Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fibrinolytic Agents: Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Stroke, Lacunar: Stroke caused by lacunar infarction or other small vessel diseases of the brain. It features hemiparesis (see PARESIS), hemisensory, or hemisensory motor loss.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Tissue Plasminogen Activator: A proteolytic enzyme in the serine protease family found in many tissues which converts PLASMINOGEN to FIBRINOLYSIN. It has fibrin-binding activity and is immunologically different from UROKINASE-TYPE PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR. The primary sequence, composed of 527 amino acids, is identical in both the naturally occurring and synthetic proteases.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Heat Stroke: A condition caused by the failure of body to dissipate heat in an excessively hot environment or during PHYSICAL EXERTION in a hot environment. Contrast to HEAT EXHAUSTION, the body temperature in heat stroke patient is dangerously high with red, hot skin accompanied by DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Intracranial Thrombosis: Formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) in a blood vessel within the SKULL. Intracranial thrombosis can lead to thrombotic occlusions and BRAIN INFARCTION. The majority of the thrombotic occlusions are associated with ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports and conducts research, both basic and clinical, on the normal and diseases nervous system. It was established in 1950.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Emergency Medical Services: Services specifically designed, staffed, and equipped for the emergency care of patients.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors: Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Upper Extremity: The region of the upper limb in animals, extending from the deltoid region to the HAND, and including the ARM; AXILLA; and SHOULDER.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.United StatesOutcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Reperfusion: Restoration of blood supply to tissue which is ischemic due to decrease in normal blood supply. The decrease may result from any source including atherosclerotic obstruction, narrowing of the artery, or surgical clamping. It is primarily a procedure for treating infarction or other ischemia, by enabling viable ischemic tissue to recover, thus limiting further necrosis. However, it is thought that reperfusion can itself further damage the ischemic tissue, causing REPERFUSION INJURY.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Intracranial Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions involving ARTERIES in the skull, such as arteries supplying the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, the BRAIN STEM, and associated structures. They include atherosclerotic, congenital, traumatic, infectious, inflammatory, and other pathological processes.Secondary Prevention: The prevention of recurrences or exacerbations of a disease or complications of its therapy.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Deglutition Disorders: Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Cerebral Arterial Diseases: Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.JapanMotor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Foramen Ovale, Patent: A condition in which the FORAMEN OVALE in the ATRIAL SEPTUM fails to close shortly after birth. This results in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. An isolated patent ovale foramen without other structural heart defects is usually of no hemodynamic significance.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a blood vessel (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Occupational Therapy: Skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. It assists in the development of skills needed for independent living.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.SwedenCausality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Rehabilitation Centers: Facilities which provide programs for rehabilitating the mentally or physically disabled individuals.Infarction, Posterior Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Time: The dimension of the physical universe which, at a given place, orders the sequence of events. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gait: Manner or style of walking.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.BerlinStents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Thrombectomy: Surgical removal of an obstructing clot or foreign material from a blood vessel at the point of its formation. Removal of a clot arising from a distant site is called EMBOLECTOMY.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.TaiwanChronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Patients' Rooms: Rooms occupied by one or more individuals during a stay in a health facility. The concept includes aspects of environment, design, care, or economics.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Hospitals, Community: Institutions with permanent facilities and organized medical staff which provide the full range of hospital services primarily to a neighborhood area.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Brain Stem Infarctions: Infarctions that occur in the BRAIN STEM which is comprised of the MIDBRAIN; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA. There are several named syndromes characterized by their distinctive clinical manifestations and specific sites of ischemic injury.Transportation of Patients: Conveying ill or injured individuals from one place to another.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Heart Septal Defects, Atrial: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the ATRIAL SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two upper chambers of the heart. Classification of atrial septal defects is based on location of the communication and types of incomplete fusion of atrial septa with the ENDOCARDIAL CUSHIONS in the fetal heart. They include ostium primum, ostium secundum, sinus venosus, and coronary sinus defects.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.

Community education for stroke awareness: An efficacy study. (1/13678)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study examined the effectiveness of a slide/audio community education program aimed at increasing knowledge of stroke risk factors, stroke warning signs, and action needed when stroke warning signs occur. The program targets audiences at higher risk for stroke, especially individuals who are black or >50 years of age. METHODS: Subjects were 657 adults living in the community or in senior independent-living settings. The study examined the effectiveness of the program when presented alone and when accompanied by discussion (facilitation) led by a trained individual. Knowledge of stroke risk factors and warning signs was assessed using parallel pretests and posttests developed and validated specifically for the study. RESULTS: ANCOVA indicated that neither pretesting nor facilitation had a significant effect on posttest measures of knowledge. Paired t tests of groups receiving both the pretest and posttest demonstrated significant increase in knowledge (mean increase, 10.87%; P<0.001). ANCOVA indicated that these gains in knowledge were similar across subjects of different sex, race, age, and educational level. No significant differences could be ascribed to facilitation. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that the slide/audio program is effective in increasing knowledge of stroke risk factors, warning signs, and necessary action in subjects of varying ages, races, and education. Pretesting and facilitation did not significantly affect the short-term acquisition of information. The slide/audio program appears to offer a short, easily used educational experience for diverse communities, whether as a stand-alone program or with facilitated discussion.  (+info)

Renal insufficiency and altered postoperative risk in carotid endarterectomy. (2/13678)

PURPOSE: Higher complication rates have been reported in patients with renal insufficiency (RI) undergoing peripheral vascular surgery. Little attention has been paid specifically to carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in patients with RI where the risk/benefit considerations are very sensitive to small increases in postoperative complications. METHODS: One thousand one consecutive CEAs performed since 1990 were reviewed from our vascular registry, and 73 CEAs on patients with RI were identified. For comparison, two groups were established: group I (n = 928), normal renal function (creatinine level, <1.5 mg/dL); and group II (n = 73), RI (creatinine level, >/=1.5 mg/dL). RESULTS: Differences in the nonfatal stroke rates and combined stroke and death rates were statistically significant (P <.02) between the groups: group I (1. 08% and 1.18%) and group II (5.56% and 6.94%) respectively. Both groups were similar in regard to operative indications. In addition with the comparison of group I to group II, there was a statistically significant increase in hematoma rate, 1.61% versus 12. 5% ( P <.001), total cardiac morbidity, 1.72% versus 6.94% (P =.003), and total complications, 6.24% versus 36.1% (P =.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated pre-existing RI to be the only significant predictor for perioperative stroke and hematoma. CONCLUSION: Patients with preoperative RI are at a higher, but not prohibitive, risk for stroke and death after CEA than patients with normal renal function. They are also at risk for hematoma formation, cardiac morbidity, and overall complications. Care in selection of these patients for CEA must be emphasized.  (+info)

An application of upper-extremity constraint-induced movement therapy in a patient with subacute stroke. (3/13678)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the application of constraint-induced movement therapy with an individual with upper-extremity hemiparesis within 4 months after sustaining a cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Such patients often fail to develop full potential use of their affected upper extremity, perhaps due to a "learned nonuse phenomenon." CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient was a 61-year-old woman with right-sided hemiparesis resulting from an ischemic lacunar infarct in the posterior limb of the left internal capsule. The patient's less-involved hand was constrained in a mitten so that she could not use the hand during waking hours, except for bathing and toileting. On each weekday of the 14-day intervention period, the patient spent 6 hours being supervised while performing tasks using the paretic upper extremity. Pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up outcome measures included the Wolf Motor Function Test and the Motor Activity Log (MAL). OUTCOMES: For the Wolf Motor Function Test, both the mean and median times to complete 16 tasks improved from pretreatment to posttreatment and from posttreatment to follow-up. Results of the MAL indicated an improved self-report of both "how well" and "how much" the patient used her affected limb in 30 specified daily tasks. These improvements persisted to the follow-up. DISCUSSION: Two weeks of constraining the unaffected limb, coupled with practice of functional movements of the impaired limb, may be an effective method for restoring motor function within a few months after cerebral insult. Encouraging improvements such as these strongly suggest the need for a group design that would explore this type of intervention in more detail.  (+info)

Night time versus daytime transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke: a prospective study of 110 patients. (4/13678)

OBJECTIVE: Ischaemic stroke occurs only in 20%-40% of patients at night. The aim of the study was to compare sleep and stroke characteristics of patients with and without night time onset of acute ischaemic cerebrovascular events. METHODS: A consecutive series of 110 patients with transient ischaemic attack (n=45) or acute ischaemic stroke (n=65) was studied prospectively by means of a standard protocol which included assessment of time of onset of symptoms, sleep, and stroke characteristics. An overnight polysomnography was performed after the onset of transient ischaemic attack/stroke in 71 patients. Stroke and sleep characteristics of patients with and without cerebrovascular events occurring at night (between midnight and 0600) were compared. RESULTS: A night time onset of transient ischaemic attack or stroke was reported by 23 (21%) of 110 patients. Patients with daytime and night time events were similar in demographics; risk factors; associated vascular diseases; clinical and polysomnographic sleep characteristics (including severity of sleep apnoea); and stroke severity, aetiology, and outcome. Only the diastolic blood pressure at admission was significantly lower in patients with night time events (74 v 82 mm Hg, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with night time and daytime transient ischaemic attack/stroke are similar in sleep and stroke characteristics. Diastolic hypotension may predispose to night time cerebrovascular events. Factors not assessed in this study probably account for the circadian variation in the frequency of transient ischaemic attack and acute ischaemic stroke.  (+info)

Lesion volume, lesion location, and outcome after middle cerebral artery territory stroke. (5/13678)

AIM: To investigate the relation between lesion volume, lesion location, and clinical outcome in children with infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Children with MCA territory infarcts were selected retrospectively from a database of children with ischaemic stroke. Lesion volumes were expressed as a percentage of the supratentorial intracranial volume and were categorised as "small", "moderate", or "large". Lesion location was categorised as cortical or purely subcortical. Outcome was ascertained by parental questionnaire and was categorised as "good" or "poor". RESULTS: 38 patients were identified (median age 6 years); 21 patients had lesions that involved cortical tissue. Outcome was good in 12 cases and poor in 26 cases (including 2 children who died). Although there was no significant effect of lesion size or lesion location on outcome for the group as a whole, all children who had infarcted more than 10% of intracranial volume had a poor outcome. Of note, some children with small subcortical lesions had pronounced residual deficits. CONCLUSIONS: Although the outcome after a small infarct in the MCA territory is variable and unpredictable, infarction of more than 10% of intracranial volume is universally associated with a poor outcome. Characterisation of lesion volume and topography might be helpful in identification of such children for participation in future trials of treatments for acute stroke.  (+info)

Analysis of the relationship between the utilization of physical therapy services and outcomes for patients with acute stroke. (6/13678)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little research has been conducted on the outcomes of care for people who have had a stroke. In this study, the relationship between physical therapy utilization and outcomes of care for patients with acute stroke was examined. SUBJECTS: The sample consisted of 6,342 patients treated in US academic health center hospitals in 1996 who survived their inpatient stay and received physical therapy. METHODS: The primary data source was the University HealthSystem Consortium Clinical Data Base. Physical therapy use was assessed by examining physical therapy charges. Outcomes of care were assessed in terms of the total cost of care (ie, whether the cost of care was more costly or less costly than expected, taking into account patient characteristics) and in terms of discharge destination (ie, whether the patient was discharged home or elsewhere). Regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between physical therapy use and outcomes. RESULTS: Physical therapy use was directly related to a total cost of care that was less than expected and to an increased probability of discharge home. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The results of this study provide preliminary evidence to support the use of physical therapy in the acute care of patients with strokes and indicate the need for further study of this topic.  (+info)

Speed-dependent reductions of force output in people with poststroke hemiparesis. (7/13678)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Movement is slow in people with poststroke hemiparesis. Moving at faster speeds is thought by some researchers to exacerbate abnormal or unwanted muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of increased speed on motor performance during pedaling exercise in people with poststroke hemiparesis. SUBJECTS: Twelve elderly subjects with no known neurological impairment and 15 subjects with poststroke hemiparesis of greater than 6 months' duration were tested. METHODS: Subjects pedaled at 12 randomly ordered workload and cadence combinations (45-, 90-, 135-, and 180-J workloads at 25, 40, and 55 rpm). Pedal reaction forces were used to calculate work done by each lower extremity. Electromyographic activity was recorded from 7 lower-extremity muscles. RESULTS: The main finding was that net mechanical work done by the paretic lower extremity decreased as speed increased in all subjects. The occurrence of inappropriate muscle activity on the paretic side, however, was not exacerbated in that the vastus medialis muscle on the paretic side did not show a consistent further increase in its prolonged activity at higher speeds. The mechanics of faster pedaling resulted in greater net negative mechanical work because, at higher pedaling rates, the prolonged vastus medialis muscle activity is present during a greater portion of the cycle. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The lessened force output by the paretic limb is mainly the result of the inherent mechanical demands of higher-speed pedaling and not due to exacerbation of impaired neural control.  (+info)

Restoration of shoulder movement in quadriplegic and hemiplegic patients by functional electrical stimulation using percutaneous multiple electrodes. (8/13678)

The purpose of this study is to restore the motion of the paralyzed shoulder caused by upper motor neuron disorders using functional electrical stimulation (FES). Percutaneous wire electrodes were implanted into twelve muscles of the shoulder in six patients with stroke or cervical spinal cord injury. The motion of the paralyzed shoulder was controlled by a portable FES computer system, with the three standard stimulation patterns for restoring motion of 90 degrees flexion to 90 degrees horizontal abduction, 90 degrees flexion to 20 degrees horizontal adduction, and 90 degrees abduction to 90 degrees horizontal adduction. Shoulder movements were repeatedly controlled according to the created stimulation patterns in five of the patients. The two dimensional motion analyzer also confirmed shoulder control over a satisfactorily broad range of excursion. One hemiplegic patient, who was a signboard painter, had his paretic left upper extremity improved by FES, and he drew a large picture on a board with his normal right hand and, with his affected left arm against the wall, to support his trunk. This may be a world first case of producing shoulder motion through FES.  (+info)

  • Women are also more likely to exhibit post-stroke depression. (tamhsc.edu)
  • My research focuses primarily on IGF-1 and microRNA's (miRNA's) role in Stroke and their potential role as therapeutics post stroke. (tamhsc.edu)
  • I have used miRNA profiling studies to assist discover various expression levels of post-stroke miRNA, stratified by age and sex. (tamhsc.edu)
  • Potential therapeutic intervention post-stroke. (tamhsc.edu)
  • Framingham Stroke Risk Score (FSRS) is the most well-regarded risk appraisal tools for evaluating an individual's absolute risk on stroke onset. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Modified C-statistics, Hosmer-Lemeshow Test and classless NRI, class NRI were the statistical indices which, respectively, denoted the performance of discrimination, calibration and reclassification for evaluating the newly developed risk prediction model on stroke onset. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although clinical evidence shows aged women as likely to have higher risk, worse outcomes and poorer recovery from stroke compared to aged men, therapeutic interventions for stroke in aged females remain elusive. (tamhsc.edu)
  • The researchers plan on working with a private company to further develop the stroke diagnostic test and eventually assess its efficacy in a human clinical trial. (xtalks.com)
  • At older ages, many more women will get a stroke as compared to men, and their stroke are likely to be worse, resulting in greater mortality, disability and loss of independence. (tamhsc.edu)
  • Results suggest that interventions to reduce racial disparities in stroke risk factors hold promise to reduce the racial disparity in stroke mortality. (docme.ru)
  • The same may not be true regarding geographic disparities in stroke mortality. (docme.ru)
  • however, little information is available to support this hypothesis.15 Similarly, differential case fatality according to race has not been clearly demonstrated.12,13,16 Hence, the available data suggest that geographic and racial variations in stroke mortality relate to differences in incidence, not case fatality. (docme.ru)
  • If this is the case, then disparities in stroke risk factors may underlie observed differences in stroke mortality. (docme.ru)
  • Methods: The Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study is a population-based cohort of men and women 45 years or older, recruited February 2003 to September 2007 at this report, with oversampling of stroke belt/buckle residents and blacks. (docme.ru)
  • According to the American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association, 750,000 new strokes occur each year, resulting in 200,000 deaths (or 1 of every 16 deaths) per year in the United States alone. (elsevier.com)
  • Our goal is to raise awareness and funds to be directed to pediatric stroke research which will lead to early diagnosis, recognition and treatment. (firstgiving.com)
  • Researchers at Cornell University's Baker Institute for Animal Health, have developed a stroke diagnosis device that takes only ten minutes and a small drop of the patient's blood to generate a result. (xtalks.com)
  • Currently, stroke diagnosis takes up to three hours and requires skilled technicians to perform the lab work. (xtalks.com)
  • Enhancing the speed of diagnosis could save many people from suffering lasting effects of ischemic stroke. (xtalks.com)
  • The technology works to diagnosis stroke - an event in which blood flow to the brain is interrupted - by detecting a number of biomarkers present in the blood of patients who have experienced the condition. (xtalks.com)
  • Stroke outcomes can be modified by environmental and developmental factors, and in turn stroke can also lead to other disabilities, such as epilepsy, addiction, depression. (tamhsc.edu)
  • Other research interests in the recent past has also included understanding the effect of stroke on alcohol intake and how shift work affects pathological outcomes following stroke. (tamhsc.edu)
  • Hence, my project employed an HDAC inhibitor derived from short chain fatty acid, sodium butyrate (NaB), with the potential of improve stroke outcomes in aged females. (tamhsc.edu)
  • These are hours that stroke victims could be receiving treatment, as earlier intervention has been shown to lead to better outcomes. (xtalks.com)
  • Although 2 devices have been granted FDA 3 approval with an indication for mechanical stroke thrombectomy, none of these devices has demonstrated efficacy in improving patient outcomes. (elsevier.com)
  • This report defines what constitutes adequate training to perform neuroendovascular procedures in patients with acute ischemic stroke and identifies the performance standards that should be adopted to assess outcomes. (elsevier.com)
  • However, after the age of 50+, women are equally likely to suffer a stroke as compared to men. (tamhsc.edu)
  • In order to better understand the sexual dimorphisms that underlie stroke pathophysiology, most of my research has included both females and males to evaluate the severity of stroke, effect of miRNA treatment or mechanisms underlying neuroprotection. (tamhsc.edu)
  • In my short and long-term future, I would like to focus my research towards women's health issues especially towards a) Stroke related neuronal injury and functional impairment in the aging and aged females b) Mechanistic differences underlying sexual dimorphism in miRNA treatment and c. (tamhsc.edu)
  • After a patient has a stroke, physicians must begin treatment as quickly as possible to minimize damage. (xtalks.com)
  • Stroke therapies: We are discovering and testing drugs that can increase survival of neurons after stroke and reduce stroke-related disability. (tamhsc.edu)
  • It showed that the NEW-STROKE (new stroke risk score prediction model) model had higher modified C-statistics, smaller Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square values after recalibration than original FSRS model, and the classless NRI and class NRI of the NEW-STROKE model over the original FSRS model were all significantly positive in overall group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It illustrated that seven literature-derived risk factors contributed significantly to stroke risk prediction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This guideline covers interventions in the acute stage of a stroke ('acute stroke') or transient ischaemic attack ( TIA ). (nih.gov)
  • This guideline is a stand-alone document, but is designed to be read alongside the Intercollegiate Stroke Working Party guideline 'National clinical guideline for stroke' which considers evidence for interventions from the acute stage into rehabilitation and life after stroke. (nih.gov)
  • This acute stroke and TIA guideline is also designed to be read alongside the Department of Health's (DH) 'National stroke strategy' (NSS). (nih.gov)
  • Where there are differences between the recommendations made within this acute stroke and TIA guideline and the NSS, the Guideline Development Group ( GDG ) members feel that their recommendations are derived from systematic methodology to identify all of the relevant literature. (nih.gov)
  • Insular cortex infarction in acute middle cerebral artery territory stroke: predictor of stroke severity and vascular lesion. (springer.com)
  • In patients presenting with acute dizziness and nystagmus or imbalance, a combination of readily available clinical information can help risk-stratify acute stroke, a new study suggests. (medscape.com)
  • These methods enable a more generalizable estimate of stroke prevalence" than any prior study of patients with acute dizziness and nystagmus or imbalance, the authors noted. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers defined stroke as acute infarction or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on a clinical or research MRI performed within 14 days of dizziness onset. (medscape.com)
  • In this population, investigators identified acute stroke in 29 of 272 patients (10.7%), including 26 infarctions and three ICHs. (medscape.com)
  • Our findings indicate that the ABCD 2 score and the specialized OM evaluation both meaningfully influence the probability of stroke at the individual patient level in this acute dizziness cohort, even adjusting for all model predictors," the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • No single examination can identify a sufficiently low-risk group to rule out stroke in acute vestibular syndrome (AVS), they said. (medscape.com)
  • Strokes in the pons or midbrain are often linked to acute head tremors. (news-medical.net)
  • On the one hand, a resting tremor in Parkinsonism can resolve the tremor, while acute-onset Parkinsonism may be the first indication of a stroke involving the substantia nigra. (news-medical.net)
  • A Parkinsonian resting tremor may also have an acute onset after a stroke in the basal ganglia or midbrain, especially when it is the initial sign of a stroke in the medial tract of the substantia nigra. (news-medical.net)
  • Interruption of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor signaling (i.e., bevacizumab) is associated with vascular toxicity and clinical sequelae such as hypertension, stroke, and thromboembolism beyond acute coronary syndromes. (springer.com)
  • In addition to these outpatient-focused activities, we have expertise in acute stroke management, neurocritical care, inpatient stroke management, and brain imaging. (massgeneral.org)
  • With the availability of treatments which can reduce stroke severity when given early, many now prefer alternative terminology, such as brain attack and acute ischemic cerebrovascular syndrome (modeled after heart attack and acute coronary syndrome, respectively), to reflect the urgency of stroke symptoms and the need to act swiftly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patients who arrive at the emergency room within 3 hours of their first symptoms often have less disability 3 months after a stroke than those who received delayed care. (cdc.gov)
  • The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) can be used as a clinical stroke assessment tool to evaluate and document neurological status in stroke patients. (stroke.org)
  • The NIHSS has been shown to be a predictor of both short and long term outcome of stroke patients. (stroke.org)
  • Awareness and recognition of the increased incidence of stroke and associated cerebrovascular disorders associated with pregnancy will encourage providers to improve screening measures and prevention strategies to ensure the best possible care of patients during pregnancy and the puerperium. (medscape.com)
  • Koohi N, Vickers DA, Lakshmanan R, Chandrashekar H, Werring DJ, Warren JD, Bamiou D-E. Hearing characteristics of stroke patients: prevalence and characteristics of hearing impairment and auditory processing disorders in stroke patients . (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Health 4 The World Stroke provides stroke patients and health care providers with educational content about post-stroke care. (apple.com)
  • They monitored 555 patients who had strokes despite taking blood pressure-lowering drugs. (medicinenet.com)
  • The researchers also evaluated nearly 3,000 control patients who were also treated for high blood pressure but did not have strokes. (medicinenet.com)
  • Patients with dizziness from stroke are challenging because they often lack typical stroke warning signs or symptoms, the researchers say. (medscape.com)
  • In comparing stroke and nonstroke patients, the study showed several associations. (medscape.com)
  • Many of these same therapies can now significantly reduce the risk that patients will go on to have a stroke. (umassmed.edu)
  • Botox has been used for years in these stroke patients in combination with physical therapy. (cnn.com)
  • Patients who have had a stroke are also asked to perform a swallow test to see if they can swallow ok. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • The final results of a stroke prevention study in patients with narrowed brain arteries confirm earlier findings: Medication plus lifestyle changes are safer and more effective at preventing stroke than a surgical technique called stenting. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the latest edition of the Journal of Neuroscience , the researchers reported on seven stroke patients who were effectively blind in at least part of their visual field despite having nothing wrong with their eyes because their injured brains were unable to process visual information. (abc.net.au)
  • Researchers found that the risk of a stroke after a TIA is 5.2 per cent seven days later - showing that one in 20 patients who have a TIA will go on to suffer a more major stroke within a week. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Writing in the journal Lancet Neurology, they argue that the lowest risk of stroke was seen in studies where patients were admitted to specialist stroke units (0.9 per cent) and the highest in studies that recorded no urgent treatment (11 per cent). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Commenting on the findings, the researchers said: "The risk of stroke reported amongst patients treated urgently in specialist units was substantially lower than risks reported among other patients treated in alternative settings. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Among the five Phase I studies presented here, two assessed how well the intervention could be applied in patients with stroke. (hindawi.com)
  • L. Chuang and colleagues' study of instrument evaluation examined the reliability of Myoton-3 myometer, a tool used to quantify muscle tone, elasticity, and stiffness in stroke patients. (hindawi.com)
  • To advance stroke motor rehabilitation, future research may translate concepts from basic sciences to clinical trials and heath care of patients with stroke. (hindawi.com)
  • The Mass General Hospital Young Adult Stroke Program is designed to address the holistic needs of patients who suffer a stroke at a relatively young age. (massgeneral.org)
  • The goal of this program is to provide the highest quality of multidisciplinary care for patients and family/caregivers impacted by a stroke event, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, or from cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. (massgeneral.org)
  • This trend is very concerning given the devastating impact stroke has on young patients and their families, many of whom struggle to cope with long-term disability, depression, and economic loss during their most productive years," said study leader Lindsey Rosman of the University of North Carolina School of Medicine in Chapel Hill. (reuters.com)
  • The causes, characteristics and consequences of stroke for young patients will likely differ from those for the 'typical' stroke patient who is much older and more likely to have other medical conditions," Rosman said. (reuters.com)
  • Several of these same researchers published another study earlier this year that looked at stroke deaths from 1999 to 2006 among Medicare patients and found a pattern - higher rates in the winter, lower in summer and a small peak in July. (yahoo.com)
  • After a stroke, patients often have physical and mental disabilities. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Besides having to deal with such difficult challenges, carers and stroke patients must be mindful of dietary requirements. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Every year, more than 795,000 people in the United States have a stroke. (cdc.gov)
  • About 185,000 strokes- nearly 1 of 4 -are in people who have had a previous stroke. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2009, 34% of people hospitalized for stroke were less than 65 years old . (cdc.gov)
  • People with heart disease and those who have had a stroke are at higher risk for developing serious complications from flu. (cdc.gov)
  • Flu vaccination is especially important for people with heart disease or who have had a stroke because they are at higher risk for complications from flu. (cdc.gov)
  • Like everyone else, in addition to getting the flu shot, people with heart disease or who have had a stroke should take everyday preventive actions , including avoiding people who are sick, covering coughs, and washing hands often. (cdc.gov)
  • Each year more than 795,000 people in the United States experience strokes. (stroke.org)
  • Nearly 800,000 people have a stroke each year. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the U.S., approximately 40 percent of people who die from stroke are male, with 60 percent of deaths occurring in females. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • According to the American Heart Association (AHA), compared with Caucasian people, African-Americans have nearly twice the risk of a first-time stroke and a much higher risk of death from stroke. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people need a long period of rehabilitation before they can recover their former independence, while many never fully recover and need support adjusting to living with the effects of their stroke. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Stroke has been and continues to be a widespread disease worldwide, afflicting over 15 million people each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2010, the "1 in 6" campaign was launched to emphasize that one in six people will have a stroke within their lifetime and to underline the fact that stroke can happen to anyone of any age. (wikipedia.org)
  • Post-stroke rehabilitation can help people overcome disabilities caused by stroke damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • After a stroke, people who have only mild disability can often have 'hidden' problems that can really affect their quality of life. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Not many studies have asked people how they feel about these problems," she explains, "and we doctors have often focused just on physical disability or whether they have another stroke. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To examine these queries, Dr. Katzan - also a member of the American Academy of Neurology - investigated more than 1,000 people who had had an ischemic stroke. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This finding, in particular, could be useful when designing long-term care for people who have experienced stroke. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It gives information on how all people can take steps to lower their risk for stroke, whether they have had a stroke or not. (merlot.org)
  • A growing number of people are recovering from stroke with little to no disability, especially when treatment begins without delay. (caringbridge.org)
  • CaringBridge users recovering from stroke offer tips for talking with-not at-people who have aphasia. (caringbridge.org)
  • Strokes afflict a half million people each year, killing about a third of them and disabling another 200,000, according to the American Stroke Association, a division of the American Heart Association. (medicinenet.com)
  • Nearly 780,000 people have a new or recurrent stroke every year. (redorbit.com)
  • Strokes are a leading cause of long-term disability in people. (medicinenet.com)
  • Stroke is common , and most strokes happen to older people. (everything2.com)
  • 130 000 people in the UK suffer a stroke every year and it accounts for 5% of the NHS budget 2 . (everything2.com)
  • Despite the classic medical risk factors, the bottom line is many people who suffer heat stroke simply do not have access to air conditioning or do not heed the warning signs in a timely manner. (bellaonline.com)
  • 6. Many people experience heat exhaustion prior to having a fulminant heat stroke. (bellaonline.com)
  • Under Lord Skelmersdale's leadership we were able to support more people affected by stroke and fund stroke research. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • We are proud to continue his legacy to change the world for people affected by stroke. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • All I'm trying to do is share my story in a way that will cause people to think about stroke and what can and should be done. (healthline.com)
  • People need to understand the magnitude of stroke as a leading cause of death and disability. (healthline.com)
  • Throughout the month, people will be holding purple-themed bake sales, getting involved with Know Your Blood Pressure events and hosting community fairs to help conquer stroke. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • High blood pressure is the biggest risk factor for stroke that we can control, yet it has no symptoms and can affect people of all ages and lifestyles. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • People working around stroke boom delimbers should be aware that the boom can extend over the back of the machine. (fed.us)
  • In the study, people that drank the most sugary drinks were 83% more likely to suffer a stroke than those that drank the least. (prweb.com)
  • Stroke is the main cause of disability in the U.S., especially among older people, men, African Americans and Hispanics. (aapmr.org)
  • The practical, emotional and financial support available for people who have had a stroke and their carers. (www.nhs.uk)
  • In addition, many people who survive the initial stroke remain severely impaired, unable to talk, read, or perform the simplest chores. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • There will be 60,000 strokes in this country in 2009 and 20 per cent of these will be in people aged under 55. (abc.net.au)
  • One in five people who have a stroke die within a month. (abc.net.au)
  • About 150,000 people have a stroke each year in the UK and the condition can lead to disability and death. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Joe Korner, director of communications at the Stroke Association commented: 'Too often people ignore stroke symptoms if they don't last very long. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Unfortunately the diagnosis is often delayed or missed because many people, including doctors, still considered stroke to be an 'old person' disease. (massgeneral.org)
  • Some people fully recover from a stroke, whereas others live with permanent disabilities. (healthline.com)
  • If you feel that your loved one isn't recovering quickly, keep in mind that some people continue to experience progress two or three years after a stroke. (healthline.com)
  • 3 out of 4 people who suffer from strokes have been diagnosed with high blood pressure before their stroke. (constantcontact.com)
  • While the study focused on PTSD among military veterans, it's possible that people with PTSD from other experiences like natural disasters, gun violence or sexual assault might also have an increased stroke risk, the study authors conclude. (reuters.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People who suffer migraines are about twice as likely as people without the painful headaches to suffer a stroke caused by a blood clot, a new research review finds. (reuters.com)
  • Across the studies, migraine sufferers were about twice as likely to suffer an ischemic stroke as people without migraines, according to findings published in the American Journal of Medicine. (reuters.com)
  • Experts are not sure why the relationship exists, and it is not yet known whether the migraines themselves directly lead to strokes in some people. (reuters.com)
  • The main thing I would want (people) to take away from this is that if they get migraines, they should address stroke risk factors," Nazarian said. (reuters.com)
  • Experts also generally say that people with migraines should remember that while the headaches are linked to a relatively increased risk of stroke, the absolute risk to any one person remains fairly low. (reuters.com)
  • One theory is that people with migraine may have dysfunction in the blood vessels throughout the body, which may explain the increased risk of stroke and, as some previous studies have found, heart attack. (reuters.com)
  • Cold weather, high humidity and big daily temperature swings seem to land more people in the hospital with strokes. (yahoo.com)
  • Controlling blood pressure helps to reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke in overweight and obese people, according to a new study. (usatoday.com)
  • As expected, overweight and obese people had more strokes and heart disease and were more likely to have high blood pressure and unhealthy cholesterol and blood glucose numbers. (usatoday.com)
  • So while it's fantastic that we are seeing fewer strokes in the elderly, it seems crucial that we start cutting risk factors to prevent strokes in younger people. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • People who have hypertension increase their risk for a stroke four to six times more than those with normal blood pressure. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • People with diabetes have three times the risk of stroke compared to people without the disease. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • About 25 percent of people who recover from their first stroke will have another stroke within five years. (aans.org)
  • People who suffered from stroke have to visit a neurologist on a regular basis. (emaxhealth.com)
  • 2,331 - The number of people who died from stroke in South Carolina in 2012. (scdhec.gov)
  • 14,827 - The number of people treated for stroke in South Carolina hospitals in 2012. (scdhec.gov)
  • In 2015 there were about 42.4 million people who had previously had a stroke and were still alive. (wikipedia.org)
  • About half of people who have had a stroke live less than one year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood thinners may be used to stop a stroke while it is happening by quickly dissolving the blood clot. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Imaging techniques will show whether the stroke was caused by a blood clot or a hemorrhage. (faqs.org)
  • CVST can cause a stroke if blood backs up behind the clot. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Clot-busting drugs and medical devices have made stroke largely treatable but every second counts. (constantcontact.com)
  • Thrombotic stroke - A blood clot (thrombus) forms inside one of the brain's arteries. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • The research, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, found that using a so-called stent-retriever for up to six hours after a stroke showed benefits-a longer window than for the clot-busting drugs doctors currently use. (wsj.com)
  • An ischemic stroke, if detected within three to four and half hours, may be treatable with a medication that can break down the clot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at Columbia University have successfully tested a molecule that may one day prevent the irreparable damage caused by strokes. (wired.com)
  • After statistically controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors, researchers also discovered residents of neighborhoods with the highest number of fast-food restaurants had a 13 percent higher relative risk of suffering ischemic strokes than those living in areas with the lowest numbers of restaurants. (redorbit.com)
  • Doctors and researchers are working to understand what increases the risk of stroke before birth and in newborns. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • Researchers followed almost one million young and middle-aged veterans of the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan for more than a decade, starting when they were 30 years old, on average, and had no history of stroke. (reuters.com)
  • While PTSD has been shown to increase the risk of heart disease and stroke in older adults, this is the first study to show a link between trauma-induced stress disorders and the risk of stroke and mini-strokes in young and middle-aged adults, researchers note in the journal Stroke. (reuters.com)
  • Even after accounting for behaviors that can raise stroke risk, like smoking, getting little exercise and substance abuse, researchers still found an increased stroke risk associated with PTSD. (reuters.com)
  • Researchers found no differences in the incidence of strokes - only in death rates - and the benefits were not observed among African-Americans for reasons that remain unclear. (prnewswire.com)
  • FILE - In this Tuesday, Jan. 21, 2014 file photo, tourists walk through the snow-covered Empty Sky Memorial at Liberty State Park in Jersey City, N.J. Researchers who analyzed local climate trends and hospital records on millions of Americans say there may be a link between weather and the risk for stroke. (yahoo.com)
  • The study by researchers from Yale, Harvard and Duke universities was discussed Wednesday, Feb. 12, 2014 at a stroke conference in San Diego. (yahoo.com)
  • There may be a link between weather and the risk of suffering a stroke, say researchers who analyzed climate trends and hospital records on millions of Americans. (yahoo.com)
  • Stroke affects each survivor differently. (stroke.org)
  • Stroke survivor Cyteria Knight, of North Carolina, and her partner and caregiver, Susan Miller, the main author of Cyteria's CaringBridge website, describe the healing power of support. (caringbridge.org)
  • Sheila Brand, a 58 year old stroke survivor from Guisborough is supporting the Stroke Association's 'I am more than my stroke' Christmas appeal after the charity helped her to return to the hobby she loved. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Hannah McGrath, a 27 year old stroke survivor from Urmston, is supporting the Stroke Association's 'I am more than my stroke' Christmas appeal. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Ian Hyson, a stroke survivor from Romney Marsh is supporting the Stroke Association's 'I am more than my stroke' Christmas appeal. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • Phil Silcock, a stroke survivor from Haywards Heath is supporting the Stroke Association's 'I am more than my stroke' Christmas appeal after the charity helped him after a devastating stroke left him unable to walk or talk. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A group of runners from Bury are taking part in the Resolution Run in aid of the Stroke Association at Heaton Park on Sunday 07 April 2019, alongside 35 year old stroke survivor Alison Brown. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • A stroke survivor from Southampton is taking on the London Landmarks Half Marathon on Sunday 24 March 2019, to raise vital funds for the Stroke Association. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • One young stroke survivor, for example, tried to move a fridge on her own. (abc.net.au)
  • Every stroke survivor is different. (healthline.com)
  • When you think of a stroke survivor, you likely imagine an older person with lots of previous health problems. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • In another type of embolic stroke, the floating debris is a clump of bacteria and inflammatory cells. (womenshealthmag.com)
  • If you've had a stroke or TIA in the past, these measures are particularly important because your risk of having another stroke is greatly increased. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Of those who survive a stroke, it is estimated that about 10% will have another stroke within the year. (umassmed.edu)
  • Will I have another stroke during sex? (strokeassociation.org)
  • Having one stroke can increase the risk of another stroke, so it's important for your loved one to stick with their treatment plan. (healthline.com)
  • Lichtman and colleagues from Harvard and Duke universities gave results of their study Wednesday at the American Heart Association's International Stroke Conference in San Diego. (yahoo.com)
  • Stroke risk increases with age but young adults, children and even unborn b abies can suffer strokes. (constantcontact.com)
  • In one recent study of 6,100 adults with migraines, for example, 2 percent reported a history of stroke, versus 1.2 percent of 5,243 adults who did not suffer from migraines. (reuters.com)
  • The Stroke Challenge team is a great way to get active in 2016. (stroke.org)
  • When she went home in March 2016, three months after her stroke, she was using a walker. (aarp.org)
  • Investigators also collected bedside information, including history of stroke, the ABCD 2 score, and HINTS (assessment of head impulse, nystagmus pattern, test of skew), which is based on a specialty bedside OM examination. (medscape.com)
  • The Indian Stroke Association announced its decision to sponsor two hundred 'Stroke Units,' or centers across India that will be equipped to treat strokes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stroke centers may offer educational programs and other resources to help families support a loved one who has had a stroke. (aapmr.org)
  • Appreciating the benefits of support on healing, CaringBridge is now partnering with the American Stroke Association, whose mission is to teach the globe that stroke is treatable, and that ongoing support from loved ones is vital to recovery. (caringbridge.org)
  • Because PTSD is a potentially treatable psychological condition, understanding the relationship between the two conditions may have important implications for improving stroke prevention and treatment in young and middle-aged adults," Rosman said by email. (reuters.com)
  • Stroke is also called a cerebrovascular accident, which means there is a problem in the brain's blood vessels. (aapmr.org)
  • In the 1970s the World Health Organization defined stroke as a "neurological deficit of cerebrovascular cause that persists beyond 24 hours or is interrupted by death within 24 hours", although the word "stroke" is centuries old. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seattle Children's is the only hospital in the Pacific Northwest with a well-developed program to treat pediatric stroke. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • When an infant or child under the age of 18 has a stroke, it is known as a pediatric stroke. (aapmr.org)
  • The most effective way to prevent strokes is through maintaining a healthy lifestyle and treating underlying conditions that could be a risk factor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • rvine scientists discovered that they can prevent strokes in rats by stroking their whiskers: The team disc. (neatorama.com)
  • Stoke your creative fire with different brush strokes. (adobe.com)
  • See how different paint brush strokes can open new possibilities in your work. (adobe.com)
  • Different brush strokes for different folks. (adobe.com)
  • You might think that strokes are just lines, but in art, whether analogue or digital, the way brush strokes are applied adds character and personality. (adobe.com)
  • The three different brush strokes found in Fresco - pixel, live and vector - give you opportunities to let your unique expression shine through in your work. (adobe.com)
  • If you need more inspiration, download the Keith Haring brush strokes collection and explore new digital tools in your work. (adobe.com)
  • Mimic paint strokes or paint splatter with imported brush strokes from Adobe Photoshop, perfect for that DIY or handmade look. (adobe.com)
  • Play around with watercolour brush strokes on a white background or use oil live brushes to capture a van Gogh vibe. (adobe.com)
  • If you want a paint splatter, use the Wet Splatter watercolour brush strokes to make colour bloom and spread across your image. (adobe.com)
  • For oil live brushes, use a flat brush for all your broad brush strokes. (adobe.com)
  • One of the benefits of Fresco is the ability to use brush stroke vectors on the same canvas and at the same time as other brush strokes. (adobe.com)
  • In the United States, the American Heart Association developed the My-Life Check online health assessment in cooperation with World Stroke Organization. (wikipedia.org)
  • DALLAS , April 14, 2011 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The odds of surviving stroke appear to be much better for seniors living in neighborhoods where they interact more often with their neighbors and count on them for help, according to research published in Stroke: Journal of the American Heart Association . (prnewswire.com)
  • Source: American Heart Association (AHA), Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2010 Update. (aans.org)
  • When the brain's blood supply is inadequate, a stroke results. (medicinenet.com)
  • In many ways, stroke is now understood as the brain's version of a heart attack. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Every ten minutes someone has a stroke, but research into the brain's extraordinary capacity to rewire itself is offering new hope. (abc.net.au)
  • Vision is not the only sense being restored after stroke through the harnessing of the brain's own neuroplasticity. (abc.net.au)