hypertrophy) and adverse impact on the lower urinary tract function. This can be caused by increased rate of cell proliferation, reduced rate of cell death, or both.
Neoplasms of the endometrial stroma that sometimes involve the MYOMETRIUM. These tumors contain cells that may closely or remotely resemble the normal stromal cells. Endometrial stromal neoplasms are divided into three categories: (1) benign stromal nodules; (2) low-grade stromal sarcoma, or endolymphatic stromal myosis; and (3) malignant endometrial stromal sarcoma (SARCOMA, ENDOMETRIAL STROMAL).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Enzymes that catalyze the degradation of collagen by acting on the peptide bonds.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Formation of LYMPHOCYTES and PLASMA CELLS from the lymphoid stem cells which develop from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS in the BONE MARROW. These lymphoid stem cells differentiate into T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; PLASMA CELLS; or NK-cells (KILLER CELLS, NATURAL) depending on the organ or tissues (LYMPHOID TISSUE) to which they migrate.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A secreted member of the TNF receptor superfamily that negatively regulates osteoclastogenesis. It is a soluble decoy receptor of RANK LIGAND that inhibits both CELL DIFFERENTIATION and function of OSTEOCLASTS by inhibiting the interaction between RANK LIGAND and RECEPTOR ACTIVATOR OF NUCLEAR FACTOR-KAPPA B.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A tumor necrosis factor receptor family member that is specific for RANK LIGAND and plays a role in bone homeostasis by regulating osteoclastogenesis. It is also expressed on DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in regulating dendritic cell survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.

Stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. (1/4669)

The essential role of vitamin A and its metabolites, retinoids, in kidney development has been demonstrated in vitamin A deficiency and gene targeting studies. Retinoids signal via nuclear transcription factors belonging to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR) families. Inactivation of RARaplpha and RARbeta2 receptors together, but not singly, resulted in renal malformations, suggesting that within a given renal cell type, their concerted function is required for renal morphogenesis. At birth, RARalpha beta2(-) mutants displayed small kidneys, containing few ureteric bud branches, reduced numbers of nephrons and lacking the nephrogenic zone where new nephrons are continuously added. These observations have prompted us to investigate the role of RARalpha and RARbeta2 in renal development in detail. We have found that within the embryonic kidney, RARalpha and RARbeta2 are colocalized in stromal cells, but not in other renal cell types, suggesting that stromal cells mediate retinoid-dependent functions essential for renal development. Analysis of RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys at embryonic stages revealed that nephrons were formed and revealed no changes in the intensity or distribution of molecular markers specific for different metanephric mesenchymal cell types. In contrast the development of the collecting duct system was greatly impaired in RARalpha beta2(-) mutant kidneys. Fewer ureteric bud branches were present, and ureteric bud ends were positioned abnormally, at a distance from the renal capsule. Analysis of genes important for ureteric bud morphogenesis revealed that the proto-oncogene c-ret was downregulated. Our results suggest that RARalpha and RARbeta2 are required for generating stromal cell signals that maintain c-ret expression in the embryonic kidney. Since c-ret signaling is required for ureteric bud morphogenesis, loss of c-ret expression is a likely cause of impaired ureteric bud branching in RARalpha beta2(-) mutants.  (+info)

Establishment and characterization of nurse cell-like stromal cell lines from synovial tissues of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (2/4669)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the features of synovial stromal cells established from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and to define these cells as nurse cells. METHODS: Synovial nurse-like stromal cell lines (RA-SNCs) were established from patients with RA. These cell lines were examined for morphology, pseudoemperipolesis activity, cell surface markers, and cytokine production. The interaction between these RA-SNCs and a synovial tissue B cell clone was also examined. RESULTS: RA-SNCs had nurse cell activity. They spontaneously produced interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Furthermore, they produced IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha and expressed higher levels of the other cytokines after coculture with the B cell clone. Proliferation and Ig production by the B cell clone were dependent on direct contact with RA-SNCs. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the RA-SNCs were nurse cells. The findings suggest that RA-SNCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of RA by producing large amounts of cytokines and maintaining infiltrating lymphocytes.  (+info)

Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in human bone marrow. (3/4669)

The expression of neurotrophins and their receptors, the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75LNGFR) and the Trk receptors (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC), was investigated in human bone marrow from 16 weeks fetal age to adulthood. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, all transcripts encoding for catalytic and truncated human TrkB or TrkC receptors were detected together with trkAI transcripts, whereas trkAII transcripts were found only in control nerve tissues. Transcripts for the homologue of the rat truncated TrkC(ic113) receptor were identified for the first time in human tissue. Stromal adventitial reticular cells were found immunoreactive for all neutrophin receptors. In contrast, hematopoietic cell types were not immunoreactive for p75LNGFR but showed immunoreactivity for one or several Trk receptors. TrkA immunoreactivity was found in immature erythroblasts. Catalytic TrkB immunoreactivity was observed in eosinophilic metamyelocytes and polymorphonuclear cells. Truncated TrkB immunoreactivity was found in erythroblasts and megacaryocytes. Immunoreactivity for both catalytic and truncated TrkC receptor was observed in promyelocytes, myelocytes, some polymorphonuclear cells and megacaryocytes. Neutrophin transcript levels appeared higher at fetal than at adult stages, no variation in Trk family transcript levels was observed. The local expression of neurotrophin genes suggests a wide range of paracrine and/or autocrine mode of action through their corresponding receptors within the bone marrow.  (+info)

Marker molecules of human endometrial differentiation can be hormonally regulated under in-vitro conditions as in-vivo. (4/4669)

An established cell culture system of isolated human endometrial stromal and epithelial cells has been used to study the effects of oestrogen and progesterone, as well as their antagonists, upon endometrial cells. Normal hormonal regulation in vivo was investigated simultaneously in endometrial tissue samples taken at different phases of the menstrual cycle. Several marker molecules analysed by immunohistochemistry appeared to depend strongly on endocrine regulation and could be traced in culture. Immunohistochemically, basic parameters of cell biology were identified in vitro, e.g. cell proliferation (Ki-67), adhesion molecules (beta3 integrin) and paracrine factors (leukaemia inhibitory factor). The most reliable parameters to assess hormonal influences were oestrogen and progesterone receptor molecules. Immunohistochemical localization could be improved by molecular biological analysis using RT-PCR. In the presence of oestrogen, a significant expression of hormone receptors was also shown by RT-PCR, and withdrawal of oestrogens and addition of gestagen, i.e. medroxyprogesterone acetate, caused receptor downregulation. Addition of the anti-oestrogen ICI 182.780 to cell-culture medium significantly decreased the synthesis of progesterone receptors.  (+info)

Expression of the oxytocin receptor in relation to steroid receptors in the uterus of a primate model, the marmoset monkey. (5/4669)

The dynamics of the receptors for oestrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and oxytocin (OTR) in the marmoset uterus have been analysed throughout the entire cycle and early pregnancy. Uteri obtained during the early, mid/late and late proliferative phase, and the early, mid and late secretory phase and early pregnancy were examined by immunohistochemistry (OTR, ER, PR) and autoradiography (OTR). A massive upregulation of the ER in the cell nuclei of glandular epithelium and stromal cells during the mid proliferative phase was succeeded by a declining staining intensity and positively stained cell number in the secretory phase. PR immunoreactivity increased in the late proliferative phase and early secretory phase, mainly within the cell nuclei, and then declined in both intensity and cell number towards the mid to late secretory phase. Myometrium showed a similar staining pattern for the steroid receptors. OTR were expressed weakly in stroma throughout the entire cycle, increasing slightly in the secretory phase. Glandular epithelium showed positive staining only during the periovulatory period. Myometrial OTR expression was weak during the proliferative phase, increased towards the secretory phase, and was maximal in the late secretory phase. Myometrial tissue adjacent to endometrium was most strongly stained. A cyclic shift evidently occurred in the pattern of steroid receptors, perhaps reflecting the steroid environment or the luteinizing hormone increase associated with ovulation.  (+info)

Detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus DNA sequences in multiple myeloma bone marrow stromal cells. (6/4669)

Whether Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is associated with multiple myeloma (MM) remains controversial. We assayed for KSHV DNA sequences in long-term bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from 26 patients with MM and 4 normal donors. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers which amplify a KSHV gene sequence to yield a 233-bp fragment (KS330233 within open reading frame 26) was negative in all cases. Aliquots of these PCR products were used as templates in subsequent nested PCR, with primers that amplify a 186-bp product internal to KS330233. BMSCs from 24 of 26 (92%) patients with MM and 1 of 4 normal donors were KSHV PCR+. DNA sequence analyses showed interpatient specific mutations (2 to 3 bp). Both Southern blot and sequence analyses confirmed the specificity of PCR results. The presence of the KSHV gene sequences was further confirmed by amplifying T 1.1 (open reading frame [ORF] K7) and viral cyclin D (ORF 72), two other domains within the KSHV genome. Immunohistochemical studies of KSHV PCR+ MM BMSCs demonstrate expression of dendritic cell (DC) lineage markers (CD68, CD83, and fascin). Serological studies for the presence of KSHV lytic or latent antibodies were performed using sera from 53 MM patients, 12 normal donors, and 5 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/KSHV+ patients. No lytic or latent antibodies were present in sera from either MM patients or normal donors. Taken together, these findings show that KSHV DNA sequences are detectable in BMSCs from the majority of MM patients, but that serologic responses to KSHV are not present. Ongoing studies are defining whether the lack of antibody response is caused by the absence of ongoing infection, the presence of a novel viral strain associated with MM, or underlying immunodeficiency in these patients.  (+info)

In vitro hematopoietic and endothelial cell development from cells expressing TEK receptor in murine aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. (7/4669)

Recent studies have shown that long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first appear in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. Our immunohistochemistry study showed that TEK+ cells existed in the AGM region. Approximately 5% of AGM cells were TEK+, and most of these were CD34(+) and c-Kit+. We then established a coculture system of AGM cells using a stromal cell line, OP9, which is deficient in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). With this system, we showed that AGM cells at 10.5 days postcoitum (dpc) differentiated and proliferated into both hematopoietic and endothelial cells. Proliferating hematopoietic cells contained a significant number of colony-forming cells in culture (CFU-C) and in spleen (CFU-S). Among primary AGM cells at 10.5 dpc, sorted TEK+ AGM cells generated hematopoietic cells and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1(+) endothelial cells on the OP9 stromal layer, while TEK- cells did not. When a ligand for TEK, angiopoietin-1, was added to the single-cell culture of AGM, endothelial cell growth was detected in the wells where hematopoietic colonies grew. Although the incidence was still low (1/135), we showed that single TEK+ cells generated hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells simultaneously, using a single-cell deposition system. This in vitro coculture system shows that the TEK+ fraction of primary AGM cells is a candidate for hemangioblasts, which can differentiate into both hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells.  (+info)

A novel stromal cell-dependent B lymphoid stem-like cell line that induces immunoglobulin gene rearrangement. (8/4669)

A stroma-dependent B lymphoid cell line (B31-1) has been established by coculturing sorted stem cells on a novel bone marrow stromal cell line (TBR31-1). B31-1 cells express B220, but do not express other B lymphoid differentiation markers including CD43, heat stable antigen (HSA), or surface immunoglobulin (Ig) M (sIgM), and their Ig heavy chain (IgH) gene loci are germ-line in configuration. The addition of interleukin (IL)-7 or coculture with another stromal cell line, ST2, induces D-J rearrangement of the IgH gene and B lymphocyte differentiation markers. B31-1 cells restore an in vivo repopulation activity to lethally irradiated mice, and the repopulated cells differentiate to HSA+ pre-B cells.Continuous coculture results in two distinct populations, B220(-) c-Kit+ cells and B220(+) c-Kit+ cells; B220(-) c-Kit+ cells are self-renewed and differentiate to B220(+) c-Kit+ cells, while B220(+) c-Kit+ cells produce only B220(+) c-Kit+ cells. Both B220(-) and B220(+) cells similarly express the IgH germ-line transcript (Imu), mRNAs for recombinase (TdT, Rag-1, and Rag-2), and lymphoid-specific transcription factors (Pax-5, EBF, E12/E47, Oct-2, and Ikaros), but the DNA binding activity of Pax-5, EBF, Oct-2, and E2A are low in B220(-) cells and while high in B220(+) cells. These results suggest the existence of at least two active states in the IgH locus before the induction of IgH gene rearrangement during B lymphopoietic development.  (+info)

Stromal cells, also known as stromal/stroma cells, are a type of cell found in various tissues and organs throughout the body. They are often referred to as the "connective tissue" or "supporting framework" of an organ because they play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the tissue. Stromal cells include fibroblasts, adipocytes (fat cells), and various types of progenitor/stem cells. They produce and maintain the extracellular matrix, which is the non-cellular component of tissues that provides structural support and biochemical cues for other cells. Stromal cells also interact with immune cells and participate in the regulation of the immune response. In some contexts, "stromal cells" can also refer to cells found in the microenvironment of tumors, which can influence cancer growth and progression.

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells found in various tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood. They have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, under specific conditions. MSCs also possess immunomodulatory properties, making them a promising tool in regenerative medicine and therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and tissue injuries. It is important to note that the term "Mesenchymal Stem Cells" has been replaced by "Mesenchymal Stromal Cells" in the scientific community to better reflect their biological characteristics and potential functions.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

Coculture techniques refer to a type of experimental setup in which two or more different types of cells or organisms are grown and studied together in a shared culture medium. This method allows researchers to examine the interactions between different cell types or species under controlled conditions, and to study how these interactions may influence various biological processes such as growth, gene expression, metabolism, and signal transduction.

Coculture techniques can be used to investigate a wide range of biological phenomena, including the effects of host-microbe interactions on human health and disease, the impact of different cell types on tissue development and homeostasis, and the role of microbial communities in shaping ecosystems. These techniques can also be used to test the efficacy and safety of new drugs or therapies by examining their effects on cells grown in coculture with other relevant cell types.

There are several different ways to establish cocultures, depending on the specific research question and experimental goals. Some common methods include:

1. Mixed cultures: In this approach, two or more cell types are simply mixed together in a culture dish or flask and allowed to grow and interact freely.
2. Cell-layer cultures: Here, one cell type is grown on a porous membrane or other support structure, while the second cell type is grown on top of it, forming a layered coculture.
3. Conditioned media cultures: In this case, one cell type is grown to confluence and its culture medium is collected and then used to grow a second cell type. This allows the second cell type to be exposed to any factors secreted by the first cell type into the medium.
4. Microfluidic cocultures: These involve growing cells in microfabricated channels or chambers, which allow for precise control over the spatial arrangement and flow of nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules between different cell types.

Overall, coculture techniques provide a powerful tool for studying complex biological systems and gaining insights into the mechanisms that underlie various physiological and pathological processes.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

The corneal stroma, also known as the substantia propria, is the thickest layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. The cornea plays a crucial role in focusing vision.

The corneal stroma makes up about 90% of the cornea's thickness and is composed of parallel bundles of collagen fibers that are arranged in regular, repeating patterns. These fibers give the cornea its strength and transparency. The corneal stroma also contains a small number of cells called keratocytes, which produce and maintain the collagen fibers.

Disorders that affect the corneal stroma can cause vision loss or other eye problems. For example, conditions such as keratoconus, in which the cornea becomes thin and bulges outward, can distort vision and make it difficult to see clearly. Other conditions, such as corneal scarring or infection, can also affect the corneal stroma and lead to vision loss or other eye problems.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

The decidua is a specialized type of tissue that lines the uterus during pregnancy. It forms after the implantation of a fertilized egg (embryo) into the uterine lining, and it plays an important role in supporting the growth and development of the embryo and fetus.

The decidua is composed of several layers, including the decidual capsularis, which surrounds the embryo, and the decidual parietalis, which lines the rest of the uterus. The tissue is rich in blood vessels and contains a variety of immune cells that help to protect the developing fetus from infection.

During pregnancy, the decidua produces various hormones and growth factors that support the growth of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. After the birth of the baby, the decidua is shed along with the placenta in a process called childbirth or parturition.

It's worth noting that abnormalities in the decidua can contribute to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, preterm labor, and miscarriage.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12), also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), is a small signaling protein belonging to the chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of cytokines, or signaling molecules, that play important roles in immune responses and inflammation by recruiting and activating various immune cells.

CXCL12 is produced by several types of cells, including stromal cells, endothelial cells, and certain immune cells. It exerts its effects by binding to a specific receptor called C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), which is found on the surface of various cell types, including immune cells, stem cells, and some cancer cells.

The CXCL12-CXCR4 axis plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and neurogenesis (the formation of neurons). Additionally, this signaling pathway has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer metastasis, inflammatory diseases, and HIV infection.

In summary, Chemokine CXCL12 is a small signaling protein that binds to the CXCR4 receptor and plays essential roles in various physiological processes and pathological conditions.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are immature, self-renewing cells that give rise to all the mature blood and immune cells in the body. They are capable of both producing more hematopoietic stem cells (self-renewal) and differentiating into early progenitor cells that eventually develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. HSCs are found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. They have the ability to repair damaged tissues and offer significant therapeutic potential for treating various diseases, including hematological disorders, genetic diseases, and cancer.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Osteogenesis is the process of bone formation or development. It involves the differentiation and maturation of osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that synthesize and deposit the organic matrix of bone tissue, composed mainly of type I collagen. This organic matrix later mineralizes to form the inorganic crystalline component of bone, primarily hydroxyapatite.

There are two primary types of osteogenesis: intramembranous and endochondral. Intramembranous osteogenesis occurs directly within connective tissue, where mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into osteoblasts and form bone tissue without an intervening cartilage template. This process is responsible for the formation of flat bones like the skull and clavicles.

Endochondral osteogenesis, on the other hand, involves the initial development of a cartilaginous model or template, which is later replaced by bone tissue. This process forms long bones, such as those in the limbs, and occurs through several stages involving chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy, and calcification, followed by invasion of blood vessels and osteoblasts to replace the cartilage with bone tissue.

Abnormalities in osteogenesis can lead to various skeletal disorders and diseases, such as osteogenesis imperfecta (brittle bone disease), achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), and cleidocranial dysplasia (a disorder affecting skull and collarbone development).

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Endometrial stromal sarcoma is a rare type of cancer that arises from the connective tissue cells (stromal cells) of the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. This type of sarcoma is typically low-grade and slow-growing, but it can still metastasize or spread to other parts of the body.

Endometrial stromal sarcomas are usually diagnosed in postmenopausal women, although they can also occur in younger women. The most common symptom is abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially if it occurs after menopause. Other symptoms may include pelvic pain or a mass that can be felt during a physical examination.

The diagnosis of endometrial stromal sarcoma typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, MRI, or CT scan, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment usually involves surgery to remove the uterus and surrounding tissues, followed by hormone therapy, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy, depending on the stage and grade of the tumor. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Hematopoiesis is the process of forming and developing blood cells. It occurs in the bone marrow and includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), white blood cells (leukopoiesis), and platelets (thrombopoiesis). This process is regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and cytokines. Hematopoiesis begins early in fetal development and continues throughout a person's life. Disorders of hematopoiesis can result in conditions such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis.

Cell proliferation is the process by which cells increase in number, typically through the process of cell division. In the context of biology and medicine, it refers to the reproduction of cells that makes up living tissue, allowing growth, maintenance, and repair. It involves several stages including the transition from a phase of quiescence (G0 phase) to an active phase (G1 phase), DNA replication in the S phase, and mitosis or M phase, where the cell divides into two daughter cells.

Abnormal or uncontrolled cell proliferation is a characteristic feature of many diseases, including cancer, where deregulated cell cycle control leads to excessive and unregulated growth of cells, forming tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and metastasize to distant sites in the body.

Cell communication, also known as cell signaling, is the process by which cells exchange and transmit signals between each other and their environment. This complex system allows cells to coordinate their functions and maintain tissue homeostasis. Cell communication can occur through various mechanisms including:

1. Autocrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on the same cell, leading to changes in its behavior or function.
2. Paracrine signaling: When a cell releases a signal that binds to receptors on nearby cells, influencing their behavior or function.
3. Endocrine signaling: When a cell releases a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells and binds to specific receptors, triggering a response.
4. Synaptic signaling: In neurons, communication occurs through the release of neurotransmitters that cross the synapse and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic cell, transmitting electrical or chemical signals.
5. Contact-dependent signaling: When cells physically interact with each other, allowing for the direct exchange of signals and information.

Cell communication is essential for various physiological processes such as growth, development, differentiation, metabolism, immune response, and tissue repair. Dysregulation in cell communication can contribute to diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation (MSCT) is a medical procedure that involves the transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and muscle. These cells can be obtained from various sources, such as bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord blood, or dental pulp.

In MSCT, MSCs are typically harvested from the patient themselves (autologous transplantation) or from a donor (allogeneic transplantation). The cells are then processed and expanded in a laboratory setting before being injected into the patient's body, usually through an intravenous infusion.

MSCT is being investigated as a potential treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, including degenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, and tissue injuries. The rationale behind this approach is that MSCs have the ability to migrate to sites of injury or inflammation, where they can help to modulate the immune response, reduce inflammation, and promote tissue repair and regeneration.

However, it's important to note that while MSCT holds promise as a therapeutic option, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy for specific medical conditions.

Conditioned culture media refers to a type of growth medium that has been previously used to culture and maintain the cells of an organism. The conditioned media contains factors secreted by those cells, such as hormones, nutrients, and signaling molecules, which can affect the behavior and growth of other cells that are introduced into the media later on.

When the conditioned media is used for culturing a new set of cells, it can provide a more physiologically relevant environment than traditional culture media, as it contains factors that are specific to the original cell type. This can be particularly useful in studies that aim to understand cell-cell interactions and communication, or to mimic the natural microenvironment of cells in the body.

It's important to note that conditioned media should be handled carefully and used promptly after preparation, as the factors it contains can degrade over time and affect the quality of the results.

Multipotent stem cells are a type of stem cell that have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, but are more limited than pluripotent stem cells. These stem cells are found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and dental pulp. They can give rise to a number of different cell types within their own germ layer (endoderm, mesoderm, or ectoderm), but cannot cross germ layer boundaries. For example, multipotent stem cells found in bone marrow can differentiate into various blood cells such as red and white blood cells, but they cannot differentiate into nerve cells or liver cells. These stem cells play important roles in tissue repair and regeneration, and have potential therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Endometriosis is a medical condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grows outside the uterine cavity, most commonly on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the pelvic peritoneum. This misplaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it would inside the uterus, thickening, breaking down, and bleeding with each menstrual cycle. However, because it is outside the uterus, this blood and tissue have no way to exit the body and can lead to inflammation, scarring, and the formation of adhesions (tissue bands that bind organs together).

The symptoms of endometriosis may include pelvic pain, heavy menstrual periods, painful intercourse, and infertility. The exact cause of endometriosis is not known, but several theories have been proposed, including retrograde menstruation (the backflow of menstrual blood through the fallopian tubes into the pelvic cavity), genetic factors, and immune system dysfunction.

Endometriosis can be diagnosed through a combination of methods, such as medical history, physical examination, imaging tests like ultrasound or MRI, and laparoscopic surgery with tissue biopsy. Treatment options for endometriosis include pain management, hormonal therapies, and surgical intervention to remove the misplaced endometrial tissue. In severe cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be recommended, but this is typically considered a last resort due to its impact on fertility and quality of life.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Paracrine communication is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a cell releases a signaling molecule, known as a paracrine factor, that acts on nearby cells within the local microenvironment. This type of communication allows for the coordination and regulation of various cellular processes, including growth, differentiation, and survival.

Paracrine factors can be released from a cell through various mechanisms, such as exocytosis or diffusion through the extracellular matrix. Once released, these factors bind to specific receptors on the surface of nearby cells, triggering intracellular signaling pathways that lead to changes in gene expression and cell behavior.

Paracrine communication is an important mechanism for maintaining tissue homeostasis and coordinating responses to injury or disease. For example, during wound healing, paracrine signals released by immune cells can recruit other cells to the site of injury and stimulate their proliferation and differentiation to promote tissue repair.

It's worth noting that paracrine communication should be distinguished from autocrine signaling, where a cell releases a signaling molecule that binds back to its own receptors, and endocrine signaling, where a hormone is released into the bloodstream and travels to distant target cells.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

Cell culture is a technique used in scientific research to grow and maintain cells from plants, animals, or humans in a controlled environment outside of their original organism. This environment typically consists of a sterile container called a cell culture flask or plate, and a nutrient-rich liquid medium that provides the necessary components for the cells' growth and survival, such as amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and hormones.

There are several different types of cell culture techniques used in research, including:

1. Adherent cell culture: In this technique, cells are grown on a flat surface, such as the bottom of a tissue culture dish or flask. The cells attach to the surface and spread out, forming a monolayer that can be observed and manipulated under a microscope.
2. Suspension cell culture: In suspension culture, cells are grown in liquid medium without any attachment to a solid surface. These cells remain suspended in the medium and can be agitated or mixed to ensure even distribution of nutrients.
3. Organoid culture: Organoids are three-dimensional structures that resemble miniature organs and are grown from stem cells or other progenitor cells. They can be used to study organ development, disease processes, and drug responses.
4. Co-culture: In co-culture, two or more different types of cells are grown together in the same culture dish or flask. This technique is used to study cell-cell interactions and communication.
5. Conditioned medium culture: In this technique, cells are grown in a medium that has been conditioned by previous cultures of other cells. The conditioned medium contains factors secreted by the previous cells that can influence the growth and behavior of the new cells.

Cell culture techniques are widely used in biomedical research to study cellular processes, develop drugs, test toxicity, and investigate disease mechanisms. However, it is important to note that cell cultures may not always accurately represent the behavior of cells in a living organism, and results from cell culture experiments should be validated using other methods.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Embryo implantation is the process by which a fertilized egg, or embryo, becomes attached to the wall of the uterus (endometrium) and begins to receive nutrients from the mother's blood supply. This process typically occurs about 6-10 days after fertilization and is a critical step in the establishment of a successful pregnancy.

During implantation, the embryo secretes enzymes that help it to burrow into the endometrium, while the endometrium responds by producing receptors for the embryo's enzymes and increasing blood flow to the area. The embryo then begins to grow and develop, eventually forming the placenta, which will provide nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus throughout pregnancy.

Implantation is a complex process that requires precise timing and coordination between the embryo and the mother's body. Factors such as age, hormonal imbalances, and uterine abnormalities can affect implantation and increase the risk of miscarriage or difficulty becoming pregnant.

A Colony-Forming Units (CFU) assay is a type of laboratory test used to measure the number of viable, or living, cells in a sample. It is commonly used to enumerate bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms. The test involves placing a known volume of the sample onto a nutrient-agar plate, which provides a solid growth surface for the cells. The plate is then incubated under conditions that allow the cells to grow and form colonies. Each colony that forms on the plate represents a single viable cell from the original sample. By counting the number of colonies and multiplying by the known volume of the sample, the total number of viable cells in the sample can be calculated. This information is useful in a variety of applications, including monitoring microbial populations, assessing the effectiveness of disinfection procedures, and studying microbial growth and survival.

Osteoblasts are specialized bone-forming cells that are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. They play a crucial role in the process of bone formation and remodeling. Osteoblasts synthesize, secrete, and mineralize the organic matrix of bones, which is mainly composed of type I collagen.

These cells have receptors for various hormones and growth factors that regulate their activity, such as parathyroid hormone, vitamin D, and transforming growth factor-beta. When osteoblasts are not actively producing bone matrix, they can become trapped within the matrix they produce, where they differentiate into osteocytes, which are mature bone cells that play a role in maintaining bone structure and responding to mechanical stress.

Abnormalities in osteoblast function can lead to various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is a type of protein found on the surface of some cells, including white blood cells, and is a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). CXCR4 binds specifically to the chemokine ligand CXCL12 (also known as stromal cell-derived factor 1, or SDF-1), which plays a crucial role in the trafficking and homing of immune cells, particularly hematopoietic stem cells and lymphocytes. The binding of CXCL12 to CXCR4 triggers various intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell migration, proliferation, survival, and differentiation.

In addition to its role in the immune system, CXCR4 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, such as embryonic development, neurogenesis, angiogenesis, cancer metastasis, and HIV infection. In cancer, the overexpression of CXCR4 or increased levels of its ligand CXCL12 have been associated with poor prognosis, tumor growth, and metastasis in various types of malignancies, including breast, lung, prostate, colon, and ovarian cancers. In HIV infection, the CXCR4 coreceptor, together with CD4, facilitates viral entry into host cells, particularly during the later stages of the disease when the virus shifts its preference from CCR5 to CXCR4 as a coreceptor.

In summary, CXCR4 is a cell-surface receptor that binds specifically to the chemokine ligand CXCL12 and plays essential roles in immune cell trafficking, hematopoiesis, cancer metastasis, and HIV infection.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a complex and dynamic setting that consists of various cellular and non-cellular components, which interact with each other and contribute to the growth, progression, and dissemination of cancer. The TME includes:

1. Cancer cells: These are the malignant cells that grow uncontrollably, invade surrounding tissues, and can spread to distant organs.
2. Stromal cells: These are non-cancerous cells present within the tumor, including fibroblasts, immune cells, adipocytes, and endothelial cells. They play a crucial role in supporting the growth of cancer cells by providing structural and nutritional support, modulating the immune response, and promoting angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels).
3. Extracellular matrix (ECM): This is the non-cellular component of the TME, consisting of a network of proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides that provide structural support and regulate cell behavior. The ECM can be remodeled by both cancer and stromal cells, leading to changes in tissue stiffness, architecture, and signaling pathways.
4. Soluble factors: These include various cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and metabolites that are secreted by both cancer and stromal cells. They can act as signaling molecules, influencing cell behavior, survival, proliferation, and migration.
5. Blood vessels: The formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) within the TME is essential for providing nutrients and oxygen to support the growth of cancer cells. The vasculature in the TME is often disorganized, leading to hypoxic (low oxygen) regions and altered drug delivery.
6. Immune cells: The TME contains various immune cell populations, such as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), dendritic cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and different subsets of T lymphocytes. These cells can either promote or inhibit the growth and progression of cancer, depending on their phenotype and activation status.
7. Niche: A specific microenvironment within the TME that supports the survival and function of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells. The niche is often characterized by unique cellular components, signaling molecules, and physical properties that contribute to the maintenance and propagation of CSCs.

Understanding the complex interactions between these various components in the TME can provide valuable insights into cancer biology and help inform the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-kit, also known as CD117 or stem cell factor receptor, are transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases that play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration. They are encoded by the c-KIT gene located on human chromosome 4q12.

These proteins consist of an extracellular ligand-binding domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. The binding of their ligand, stem cell factor (SCF), leads to receptor dimerization, autophosphorylation, and activation of several downstream signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, and JAK/STAT.

Abnormal activation or mutation of c-kit proto-oncogene proteins has been implicated in the development and progression of various malignancies, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), mast cell diseases, and melanoma. Targeted therapies against c-kit, such as imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), have shown promising results in the treatment of these malignancies.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

The prostate is a small gland that is part of the male reproductive system. Its main function is to produce a fluid that, together with sperm cells from the testicles and fluids from other glands, makes up semen. This fluid nourishes and protects the sperm, helping it to survive and facilitating its movement.

The prostate is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum. It surrounds part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. This means that prostate problems can affect urination and sexual function. The prostate gland is about the size of a walnut in adult men.

Prostate health is an important aspect of male health, particularly as men age. Common prostate issues include benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is an enlarged prostate not caused by cancer, and prostate cancer, which is one of the most common types of cancer in men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help to detect any potential problems early and improve outcomes.

CD34 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain cells in the human body. Specifically, CD34 antigens are present on hematopoietic stem cells, which are immature cells that can develop into different types of blood cells. These stem cells are found in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

CD34 antigens are a type of cell surface marker that is used in medical research and clinical settings to identify and isolate hematopoietic stem cells. They are also used in the development of stem cell therapies and transplantation procedures. CD34 antigens can be detected using various laboratory techniques, such as flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry.

It's important to note that while CD34 is a useful marker for identifying hematopoietic stem cells, it is not exclusive to these cells and can also be found on other cell types, such as endothelial cells that line blood vessels. Therefore, additional markers are often used in combination with CD34 to more specifically identify and isolate hematopoietic stem cells.

Chemokines are a family of small signaling proteins that are involved in immune regulation and inflammation. They mediate their effects by interacting with specific cell surface receptors, leading to the activation and migration of various types of immune cells. Chemokines can be divided into four subfamilies based on the arrangement of conserved cysteine residues near the N-terminus: CXC, CC, C, and CX3C.

CXC chemokines are characterized by the presence of a single amino acid (X) between the first two conserved cysteine residues. They play important roles in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, which are critical effector cells in the early stages of inflammation. CXC chemokines can be further divided into two subgroups based on the presence or absence of a specific amino acid sequence (ELR motif) near the N-terminus: ELR+ and ELR-.

ELR+ CXC chemokines, such as IL-8, are potent chemoattractants for neutrophils and play important roles in the recruitment of these cells to sites of infection or injury. They bind to and activate the CXCR1 and CXCR2 receptors on the surface of neutrophils, leading to their migration towards the source of the chemokine.

ELR- CXC chemokines, such as IP-10 and MIG, are involved in the recruitment of T cells and other immune cells to sites of inflammation. They bind to and activate different receptors, such as CXCR3, on the surface of these cells, leading to their migration towards the source of the chemokine.

Overall, CXC chemokines play important roles in the regulation of immune responses and inflammation, and dysregulation of their expression or activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

The menstrual cycle is a series of natural changes that occur in the female reproductive system over an approximate 28-day interval, marking the body's preparation for potential pregnancy. It involves the interplay of hormones that regulate the growth and disintegration of the uterine lining (endometrium) and the release of an egg (ovulation) from the ovaries.

The menstrual cycle can be divided into three main phases:

1. Menstrual phase: The cycle begins with the onset of menstruation, where the thickened uterine lining is shed through the vagina, lasting typically for 3-7 days. This shedding occurs due to a decrease in estrogen and progesterone levels, which are hormones essential for maintaining the endometrium during the previous cycle.

2. Follicular phase: After menstruation, the follicular phase commences with the pituitary gland releasing follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). FSH stimulates the growth of several ovarian follicles, each containing an immature egg. One dominant follicle usually becomes selected to mature and release an egg during ovulation. Estrogen levels rise as the dominant follicle grows, causing the endometrium to thicken in preparation for a potential pregnancy.

3. Luteal phase: Following ovulation, the ruptured follicle transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and estrogen to further support the endometrial thickening. If fertilization does not occur within approximately 24 hours after ovulation, the corpus luteum will degenerate, leading to a decline in hormone levels. This drop triggers the onset of menstruation, initiating a new menstrual cycle.

Understanding the menstrual cycle is crucial for monitoring reproductive health and planning or preventing pregnancies. Variations in cycle length and symptoms are common among women, but persistent irregularities may indicate underlying medical conditions requiring further evaluation by a healthcare professional.

Connective tissue cells are a type of cell that are responsible for the production and maintenance of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which provides structural support and separates different tissues in the body. There are several types of connective tissue cells, including:

1. Fibroblasts: These are the most common type of connective tissue cell. They produce and maintain the ECM by synthesizing and secreting collagen, elastin, and other proteins that give the matrix its strength and elasticity.
2. Chondrocytes: These cells are found in cartilage and are responsible for producing and maintaining the cartilaginous matrix, which is composed of collagen and proteoglycans.
3. Osteoblasts: These cells are responsible for the formation and mineralization of bone tissue. They produce and secrete type I collagen and other proteins that form the organic matrix of bone, and they also regulate the deposition of calcium salts that mineralize the matrix.
4. Adipocytes: These are fat cells that store energy in the form of lipids. They are found in adipose tissue, which is a type of connective tissue that provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
5. Macrophages: These are large, mobile phagocytic cells that play an important role in the immune system. They are derived from monocytes and are found in many types of connective tissue, where they help to remove foreign particles, debris, and microorganisms.
6. Mast cells: These are connective tissue cells that contain granules filled with histamine, heparin, and other substances that are involved in inflammation and allergic reactions. They play a role in the immune response by releasing these granules when activated by antigens or other stimuli.

Connective tissue cells are essential for maintaining the structure and function of the body's tissues and organs, and they play an important role in wound healing, tissue repair, and the immune response.

Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a small signaling protein that is involved in the development and function of immune cells, particularly T cells and B cells. It is produced by stromal cells found in the bone marrow, thymus, and lymphoid organs. IL-7 binds to its receptor, IL-7R, which is expressed on the surface of immature T cells and B cells, as well as some mature immune cells.

IL-7 plays a critical role in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of T cells and B cells during their development in the thymus and bone marrow, respectively. It also helps to maintain the homeostasis of these cell populations in peripheral tissues by promoting their survival and preventing apoptosis.

In addition to its role in immune cell development and homeostasis, IL-7 has been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune disorders. However, further research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and potential side effects before it can be widely used in clinical settings.

The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It plays a crucial role in focusing vision. The cornea protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms, and it also serves as a barrier against UV light. Its transparency allows light to pass through and get focused onto the retina. The cornea does not contain blood vessels, so it relies on tears and the fluid inside the eye (aqueous humor) for nutrition and oxygen. Any damage or disease that affects its clarity and shape can significantly impact vision and potentially lead to blindness if left untreated.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Cell adhesion refers to the binding of cells to extracellular matrices or to other cells, a process that is fundamental to the development, function, and maintenance of multicellular organisms. Cell adhesion is mediated by various cell surface receptors, such as integrins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (Ig-CAMs), which interact with specific ligands in the extracellular environment. These interactions lead to the formation of specialized junctions, such as tight junctions, adherens junctions, and desmosomes, that help to maintain tissue architecture and regulate various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Disruptions in cell adhesion can contribute to a variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and degenerative disorders.

The thymus gland is an essential organ of the immune system, located in the upper chest, behind the sternum and surrounding the heart. It's primarily active until puberty and begins to shrink in size and activity thereafter. The main function of the thymus gland is the production and maturation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells), which are crucial for cell-mediated immunity, helping to protect the body from infection and cancer.

The thymus gland provides a protected environment where immune cells called pre-T cells develop into mature T cells. During this process, they learn to recognize and respond appropriately to foreign substances while remaining tolerant to self-tissues, which is crucial for preventing autoimmune diseases.

Additionally, the thymus gland produces hormones like thymosin that regulate immune cell activities and contribute to the overall immune response.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Adipogenesis is the process by which precursor cells differentiate into mature adipocytes, or fat cells. This complex biological process involves a series of molecular and cellular events that are regulated by various genetic and epigenetic factors.

During adipogenesis, preadipocytes undergo a series of changes that include cell cycle arrest, morphological alterations, and the expression of specific genes that are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. These changes ultimately result in the formation of mature adipocytes that are capable of storing energy in the form of lipids.

Abnormalities in adipogenesis have been linked to various health conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate adipogenesis is an active area of research, as it may lead to the development of new therapies for these and other related diseases.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

'Cell lineage' is a term used in biology and medicine to describe the developmental history or relationship of a cell or group of cells to other cells, tracing back to the original progenitor or stem cell. It refers to the series of cell divisions and differentiation events that give rise to specific types of cells in an organism over time.

In simpler terms, cell lineage is like a family tree for cells, showing how they are related to each other through a chain of cell division and specialization events. This concept is important in understanding the development, growth, and maintenance of tissues and organs in living beings.

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is an enzyme found in various body tissues, including the liver, bile ducts, digestive system, bones, and kidneys. It plays a role in breaking down proteins and minerals, such as phosphate, in the body.

The medical definition of alkaline phosphatase refers to its function as a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from molecules at an alkaline pH level. In clinical settings, ALP is often measured through blood tests as a biomarker for various health conditions.

Elevated levels of ALP in the blood may indicate liver or bone diseases, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, bone fractures, or cancer. Therefore, physicians may order an alkaline phosphatase test to help diagnose and monitor these conditions. However, it is essential to interpret ALP results in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical findings for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

SCID mice is an acronym for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency mice. These are genetically modified mice that lack a functional immune system due to the mutation or knockout of several key genes required for immunity. This makes them ideal for studying the human immune system, infectious diseases, and cancer, as well as testing new therapies and treatments in a controlled environment without the risk of interference from the mouse's own immune system. SCID mice are often used in xenotransplantation studies, where human cells or tissues are transplanted into the mouse to study their behavior and interactions with the human immune system.

Cell separation is a process used to separate and isolate specific cell types from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. This can be accomplished through various physical or biological methods, depending on the characteristics of the cells of interest. Some common techniques for cell separation include:

1. Density gradient centrifugation: In this method, a sample containing a mixture of cells is layered onto a density gradient medium and then centrifuged. The cells are separated based on their size, density, and sedimentation rate, with denser cells settling closer to the bottom of the tube and less dense cells remaining near the top.

2. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS): This technique uses magnetic beads coated with antibodies that bind to specific cell surface markers. The labeled cells are then passed through a column placed in a magnetic field, which retains the magnetically labeled cells while allowing unlabeled cells to flow through.

3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS): In this method, cells are stained with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies that recognize specific cell surface or intracellular markers. The stained cells are then passed through a laser beam, which excites the fluorophores and allows for the detection and sorting of individual cells based on their fluorescence profile.

4. Filtration: This simple method relies on the physical size differences between cells to separate them. Cells can be passed through filters with pore sizes that allow smaller cells to pass through while retaining larger cells.

5. Enzymatic digestion: In some cases, cells can be separated by enzymatically dissociating tissues into single-cell suspensions and then using various separation techniques to isolate specific cell types.

These methods are widely used in research and clinical settings for applications such as isolating immune cells, stem cells, or tumor cells from biological samples.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of protein that plays a crucial role in communication between cells, especially in the immune system. It is produced by various cells including T-cells, B-cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection, injury, or inflammation.

IL-6 has diverse effects on different cell types. In the immune system, it stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies. It also promotes the activation and survival of T-cells. Moreover, IL-6 plays a role in fever induction by acting on the hypothalamus to raise body temperature during an immune response.

In addition to its functions in the immune system, IL-6 has been implicated in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), bone metabolism, and neural development. However, abnormal levels of IL-6 have also been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells that are primarily responsible for bone resorption, a process in which they break down and dissolve the mineralized matrix of bones. They are derived from monocyte-macrophage precursor cells of hematopoietic origin and play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by balancing bone formation and bone resorption.

Osteoclasts adhere to the bone surface and create an isolated microenvironment, called the "resorption lacuna," between their cell membrane and the bone surface. Here, they release hydrogen ions into the lacuna through a process called proton pumping, which lowers the pH and dissolves the mineral component of the bone matrix. Additionally, osteoclasts secrete proteolytic enzymes, such as cathepsin K, that degrade the organic components, like collagen, in the bone matrix.

An imbalance in osteoclast activity can lead to various bone diseases, including osteoporosis and Paget's disease, where excessive bone resorption results in weakened and fragile bones.

Connective tissue is a type of biological tissue that provides support, strength, and protection to various structures in the body. It is composed of cells called fibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. These components give connective tissue its unique properties, including tensile strength, elasticity, and resistance to compression.

There are several types of connective tissue in the body, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Some examples include:

1. Loose or Areolar Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue is found throughout the body and provides cushioning and support to organs and other structures. It contains a large amount of ground substance, which allows for the movement and gliding of adjacent tissues.
2. Dense Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue has a higher concentration of collagen fibers than loose connective tissue, making it stronger and less flexible. Dense connective tissue can be further divided into two categories: regular (or parallel) and irregular. Regular dense connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, has collagen fibers that run parallel to each other, providing great tensile strength. Irregular dense connective tissue, such as the dermis of the skin, has collagen fibers arranged in a more haphazard pattern, providing support and flexibility.
3. Adipose Tissue: This type of connective tissue is primarily composed of fat cells called adipocytes. Adipose tissue serves as an energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
4. Cartilage: A firm, flexible type of connective tissue that contains chondrocytes within a matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage is found in various parts of the body, including the joints, nose, ears, and trachea.
5. Bone: A specialized form of connective tissue that consists of an organic matrix (mainly collagen) and an inorganic mineral component (hydroxyapatite). Bone provides structural support to the body and serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate ions.
6. Blood: Although not traditionally considered connective tissue, blood does contain elements of connective tissue, such as plasma proteins and leukocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of biomolecules that provides structural and biochemical support to cells in tissues and organs. It is composed of various proteins, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides, such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and proteoglycans. The ECM plays crucial roles in maintaining tissue architecture, regulating cell behavior, and facilitating communication between cells. It provides a scaffold for cell attachment, migration, and differentiation, and helps to maintain the structural integrity of tissues by resisting mechanical stresses. Additionally, the ECM contains various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines that can influence cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Overall, the extracellular matrix is essential for the normal functioning of tissues and organs, and its dysregulation can contribute to various pathological conditions, including fibrosis, cancer, and degenerative diseases.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) is a protein that belongs to the insulin-like growth factor binding protein family. These proteins play a crucial role in regulating the biological actions of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), specifically IGF-I and IGF-II, by controlling their availability and activity in the body.

IGFBP-1 is primarily produced by the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. It has a high affinity for IGF-I and, to a lesser extent, IGF-II, forming complexes that can either prolong or shorten the half-life of these growth factors in circulation, depending on various physiological conditions.

In addition to its role as an IGF carrier protein, IGFBP-1 also exhibits IGF-independent functions, such as interacting with cell surface receptors and extracellular matrix components, which contribute to the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The expression and secretion of IGFBP-1 are influenced by several factors, including hormonal status, nutritional state, and metabolic conditions, making it a valuable biomarker for various physiological and pathological processes.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling protein involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). TGF-β plays a critical role in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It also has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

TGF-β exists in multiple isoforms (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3) that are produced by many different cell types, including immune cells, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. The protein is synthesized as a precursor molecule, which is cleaved to release the active TGF-β peptide. Once activated, TGF-β binds to its receptors on the cell surface, leading to the activation of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate gene expression and cell behavior.

In summary, Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and wound healing. It has been implicated in several pathological conditions such as fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

The Lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTβR) is a type III transmembrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). It is primarily expressed on the surface of various cell types, including immune cells such as lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and stromal cells in lymphoid organs.

LTβR binds to its ligands, Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTα) and Lymphotoxin-beta (LTβ), which are primarily produced by activated T-cells and B-cells. The binding of LTα/LTβ to LTβR triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various downstream signaling pathways, including NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

The activation of LTβR plays critical roles in the development and organization of lymphoid tissues, immune responses, and inflammation. Dysregulation of LTβR signaling has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis.

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), also known as B cell-attracting chemokine 1 (BCA-1) or B lymphocyte chemoattractant (BLC), is a small signaling protein belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Chemokines are a group of chemotactic cytokines that play crucial roles in immunological and inflammatory processes, mainly by recruiting and activating various leukocytes.

CXCL13 is primarily produced by stromal cells, including follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within secondary lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleen, and Peyer's patches. This chemokine specifically binds to the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5), which is expressed on various immune cells, most notably B cells, follicular helper T cells (Tfh), and some dendritic cell subsets.

The primary function of CXCL13 is to orchestrate the migration and positioning of immune cells, particularly B cells, within secondary lymphoid organs during an immune response. By attracting CXCR5-expressing B cells and Tfh cells, CXCL13 plays a critical role in the formation and maintenance of germinal centers (GCs), which are specialized microanatomical structures where affinity maturation and class switch recombination of B cells occur.

Abnormal levels or functions of CXCL13 have been implicated in several pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), certain types of cancer, and neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis (MS) and Alzheimer's disease.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a type of cytokine, which is a small signaling protein involved in the immune response and hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells). IL-11 is primarily produced by bone marrow stromal cells and is involved in regulating the production and function of platelets, which are cell fragments necessary for blood clotting.

IL-11 has a number of biological activities, including promoting the growth and differentiation of megakaryocytes (the precursor cells to platelets), stimulating the production of acute phase proteins during inflammation, and regulating the function of certain immune cells. In addition, IL-11 has been shown to have effects on other tissues, including promoting the growth and survival of some cancer cells.

Dysregulation of IL-11 signaling has been implicated in a number of diseases, including thrombocytopenia (low platelet count), certain types of anemia, and various cancers.

Tissue engineering is a branch of biomedical engineering that combines the principles of engineering, materials science, and biological sciences to develop functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs. It involves the creation of living, three-dimensional structures that can restore, maintain, or improve tissue function. This is typically accomplished through the use of cells, scaffolds (biodegradable matrices), and biologically active molecules. The goal of tissue engineering is to develop biological substitutes that can ultimately restore normal function and structure in damaged tissues or organs.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

REceptor Activator of NF-kB (RANK) Ligand is a type of protein that plays a crucial role in the immune system and bone metabolism. It belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and is primarily produced by osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

RANK Ligand binds to its receptor RANK, which is found on the surface of osteoclasts, a type of cell involved in bone resorption or breakdown. The binding of RANK Ligand to RANK activates signaling pathways that promote the differentiation, activation, and survival of osteoclasts, thereby increasing bone resorption.

Abnormalities in the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway have been implicated in various bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain types of cancer that metastasize to bones. Therefore, targeting this pathway with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising approach for the treatment of these conditions.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells help your body fight infection by producing antibodies. In multiple myeloma, cancerous plasma cells accumulate in the bone marrow and crowd out healthy blood cells. Rather than producing useful antibodies, the cancer cells produce abnormal proteins that can cause complications such as kidney damage, bone pain and fractures.

Multiple myeloma is a type of cancer called a plasma cell neoplasm. Plasma cell neoplasms are diseases in which there is an overproduction of a single clone of plasma cells. In multiple myeloma, this results in the crowding out of normal plasma cells, red and white blood cells and platelets, leading to many of the complications associated with the disease.

The abnormal proteins produced by the cancer cells can also cause damage to organs and tissues in the body. These abnormal proteins can be detected in the blood or urine and are often used to monitor the progression of multiple myeloma.

Multiple myeloma is a relatively uncommon cancer, but it is the second most common blood cancer after non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It typically occurs in people over the age of 65, and men are more likely to develop multiple myeloma than women. While there is no cure for multiple myeloma, treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation can help manage the disease and its symptoms, and improve quality of life.

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA) is a specific isoform of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. It is a well-characterized signaling protein that plays a crucial role in angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation from pre-existing vessels. VEGFA stimulates the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, thereby contributing to the growth and development of new vasculature. This protein is essential for physiological processes such as embryonic development and wound healing, but it has also been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. The regulation of VEGFA expression and activity is critical to maintaining proper vascular function and homeostasis.

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

Immunophenotyping is a medical laboratory technique used to identify and classify cells, usually in the context of hematologic (blood) disorders and malignancies (cancers), based on their surface or intracellular expression of various proteins and antigens. This technique utilizes specific antibodies tagged with fluorochromes, which bind to the target antigens on the cell surface or within the cells. The labeled cells are then analyzed using flow cytometry, allowing for the detection and quantification of multiple antigenic markers simultaneously.

Immunophenotyping helps in understanding the distribution of different cell types, their subsets, and activation status, which can be crucial in diagnosing various hematological disorders, immunodeficiencies, and distinguishing between different types of leukemias, lymphomas, and other malignancies. Additionally, it can also be used to monitor the progression of diseases, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments, and detect minimal residual disease (MRD) during follow-up care.

Mesonephros is defined as the intermediate part of the embryonic excretory system in higher vertebrates, which develops into the permanent kidney in some lower vertebrates. In humans, it represents the transitory kidney that functions during early fetal life and gives rise to the male reproductive structures (i.e., epididymis, vas deferens, and efferent ductules) after its excretory function is taken over by the metanephros or permanent kidney. The mesonephros consists of a number of tubules called mesonephric tubules, which open into the mesonephric (Wolffian) duct, and a network of blood vessels known as the mesonephric capillaries or glomeruli.

Benzamides are a class of organic compounds that consist of a benzene ring (a aromatic hydrocarbon) attached to an amide functional group. The amide group can be bound to various substituents, leading to a variety of benzamide derivatives with different biological activities.

In a medical context, some benzamides have been developed as drugs for the treatment of various conditions. For example, danzol (a benzamide derivative) is used as a hormonal therapy for endometriosis and breast cancer. Additionally, other benzamides such as sulpiride and amisulpride are used as antipsychotic medications for the treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders.

It's important to note that while some benzamides have therapeutic uses, others may be toxic or have adverse effects, so they should only be used under the supervision of a medical professional.

Adipocytes are specialized cells that comprise adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue. They are responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, particularly triglycerides, and releasing energy when needed through a process called lipolysis. There are two main types of adipocytes: white adipocytes and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes primarily store energy, while brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adipocytes also secrete various hormones and signaling molecules that contribute to whole-body homeostasis. These include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of adipocyte function has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Vimentin is a type III intermediate filament protein that is expressed in various cell types, including mesenchymal cells, endothelial cells, and hematopoietic cells. It plays a crucial role in maintaining cell structure and integrity by forming part of the cytoskeleton. Vimentin is also involved in various cellular processes such as cell division, motility, and intracellular transport.

In addition to its structural functions, vimentin has been identified as a marker for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that occurs during embryonic development and cancer metastasis. During EMT, epithelial cells lose their polarity and cell-cell adhesion properties and acquire mesenchymal characteristics, including increased migratory capacity and invasiveness. Vimentin expression is upregulated during EMT, making it a potential target for therapeutic intervention in cancer.

In diagnostic pathology, vimentin immunostaining is used to identify mesenchymal cells and to distinguish them from epithelial cells. It can also be used to diagnose certain types of sarcomas and carcinomas that express vimentin.

Chondrogenesis is the process of cartilage formation during embryonic development and in the healing of certain types of injuries. It involves the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, which are the specialized cells that produce and maintain the extracellular matrix of cartilage.

During chondrogenesis, the mesenchymal stem cells condense and form a template for the future cartilaginous tissue. These cells then differentiate into chondrocytes, which begin to produce and deposit collagen type II, proteoglycans, and other extracellular matrix components that give cartilage its unique biochemical and mechanical properties.

Chondrogenesis is a critical process for the development of various structures in the body, including the skeletal system, where it plays a role in the formation of articular cartilage, growth plates, and other types of cartilage. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate chondrogenesis is important for developing therapies to treat cartilage injuries and degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis.

Stem Cell Factor (SCF), also known as Kit Ligand or Steel Factor, is a growth factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of hematopoiesis, which is the process of producing various blood cells. It is a glycoprotein that binds to the c-Kit receptor found on hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells, promoting their survival, proliferation, and differentiation into mature blood cells.

SCF is involved in the development and function of several types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It also plays a role in the maintenance and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells, which are essential for the continuous production of new blood cells throughout an individual's lifetime.

In addition to its role in hematopoiesis, SCF has been implicated in various other biological processes, such as melanogenesis, gametogenesis, and tissue repair and regeneration. Dysregulation of SCF signaling has been associated with several diseases, including certain types of cancer, bone marrow failure disorders, and autoimmune diseases.

Gastrointestinal (GI) neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract, which can be benign or malignant. The gastrointestinal tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.

Benign neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body. They can sometimes be removed completely and may not cause any further health problems.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can invade nearby tissues and organs and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. These types of neoplasms can be life-threatening if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

GI neoplasms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, bloating, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and anemia. The specific symptoms may depend on the location and size of the neoplasm.

There are many types of GI neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), lymphomas, and neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of GI neoplasms typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Heterologous transplantation is a type of transplantation where an organ or tissue is transferred from one species to another. This is in contrast to allogeneic transplantation, where the donor and recipient are of the same species, or autologous transplantation, where the donor and recipient are the same individual.

In heterologous transplantation, the immune systems of the donor and recipient are significantly different, which can lead to a strong immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue. This is known as a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), where the immune cells in the transplanted tissue attack the recipient's body.

Heterologous transplantation is not commonly performed in clinical medicine due to the high risk of rejection and GVHD. However, it may be used in research settings to study the biology of transplantation and to develop new therapies for transplant rejection.

"Nude mice" is a term used in the field of laboratory research to describe a strain of mice that have been genetically engineered to lack a functional immune system. Specifically, nude mice lack a thymus gland and have a mutation in the FOXN1 gene, which results in a failure to develop a mature T-cell population. This means that they are unable to mount an effective immune response against foreign substances or organisms.

The name "nude" refers to the fact that these mice also have a lack of functional hair follicles, resulting in a hairless or partially hairless phenotype. This feature is actually a secondary consequence of the same genetic mutation that causes their immune deficiency.

Nude mice are commonly used in research because their weakened immune system makes them an ideal host for transplanted tumors, tissues, and cells from other species, including humans. This allows researchers to study the behavior of these foreign substances in a living organism without the complication of an immune response. However, it's important to note that because nude mice lack a functional immune system, they must be kept in sterile conditions and are more susceptible to infection than normal mice.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

In situ hybridization (ISH) is a molecular biology technique used to detect and localize specific nucleic acid sequences, such as DNA or RNA, within cells or tissues. This technique involves the use of a labeled probe that is complementary to the target nucleic acid sequence. The probe can be labeled with various types of markers, including radioisotopes, fluorescent dyes, or enzymes.

During the ISH procedure, the labeled probe is hybridized to the target nucleic acid sequence in situ, meaning that the hybridization occurs within the intact cells or tissues. After washing away unbound probe, the location of the labeled probe can be visualized using various methods depending on the type of label used.

In situ hybridization has a wide range of applications in both research and diagnostic settings, including the detection of gene expression patterns, identification of viral infections, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in mature bone tissue. They are star-shaped cells that are located inside the mineralized matrix of bones, with their processes extending into small spaces called lacunae and canaliculi. Osteocytes are derived from osteoblasts, which are bone-forming cells that become trapped within the matrix they produce.

Osteocytes play a crucial role in maintaining bone homeostasis by regulating bone remodeling, sensing mechanical stress, and modulating mineralization. They communicate with each other and with osteoblasts and osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) through a network of interconnected processes and via the release of signaling molecules. Osteocytes can also respond to changes in their environment, such as hormonal signals or mechanical loading, by altering their gene expression and releasing factors that regulate bone metabolism.

Dysfunction of osteocytes has been implicated in various bone diseases, including osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and Paget's disease of bone.

Hematopoietic cell growth factors are a group of glycoproteins that stimulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic cells, which are the precursor cells that give rise to all blood cells. These growth factors include colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) such as granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), as well as erythropoietin (EPO) and thrombopoietin (TPO).

G-CSF primarily stimulates the production of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response to bacterial infections. GM-CSF stimulates the production of both granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages, while M-CSF specifically stimulates the production of monocytes/macrophages. EPO stimulates the production of red blood cells, while TPO stimulates the production of platelets.

Hematopoietic cell growth factors are used clinically to treat a variety of conditions associated with impaired hematopoiesis, such as chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, aplastic anemia, and congenital disorders of hematopoiesis. They can also be used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood for collection and transplantation.

Tissue scaffolds, also known as bioactive scaffolds or synthetic extracellular matrices, refer to three-dimensional structures that serve as templates for the growth and organization of cells in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. These scaffolds are designed to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) found in biological tissues, providing a supportive environment for cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation, and migration.

Tissue scaffolds can be made from various materials, including naturally derived biopolymers (e.g., collagen, alginate, chitosan, hyaluronic acid), synthetic polymers (e.g., polycaprolactone, polylactic acid, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)), or a combination of both. The choice of material depends on the specific application and desired properties, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, mechanical strength, and porosity.

The primary functions of tissue scaffolds include:

1. Cell attachment: Providing surfaces for cells to adhere, spread, and form stable focal adhesions.
2. Mechanical support: Offering a structural framework that maintains the desired shape and mechanical properties of the engineered tissue.
3. Nutrient diffusion: Ensuring adequate transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products throughout the scaffold to support cell survival and function.
4. Guided tissue growth: Directing the organization and differentiation of cells through spatial cues and biochemical signals.
5. Biodegradation: Gradually degrading at a rate that matches tissue regeneration, allowing for the replacement of the scaffold with native ECM produced by the cells.

Tissue scaffolds have been used in various applications, such as wound healing, bone and cartilage repair, cardiovascular tissue engineering, and neural tissue regeneration. The design and fabrication of tissue scaffolds are critical aspects of tissue engineering, aiming to create functional substitutes for damaged or diseased tissues and organs.

Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors are a type of rare cancer that develops in the cells of the ovaries or testicles that produce hormones and help to form ova or sperm. These tumors can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can occur in both males and females, although they are more common in females.

There are several subtypes of sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors, including granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, fibromas, Sertoli cell tumors, Leydig cell tumors, and gonadoblastomas. The symptoms and treatment options for these tumors depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and whether the tumor is producing hormones.

Common symptoms of sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors may include abdominal pain or swelling, bloating, irregular menstrual periods, vaginal bleeding, or a feeling of fullness in the abdomen. In some cases, these tumors may produce hormones that can cause additional symptoms, such as breast tenderness, acne, or voice deepening.

Treatment for sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors typically involves surgery to remove the tumor and any affected tissue. Depending on the stage and type of the tumor, additional treatments such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy may also be recommended. Regular follow-up care is important to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2) is a growth factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily. It plays a crucial role in bone and cartilage formation, as well as in the regulation of wound healing and embryonic development. BMP-2 stimulates the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts, which are cells responsible for bone formation.

BMP-2 has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medical device to promote bone growth in certain spinal fusion surgeries and in the treatment of open fractures that have not healed properly. It is usually administered in the form of a collagen sponge soaked with recombinant human BMP-2 protein, which is a laboratory-produced version of the natural protein.

While BMP-2 has shown promising results in some clinical applications, its use is not without risks and controversies. Some studies have reported adverse effects such as inflammation, ectopic bone formation, and increased rates of cancer, which have raised concerns about its safety and efficacy. Therefore, it is essential to weigh the benefits and risks of BMP-2 therapy on a case-by-case basis and under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

Pyrimidines are heterocyclic aromatic organic compounds similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. They are one of the two types of nucleobases found in nucleic acids, the other being purines. The pyrimidine bases include cytosine (C) and thymine (T) in DNA, and uracil (U) in RNA, which pair with guanine (G) and adenine (A), respectively, through hydrogen bonding to form the double helix structure of nucleic acids. Pyrimidines are also found in many other biomolecules and have various roles in cellular metabolism and genetic regulation.

The corneal epithelium is the outermost layer of the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. It is a stratified squamous epithelium, consisting of several layers of flat, scale-like cells that are tightly packed together. The corneal epithelium serves as a barrier to protect the eye from microorganisms, dust, and other foreign particles. It also provides a smooth surface for the refraction of light, contributes to the maintenance of corneal transparency, and plays a role in the eye's sensitivity to touch and pain. The corneal epithelium is constantly being renewed through the process of cell division and shedding, with new cells produced by stem cells located at the limbus, the border between the cornea and the conjunctiva.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The term "neoplasm" simply means new or abnormal tissue growth. When it comes to the prostate, neoplasms are often referred to as tumors.

Benign prostatic neoplasms, such as prostate adenomas, are non-cancerous overgrowths of prostate tissue. They usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. While they can cause uncomfortable symptoms like difficulty urinating, they are generally not life-threatening.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells in the prostate. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, some types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.

It's important to note that while prostate neoplasms can be concerning, early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are key to monitoring prostate health and catching any potential issues early on.

Piperazines are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 4. They have the molecular formula N-NRR' where R and R' can be alkyl or aryl groups. Piperazines have a wide range of uses in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and as building blocks in organic synthesis.

In a medical context, piperazines are used in the manufacture of various drugs, including some antipsychotics, antidepressants, antihistamines, and anti-worm medications. For example, the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine and the antidepressant drug nefazodone both contain a piperazine ring in their chemical structure.

However, it's important to note that some piperazines are also used as recreational drugs due to their stimulant and euphoric effects. These include compounds such as BZP (benzylpiperazine) and TFMPP (trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine), which have been linked to serious health risks, including addiction, seizures, and death. Therefore, the use of these substances should be avoided.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

In medical and embryological terms, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early stages of embryonic development. It forms between the ectoderm and endoderm during gastrulation, and it gives rise to a wide variety of cell types, tissues, and organs in the developing embryo.

The mesoderm contributes to the formation of structures such as:

1. The connective tissues (including tendons, ligaments, and most of the bones)
2. Muscular system (skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles)
3. Circulatory system (heart, blood vessels, and blood cells)
4. Excretory system (kidneys and associated structures)
5. Reproductive system (gonads, including ovaries and testes)
6. Dermis of the skin
7. Parts of the eye and inner ear
8. Several organs in the urogenital system

Dysfunctions or abnormalities in mesoderm development can lead to various congenital disorders and birth defects, highlighting its importance during embryogenesis.

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a type of cytokine, which are proteins that play a crucial role in cell signaling. Specifically, IL-1 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is involved in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses in the body. It is produced by various cells, including monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, in response to infection or injury.

IL-1 exists in two forms, IL-1α and IL-1β, which have similar biological activities but are encoded by different genes. Both forms of IL-1 bind to the same receptor, IL-1R, and activate intracellular signaling pathways that lead to the production of other cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators.

IL-1 has a wide range of biological effects, including fever induction, activation of immune cells, regulation of hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), and modulation of bone metabolism. Dysregulation of IL-1 production or activity has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, IL-1 is an important target for the development of therapies aimed at modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation.

The platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR-α) is a type of cell surface receptor that binds to specific proteins called platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs). PDGFR-α is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, which means it has an intracellular portion containing tyrosine kinase enzymatic activity.

When PDGFs bind to PDGFR-α, they induce receptor dimerization and activation of the tyrosine kinase domain, leading to autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues on the receptor. This triggers a signaling cascade that promotes cell growth, proliferation, survival, and migration. PDGFR-α is primarily expressed in cells of mesenchymal origin, such as fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and glial cells.

PDGFR-α plays crucial roles during embryonic development, wound healing, and tissue repair. However, aberrant activation or mutations in PDGFR-α have been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, atherosclerosis, and fibrotic disorders. Therefore, PDGFR-α is an important target for therapeutic interventions in these diseases.

"Cell count" is a medical term that refers to the process of determining the number of cells present in a given volume or sample of fluid or tissue. This can be done through various laboratory methods, such as counting individual cells under a microscope using a specialized grid called a hemocytometer, or using automated cell counters that use light scattering and electrical impedance techniques to count and classify different types of cells.

Cell counts are used in a variety of medical contexts, including hematology (the study of blood and blood-forming tissues), microbiology (the study of microscopic organisms), and pathology (the study of diseases and their causes). For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a routine laboratory test that includes a white blood cell (WBC) count, red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin level, hematocrit value, and platelet count. Abnormal cell counts can indicate the presence of various medical conditions, such as infections, anemia, or leukemia.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

ADP-ribosyl cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR). This enzyme plays a role in intracellular signaling, particularly in calcium mobilization in various cell types including immune cells and neurons. The regulation of this enzyme has been implicated in several physiological processes as well as in the pathophysiology of some diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Physiologic neovascularization is the natural and controlled formation of new blood vessels in the body, which occurs as a part of normal growth and development, as well as in response to tissue repair and wound healing. This process involves the activation of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels, and their migration, proliferation, and tube formation to create new capillaries. Physiologic neovascularization is tightly regulated by a balance of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, ensuring that it occurs only when and where it is needed. It plays crucial roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and wound healing.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Fetal blood refers to the blood circulating in a fetus during pregnancy. It is essential for the growth and development of the fetus, as it carries oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the developing tissues and organs. Fetal blood also removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetal tissues and transports them to the placenta for elimination.

Fetal blood has several unique characteristics that distinguish it from adult blood. For example, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is the primary type of hemoglobin found in fetal blood, whereas adults primarily have adult hemoglobin (HbA). Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin, which allows it to more efficiently extract oxygen from the maternal blood in the placenta.

Additionally, fetal blood contains a higher proportion of reticulocytes (immature red blood cells) and nucleated red blood cells compared to adult blood. These differences reflect the high turnover rate of red blood cells in the developing fetus and the need for rapid growth and development.

Examination of fetal blood can provide important information about the health and well-being of the fetus during pregnancy. For example, fetal blood sampling (also known as cordocentesis or percutaneous umbilical blood sampling) can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, infections, and other conditions that may affect fetal development. However, this procedure carries risks, including preterm labor, infection, and fetal loss, and is typically only performed when there is a significant risk of fetal compromise or when other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive.

Pathologic neovascularization is the abnormal growth of new blood vessels in previously avascular tissue or excessive growth within existing vasculature, which occurs as a result of hypoxia, inflammation, or angiogenic stimuli. These newly formed vessels are often disorganized, fragile, and lack proper vessel hierarchy, leading to impaired blood flow and increased vascular permeability. Pathologic neovascularization can be observed in various diseases such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and chronic inflammation. This process contributes to disease progression by promoting tumor growth, metastasis, and edema formation, ultimately leading to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

Cell-and tissue-based therapy is a type of medical treatment that involves the use of living cells or tissues to repair, replace, or regenerate damaged or diseased cells or tissues in the body. This can include the transplantation of stem cells, which are immature cells that have the ability to develop into different types of cells, as well as the use of fully differentiated cells or tissues that have specific functions in the body.

Cell-and tissue-based therapies may be used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, including degenerative diseases, injuries, and congenital defects. Some examples of cell-and tissue-based therapies include:

* Bone marrow transplantation: This involves the transplantation of blood-forming stem cells from the bone marrow of a healthy donor to a patient in need of new blood cells due to disease or treatment with chemotherapy or radiation.
* Corneal transplantation: This involves the transplantation of healthy corneal tissue from a deceased donor to a patient with damaged or diseased corneas.
* Articular cartilage repair: This involves the use of cells or tissues to repair damaged articular cartilage, which is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints.

Cell-and tissue-based therapies are a rapidly evolving field of medicine, and researchers are continually exploring new ways to use these treatments to improve patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that cell-and tissue-based therapies also carry some risks, including the possibility of rejection or infection, and they should only be performed by qualified medical professionals in appropriate settings.

A stem cell niche is a specific microenvironment in which stem cells reside, interact with surrounding cells and receive molecular signals that regulate their self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. This specialized niche provides the necessary conditions for maintaining the undifferentiated state of stem cells and controlling their fate decisions. The components of a stem cell niche typically include various cell types (such as supporting cells, immune cells, and blood vessels), extracellular matrix proteins, signaling molecules, and physical factors like oxygen tension and mechanical stress. Together, these elements create a unique microenvironment that helps to preserve the functional integrity and potential of stem cells for tissue repair, regeneration, and homeostasis.

Thy-1, also known as Thy-1 antigen or CD90, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein found on the surface of various cells in the body. It was first discovered as a cell surface antigen on thymocytes, hence the name Thy-1.

Thy-1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is widely expressed in different tissues, including the brain, where it is found on the surface of neurons and glial cells. In the immune system, Thy-1 is expressed on the surface of T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and some subsets of dendritic cells.

The function of Thy-1 is not fully understood, but it has been implicated in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, signal transduction, and regulation of immune responses. Thy-1 has also been shown to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, as well as in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders.

As an antigen, Thy-1 can be recognized by specific antibodies, which can be used in various research and clinical applications, such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and cell sorting.

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

Trophoblasts are specialized cells that make up the outer layer of a blastocyst, which is a hollow ball of cells that forms in the earliest stages of embryonic development. In humans, this process occurs about 5-6 days after fertilization. The blastocyst consists of an inner cell mass (which will eventually become the embryo) and an outer layer of trophoblasts.

Trophoblasts play a crucial role in implantation, which is the process by which the blastocyst attaches to and invades the lining of the uterus. Once implanted, the trophoblasts differentiate into two main layers: the cytotrophoblasts (which are closer to the inner cell mass) and the syncytiotrophoblasts (which form a multinucleated layer that is in direct contact with the maternal tissues).

The cytotrophoblasts proliferate and fuse to form the syncytiotrophoblasts, which have several important functions. They secrete enzymes that help to degrade and remodel the extracellular matrix of the uterine lining, allowing the blastocyst to implant more deeply. They also form a barrier between the maternal and fetal tissues, helping to protect the developing embryo from the mother's immune system.

Additionally, trophoblasts are responsible for the formation of the placenta, which provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus and removes waste products. The syncytiotrophoblasts in particular play a key role in this process by secreting hormones such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which helps to maintain pregnancy, and by forming blood vessels that allow for the exchange of nutrients and waste between the mother and fetus.

Abnormalities in trophoblast development or function can lead to a variety of pregnancy-related complications, including preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and gestational trophoblastic diseases such as hydatidiform moles and choriocarcinomas.

Growth substances, in the context of medical terminology, typically refer to natural hormones or chemically synthesized agents that play crucial roles in controlling and regulating cell growth, differentiation, and division. They are also known as "growth factors" or "mitogens." These substances include:

1. Proteins: Examples include insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). They bind to specific receptors on the cell surface, activating intracellular signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

2. Steroids: Certain steroid hormones, such as androgens and estrogens, can also act as growth substances by binding to nuclear receptors and influencing gene expression related to cell growth and division.

3. Cytokines: Some cytokines, like interleukins (ILs) and hematopoietic growth factors (HGFs), contribute to the regulation of hematopoiesis, immune responses, and inflammation, thus indirectly affecting cell growth and differentiation.

These growth substances have essential roles in various physiological processes, such as embryonic development, tissue repair, and wound healing. However, abnormal or excessive production or response to these growth substances can lead to pathological conditions, including cancer, benign tumors, and other proliferative disorders.

Corneal opacity refers to a condition in which the cornea, the clear front part of the eye, becomes cloudy or opaque. This can occur due to various reasons such as injury, infection, degenerative changes, or inherited disorders. As a result, light is not properly refracted and vision becomes blurred or distorted. In some cases, corneal opacity can lead to complete loss of vision in the affected eye. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include medication, corneal transplantation, or other surgical procedures.

Bone regeneration is the biological process of new bone formation that occurs after an injury or removal of a portion of bone. This complex process involves several stages, including inflammation, migration and proliferation of cells, matrix deposition, and mineralization, leading to the restoration of the bone's structure and function.

The main cells involved in bone regeneration are osteoblasts, which produce new bone matrix, and osteoclasts, which resorb damaged or old bone tissue. The process is tightly regulated by various growth factors, hormones, and signaling molecules that promote the recruitment, differentiation, and activity of these cells.

Bone regeneration can occur naturally in response to injury or surgical intervention, such as fracture repair or dental implant placement. However, in some cases, bone regeneration may be impaired due to factors such as age, disease, or trauma, leading to delayed healing or non-union of the bone. In these situations, various strategies and techniques, including the use of bone grafts, scaffolds, and growth factors, can be employed to enhance and support the bone regeneration process.

Prostatic hyperplasia, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. The prostate gland surrounds the urethra, the tube that carries urine and semen out of the body. When the prostate gland enlarges, it can squeeze or partially block the urethra, causing problems with urination, such as a weak stream, difficulty starting or stopping the flow, and more frequent urination, especially at night. Prostatic hyperplasia is a common condition as men age and does not necessarily lead to cancer. However, it can cause significant discomfort and decreased quality of life if left untreated. Treatment options include medications, minimally invasive procedures, and surgery.

Endometrial stromal tumors are a type of rare uterine cancer that develops from the connective tissue cells (stroma) that support the endometrium, which is the inner lining of the uterus. These tumors can be benign (noncancerous), called endometrial stromal nodules, or malignant (cancerous), known as low-grade or high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas.

Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas are slow-growing tumors that can invade the muscle layer of the uterus and may spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, bones, or lymph nodes. High-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas are more aggressive and grow faster than low-grade tumors.

Symptoms of endometrial stromal tumors can include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, and a mass in the pelvis. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, followed by a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy, depending on the type and stage of the tumor. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the production of proteins and other molecules from genes in neoplastic cells, or cells that are part of a tumor or cancer. In a normal cell, gene expression is tightly regulated to ensure that the right genes are turned on or off at the right time. However, in cancer cells, this regulation can be disrupted, leading to the overexpression or underexpression of certain genes.

Neoplastic gene expression regulation can be affected by a variety of factors, including genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and signals from the tumor microenvironment. These changes can lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cancer growth and development) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent cancer).

Understanding neoplastic gene expression regulation is important for developing new therapies for cancer, as targeting specific genes or pathways involved in this process can help to inhibit cancer growth and progression.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Collagenases are a group of enzymes that have the ability to break down collagen, which is a structural protein found in connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and skin. Collagen is an important component of the extracellular matrix, providing strength and support to tissues throughout the body.

Collagenases are produced by various organisms, including bacteria, animals, and humans. In humans, collagenases play a crucial role in normal tissue remodeling and repair processes, such as wound healing and bone resorption. However, excessive or uncontrolled activity of collagenases can contribute to the development of various diseases, including arthritis, periodontitis, and cancer metastasis.

Bacterial collagenases are often used in research and medical applications for their ability to digest collagen quickly and efficiently. For example, they may be used to study the structure and function of collagen or to isolate cells from tissues. However, the clinical use of bacterial collagenases is limited due to concerns about their potential to cause tissue damage and inflammation.

Overall, collagenases are important enzymes that play a critical role in maintaining the health and integrity of connective tissues throughout the body.

Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF-2), also known as basic fibroblast growth factor, is a protein involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. It plays a crucial role in wound healing, embryonic development, and angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels). FGF-2 is produced and secreted by various cells, including fibroblasts, and exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface, leading to activation of intracellular signaling pathways. It has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, where it can contribute to tumor growth and progression.

Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) is a growth factor that belongs to the family of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs). It is a glycoprotein hormone that plays a crucial role in the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes, including macrophages. M-CSF binds to its receptor, CSF1R, which is expressed on the surface of monocytes, macrophages, and their precursors.

M-CSF stimulates the production of mature macrophages from monocyte precursors in the bone marrow and enhances the survival and function of mature macrophages in peripheral tissues. It also promotes the activation of macrophages, increasing their ability to phagocytize and destroy foreign particles, microorganisms, and tumor cells.

In addition to its role in the immune system, M-CSF has been implicated in various physiological processes, including hematopoiesis, bone remodeling, angiogenesis, and female reproduction. Dysregulation of M-CSF signaling has been associated with several pathological conditions, such as inflammatory diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

The cellular microenvironment refers to the sum of all physical and biochemical factors in the immediate vicinity of a cell that influence its behavior and function. This includes elements such as:

1. Extracellular matrix (ECM): The non-cellular component that provides structural support, anchorage, and biochemical cues to cells through various molecules like collagens, fibronectin, and laminins.
2. Soluble factors: These include growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and chemokines that bind to cell surface receptors and modulate cellular responses.
3. Neighboring cells: The types and states of nearby cells can significantly impact a cell's behavior through direct contact, paracrine signaling, or competition for resources.
4. Physical conditions: Variables such as temperature, pH, oxygen tension, and mechanical stresses (e.g., stiffness, strain) also contribute to the cellular microenvironment.
5. Biochemical gradients: Concentration gradients of molecules within the ECM or surrounding fluid can guide cell migration, differentiation, and other responses.

Collectively, these factors interact to create a complex and dynamic milieu that regulates various aspects of cellular physiology, including proliferation, differentiation, survival, and motility. Understanding the cellular microenvironment is crucial for developing effective therapies and tissue engineering strategies in regenerative medicine and cancer treatment.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

Medical Definition:

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), also known as gelatinase B or 92 kDa type IV collagenase, is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. These enzymes are involved in degrading and remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) components, playing crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes such as wound healing, tissue repair, and tumor metastasis.

MMP-9 is secreted as an inactive zymogen and activated upon removal of its propeptide domain. It can degrade several ECM proteins, including type IV collagen, elastin, fibronectin, and gelatin. MMP-9 has been implicated in numerous diseases, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Its expression is regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels, and its activity can be controlled by endogenous inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).

Endothelial cells are the type of cells that line the inner surface of blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and heart chambers. They play a crucial role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by controlling vasomotor tone, coagulation, platelet activation, and inflammation. Endothelial cells also regulate the transport of molecules between the blood and surrounding tissues, and contribute to the maintenance of the structural integrity of the vasculature. They are flat, elongated cells with a unique morphology that allows them to form a continuous, nonthrombogenic lining inside the vessels. Endothelial cells can be isolated from various tissues and cultured in vitro for research purposes.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Myofibroblasts are specialized cells that are present in various tissues throughout the body. They play a crucial role in wound healing and tissue repair, but they can also contribute to the development of fibrosis or scarring when their activation and proliferation persist beyond the normal healing process. Here is a medical definition of myofibroblasts:

Medical Definition of Myofibroblasts:
Myofibroblasts are modified fibroblasts that exhibit features of both smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, including the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin stress fibers. They are involved in the contraction of wounds, tissue remodeling, and the production of extracellular matrix components such as collagen, elastin, and fibronectin. Myofibroblasts can differentiate from various cell types, including resident fibroblasts, epithelial cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), endothelial cells (endothelial-mesenchymal transition), and circulating fibrocytes. Persistent activation of myofibroblasts can lead to excessive scarring and fibrosis in various organs, such as the lungs, liver, kidneys, and heart.

Cell transplantation is the process of transferring living cells from one part of the body to another or from one individual to another. In medicine, cell transplantation is often used as a treatment for various diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and certain types of cancer. The goal of cell transplantation is to replace damaged or dysfunctional cells with healthy ones, thereby restoring normal function to the affected area.

In the context of medical research, cell transplantation may involve the use of stem cells, which are immature cells that have the ability to develop into many different types of specialized cells. Stem cell transplantation has shown promise in the treatment of a variety of conditions, including spinal cord injuries, stroke, and heart disease.

It is important to note that cell transplantation carries certain risks, such as immune rejection and infection. As such, it is typically reserved for cases where other treatments have failed or are unlikely to be effective.

A neoplasm is a tumor or growth that is formed by an abnormal and excessive proliferation of cells, which can be benign or malignant. Neoplasm proteins are therefore any proteins that are expressed or produced in these neoplastic cells. These proteins can play various roles in the development, progression, and maintenance of neoplasms.

Some neoplasm proteins may contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and division seen in cancer, such as oncogenic proteins that promote cell cycle progression or inhibit apoptosis (programmed cell death). Others may help the neoplastic cells evade the immune system, allowing them to proliferate undetected. Still others may be involved in angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels that supply the tumor with nutrients and oxygen.

Neoplasm proteins can also serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment response. For example, the presence or level of certain neoplasm proteins in biological samples such as blood or tissue may indicate the presence of a specific type of cancer, help predict the likelihood of cancer recurrence, or suggest whether a particular therapy will be effective.

Overall, understanding the roles and behaviors of neoplasm proteins can provide valuable insights into the biology of cancer and inform the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Lymphopoiesis is the process of formation and development of lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. Lymphocytes include B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells, which are responsible for defending the body against infectious diseases and cancer.

Lymphopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow and lymphoid organs such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and tonsils. In the bone marrow, hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), which then give rise to B cells, T cells, and NK cells through a series of intermediate stages.

B cells mature in the bone marrow, while T cells mature in the thymus gland. Once matured, these lymphocytes migrate to the peripheral lymphoid organs where they can encounter foreign antigens and mount an immune response. The process of lymphopoiesis is tightly regulated by various growth factors, cytokines, and transcription factors that control the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of lymphocytes.

Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis is a type of microarray analysis that allows for the simultaneous measurement of the expression levels of thousands of genes in a single sample. In this technique, oligonucleotides (short DNA sequences) are attached to a solid support, such as a glass slide, in a specific pattern. These oligonucleotides are designed to be complementary to specific target mRNA sequences from the sample being analyzed.

During the analysis, labeled RNA or cDNA from the sample is hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. The level of hybridization is then measured and used to determine the relative abundance of each target sequence in the sample. This information can be used to identify differences in gene expression between samples, which can help researchers understand the underlying biological processes involved in various diseases or developmental stages.

It's important to note that this technique requires specialized equipment and bioinformatics tools for data analysis, as well as careful experimental design and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Dinoprostone is a prostaglandin E2 analog used in medical practice for the induction of labor and ripening of the cervix in pregnant women. It is available in various forms, including vaginal suppositories, gel, and tablets. Dinoprostone works by stimulating the contraction of uterine muscles and promoting cervical dilation, which helps in facilitating a successful delivery.

It's important to note that dinoprostone should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as its use is associated with certain risks and side effects, including uterine hyperstimulation, fetal distress, and maternal infection. The dosage and duration of treatment are carefully monitored to minimize these risks and ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

CD146, also known as Melanoma Cell Adhesion Molecule (MCAM), is a type of transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as an adhesion molecule. It is found on various cell types, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and some cancer cells.

As an antigen, CD146 can be recognized by the immune system and may play a role in the immune response. In the context of cancer, CD146 has been shown to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis, and may be a target for immunotherapy. However, it's important to note that the specific medical definition of 'antigens, CD146' may vary depending on the context and the source. For more detailed information, it is recommended to consult scientific literature or speak with a medical professional.

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), also known as gelatinase A, is an enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix components, and MMP-2 is responsible for degrading type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis. However, its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases. MMP-2 is synthesized as an inactive proenzyme and requires activation by other proteases or chemical modifications before it can exert its proteolytic activity.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

Gelatinases are a group of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that have the ability to degrade gelatin, which is denatured collagen. There are two main types of gelatinases: MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B). These enzymes play important roles in various physiological processes such as tissue remodeling and wound healing, but they have also been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders.

MMP-2 is produced by a variety of cells, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells. It plays a crucial role in angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels) and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. MMP-9 is primarily produced by inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages, and it has been associated with the degradation of the extracellular matrix during inflammation and tissue injury.

Both MMP-2 and MMP-9 are synthesized as inactive zymogens and require activation by other proteases or physicochemical factors before they can exert their enzymatic activity. The regulation of gelatinase activity is tightly controlled at multiple levels, including gene expression, protein synthesis, secretion, activation, and inhibition. Dysregulation of gelatinase activity has been linked to various diseases, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria that can be recognized by the immune system and provoke an immune response. In the context of differentiation, antigens refer to specific markers that identify the developmental stage or lineage of a cell.

Differentiation antigens are proteins or carbohydrates expressed on the surface of cells during various stages of differentiation, which can be used to distinguish between cells at different maturation stages or of different cell types. These antigens play an essential role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to abnormal or infected cells while sparing healthy cells.

Examples of differentiation antigens include:

1. CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules: A group of membrane proteins used to identify and define various cell types, such as T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes, and granulocytes.
2. Lineage-specific antigens: Antigens that are specific to certain cell lineages, such as CD3 for T cells or CD19 for B cells.
3. Maturation markers: Antigens that indicate the maturation stage of a cell, like CD34 and CD38 on hematopoietic stem cells.

Understanding differentiation antigens is crucial in immunology, cancer research, transplantation medicine, and vaccine development.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble decoy receptor for the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). It is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily and plays a crucial role in regulating bone metabolism. By binding to RANKL, OPG prevents it from interacting with its signaling receptor RANK on the surface of osteoclast precursor cells, thereby inhibiting osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. This results in reduced bone resorption and increased bone mass.

In addition to its role in bone homeostasis, OPG has also been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, including immune regulation, cancer progression, and cardiovascular disease.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

A clone is a group of cells that are genetically identical to each other because they are derived from a common ancestor cell through processes such as mitosis or asexual reproduction. Therefore, the term "clone cells" refers to a population of cells that are genetic copies of a single parent cell.

In the context of laboratory research, cells can be cloned by isolating a single cell and allowing it to divide in culture, creating a population of genetically identical cells. This is useful for studying the behavior and characteristics of individual cell types, as well as for generating large quantities of cells for use in experiments.

It's important to note that while clone cells are genetically identical, they may still exhibit differences in their phenotype (physical traits) due to epigenetic factors or environmental influences.

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) are a type of protein found on the surface of cells that mediate the attachment or adhesion of cells to either other cells or to the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the network of proteins and carbohydrates that provides structural and biochemical support to surrounding cells.

CAMs play crucial roles in various biological processes, including tissue development, differentiation, repair, and maintenance of tissue architecture and function. They are also involved in cell signaling, migration, and regulation of the immune response.

There are several types of CAMs, classified based on their structure and function, such as immunoglobulin-like CAMs (IgCAMs), cadherins, integrins, and selectins. Dysregulation of CAMs has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is a glycoprotein expressed on the surface of endothelial cells that plays a crucial role in the inflammatory response. It is involved in the recruitment and adhesion of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. VCAM-1 interacts with integrins on the surface of leukocytes, particularly very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), to facilitate this adhesion process. This interaction leads to the activation of signaling pathways that promote the migration of leukocytes across the endothelial barrier and into the surrounding tissue, where they can contribute to the immune response and resolution of inflammation. Increased expression of VCAM-1 has been associated with various inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis.

Lymphoid tissue is a specialized type of connective tissue that is involved in the immune function of the body. It is composed of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying infected or cancerous cells. Lymphoid tissue can be found throughout the body, but it is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches in the small intestine.

Lymphoid tissue provides a site for the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes, which are critical components of the adaptive immune response. It also serves as a filter for foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, that may enter the body through various routes. The lymphatic system, which includes lymphoid tissue, helps to maintain the health and integrity of the body by protecting it from infection and disease.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (RANK) is a type I transmembrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of bone metabolism through the activation of osteoclasts, which are cells responsible for bone resorption.

When RANK binds to its ligand, RANKL (Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B Ligand), it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to the activation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors into mature osteoclasts. This process is essential for maintaining bone homeostasis, as excessive osteoclast activity can result in bone loss and diseases such as osteoporosis.

In addition to its role in bone metabolism, RANK has also been implicated in the regulation of immune responses, as it is involved in the activation and differentiation of dendritic cells and T cells. Dysregulation of RANK signaling has been associated with various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases and cancer.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Actin is a type of protein that forms part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells, and is also found in various other cell types. It is a globular protein that polymerizes to form long filaments, which are important for many cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, and the maintenance of cell shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments interact with another type of protein called myosin to enable muscle contraction. Actins can be further divided into different subtypes, including alpha-actin, beta-actin, and gamma-actin, which have distinct functions and expression patterns in the body.

Inbred NOD (Nonobese Diabetic) mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically predisposed to develop autoimmune diabetes. This strain was originally developed in Japan and has been widely used as an animal model for studying type 1 diabetes and its complications.

NOD mice typically develop diabetes spontaneously at around 12-14 weeks of age, although the onset and severity of the disease can vary between individual mice. The disease is caused by a breakdown in immune tolerance, leading to an autoimmune attack on the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.

Inbred NOD mice are highly valuable for research purposes because they exhibit many of the same genetic and immunological features as human patients with type 1 diabetes. By studying these mice, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the disease and develop new treatments and therapies.

The parietal bone is one of the four flat bones that form the skull's cranial vault, which protects the brain. There are two parietal bones in the skull, one on each side, located posterior to the frontal bone and temporal bone, and anterior to the occipital bone. Each parietal bone has a squamous part, which forms the roof and sides of the skull, and a smaller, wing-like portion called the mastoid process. The parietal bones contribute to the formation of the coronal and lambdoid sutures, which are fibrous joints that connect the bones in the skull.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Herpetic keratitis is a specific type of keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) that is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. It is further divided into two types: dendritic and disciform keratitis. Dendritic keratitis is characterized by the development of branching ulcers on the surface of the cornea, while disciform keratitis involves inflammation and opacity in the stroma (middle layer) of the cornea. Both types of herpetic keratitis can cause symptoms such as eye pain, redness, sensitivity to light, tearing, and blurred vision. If left untreated, herpetic keratitis can lead to serious complications, including blindness.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells", Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Tumor Stromal Modulators, ... Stromal cells play a large role in the distinction of hematopoietic cells (cells that can differentiate into other blood cells ... Stromal cells, or mesenchymal stromal cells, are differentiating cells found in abundance within bone marrow but can also be ... tumor cells can convert these reactive stromal cells further and transition them into tumor-associated stromal cells (TASCs). ...
They include all non-T-lineage cells, such as thymic epithelial cells (TECs), endothelial cells, mesenchymal cells, dendritic ... The predominant stromal cells found in the postnatal thymus are thymic epithelial cells (TECs). cTECs - (cortical thymic ... Thymus stromal cells are subsets of specialized cells located in different areas of the thymus. ... The most serious clinical expression of a thymic stromal cell defect is profound T cell lymphopaenia, presenting as a complete ...
There are several stromal cell derived factors: Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1, SDF1, Sdf1) Stromal cell-derived factor-1 ... Stromal cell-derived factor-2 (SDF-2, SDF2, Sdf2) Stromal cell-derived factor-3 (SDF-3, SDF3, Sdf3) Stromal cell-derived factor ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Stromal cell-derived factor. If an internal link led you here ...
... dendritic cells move to the T cell zone or to the B cell follicle along the fibroblast reticular cell network. Dendritic cells ... Most lymph node stromal cells preferentially express DF1, an Aire-like transcription modulator. Lymph node stromal cells can be ... Stromal cells originate from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells. Lymph nodes are enclosed in an external fibrous capsule, from ... Lymph node stromal cells can give rise to a number of malignancies including: follicular dendritic cell sarcoma; fibroblastic ...
It is ubiquitously expressed in many tissues and cell types. Stromal cell-derived factors 1-alpha and 1-beta are small ... Zheng H, Fu G, Dai T, Huang H (2007). "Migration of endothelial progenitor cells mediated by stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha ... Stellos K, Gawaz M (March 2007). "Platelets and stromal cell-derived factor-1 in progenitor cell recruitment". Seminars in ... Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) are stem cells that differentiate into glial and neuronal cells. CXCL12 promotes their migration ...
An endometrial stromal nodule is a noninfiltrative, circumscribed proliferation of endometrial stromal cells and is a benign ... The appearance of the cells is identical to normal endometrial stromal cells. This can only be differentiated from low-grade ... Diagnosis may be aided by immunostaining; endometrial stromal nodules are positive for CD10; leiomyomas are positive for ... endometrial stromal sarcoma by confirming lack of infiltration. The differential includes cellular leiomyoma. ...
BAFF is secreted by a variety of cells: monocytes and macrophages; bone marrow stromal cells; astrocytes in certain ... When autoimmune B cells attack the body's own tissues, they are normally destroyed by cell suicide (apoptosis). Researchers ... Belimumab binds to BAFF and prevents it from binding to B cells. Without BAFF, B cells commit suicide and no longer contribute ... decreases peripheral blood B cells and lymphoid tissue marginal zone and follicular B cells in cynomolgus monkeys". The ...
... epithelial cells and different types of stromal or stromal-like cells.[citation needed] TSLP production has been observed in ... stromal lymphopoietin converts human epidermal Langerhans cells into antigen-presenting cells that induce proallergic T cells ... "Thymic stromal lymphopoietin-activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce the generation of FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in human ... Ziegler SF, Liu YJ (July 2006). "Thymic stromal lymphopoietin in normal and pathogenic T cell development and function". Nature ...
Owen, M.; Friedenstein, A. J. (1988). "Stromal stem cells: marrow-derived osteogenic precursors". Ciba Foundation Symposium. ... and nucleated cells. The adult stem cell fraction is present in the nucleated cells of the marrow. Most of these cells are ... meaning they are cells that have the ability to develop into more than one type of specialized cell. Mesenchymal stem cells ... Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells found in multiple human adult tissues, including bone marrow, synovial ...
Owen M; Friedenstein AJ (1988). "Stromal stem cells: marrow- derived osteogenic precursors". Ciba Found Symp. Novartis ... The rapidity with which premature cell death can occur depends on the cell type and the degree and duration of the anoxia. ... In healthy bone these cells are constantly replaced by differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, in ... bone cell damage and eventual cell death (apoptosis). Of significance is the fact that the average concentration of cadmium in ...
Stromal cell secretion of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). At the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 960 mg twice a day 31% of ... Activates the ERK Pathway and Enhances Cell Migration and Proliferation of BRAF(WT) Melanoma Cells". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res ... Vemurafenib causes programmed cell death in melanoma cell lines. Vemurafenib interrupts the B-Raf/MEK step on the B-Raf/MEK/ERK ... "Hairy Cell Leukemia: Celebrating Progress?". HCLF Blog. July 29, 2022. Retrieved July 25, 2022. "Hairy Cell Leukemia with ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) also known as mesenchymal stromal cells or medicinal signaling cells are multipotent stromal ... Stromal cells are connective tissue cells that form the supportive structure in which the functional cells of the tissue reside ... May 2012). "Mesenchymal-stem-cell-induced immunoregulation involves FAS-ligand-/FAS-mediated T cell apoptosis". Cell Stem Cell ... fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue). While the terms mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) and marrow stromal cell have ...
"Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as a Driver of Inflammaging". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 24 (7): 6372. doi:10.3390/ ... IL-6 is pro-inflammatory in nature and can be produced by many cells of the immune system as well as non-immune cells, like ... The secretome of senescent mesenchymal stem and stromal cells (MSCs) exhibits immunomodulatory effects and serves as a driver ... Cells with the SASP are characterized by being in cell cycle arrest, releasing inflammatory factors, and possessing a ...
... is all widely expressed on stromal cells. The N-terminal fragment of GPR126 contains C1r-C1s, Uegf and Bmp1 (CUB), and ... Mogha A, Benesh AE, Patra C, Engel FB, Schöneberg T, Liebscher I, Monk KR (November 2013). "Gpr126 functions in Schwann cells ... Forced GPR126 expression in COS-7 cells enhances cAMP levels by coupling to heterotrimeric Gαs/i proteins. GPR126 has been ... Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or thrombin stimulation, expression of GPR126 is induced by MAP kinases in endothelial cells. ...
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... (PASH) is an overgrowth of myofibroblastic cells in the breast. It has an appearance ... Powell CM, Cranor ML, Rosen PP (March 1995). "Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH). A mammary stromal tumor with ...
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The stem cell secretome (also referred to as the stromal cell secretome) is a collective term for the paracrine soluble factors ... stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1) both in vitro and ... "The current landscape of the mesenchymal stromal cell secretome: A new paradigm for cell-free regeneration". Cytotherapy. 18 (1 ... "Secretome of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in regenerative medicine". Biochimie. Special section : The Mesenchymal Stem Cell ...
... epithelial and stromal cells in vaginal adenosis show characteristic fusion through the basal lamina or with stromal ... Roberts, Daniel K.; Walker, Nola J.; Parmley, Tim H.; Horbelt, Douglas V. (1988). "Interaction of epithelial and stromal cells ... Its mucinous cells resemble the normal cervical lining, while its tuboendometrial cells resemble the lining of normal fallopian ... Association with clear cell adenocarcinoma in diethylstilbestrol-exposed offspring". Cancer. 54 (5): 869-875. doi:10.1002/1097- ...
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... stroma of ovary stroma of thyroid gland stroma of thymus stroma of bone marrow lymph node stromal cell multipotent stromal cell ... immune system blood cells causing inflammatory response. Fixed cells - cells that are permanent inhabitants of the tissue. ... Stromal tissue falls into the "functional" class that contributes to the body's support and movement. The cells which make up ... Stromal tissue is primarily made of extracellular matrix containing connective tissue cells. Extracellular matrix is primarily ...
Cismasiu VB, Radu E, Popescu LM (May 2011). "miR-193 expression differentiates telocytes from other stromal cells". Journal of ... Stem Cells and Development. 21 (13): 2508-19. doi:10.1089/scd.2011.0695. PMC 3424971. PMID 22384930. ... "MicroRNA-193 pro-proliferation effects for bone mesenchymal stem cells after low-level laser irradiation treatment through ...
2001). "Human thymic stromal lymphopoietin preferentially stimulates myeloid cells". J. Immunol. 167 (1): 336-43. doi:10.4049/ ... 2007). "Cutting edge: direct action of thymic stromal lymphopoietin on activated human CD4+ T cells". J. Immunol. 178 (11): ... It forms a ternary signaling complex with TSLP and interleukin-7 receptor-α, capable of stimulating cell proliferation through ... 2002). "Cloning of rat thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) and characterization of genomic structure of murine Tslpr ...
... is a stromal cell line-derived glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule that facilitates pre-B-cell growth. The ... a surface molecule of bone marrow stromal cell lines that facilitates pre-B-cell growth". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 91 (12): ... Bst1 (Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1, ADP-ribosyl cyclase 2, CD157) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BST1 gene ... "Entrez Gene: BST1 bone marrow stromal cell antigen 1". Quarona V, Zaccarello G, Chillemi A (2013). "CD38 and CD157: a long ...
"The Cell Surface Proteome of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells". PLOS ONE. 6 (5): e20399. Bibcode:2011PLoSO...620399N. doi: ... and role in mitochondrial function in cell life and death". Cell Biochem. Biophys. 39 (3): 279-92. doi:10.1385/CBB:39:3:279. ... "Essential role of voltage-dependent anion channel in various forms of apoptosis in mammalian cells". J. Cell Biol. 152 (2): 237 ... There is debate as to whether or not this channel is expressed in the cell surface membrane. This major protein of the outer ...
West-Mays JA, Dwivedi DJ (2006). "The keratocyte: corneal stromal cell with variable repair phenotypes". Int. J. Biochem. Cell ... "Interleukin-1alpha downregulates extracellular-superoxide dismutase in human corneal keratoconus stromal cells". Mol. Vis. 13: ... Cell Dev. Biol. 19 (2): 100-12. doi:10.1016/j.semcdb.2007.10.004. PMID 18077195. Lassen N, Pappa A, Black WJ, Jester JV, Day BJ ... List of human cell types derived from the germ layers Wilson SE, Chaurasia SS, Medeiros FW (September 2007). "Apoptosis in the ...
Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma consists of cells resembling normal proliferative phase endometrium, but with ... Endometrial stromal sarcoma is a malignant subtype of endometrial stromal tumor arising from the stroma (connective tissue) of ... Monotonous ovoid cells to spindly cells with minimal cytoplasm. Prominent arterioles. Angiolymphatic invasion common. Up to 10- ... 2009). "Gene fusion and RNA trans-splicing in normal and neoplastic cells". Cell Cycle. 8 (2): 218-222. doi:10.4161/cc.8.2.7358 ...
Kreins AY, Bonfanti P, Davies EG (2021). "Current and Future Therapeutic Approaches for Thymic Stromal Cell Defects". Frontiers ...
In physiological bone turn over, osteoblasts and stromal cells release RANKL, this acts on macrophages and monocytes which fuse ... Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is also secreted by osteoclasts and stromal cells; this inhibits RANKL and therefore osteoclast activity ... It is postulated that osteoclasts are the cells responsible for the resorption of the root surface. Osteoclasts can break down ... doi:10.1034/j.1601-1546.2002.10106.x. Andreasen JO (1981). "Relationship between cell damage in the periodontal ligament after ...
Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived From Pluripotent Stem Cells", Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Tumor Stromal Modulators, ... Stromal cells play a large role in the distinction of hematopoietic cells (cells that can differentiate into other blood cells ... Stromal cells, or mesenchymal stromal cells, are differentiating cells found in abundance within bone marrow but can also be ... tumor cells can convert these reactive stromal cells further and transition them into tumor-associated stromal cells (TASCs). ...
Stromal cell supernatants. In some experiments, supernatants from the M2-10B4 stromal cell line or from Tfm stromal cell ... so that the B cells were not in direct contact with the stromal cell layer. M2-10B4 stromal cells are known to produce B cell ... Direct cell-cell contact between stromal cells and B cell precursors was not required for the androgenic effects. When bone ... When bone marrow cells were cocultured directly on a stromal cell support layer of M2-10B4 cells, suppressive effects of DHT (1 ...
... level by the inability of HESCs to morphologically transform from a stromal fibroblastoid cell to an epithelioid decidual cell ... level by the inability of HESCs to morphologically transform from a stromal fibroblastoid cell to an epithelioid decidual cell ... cell proliferation/motility, and programmed cell death. These results were confirmed by the demonstration that SRC-3 is ... We show here that, like SRC-2, SRC-3 is expressed in the epithelial and stromal cellular compartments of the human endometrium ...
... theca cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and fibroblasts of stromal origin, singly or in various combinations. According to ... the WHO, sex cord-stromal tumors are classified into the following categories: Granulosa-stromal cell tumors Granulosa cell ... Definition Sex cord-stromal tumors are groups of tumors composed of granulosa cells, ... Sex cord-stromal tumors are groups of tumors composed of granulosa cells, theca cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and ...
While multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells have been recently isolated from adult lung (L-MSCs), there is very limited data on ... While multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells have been recently isolated from adult lung (L-MSCs), there is very limited data on ... Lung-derived mesenchymal stromal cell post-transplantation survival, persistence, paracrine expression, and repair of elastase- ... Stem Cells Dev. 2011 Oct;20(10):1779-92. doi: 10.1089/scd.2011.0105. Epub 2011 Jul 6. ...
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Tissue-Specific Progenitor Cells: Their Role in Tissue Homeostasis. Stem Cells Int 2016;2016:1-11 ... In vitro cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to modify ... Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are cells of non-haematopoietic origin, with the capacity to differentiate into multiple ... Strategies to improve the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stromal cells in respiratory diseases. Stem Cell Res Ther 2018;9: ...
Primordial germ cells and gastrointestinal stromal tumors respond distinctly to a cKit overactivating allele.. Return to Grants ... These results demonstrate a cell-context-dependent response to the cKit(V558Δ) mutation. We propose that AKT overload ... These results demonstrate a cell-context-dependent response to the cKit(V558Delta) mutation. We propose that AKT overload ... A constitutively activating mutation, cKit(V558Δ), causes gain-of-function phenotypes in mast cells and intestines, and ...
Compared with follicular epithelial cells, there are a few morphological studies on the stroma of human thyroid gland. In order ... Interfollicular fibroblasts in the human thyroid gland: recognition of a CD34 positive stromal cell network communicated by gap ... Interfollicular stromal fibroblasts also stained with CD34. The main constituent of the human thyroid stromal tissue was a CD34 ... plasma cells, macrophages, and mast cells. At the ultrastructural level, gap junctions between the cytoplasmic processes of ...
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are the ideal source to study fat formation as they are the progenitors of adipocytes. In ... Simultaneous analysis of metabolites, lipids, and proteins in cell culture is challenging due to the compounds chemical ... 105 cells). We developed an innovative analytical workflow including standardization with in-house produced 13C isotopically ... The molecular study of fat cell development in the human body is essential for our understanding of obesity and related ...
The differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into decidual cells, termed decidualization, is an integral step in the ... Primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) were subjected to small interfering RNA knockdown of WNK1 followed by in vitro ... WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 regulates human endometrial stromal cell decidualization, proliferation, and migration in ... "WNK lysine deficient protein kinase 1 regulates human endometrial stromal cell decidualization, proliferation, and migration in ...
Hedgehog signaling and response to cyclopamine differ in epithelial and stromal cells in benign breast and breast cancer ... 2006). Hedgehog signaling and response to cyclopamine differ in epithelial and stromal cells in benign breast and breast cancer ... Hedgehog signaling and response to cyclopamine differ in epithelial and stromal cells in benign breast and breast cancer. ... Hedgehog ligands were expressed at higher levels in some cancer epithelial cell lines compared to noncancerous epithelial cells ...
However, our study showed that primary cultured cells represented endometriosis cells more clearly than cell lines. ... The estrogen-regulated lncRNA H19/miR-216a-5p axis alters stromal cell invasion and migration via ACTA2 in endometriosis.. ... The estrogen-regulated lncRNA H19/miR-216a-5p axis alters stromal cell invasion and migration via ACTA2 in endometriosis. ... The estrogen-regulated lncRNA H19/miR-216a-5p axis alters stromal cell invasion and migration via ACTA2 in endometriosis. ...
8 more authors) (2018) Bone Marrow-Harvesting Technique Influences Functional Heterogeneity of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells ... Bone Marrow-Harvesting Technique Influences Functional Heterogeneity of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells and Cartilage ... But the cartilage regeneration capacity of these cells remains unpredictable because of cell heterogeneity. Hypothesis: The ... The harvest technique of BM may be of major importance in determining the clinical success of BM mesenchymal stem/stromal cells ...
Culture of cell line. Human gist cell line (GIST-882 cell) was purchased from cosmobio company in Japan. The cells were ... Cell proliferation experiment. Cell morphology observation and cell counting method: the cells in the logarithmic growth period ... Plate cell clonogenesis experiment. The GIST-882 cell lines of different intervention groups were made into cell suspension and ... Transwell migration and invasion experiment: 5 × 104 gist cells (200ul cell suspension) in each Transwell cell chamber (with or ...
T cells and either CHO or CHO-FAP cells. T cells cocultured with CHO-FAP cells showed strong CD25 induction and target cell ... and T-cell, B-cell, and NK-cell function. While T-cell- and NK-cell-attractant chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11) were also ... EnAd-SA-FAP-BiTE does not induce T-cell activation or FAP+ cell lysis in the absence of tumor cells. A, Cytotoxicity in T-cell ... EnAd-SA-FAP-BiTE does not induce T-cell activation or FAP+ cell lysis in the absence of tumor cells. A, Cytotoxicity in T-cell ...
In PC3 cells, cells expressing CD44 and CD133 were found and showed stem cell properties [11]. In DU145 cells, cells expressing ... Stromal cells from PZ or TZ of human prostates had similar proliferation rate in mice. CFSE-labeled stromal cells mixed with ... Cell Stem Cell. 2011May6;8(5):486-98 5. Chen W, Wang GM, Liu YJ. Cancer stem-like cells in human prostate carcinoma cells DU145 ... which suggests that the isolated cells were pure stromal cells.. The isolated stromal cells were further stained with anti- ...
Mesenchymal stromal cells are essential components of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) niches, regulating HSPC ... Alcam-a and Pdgfr-α are essential for the development of sclerotome-derived stromal cells that support hematopoiesis. Authors: ... We have now found that this ventral domain is the sclerotome, and that two markers of mammalian mesenchymal stem/stromal cells ... In zebrafish, we previously found that the stromal cells of the caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT), a niche functionally ...
Protein kinase G activation of KATP channels in human-cultured prostatic stromal cells. In: Cellular Signalling. 2002 ; Vol. 14 ... Protein kinase G activation of KATP channels in human-cultured prostatic stromal cells. / Cook, Anna-Louise; Frydenberg, Mark; ... Protein kinase G activation of KATP channels in human-cultured prostatic stromal cells. Cellular Signalling. 2002;14(12):1023 ... title = "Protein kinase G activation of KATP channels in human-cultured prostatic stromal cells", ...
Deletion of Pkd1 in renal stromal cells causes defects in the renal stromal compartment and progressive cystogenesis in the ... Deletion of Pkd1 in renal stromal cells causes defects in the renal stromal compartment and progressive cystogenesis in the ... Deletion of Pkd1 in renal stromal cells causes defects in the renal stromal compartment and progressive cystogenesis in the ... 2017-9-11). "Deletion of Pkd1 in renal stromal cells causes defects in the renal stromal compartment and progressive ...
... whereas stromal cell targeting did. Stromal cells in microdissected human tumours expressed the highest level of collagen ... stromal cell-mediated collagen crosslinking and stiffening to tumour aggression and identify lysyl hydroxylase 2 as a stromal ... Immunohistochemical analysis of biopsies from a cohort of patients with breast cancer revealed that stromal expression of lysyl ... Clarifying the molecular nature and the factors that regulate stromal stiffening in tumours should identify biomarkers to ...
Expansion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on temporary liquid microcarriers. Mariana P. Hanga*, Alvin W. Nienow, Halina ... Hanga MP, Nienow AW, Murasiewicz H, Pacek AW, Hewitt C, Coopman K. Expansion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on ... Expansion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on temporary liquid microcarriers. In: Journal of Chemical Technology and ... Expansion of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells on temporary liquid microcarriers. / Hanga, Mariana P.; Nienow, Alvin W.; ...
Stromal-Immune Cell Interactions Please see the Nature Portfolio Collection on Stromal-Immune Cell Interactions. You will find ... Human regulatory T cells turn into cytotoxic exTreg cells in atherosclerosis That regulatory T cells can change their ... Here the authors use single cell profiling of T cells across the human lifespan to show that a suboptimal TCR shift in T cells ... Here the authors use single cell profiling of T cells across the human lifespan to show that a suboptimal TCR shift in T cells ...
Epithelial and stromal MicroRNA signatures of columnar cell hyperplasia linking Let-7c to precancerous and cancerous breast ... Epithelial and stromal MicroRNA signatures of columnar cell hyperplasia linking Let-7c to precancerous and cancerous breast ... title = "Epithelial and stromal MicroRNA signatures of columnar cell hyperplasia linking Let-7c to precancerous and cancerous ... Epithelial and stromal MicroRNA signatures of columnar cell hyperplasia linking Let-7c to precancerous and cancerous breast ...
... they encounter a harsh milieu accompanied by death signals because of the lack of proper tensegrity structure between the cells ... Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs)‐based therapy brings the reassuring capability to regenerative medicine through their ... Mesenchymal stem/stromal cell-based delivery: a rapidly evolving strategy for cancer therapy. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021;9(1758 ... TNF-α and IFN-γ Participate in improving the immunoregulatory capacity of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells: importance of cell- ...
Blades, M., Manzo, A., Ingegnoli, F. et al. Stromal cell derived factor-1 (CXCL12) induces cell migration into lymph nodes ... Stromal cell derived factor-1 (CXCL12) induces cell migration into lymph nodes transplanted into SCID MICE. An investigation of ... Stromal cell derived factor-1 (CXCL12) induces cell migration into lymph nodes transplanted into SCID MICE. An investigation of ... such as follicular dendritic cell-associated B-cell aggregates, lymphatic and HEV markers. We also show that SDF-1 is capable ...
... stimulates bone marrow stromal cells to produce the disease critical cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, prior to any cell-cell contact. ... little has been done to investigate the MM cells ability to re-program cells within its environment to benefit disease ... stimulates bone marrow stromal cells to produce the disease critical cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, prior to any cell-cell contact. ... MM-derived MIF regulates bone marrow stromal cell-derived IL-6 and IL-8 via cMYC. a, b BMSC cells were pretreated with various ...
Sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor is a rare sex cord stromal tumor variant, with 16 cases reported in the English literature. We ... Sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor without expression of typical sex cord stromal tumor markers: case report and literature review. ... Sertoli cell tumor is a potential histologic mimic of other tumors, such as seminoma due to similar histology and overlapping ... This is the second reported case of a Sertoli cell tumor with reactivity limited to neuroendocrine markers and the first such ...
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) or adult stem cells are tissue-specific pools of progenitor cells with long-term self- ... Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2015, 6, 55.. *Neri, S. Genetic stability of mesenchymal stromal cells for regenerative medicine ... Cell Cycle 2015, 14, 1315-1326.. *Ozkul, Y.; Galderisi, U. The impact of epigenetics on mesenchymal stem cell biology. J. Cell ... Cell senescence is a dynamic process that can be influenced by cell to cell communication and signals from the microenvironment ...
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors are groups of tumors composed of granulosa cells, theca cells, Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, and fibroblasts of stromal origin, singly or in various combinations. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] sex cord-stromal tumors are classified into the following categories. (medscape.com)
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors account for approximately 8% of all ovarian tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Although various markers have been reported to stain sex cord-stromal tumors (eg, CD99, CD56, A103, müllerian inhibiting factor, vimentin), inhibin and calretinin have proven to be the most helpful to date. (medscape.com)
  • CD56 is a sensitive marker of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and may also be useful in the diagnosis of this group of neoplasms, especially in cases that are inhibin or calretinin negative, and the differential diagnosis includes neoplasms that are CD56 negative. (medscape.com)
  • A worldwide database analysis revealed that younger age, smaller tumor size, early stage, and granulosa cell tumor histologic type appear to be independent prognostic factors for improved survival in patients with malignant sex cord-stromal tumors who undergo lymph node dissection. (medscape.com)
  • Primordial germ cells and gastrointestinal stromal tumors respond distinctly to a cKit overactivating allele. (ca.gov)
  • A constitutively activating mutation, cKit(V558Δ), causes gain-of-function phenotypes in mast cells and intestines, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) when heterozygous. (ca.gov)
  • Effective immunotherapy of stromal-rich tumors requires simultaneous targeting of cancer cells and immunosuppressive elements of the microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The volume and weight of tumors was measured and analyzing the ability of purified DU145 cells isolated from the tumors to migrate and proliferate. (jcancer.org)
  • The volume and weight of tumors were significantly higher in mice transplanted with DU145 and stromal cells from PZ. (jcancer.org)
  • The purified DU145 cells isolated from the tumors with DU145 and stromal cells in PZ had increased ability to migrate and proliferate, and had increased expression of C-Kit. (jcancer.org)
  • Sertoli cell tumor is a potential histologic mimic of other tumors, such as seminoma due to similar histology and overlapping clinical presentation. (qxmd.com)
  • We present an unusual case of sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor in a 33-year-old Caucasian male, which was negative or weakly reactive using immunohistochemical markers typically positive in Sertoli cell tumors. (qxmd.com)
  • Our case highlights that expected immunohistochemical markers may be negative, and awareness of antigenically unreactive tumors is needed to avoid confusion between Sertoli cell tumor and other entities. (qxmd.com)
  • Clinicopathological features, risk profile assessment, and the surgical outcome of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in Lagos, Nigeria. (nih.gov)
  • Pediatric-type" gastrointestinal stromal tumors in adults: distinctive histology predicts genotype and clinical behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of gastrointestinal stromal tumors with high progranulin expression. (nih.gov)
  • Immune Cell Infiltration and the Expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in Primary PDGFRA-Mutant Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors. (nih.gov)
  • Tumors are not simply a compilation of molecularly and phenotypically identical neoplastic cells. (lu.se)
  • Germ cell, stromal, and other ovarian tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) account for less than 1% of GI tumors, but they are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the GI tract. (medscape.com)
  • Anti- tumoral effects have been reported in different types of tumors, showing a reduction in tumor growth and metastasis with the presence of MSCs or EVs derived from these cells [15-18]. (unicyte.ch)
  • Treatment protocols for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are provided below, including those for limited-stage disease and persistent or metastatic disease. (medscape.com)
  • A guide for the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal stromal cell tumors. (medscape.com)
  • Primary surgery as a frontline treatment for synchronous metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors: an analysis of the Kinki GIST registry. (medscape.com)
  • Surgical resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumors after treatment with imatinib. (medscape.com)
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare cancers that start in specific cells in the wall of the digestive tract. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People who have had radiation therapy to the abdomen for the treatment of other tumors can develop gastrointestinal stromal tumors at a later time. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and are thought to develop from the interstitial cells of Cajal, innervated cells associated with the Auerbach plexus. (medscape.com)
  • Histologically, GISTs can be categorized as cellular spindle cell tumors (70%), epithelioid tumors (20%), or pleomorphic/mixed morphology tumors, but such histologic distinction does not carry clear prognostic significance. (medscape.com)
  • Surgery is the primary treatment for patients with localized or potentially resectable gastrointestinal stromal tumors. (medscape.com)
  • NCCN Task Force report: update on the management of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors. (medscape.com)
  • A modification of NIH consensus criteria to better distinguish the highly lethal subset of primary localized gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a subdivision of the original high-risk group on the basis of outcome. (medscape.com)
  • There are three types of ovarian cancers: epithelial ovarian carcinomas, germ cell tumors, and stromal cell tumors. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ninety percent of patients with germ cell tumors survive five years after diagnosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A gastrointestinal stromal tumor composed of a mixture of neoplastic epithelioid and spindle cells. (nih.gov)
  • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: clinicopathological characteristics and pathologic prognostic analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical and pathological characteristics of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) metastatic to bone. (nih.gov)
  • Shown here is a gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). (medscape.com)
  • Phase II trial of neoadjuvant/adjuvant imatinib mesylate (IM) for advanced primary and metastatic/recurrent operable gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST): early results of RTOG 0132/ACRIN 6665. (medscape.com)
  • The most common stromal cells include fibroblasts and pericytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interfollicular stromal fibroblasts also stained with CD34. (nih.gov)
  • The main constituent of the human thyroid stromal tissue was a CD34 positive reticular network involving fibroblasts, mononuclear cells and nerve terminals. (nih.gov)
  • Using real-time, quantitative PCR, laser capture microdissection, and immunohistochemistry, distinctive patterns of expression of the hedgehog pathway members patched 1 (PTCH1), smoothened, GLI1, GLI2 and the 3 hedgehog ligands were identified for epithelial cells and stromal fibroblasts in benign breast and breast cancer. (rti.org)
  • However, cyclopamine reduced viability of cancer epithelial cell lines, including MDA-MB-435, but did not specifically affect fibroblasts or epithelial cells from benign breast, including MCF10AT. (rti.org)
  • MiR-132 was upregulated in the stroma surrounding CCH compared to stoma surrounding normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), and overexpression of miR-132 in immortalized fibroblasts and in fibroblasts co-cultured with epithelial CCH cells caused substantial expression changes of genes involved in metabolism, DNA damage and cell motility. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Most GISTs are caused by a mutation in a gene called C-KIT that controls the growth of cells, and some are caused by a mutation in a gene called PDGFRB that provides instructions for making a certain protein. (msdmanuals.com)
  • GISTs are typically defined by the expression of c- KIT (CD117) in the tumor cells, as these activating KIT mutations are seen in 85-95% of GISTs. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with pediatric-type GISTs present with a purely epithelioid or mixed epithelioid/spindle cell cellularity. (medscape.com)
  • abstract = "Columnar cell hyperplasia (CCH) is the earliest histologically identifiable breast lesion linked to cancer progression and is characterized by increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis and elevated oestrogen receptor α (ERα) expression. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • The differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into decidual cells, termed decidualization, is an integral step in the establishment of pregnancy. (bioone.org)
  • Primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) were subjected to small interfering RNA knockdown of WNK1 followed by in vitro decidualization. (bioone.org)
  • Sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor without expression of typical sex cord stromal tumor markers: case report and literature review. (qxmd.com)
  • Sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor is a rare sex cord stromal tumor variant, with 16 cases reported in the English literature. (qxmd.com)
  • Hair Regeneration with Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF) is now available at California Stem Cell Treament Center. (cellsurgicalnetwork.com)
  • Recently, the adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction has become the most popular source for obtaining mesenchymal stem cells because it is less expensive and is easier to perform than bone marrow concentrate harvesting. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • However, no study has investigated the factors affecting the mesenchymal stem cell population in adipose tissue derived stromal vascular fraction. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • Understanding the interaction of patient factors with the mesenchymal stem cell count and cell viability in adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction could provide crucial information for surgeons to improve patient selection and outcomes. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • To evaluate the factors affecting the mesenchymal stem cell count, total cell count, and cell viability in adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • This study retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 30 patients who underwent liposuction to harvest adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction at our stem cell center. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • Operative variables, such as lipoaspirate amount and donor areas from the stromal vascular fraction harvesting site, included the entire abdomen and lower abdomen. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • We recorded the mesenchymal stem cell population, cell viability, and cell count of stromal vascular fraction, and we analyzed the results to determine statistical significance. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • KitL, via its receptor cKit, supports primordial germ cell (PGC) growth, survival, migration and reprogramming to pluripotent embryonic germ cells (EGCs). (ca.gov)
  • Gene ontology and upstream regulator pathway analysis showed that WNK1 regulates cell migration, differentiation, and proliferation. (bioone.org)
  • The estrogen-regulated lncRNA H19/miR-216a-5p axis alters stromal cell invasion and migration via ACTA2 in endometriosis. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Alterations in the H19/miR-216a-5p/ACTA2 pathway may mediate the regulation of eutopic endometrial stromal cell (euESC) invasion and migration and may represent a potential mechanism underlying fibrous tissue formation or fibrosis in women with endometriosis. (iasp-pain.org)
  • IM combined with IR can synergistically inhibit the proliferation, apoptosis, clonogenesis, invasion, migration and cell cycle of GIST cells. (researchsquare.com)
  • We have now found that this ventral domain is the sclerotome, and that two markers of mammalian mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, Alcam and Pdgfr-α, are distinctively expressed there and instrumental for the emergence and migration of stromal cell progenitors, which in turn conditions the proper assembly of the vascular component of the CHT niche. (gene-tools.com)
  • Also, following transplantation and migration to target tissue, they encounter a harsh milieu accompanied by death signals because of the lack of proper tensegrity structure between the cells and matrix. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, natural MSCs in vivo survival and their biological effects on tissue recovery decrease with long-term cultivation called aging and also injected cells demonstrate poor targeted migration [ 21 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stromal cell derived factor-1 (CXCL12) induces cell migration into lymph nodes transplanted into SCID MICE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We also show that SDF-1 is capable of inducing the migration of an SDF-1 responsive cell-line (U-937) and human PBL's from the murine circulation into the grafts in a dose dependant manner which is inhibitable by CXCR4 blockade. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is the first description of huPLN transplantation into SCID mice, and of the functional effects of SDF-1 regarding the migration of human cells into huPLN in vivo . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This model provides a powerful tool to investigate the pathways involved in cell-migration into lymphoid organs and potentially to target them for therapeutic purposes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Stromal cells lacking CAVIN1 enhance prostate cancer cell migration and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, we showed that p75 NTR signaling is involved in the activation of the hypoxic signaling pathway and is also regulating glioma cell stemness and migration in hypoxia. (lu.se)
  • Nevertheless, MSCs do not express essential adhesion molecules actively involved in cell migration , a phenotypic feature that hampers their ability to home inflamed tissues following intravenous administration . (bvsalud.org)
  • We found that CSC-derived EVs promoted persistent phenotypical changes in MSCs characterized by an increased expression of genes associated with cell migration (CXCR4, CXCR7), matrix remodeling (COL4A3), angiogenesis and tumor growth (IL-8, Osteopontin and Myeloperoxidase). (unicyte.ch)
  • Moreover, EV-stimulated MSCs enhanced migration of renal tumor cells and induced vessel-like formation. (unicyte.ch)
  • They also aid in differentiation of hematopoietic cells and forming necessary blood elements. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is well known that stromal cells arise and are stored in the bone marrow until maturation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell quality, as assessed by differentiation, cell surface marker expression and clonogenic ability, was retained post expansion on the liquid microcarriers. (aston.ac.uk)
  • They also can inspire angiogenesis by direct differentiation, cell-to-cell interaction, or paracrine effects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cells possess both differentiation plasticity (stemness) and tissue supportive functions (stromalness) that can coexist and overlap, with differences depending on tissue source, donor characteristics, culture conditions and delivery strategies, leading to alternative best fittings for the term "stem" or "stromal" [ 7 ] . (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Some of the main issues are identification of the optimal precursor cell types, establishment of growth and differentiation conditions that meet safety and good manufacturing practice standards, and manipulation of the surrounding environment to allow transplanted cells to survive and function. (sahmri.org.au)
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Application (ISSCA) is excited to announce the much-anticipated World Congress 2023, further establishing its role as the primary global hub for regenerative medicine. (stemcellslab.net)
  • Stromal cells are an important part of the body's immune response and modulate inflammation through multiple pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, stromal cells play a role in inflammation responses, and controlling the amount of cells accumulating at an inflamed region of tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The findings link tissue inflammation, stromal cell-mediated collagen crosslinking and stiffening to tumour aggression and identify lysyl hydroxylase 2 as a stromal biomarker. (escholarship.org)
  • We show that depletion of CAVIN1 in prostate stromal cells markedly reduces their lipid droplet accumulation and increases inflammation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data support the concept that stromal cells contribute to prostate cancer aggressiveness by modulating lipid content and inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Clarifying the molecular nature and the factors that regulate stromal stiffening in tumours should identify biomarkers to stratify patients for therapy and interventions to improve outcome. (escholarship.org)
  • Epithelial-targeted expression of the crosslinking enzyme, lysyl oxidase, had no impact on collagen crosslinking in PyMT mammary tumours, whereas stromal cell targeting did. (escholarship.org)
  • Stromal cells in microdissected human tumours expressed the highest level of collagen crosslinking enzymes. (escholarship.org)
  • Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours. (nih.gov)
  • Endosonographic features predictive of benign and malignant gastrointestinal stromal cell tumours. (medscape.com)
  • Stromal cells can become connective tissue cells of any organ, for example in the uterine mucosa (endometrium), prostate, bone marrow, lymph node and the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
  • These factors make it an effective tool in potential cell therapies and tissue repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being a mesenchymal cell indicates an ability to develop into various other cell types and tissues such as connective tissue, blood vessels, and lymphatic tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro cell culture and animal studies have demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have the capacity to modify immune responses and to enhance tissue repair. (bmj.com)
  • Background: Connective tissue progenitors (CTPs) from native bone marrow (BM) or their culture-expanded progeny, often referred to as mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, represents a promising strategy for treatment of cartilage injuries. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • In zebrafish, we previously found that the stromal cells of the caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT), a niche functionally homologous to the mammalian fetal liver, arise from the ventral part of caudal somites. (gene-tools.com)
  • In addition grafts retain some of the histological features of the pretransplantation tissue, such as follicular dendritic cell-associated B-cell aggregates, lymphatic and HEV markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are a reservoir for tissue homeostasis and repair that age during organismal aging. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • During aging of the organism, MSCs also age, and this implies an impairment of stem cell functions contributing to the progressive decrease in tissue maintenance and repair, a characteristic of the aging process. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Due to the low abundance of MSCs in human adult tissues (about 1/10 6 cells in adult bone marrow and 1/10 3-4 cells in adipose tissue and umbilical cord) [ 16 ] , frequently ex-vivo expansion precedes therapeutic administration, to obtain a clinically relevant number of cells. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • It is anticipated that a concerted multidiscipline approach is required to facilitate the reality and great potential benefits of cell-based tissue engineering applications. (sahmri.org.au)
  • Later, Arnold Caplan's group described mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) as multipotent mesenchymal cell populations which can differentiate into several tissue types, and demonstrated roles for MSCs in the regeneration of bone, cartilage or ligaments in animal and clinical studies [2-4]. (issca.us)
  • The tissue source of the MSCs was in most cases not decisive, and cells from various tissue sources were explored. (issca.us)
  • Nuclear shape alteration in ocular tissues, which can be used as a metric for overall cell deformation, may also lead to changes in gene expression and protein synthesis that could affect the biomechanics of the tissue extracellular matrix. (elsevierpure.com)
  • SFTs of the pleura are localized mesenchymal neoplasms composed of fibroblastlike cells believed to arise from the subpleural connective tissue. (medscape.com)
  • While multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells have been recently isolated from adult lung (L-MSCs), there is very limited data on their biological properties and therapeutic potential in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Comparing HESC controls with HESCs deficient in SRC-3, gene enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed gene set revealed an overrepresentation of genes involved in chromatin remodeling, cell proliferation/motility, and programmed cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Following early observations that MSCs inhibit T-cell proliferation, 9 MSCs were found to interact with the majority of innate and adaptive immune cells. (bmj.com)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells are essential components of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) niches, regulating HSPC proliferation and fates. (gene-tools.com)
  • Tumor stroma promotes tumor proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, but how stromal lipids influence these processes remain to be defined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • A subset of tumor cells, defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs), are characterized by self-renewal and continuous proliferation capacity, providing the ability to initiate tumor and to generate other heterogeneous cell populations [1]. (unicyte.ch)
  • Additionally, the recruitment of local normal host stromal cells, such as bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, endothelial cells, and adipocytes, help create a conspicuously heterogeneous composition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are cells of non-haematopoietic origin, with the capacity to differentiate into multiple lineages of the mesenchyme, that is, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and adipocytes. (bmj.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are the ideal source to study fat formation as they are the progenitors of adipocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • PBM-treated hypertrophic cells (1064 nm and 17.6 J/cm2 every day for 7 days following addition of PA) decreased the lipid levels in hypertrophic adipocytes, restored the GLUT4 protein expression and enhanced glucose transport. (google.com)
  • While a majority is found in the bone marrow scientists now know that stromal cells can be found in a variety of different tissues as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primary cultured cells of endometrial tissues were analysed using RT-PCR and western blotting (WB) to determine expression of H19 and ACTA2. (iasp-pain.org)
  • Since the iliac crest remains a frequent site of BM harvest for musculoskeletal regeneration, the authors also compared the spatial distribution of these subsets in trabeculae of femoral head and iliac crest and found CD2711CD561 bone-lining cells in both tissues. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • These glands and ducts are distributed in the prostate and surrounded by stromal tissues. (jcancer.org)
  • These tissues harbour the highest number of tumour-associated macrophages, whose therapeutic ablation in experimental models reduced metastasis, and decreased collagen crosslinks and stromal stiffening. (escholarship.org)
  • This cell surface glycan modification of CD44 has previously shown in preclinical studies to favor trafficking of mAdMSCs to inflamed or injured peripheral tissues . (bvsalud.org)
  • Together, these findings indicate that exofucosylation could represent a suitable cell engineering strategy, not only to facilitate the in vivo MSC colonization of damaged tissues after systemic administration , but also to convert MSCs in a more potent immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory cell therapy -based product for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune, inflammatory, and degenerative diseases . (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared with follicular epithelial cells, there are a few morphological studies on the stroma of human thyroid gland. (nih.gov)
  • Hedgehog ligands were expressed at higher levels in some cancer epithelial cell lines compared to noncancerous epithelial cells. (rti.org)
  • Hedgehog-mediated transcription, as indicated by a reporter of GLI-dependent promoter activity and by expression of GLI1 transcripts, was reduced by the hedgehog pathway inhibitor cyclopamine in both MDA-MB-435 cancer epithelial cells and MCF10AT epithelial cells, a cell line derived from benign breast. (rti.org)
  • These results demonstrate modulation of GLI-mediated transcription in both cancer and benign-derived epithelial cells by cyclopamine and sonic hedgehog, and further suggest that hedgehog signaling contributes to the survival of only the cancer epithelial cells. (rti.org)
  • Most human prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas, which originate from the epithelial cells that line the glands and ducts of prostate [ 2 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Studies have been conducted to evaluate androgen receptor expression in cancer cells and most of the studies have concentrated on cancer epithelial cells and not cancer stromal cells. (journalcra.com)
  • Development of the prostate gland as well as development of prostatic cancer is closely associated with stromal-epithelial interactions and in the centre of these interactions stands the Androgen Receptor in both stromal and epithelial cells. (journalcra.com)
  • Results: In the epithelial cells Androgen Receptor expression declined as Gleason grade increased but this correlation was statistically not significant. (journalcra.com)
  • Conclusion: Androgen Receptor expression in stromal cells of prostatic carcinoma shows more pronounced decrease as the tumor dedifferentiates compared to Androgen Receptor expression in epithelial cells of prostatic carcinoma. (journalcra.com)
  • C: Tumor either Stage IA or Stage IB, but with tumor on the surface of one or both ovaries, or with capsule ruptured, or with ascites containing malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings. (medscape.com)
  • or ascites present containing malignant cells or with positive peritoneal washings. (medscape.com)
  • This is attributable, in part, to the highly protective nature of the BM micro-environment niche in which the malignant plasma cells proliferate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within malignant cell niches in invaded lymph nodes and bone marrow, external stimuli provided by infiltrating stromal cells make a pivotal contribution to disease development, progression, and drug resistance. (hal.science)
  • Finally, deciphering the interplay between stromal cells and FL cells provides potential new therapeutic targets with the aim to mobilize malignant cells outside their protective microenvironment and increase their sensitivity to conventional treatment. (hal.science)
  • Immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against Cx43 confirmed the distribution of gap junctions between stromal fibroblastic cells, which was compatible with the ultrastructural findings. (nih.gov)
  • In the 1970s, Friedenstein and colleagues [1] first reported that locally applied culture-expanded populations of bone marrow stroma-derived fibroblastic cells remained at their injection sites under the kidney capsule, where an ectopic hematopoiesis was initiated. (issca.us)
  • Some stromal cells can be considered stem cells but not all therefore it can not be broadly termed a stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothesis: The harvest technique of BM may highly influence stem cell heterogeneity and, thus, cartilage formation because these cells have distinct spatial localization within BM from the same bone. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The expression patterns of stem cell-specific genes of these DU145 cells were examined. (jcancer.org)
  • The model will be useful for understanding the mechanisms by which the prostatic stem cell niche controls the tumorigeneis of prostatic cancer stem cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Stem cell therapy has been the subject of many studies for its potential to cure many disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SDF-1 (CXCL12), a CXC chemokine, has a primary role in signalling the recruitment of haematopoietic stem-cell precursors to the bone marrow during embryonic development. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Actually, stem cell exhaustion is considered one of the promoters of aging. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Miami, Florida - Global Stem Cells Group (GSCG) is thrilled to announce the grand opening of its latest state-of-the-art Stem Cell Center, located in Jakarta, Indonesia. (stemcellslab.net)
  • Miami, Florida - The International Society for Stem Cell Applications (ISSCA) is thrilled to announce the launch of its newest program, the Advanced Turkish Hair Transplant Certification. (stemcellslab.net)
  • Although there is great demand and interest in hair regeneration and many patients were going overseas to groups like Recoverup (currently not taking new patients) to explore stem cell options, there remains a paucity of adequate clinical data on outcomes. (cellsurgicalnetwork.com)
  • California Stem Cell Treatment Center nows provides the latest generation advances in Hair restoration using NeoGraft. (cellsurgicalnetwork.com)
  • We care about our Hair patients at California Stem Cell Treatment Center and the Cell Surgical Network and take pride in the time we provide to our patients to deploy the best protocols to help our patients achieve their goals. (cellsurgicalnetwork.com)
  • By filling out Confidential Candidate Application , we will answer the questions and concerns you may have about California Stem Cell Treatment Center and Cell Surgical Network protocols for Hair Regeneration. (cellsurgicalnetwork.com)
  • We evaluated cell stemness by using multiple functional assays in combination with stem cell marker expression analysis. (lu.se)
  • and between coronary artery disease and mesenchymal stem cell counts ( p = 0.028). (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • The relationship of patient factors (age, body mass index, hypertension, and coronary artery disease) with cell viability and mesenchymal stem cell counts may be important for clinical applications. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • We employed in vitro cultures and two in vivo models to investigate whether androgens exert these effects directly on marrow lymphoid precursors or whether actions on marrow stromal elements are required. (jci.org)
  • In this review, we discuss the rationale for MSC-based cell therapy in COPD, the main findings from in vitro and in vivo preclinical COPD model studies, clinical trials in patients with COPD and directions for further research. (bmj.com)
  • MSC use frequently requires in vitro expansion, thus exposing cells to replicative senescence. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • In vitro effects of benzene metabolites on mouse bone marrow stromal cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The C-Kit inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, was administrated to confirm the effect of stromal cells on the tumorigenesis. (jcancer.org)
  • These effects of the stromal cells in the PZ on DU145 cells could be blocked using imatinib mesylate. (jcancer.org)
  • Adjuvant imatinib mesylate after resection of localised, primary gastrointestinal stromal tumour: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • In the stromal cells a decline in Androgen Receptor expression was also noted but this decline was more pronounced and statistically significant correlation of Androgen Receptor expression was noted between well differentiated carcinomas and moderately and poorly differentiated prostatic carcinomas. (journalcra.com)
  • Here, we show that stromal CAVIN1 regulates lipid abundance in the prostate cancer microenvironment and suppresses metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The stromal cell requirement for androgen-mediated effects was confirmed in vivo by experiments using chimeric animals created by bone marrow transplantation in which androgen receptor expression was restricted to either the stromal or lymphoid cells of the bone marrow. (jci.org)
  • While bone-marrow transplantation might mitigate hematopoietic syndrome, currently there are no approved medical countermeasures to alleviate radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS), resulting from direct cytocidal effects on intestinal stem cells (ISC) and crypt stromal cells. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This concept started from the observation that bone marrow transplantation can provide stromal cells able to synthesize intact collagen type I, replacing deficient patient cell function and ameliorating disease symptoms [5]. (issca.us)
  • This study showed that stromal CAVIN1 suppresses prostate cancer metastasis by modulating tumor microenvironment, lipid content, and inflammatory response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Renal carcinomas have been shown to contain a population of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that present self-renewing capacity and support tumor growth and metastasis. (unicyte.ch)
  • 2 MSCs were first described in the bone marrow where they constitute a small fraction of cells (0.001%-0.01%) that closely interact with haematopoietic cells to support haematopoiesis and skeletal homeostasis. (bmj.com)
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: Autologous bone marrow was cultured in mesenchymal basal medium and adherent cells were harvested for transplantation to C57Bl6 mice, 24 and 72 hours after lethal whole body irradiation (10.4 Gy) or abdominal irradiation (16-20 Gy) in a single fraction. (elsevierpure.com)
  • This is the second reported case of a Sertoli cell tumor with reactivity limited to neuroendocrine markers and the first such case of the sclerosing variant. (qxmd.com)
  • A literature review of sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor, including English and non-English literature, is described. (qxmd.com)
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (SLCT) is a rare cancer of the ovaries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Sertoli cells are normally located in the male reproductive glands (the testes). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (arrhenoblastoma). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clinical and cell-based studies as well as investigations on mice have demonstrated pivotal roles for each SRC in numerous physiological and pathophysiological contexts, underscoring their functional pleiotropy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Clinical Relevance: The harvest technique of BM may be of major importance in determining the clinical success of BM mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in cartilage repair. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Bone marrow stromal cells: characterization and clinical application. (bvsalud.org)
  • Stromal cells in prostate cancer pathobiology: friends or foes? (nature.com)
  • Exofucosylation of Adipose Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Alters Their Secretome Profile. (bvsalud.org)
  • These molecular findings are supported at the cellular level by the inability of HESCs to morphologically transform from a stromal fibroblastoid cell to an epithelioid decidual cell when endogenous SRC-3 levels are markedly reduced. (frontiersin.org)
  • The cross-talk between the host stroma and tumor cells is essential for tumor growth and progression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we investigate the function of MM-derived MIF in the MM microenvironment by examining its effects on bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the effects of MIF secretion by MM on its microenvironment, we used cytokine arrays to establish if cytokine changes occur when MM cells are cultured with primary BMSC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the prototypical model of indolent B cell lymphoma displaying a strong dependence on a specialized cell microenvironment mimicking normal germinal center. (hal.science)
  • The aim of this thesis was to evaluate how microenvironmental cues affect the interactions between the tumor microenvironment and glioma stem-like cells in glioblastoma. (lu.se)
  • Numerous reports showed that tumor EVs are not restricted only to tumor microenvironment but are also present in the blood circulation and other body fluids, supporting the idea that EVs can also stimulate cells at distant sites in the organism [10-13]. (unicyte.ch)
  • molecules secreted by the tumor and tumor-related stromal cells, promoting their recruitment from bone marrow into the circulation and subsequent engraftment within tumor microenvironment [14]. (unicyte.ch)
  • Extracellular vesicles derived from renal cancer stem cells induce a pro-tumorigenic phenotype in mesenchymal stromal cells. (unicyte.ch)
  • CSCs were shown to secrete large amount of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can transfer several molecules (proteins, lipids and nucleic acids) and induce epigenetic changes in target cells. (unicyte.ch)
  • In addition, tumor cells interaction were also shown to be mediated by secretion of extracellular vesicles (EVs) that can transfer proteins, lipids and nucleic acids and induce epigenetic changes in target cells [4,5]. (unicyte.ch)
  • 1 Unique MSC-specific markers have not yet been identified, and MSCs constitute a heterogeneous cell population, including both multipotent (stem) cells and progenitor cells and might even contain pluripotent cell fractions. (bmj.com)
  • We show here that, like SRC-2, SRC-3 is expressed in the epithelial and stromal cellular compartments of the human endometrium during the proliferative and secretory phase of the menstrual cycle as well as in cultured HESCs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Castration of normal male mice induces expansion of the bone marrow B cell population, an effect that can be reversed by androgen replacement. (jci.org)
  • Stimulation of hedgehog signaling induces carcinogenesis or promotes cell survival in cancers of multiple organs. (rti.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of biopsies from a cohort of patients with breast cancer revealed that stromal expression of lysyl hydroxylase 2, an enzyme that induces hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived collagen crosslinks and stromal stiffening, correlated significantly with disease specific mortality. (escholarship.org)
  • They are located in the stroma and aid hematopoietic cells in forming the elements of the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we investigated whether modification by fucosylation of murine AdMSCs (mAdMSCs) creates Hematopoietic Cell E-/ L-selectin Ligand , the E-selectin -binding CD44 glycoform. (bvsalud.org)
  • We also found that SRC-3 depletion in cultured HESCs results in a significant attenuation in the induction of a wide-range of established biomarkers of decidualization, despite exposure of these cells to a deciduogenic stimulus and normal progesterone receptor expression. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) constitute the cell type more frequently used in many regenerative medicine approaches due to their exclusive immunomodulatory properties, and they have been reported to mediate profound immunomodulatory effects in vivo. (bvsalud.org)
  • As the first step towards understanding the mutual role of the biomechanics and deformation of the iris on the activity of its constituent stromal cells, we conducted an ex-vivo study in freshly excised porcine eyes. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Since the iris undergoes large deformations in response to ambient light, this study suggests that the iris stromal cells are subjected to a biomechanically active micro-environment during their in-vivo physiological function. (elsevierpure.com)
  • In vivo, EV-stimulated MSCs supported tumor development and vascularization, when co-injected with renal tumor cells. (unicyte.ch)
  • During normal wound healing processes, the local stromal cells change into reactive stroma after altering their phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • This review highlights the critical pathways involved in the direct tumor-promoting activity of stromal cells but also their role in the organization of FL cell niche through the recruitment of accessory immune cells and their polarization to a B cell supportive phenotype. (hal.science)
  • Stromal cell contribution to human follicular lymphoma pathogenesis. (hal.science)
  • The minimal criteria to define MSCs further include a specific set of cell surface markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells must express CD73, CD90 and CD105 and they must be negative for CD14 or CD11b, CD34, CD45, CD79 alpha or CD19 and HLA-DR. Low levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) make MSCs hypoimmunogenic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs)‐based therapy brings the reassuring capability to regenerative medicine through their self‐renewal and multilineage potency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although there is no particular quantitative assay to provide MSCs identification in mixed cells population [ 8 ], the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) has provided minimum principles to determine MSCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MSCs represent a lifelong reservoir for the generation of somatic cells and for cell replacement. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are increasingly used as an intravenously applied cellular therapeutic. (issca.us)
  • Pivotal studies by the group of Horwitz in children with osteogenesis imperfecta, an inherited enzyme deficiency of collagen synthesis by mesenchymal cells in bone, opened the field for intravenous use of MSCs. (issca.us)
  • and signals from the injected cells were found early after administration of the MSCs at the highest frequencies in the lungs, followed by liver and spleen. (issca.us)
  • Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are susceptible to tumor signalling and can be recruited to tumor regions. (unicyte.ch)
  • Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known by their migratory capacity to injury and tumor sites. (unicyte.ch)
  • Such dual role possibly depends on a complex mechanism of interaction between tumor cells and MSCs that can be initially triggered by tumor EVs. (unicyte.ch)
  • M-CSF, LIF), bone marrow stromal cells have been described to be involved in human hematopoiesis and inflammatory processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • We previously demonstrated the critical involvement of SRC-2 in murine embryo implantation as well as in human endometrial stromal cell (HESC) decidualization, a cellular transformation process required for trophoblast invasion and ultimately placentation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular study of fat cell development in the human body is essential for our understanding of obesity and related diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • Stromal cells isolated from the PZ and TZ of normal human prostates mixed with DU145 cells subcutaneously injected into athymic nude mice. (jcancer.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Traditional large-scale culture systems for human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) use solid microcarriers as attachment substrates. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Here the authors use single cell profiling of T cells across the human lifespan to show that a suboptimal TCR shift in T cells as we enter older age results in a molecular signature that resembles that of T cells from newborns and children. (nature.com)
  • c Representative ( n = 3) Human XL cytokine array output after a 24-h incubation in either mono or co-culture, cell supernatant was used for analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DSRCT is composed of small cells with round hyperchromatic nuclei and a dense fibrous or spindle cell stroma. (medscape.com)
  • Taken together, PBM is shown capable of restoring the cellular morphology and function of hypertrophic cells. (google.com)
  • However, our study showed that primary cultured cells represented endometriosis cells more clearly than cell lines. (iasp-pain.org)
  • For this work, we used genetically engineered mouse models of glioma, primary stromal and glioma cell lines, classical glioblastoma cell lines, and organotypic slice cultures. (lu.se)
  • Results: Cells from the BM after rasping were significantly more chondrogenic than the donor-matched aspirate, whereas no notable difference in their osteogenic or adipogenic potential was observed. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, the data was significantly lower with DU145 and stromal cells from TZ than DU145 alone. (jcancer.org)