Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Phytochemicals: A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Anacardiaceae: The sumac plant family in the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are tropical and subtropical trees, shrubs, and woody vines that have resin ducts in the bark. The sap of many of the species is irritating to the skin.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Bacteria, AnaerobicDisk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Port-Wine Stain: A vascular malformation of developmental origin characterized pathologically by ectasia of superficial dermal capillaries, and clinically by persistent macular erythema. In the past, port wine stains have frequently been termed capillary hemangiomas, which they are not; unfortunately this confusing practice persists: HEMANGIOMA, CAPILLARY is neoplastic, a port-wine stain is non-neoplastic. Port-wine stains vary in color from fairly pale pink to deep red or purple and in size from a few millimeters to many centimeters in diameter. The face is the most frequently affected site and they are most often unilateral. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 5th ed, p483)PhenazinesAzure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Blood Stains: Antigenic characteristics and DNA fingerprint patterns identified from blood stains. Their primary value is in criminal cases.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Eosine Yellowish-(YS): A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.Hematoxylin: A dye obtained from the heartwood of logwood (Haematoxylon campechianum Linn., Leguminosae) used as a stain in microscopy and in the manufacture of ink.Gardnerella vaginalis: A species in the genus GARDNERELLA previously classified as Haemophilus vaginalis. This bacterium, also isolated from the female genital tract of healthy women, is implicated in the cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).Mobiluncus: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are found in the human vagina, particularly in association with Gardnerella vaginalis in cases of bacterial vaginosis.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Methyl Green: A tri-benzene-ammonium usually compounded with zinc chloride. It is used as a biological stain and for the dyeing and printing of textiles.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Periodic Acid-Schiff Reaction: A histochemical technique for staining carbohydrates. It is based on PERIODIC ACID oxidation of a substance containing adjacent hydroxyl groups. The resulting aldehydes react with Schiff reagent to form a colored product.Silver Staining: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.Lasers, Dye: Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Alcian Blue: A copper-containing dye used as a gelling agent for lubricants, for staining of bacteria and for the dyeing of histiocytes and fibroblasts in vivo.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Rosaniline Dyes: Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Parasite Egg Count: Determination of parasite eggs in feces.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.Histological Techniques: Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.Gardnerella: A genus of bacteria found in the human genital and urinary tract. It is considered to be a major cause of bacterial vaginosis (VAGINOSIS, BACTERIAL).False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Pyuria: The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Negative Staining: The technique of washing tissue specimens with a concentrated solution of a heavy metal salt and letting it dry. The specimen will be covered with a very thin layer of the metal salt, being excluded in areas where an adsorbed macromolecule is present. The macromolecules allow electrons from the beam of an electron microscope to pass much more readily than the heavy metal; thus, a reversed or negative image of the molecule is created.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Pyronine: Xanthene dye used as a bacterial and biological stain. Synonyms: Pyronin; Pyronine G; Pyronine Y. Use also for Pyronine B. which is diethyl-rather than dimethylamino-.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
The cells are motile, strictly anaerobic and stain Gram positive. They can grow at temperatures as high as 97ºC. Strain V24ST ...
... is an enteric, gas-forming, motile, strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium of the genus Clostridium. ... Microscopic appearance shows gram positive rods with both smooth and rough colony types and further spore staining technique ... Willis, A.T. (1977). Anaerobic bacteriology: clinical and laboratory practice. Boston: Butterworth. pp. 111-166. Stolk-Engelaar ... aerogenes are found in large numbers after death due to nutrient supply for anaerobic bacteria allowing for optimal organismal ...
Two methods, the Gram stain and the acid-fast stain, are the standard approaches used to classify bacteria and to diagnosis of ... An example of the former is the anaerobic bacteria species, which colonizes the mammalian colon, and an example of the latter ... although strictly speaking hemagglutinin is not an enzyme and has no metabolic function. Serological methods are highly ... with a number of basic dyes due to the electrostatic attraction between negatively charged cellular molecules and the positive ...
... are diderms and stain Gram negative, notable exceptions being Firmicutes (low CG Gram positives), Actinobacteria (high CG gram ... nov., strictly anaerobic, filamentous bacteria of the phylum Chloroflexi isolated from methanogenic propionate-degrading ... nov.: A non-phototrophic gram-positive thermophile representing an environmental clone group related to the Chloroflexi (green ... positives) and the Deinococcus-Thermus group (Gram positive, but diderms with thick peptidoglycan). In contrast, the members of ...
The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the development of acne, ... Medical authorities strictly regulate isotretinoin use in women of childbearing age due to its known harmful effects in ... Numerous other plant-derived therapies have demonstrated positive effects against acne (e.g., basil oil and oligosaccharides ... Staining of the nail plate. *Stippled nails. *Subungual hematoma. *Terry's nails. *Twenty-nail dystrophy ...
... are diderms and stain Gram negative, notable exceptions being Firmicutes (low G+C Gram positives), Actinobacteria (high-G+C ... nov., strictly anaerobic, filamentous bacteria of the phylum Chloroflexi isolated from methanogenic propionate-degrading ... Gram positives) and the Deinococcus-Thermus group (Gram-positive diderms with thick peptidoglycan). In contrast, the members of ... nov.: A non-phototrophic gram-positive thermophile representing an environmental clone group related to the Chloroflexi (green ...
The cells are motile, strictly anaerobic and stain Gram positive. They can grow at temperatures as high as 97ºC. Strain V24ST ...
... and strictly anaerobic bacteria that grow as small rods; stain Gram-positive; are negative for oxidase, urease, and indole ... nov., a new genus of gram-positive anaerobic rod isolated from human oral cavities. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49(3):1193-1200PubMed ... Eggerth AH (1935) The gram-positive non-spore-bearing anaerobic bacilli of human feces. J Bacteriol 30:277-299PubMedCentral ... Lau SK, Woo PC, Fung AM et al (2004a) Anaerobic, non-sporulating, gram-positive bacilli bacteraemia characterized by 16S rRNA ...
During the years 1994-2011 five strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, diphtheroid bacteria (strains CCUG 31793(T), CCUG ...
H. filiformis is a Gram positive-staining bacterium that easily decolorizes. The cell wall contains a group B murein type (B1δ( ... Strictly anaerobic.2 It is saccharolytic. Good growth was exhibited in PYT broth media containing esculin, fructose, glucose, ... Holdemania filiformis is a Gram-positive bacterium found in the gut of healthy humans. It is rod shaped and exists in pairs and ...
Genera which contain strictly anaerobic gram-positive rods may also contain species, or strains within a species, which grow ... or Dermabacter might be initially misidentified as gram-positive cocci because of their initial gram stain appearance. ... All strains of aerobic gram-positive rods (except the non-rapidly growing mycobacteria) are initially grown on blood agar ... Some gram-positive rods (e.g., Rhodococcus spp. ... key features for the differentiation of aerobic gram-positive ...
... strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated strain LAM0A37T, was isolated from enrichment samples collected from a petroleum ... A Gram-staining-positive, spore-forming, strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated strain LAM0A37T, was isolated from enrichment ... nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from food industry wastewater Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62 3018-3023 [CrossRef] [ ... Johnson M.J., Thatcher E., Cox M.E. (1995). Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes J ...
A strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive bacterium, designated FW431T, was isolated from a mud cellar used for producing ... An obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped (0.5-1.0 × 2.0-10.0 μm), Gram-stain-positive bacterium, occurring mainly singly or in pairs ... Cells are Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile rods forming sub-terminal endospores in swollen ellipsoidal ... Four Gram-stain-positive bacterial strains, designated 6R2T, 6R18, 3T2 and 3T10, isolated from seeds of hybrid maize (Zea mays ...
Cells of strain KGMB04484T were strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, non-motile ... A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, strain JDX10T, was isolated from a soil sample of Fildes Peninsula, ... A bacterium that was Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod- or filamentous-shaped, designated as ... Cells of N24T were Gram-stain-positive rods, aerobic and non-spore-forming. N24T was positive for catalase, urease, citrate ...
... non-motile and strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from biogas slurry that was originally enriched with gluconate as carbon ... Cells were strictly anaerobic, non-motile and stained Gram-positive . Fig. 1a shows the ultrathin trans-section of a rod- ... It is a Gram-positive, non-motile and strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from biogas slurry that was originally enriched ... a Ultrathin trans-section of cell; b details of the Gram-positive membrane structure (white arrows) ...
... anaerobic bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. ... Strictly anaerobic. Growth occurs between 25 and 45°C, with optimal growth observed at 37°C. Cells stain Gram-positive, and are ... H. massiliensis is a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacillus. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the ... This bacterium is a Gram-positive, non-spore-forming, indole negative, anaerobic and non-motile bacillus that was isolated from ...
... such as the presence of a pigmented inflammatory exudate should alert the pathologist to perform appropriate special stains to ... Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous inflammation caused by anaerobic, filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria of ... Perls stain) and abundant PAS, Grocotts, and Gram positive rod-like and filamentous bacteria, morphologically consistent with ... However, anaerobic culture was not specifically ordered by the clinician. Consequently Actinomyces, known to be strictly ...
a. Many archaea that stain gram positive have a cell wall made of a single homogeneous layer b. The archaea that stain gram ... 5. They may be aerobic, facultatively anaerobic, or strictly anaerobic 6. Nutritionally, they range from chemilithoautotrophs ... iii) They stain gram-positive but have a layered cell wall and an outer membrane like gram-negative bacteria; have L-ornithine ... Stains gram-negative but actually has a gram-positive type cell wall with a lower than normal peptidoglycan content. E. Genera ...
Crystals, WCC and gram stain.. Ultrasound, plain Xray MRI, CT, technetium scan. ... Gram positive strictly anaerobic rods. 54 Where is clostridium tetani found? Soil, gardens and animal bites. ... Swabs and tissue biopsy for gram stain and culture.. Blood cultures.. CRP, U and E etc. ...
Clostridium cadaveris is an enteric, gas-forming, motile, strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium of the genus Clostridium. ... Microscopic appearance shows gram positive rods with both smooth and rough colony types and further spore staining technique ... Willis, A.T. (1977). Anaerobic bacteriology: clinical and laboratory practice. Boston: Butterworth. pp. 111-166. Stolk-Engelaar ... aerogenes are found in large numbers after death due to nutrient supply for anaerobic bacteria allowing for optimal organismal ...
A Gram-stain-positive anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain Marseille-P3275T, was isolated using culturomics from ... A strictly anaerobic predominant bacterium, designated as strain gm001T, was isolated from a freshly voided faecal sample ... Cells of strain EA1T are spore-forming rods (1-3×0.4-0.8 µm) and stain Gram-negative, albeit they possess a Gram-positive type ... Cells of strain Z-1701T were short, straight, motile Gram-stain-positive rods. Growth of Z-1701T obligately depended on the ...
... large gram-positive rods (Lactobacillus), small gram-variable rods (G. vaginalis/Bacteroides spp.), and curved gram-variable ... by strictly anaerobic organisms [50, 51]. Clinically, the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis requires three of the following four ... C. A. Spiegel, R. Amsel, and K. K. Holmes, "Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis by direct gram stain of vaginal fluid," Journal of ... R. M. Brotman, J. Ravel, R. A. Cone, and J. M. Zenilman, "Rapid fluctuation of the vaginal microbiota measured by Gram stain ...
A) Gram stain of the human brain abscess. Dark purple staining suggested a Gram-positive bacterial infection. (B) Streptococcus ... S2). Briefly, TYG1620 was grown in BHI broth under anaerobic conditions to mid-log phase, and the cells were washed with 0.5 M ... B) Circular representation of the strain (str.) TYG1620 genome compared with the genomes of other S. intermedius strains. From ... The ESAT-6/WXG100 superfamily-and a new Gram-positive secretion system? Trends Microbiol 10:209-212. doi:10.1016/S0966-842X(02) ...
GRAM STAIN. The Gram stain is performed on a sediment of the CSF and is positive in at least 60% of cases of bacterial ... Culture is performed for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In addition, other stains (e.g. the acid-fast stain for ... For this reason, aseptic technique must be followed strictly, and a lumbar puncture should never be performed at the site of a ... Gram stain, and bacterial culture. Further tests may need to be performed depending upon the results of initial tests and the ...
During the years 1994-2011 five strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-positive, diphtheroid bacteria (strains CCUG 31793T, CCUG 44221 ... slightly less non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria, but significantly more Gram-positive cocci, and Gram-positive rods. ... Cells were rod-shaped and Gram-stain-positive. The optimal growth conditions were at 37 °C and pH 7. The isolates were closely ... We report two cases of bacteremia with Actinobaculum schaalii, a rarely reported, anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium. The first ...
The number of large, creamy white and convex colonies were counted if in Gram-stained smears uniform short gram-positive rods, ... Some species tolerate air and may utilize oxygen, while others are strictly anaerobic. They all grow best in a slightly acidic ... Lactobacillus acidophilus is a species of gram positive bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus. L. acidophilus is a ... In addition, all the Gram-positive isolates with morphology compatible with that of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were ...
3). Gram stain of the fluid revealed Gram-positive filamentous rods, and cultures of the fluid grew Actinomyces species (Fig. 3 ... It must be cultured in strictly anaerobic conditions. In the review of Fife et al., purulent pericardial fluid was obtained ... c Gram stain of the fluid showed Gram-positive filamentous rods; d Cultures from the fluid grew Actinomyces species ... gram stain of the purulent fluid obtained by pneumocentesis showed Gram-positive filamentous rods, and cultures from the ...
... and M17 media were examined by performing Gram stain, catalase, sporulation, and motility tests. Gram-positive, non-spore- ... LFB medium was prepared and inoculated by using strictly anaerobic techniques. We also used violet red bile agar medium (Difco ... gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria). Second, PCR-DGGE analysis yielded results which agreed well with the results of rRNA ... The bacteria were examined by performing Gram stain, catalase production, sporulation, and motility tests. The shapes and ...
There are gram-positive rods. Exotoxin(s) play an important role in disease pathogenesis. ... CLOSTRIDIUM Clostridia are strictly anaerobic sporeforming bacteria found in soil as well as in normal intestinal flora of man ... Stained pus from a mixed anaerobic infection. At least three different clostridia are apparent. Right. Electron micrograph of ... 2 CLOSTRIDIUM Clostridia are strictly anaerobic sporeforming bacteria found in soil as well as in normal intestinal flora of ...
Cells of C. glomerans PW2T stain Gram-positive which is consistent with an electron-dense cell wall, 40 nm wide . The cells ... The bacteria are strictly anaerobic. In TPY medium glucose is fermented to acetic acid, L-lactic acid, and ethanol in a molar ... Gram-positivenon-motilenon-sporulatingobligatory anaerobicchemoorganotrophmesophileendosymbiontinsect intestinal tract ... DNA was isolated from 1-1.5 g of cell paste using MasterPure Gram-positive DNA purification kit (Epicentre MGP04100) following ...
Gram-positive catalase-positive nonsporing rods such as Arthrobacter... (Group 6), Gram-positive catalase-positive strictly ... Gram-positive catalase-positive facultatively anaerobic cocci such as Staphylococcus... (Group 8). No Gram-positive catalase- ... Morphological characters, Gram staining and biochemical tests were carried out for the 323 bacterial strains. These orientation ... Gram-positive catalase-positive nonsporing rods such as Arthrobacter... (Group 6), Gram-positive catalase-positive strictly ...
RodsClostridiumCocciBacillusStrainFacultatively anaerobicStrainsObligateSpeciesBacilliStrict anaerobicGenusMicroorganismsStreptococcusAnaerobesOrganismMain phenotypic characteristicsRespirationActinomycesBlood culture bottleOxygenBacterium isolatedIsolatesPhenotypicFermentativeOxidaseOuter membraneAcid fastCrystal violetBrain abscessesMicroorganismOrganismsFermentationAerobic Gram-negativeDifferentialChronicCulturesIdentificationMethylene blueCorynebacteriumGram'sInfectionBACTERIOLOGY
- This chapter emphasizes that the Gram stain (performed on 24- to 48-h-old colonies from rich media) and macroscopic morphologies are initial key features for the differentiation of aerobic gram-positive rods. (asmscience.org)
- All strains of aerobic gram-positive rods (except the non-rapidly growing mycobacteria) are initially grown on blood agar plates. (asmscience.org)
- Genera which contain strictly anaerobic gram-positive rods may also contain species, or strains within a species, which grow reasonably well aerotolerantly or aerobically. (asmscience.org)
- Some gram-positive rods (e.g. (asmscience.org)
- Microscopic appearance shows gram positive rods with both smooth and rough colony types and further spore staining technique may be utilized to determine spore shape and position. (wikipedia.org)
- There are gram-positive rods. (slideplayer.com)
- The material is stained by the Gram technique, examined microscopically, paying attention to the presence of Gram-positive spore rods. (slideplayer.com)
- Cells stained Gram-positive, were spore-forming, and had the morphology of straight to slightly curved rods. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- 1. Which of the following Nonspore forming Gram-positive rods show negative result for catalase test? (sanfoundry.com)
- Answer: a Explanation: Brocothrix are rods often occurring in long,kinked filaments and are facultatively anaerobic. (sanfoundry.com)
- Actinomyces and Nocardia are gram-positive rods characterized by filamentous, tree-like branching growth, which has caused them to be confused with fungi in the past. (mhmedical.com)
- Actinomyces are typically elongated gram-positive rods that branch at acute angles ( Figure 28-1 ). (mhmedical.com)
- Yersinia pestis is gram-negative rods responsible for highly fatal zoonotic disease, plague. (microbeonline.com)
- Cells were Gram-negative, non-motile rods. (pdfdrugs.com)
- however microorganisms that comprise the vagina flora such as anaerobes, Gardnerel a vaginalis, Haemophilus influenzae , entetric Gram-negative rods and Streptococccus agalactiae also have been associated with PID. (who.int)
- During the last two decades, an increasing number of β-lactamases from anaerobes have been described, in particular among gram-negative rods ( 11 , 20 , 28 , 33 ). (asm.org)
- In general, strictly anaerobic gram - negative rods are more pathogenic than facultative or strictly anaerobic gram-positive [emedicine.medscape.com] A dental abscess is a localized collection of pus associated with a tooth. (symptoma.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To compare the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and pathogenic Gram-negative rods (GNR) in the anterior nares, posterior pharynx and three skin sites in community-based adults and nursing home-based adults before and after treatment with nasal mupirocin and topical chlorhexidine. (bireme.br)
- A gram stain of fluid from the infected area shows gram positive rods and spoke formation. (nthu.edu.tw)
- Clostridium cadaveris is an enteric, gas-forming, motile, strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium of the genus Clostridium. (wikipedia.org)
- Clostridium botulinum Ba4 str. (wishartlab.com)
- Photomicrograph of Gram stained Clostridium perfringens . (kenyon.edu)
- Clostridium perfringens is a rod-shaped Gram-positive bacterium, which is a mesophile that has an optimal growing temperature of 37 C . (kenyon.edu)
- Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive, anaerobic, endospore-forming bacilli, often appear as boxcar shaped. (microbeonline.com)
- Clostridium tetani is an obligate anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus with terminal round spore (drum stick appearance). (microbeonline.com)
- Clostridium botulinum is gram-positive, endospore-forming bacilli which resemble a tennis racket appearance due to the presence of spores at the sub-terminal end. (microbeonline.com)
- Clostridium acetobutylicum is a gram-positive spore-forming anaerobic bacterium capable of converting different sugars and polysaccharides to organic acids (acetate and butyrate) and solvents (acetone, butanol, and ethanol). (asm.org)
- Clostridium thermocellum , a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium, has the highest rate of cellulose utilization of any bacterium, and for this reason it is deemed of great significance to the pursuit of biofuel production from the cellulosic materials in plant biomass ( 3 , 6 , 20 , 32 ). (asm.org)
- Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive, toxin-producing anaerobic bacterium belonging to the family Clostridiaceae of the Clostridiales. (ppdictionary.com)
- An anaerobic tissue and/or fluid culture reveals Clostridium species. (nthu.edu.tw)
- or Dermabacter might be initially misidentified as gram-positive cocci because of their initial gram stain appearance. (asmscience.org)
- Gram-positive cocci arranged in tetrads and non-hemolytic, catalase positive, coagulase negative and nonmotile were found. (biomedcentral.com)
- a genus of gram-positive, facultatively aerobic cocci (family Streptococcaceae) occurring in pairs or chains. (thefreedictionary.com)
- CHARACTERISTICS: Gemella haemolysans and other Gemella species are Gram-positive cocci which currently have not been assigned to a named family (3). (msdsonline.com)
- We evaluated the Hyplex BloodScreen PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system (BAG, Lich, Germany), a new diagnostic test for the direct identification of gram-negative bacilli and gram-positive cocci from positive blood cultures, with 482 positive BACTEC 9240 blood culture bottles. (asm.org)
- However, thus far these evaluations have exclusively used gram-negative bacilli, and problems with the identification of gram-positive cocci have been described ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- Identify medically important gram positive and negative cocci and bacilli, using cultural and morphological characteristics, biochemical reactions, and immunological procedures. (oakton.edu)
- Acidaminococcus fermentans belongs to the group of strictly anaerobic gram-negative cocci. (asm.org)
- No β-lactamase has been described previously for anaerobic gram-negative cocci (including Veillonella , Acidaminococcus , and Megasphaera ). (asm.org)
- To our knowledge, this is the first β-lactamase found in anaerobic gram-negative cocci. (asm.org)
- H. massiliensis is a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacillus. (biomedcentral.com)
- E. massiliensis strain phI T is a Gram-positive, obligately anaerobic bacillus. (standardsingenomics.org)
- This bacterium is a Gram-negative, anaerobic, indole-positive bacillus and was isolated from the stool of a healthy Senegalese patient as part of a "culturomics" study aiming at cultivating individually all species within human feces. (biomedcentral.com)
- Corynebacterium diphtheriae also known as Klebs-Löffler bacillus is a Gram-positive bacillus responsible for causing diphtheria. (microbeonline.com)
- Ochrobactrum anthropi is a non-glucose fermentative, aerobic gram-negative bacillus, formerly known as Achromobacter sp or CDC group Vd. (worldwidescience.org)
- A Gram-staining-positive, spore-forming, strictly anaerobic bacterium, designated strain LAM0A37 T , was isolated from enrichment samples collected from a petroleum reservoir in Shengli oilfield. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain HLT3-15 T ) was isolated from the ice tongue surface of the Hailuogou glacier in Szechwan Province, PR China. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- A Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic, coccus- to rod-shaped, non-motile, non-spore-forming bacterium (strain UKS-03 T ) was isolated from a sediment sample of Ungok Lake in Gochang, Republic of Korea. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterium, strain JDX10 T , was isolated from a soil sample of Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Strain AP2 T (Table 1 ) was isolated in November 2011 after preincubation in an anaerobic blood culture bottle with the addition of 5ml of thioglycolate, and inoculation in Columbia agar (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). (biomedcentral.com)
- Strain phI T ( Table 1 ) was isolated in 2011 by anaerobic cultivation at 37°C on 5% sheep blood-enriched Columbia agar (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), after 4 days of preincubation of the stool sample with thioglycolate broth in an anaerobic blood culture bottle. (standardsingenomics.org)
- Strain JC136 (Table 1 ) was isolated in June 2011 by anaerobic cultivation on 5% sheep blood-enriched Columbia agar (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France). (biomedcentral.com)
- Epinephrine and norepinephrine (10 −6 M) had no impact on the growth of C. acnes but epinephrine increased RT4 and RT6 biofilm formation, as measured by crystal violet staining, whereas norepinephrine was only active on the RT4 strain. (frontiersin.org)
- A Gram-stain positive, non-motile, mesophilic actinomycete, designated strain NEAU-YJC4ᵀ was isolated from the root of a marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) collected in Heilongjiang Province, northeast China, and characterized using a polyphasic approach. (usda.gov)
- A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, small spherical bacterium, strain S31T, was isolated from skin surface (external ear lobe) of a healthy human subject and characterized using a polyphasic approach. (bireme.br)
- Biochemical tests indicated that, in types I/II, either the pyruvate, l -pyrrolidonyl arylamidase or d -ribose 2 test was positive, whereas all of these were negative among type III strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Both strains were oxidase- and catalase-negative and Gram-staining-positive. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Both strains were Gram-staining negative, aerobic, non-motile, elongated rod shaped and yellow coloured. (usda.gov)
- And some Gram-positive anaerobes (sensitive strains of Eubacterium spp. (stop-infections.net)
- The presence of focal neurologic signs and symptoms suggesting space-occupying lesion should lead one to consider chronic suppurative lung disease due to Nocardia species or a mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacterial pneumonia. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates from specific media with typical bifidobacterial shapes were identified to the genus level by F6PPK (fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase) assays and to the species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. (asm.org)
- Nocardia species are gram-positive, variably acid-fast, filamentous, and strictly aerobic organisms belonging to the actinomycetes group. (microbeonline.com)
- Steer microscopic checkout of intracellular parasites on stained blood films is the standard looking for unqualified diagnosis in as good as all settings because it allows with a view identification of the species and provides a appraisal of sponge density. (goldhr.co.uk)
- Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strictly anaerobic microorganism that is indigenous to the human oral cavity, where it coexists with more than 500 other species [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Laboratory culturing and Gram staining procedures are considered too unspecific to identify C. difficile in clinical situations due to its morphological similarity to other Clostridia species that make up the normal microflora of the colon. (ppdictionary.com)
- The test is also useful in differentiating Gram positive bacilli. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Actinomycosis is a chronic inflammatory condition originating in the tissues adjacent to mucosal surfaces caused by anaerobic gram-positive branching bacilli of the genus Actinomyces that are present in the microbiota of the alimentary tract. (mhmedical.com)
- They are gram-positive bacilli that grow slowly (4-10 days) under microaerophilic or strictly anaerobic conditions. (mhmedical.com)
- Note the angular branching of the gram-positive bacilli. (mhmedical.com)
- Investigations may begin with the appearance of pale Gram negative coccobacilli or bacilli on a direct Gram stain. (symptoma.com)
- Concerning the strict anaerobic life style of C. difficile , low concentrations of oxygen, as they occur in the intestines, already represent a challenge for the bacterium's redox balance. (mcponline.org)
- Fusobacterium nucleatum is a strict anaerobic microorganism that causes disease entities such as periodontal and soft tissue abscesses, pulmonary and intraabdominal infections and very rarely intracerebral infections. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition, all the Gram-positive isolates with morphology compatible with that of lactobacilli or bifidobacteria were selected and identified at the genus level by classical morphological and. (profissionaldebermuda.com)
- Explanation: The genus Rothia is aerobic,catalase-positive, and a normal inhabitant of the human mouth. (sanfoundry.com)
- are gram-positive, strictly aerobic microorganisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Summarize basic concepts of medical microbiology dealing with immunology, pathogenicity, disease transmission and control, sterilization and disinfection techniques, and the use of the specialized equipment, methods for stains and basic nutritional requirements of microorganisms. (oakton.edu)
- The fermenting microorganisms carry out the anaerobic conversion of lactose to lactic. (1000sciencefairprojects.com)
- The mechanism of action is the biochemical reduction of the 5-nitro group of this drug by intracellular transport proteins of anaerobic microorganisms and protozoa. (stop-infections.net)
- Des échantillons d'aspiration oropharyngée, de plaque dentaire, de lavage broncho-alvéolaire et de sang mis en culture ont fait apparaître un ou plusieurs agents pathogènes chez environ 80 % des patients, essentiellement le Staphylococcus aureus, suivi par des staphylocoques à coagulase négative, le Streptococcus pneumoniae et la Klebsiella pneumoniae. (who.int)
- Svenska: En gramfÃ¤rgad bild av Streptococcus mutans. (eol.org)
- Streptococcus pneumoniae is a lancet-shaped, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic organism. (pneumon.org)
- are facultative anaerobes but some are anaerobic ( A. suis ). (canada.ca)
- List common anaerobes, and identify special anaerobic collection and culturing techniques, anaerobic cultural characteristics, biochemical reactions and morphological characteristic. (oakton.edu)
- Aerotolerant anaerobes: strictly fermentative. (blogspot.com)
- It is active against Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, as well as gram-negative anaerobes Bacteroides spp. (stop-infections.net)
- As a consequence, we recently proposed a polyphasic approach [ 6 - 17 ] to describe new bacterial taxa, in which the complete genome sequence and MALDI-TOF of the protein spectrum would be used together with their main phenotypic characteristics (habitat, Gram staining, culture and metabolic characteristics and, when applicable, pathogenicity). (standardsingenomics.org)
- We propose to use a polyphasic approach [ 4 ] to describe new bacterial taxa that includes their genome sequence, MALDI-TOF spectrum and main phenotypic characteristics (habitat, Gram-stain reaction, culture and metabolic characteristics, and when applicable, pathogenicity). (biomedcentral.com)
- Methanogenesis operates at a very low reducing potential compared to other forms of respiration and is therefore critical to many anaerobic environments. (biomedcentral.com)
- This bacterium produces energy via anaerobic respiration using compounds other than oxygen, such as Nitrate, as its final electron acceptor . (kenyon.edu)
- C. perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium, who acquires energy by performing anaerobic respiration using Nitrate as its electron acceptor. (kenyon.edu)
- In their report, A. meyeri was more common than A. israelii in 130 patients (43 and 30%, respectively) who had a positive result for Actinomyces cultures with adequate follow up in the Medical University of South Carolina between 1988 and 2016. (biomedcentral.com)
- Actinomyces spp were isolated from 3 of 7 intraoperative anaerobic cultures, and the patient received penicillin G for 8 weeks. (earlsview.com)
- Anaerobic gram-positive giant coccae assembled in tetrads were recovered from one anaerobic blood culture bottle of a 48-year-old female who in her early childhood was diagnosed with congenital chloride diarrhoea. (biomedcentral.com)
- B. Sarcina ventriculi, staining from an anaerobic blood culture bottle, 2 images (isolated from the patient presented). (biomedcentral.com)
- They catalyse the breakdown of hydrogem peroxide with the release of free oxygen (resulting in bubbles).The classical test for differentiating staphylococci (positive) from streptococci (negative).To observe the action of the enzymes, catalase reagent is added to a pure bacterial culture. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Any immediate bubbling is indicative of a positive result since oxygen is a by-product of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- hydrogeniphilus are strictly anaerobic hydrogen-oxidizers able to grow chemolithoautotrophically with sulfur as tested on BM medium, with oxygen added to the H2/CO2 electron acceptor (Miroshnichenko et al. (pdfdrugs.com)
- Though strictly oxygen-intolerant, C. difficile is able to produce aerotolerant endospores under unfavourable conditions that are capable of persisting in an open environment for years. (ppdictionary.com)
- The cell wall of gram negative is composed of a single layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by the outer membrane (Todar, kennet). (ukessays.com)
- During the Gram Stain, the lipid content is target by the alcohol, decolorizer, and make the outer membrane porous that unable the cell to retain crystal violet, the primary stain. (ukessays.com)
- The structure of their cell wall, they have high amount of peptidoglycan, enable them to retain the crystal violet stain during the gram stain (livre de lab). (ukessays.com)
- Crystal violet (primary stain), Gram's Iodine (mordant), 95% Ethanol (decolorizer) and Safranin (counterstain). (ukessays.com)
- The first step is to carry out the primary stain using crystal violet (deep blue) after the bacterial cell is heat fixed. (wikibooks.org)
- Epidemiological studies on the anaerobic etiology of brain abscesses are common between the time period of 1960s and 1980s, but today there are very few new publications on the subject. (bvsalud.org)
- Significant elevations of Th1 and Th17 cytokine levels have been detected in patients with brain abscesses caused by monomicrobial Gram-positive bacterial infections (e.g., those caused by S. intermedius ), whereas a Th2 cytokine (interleukin-10) has been shown to be present in Gram-negative bacterial infections (e.g., those caused by Bacteroides fragilis and Escherichia coli ) ( 5 ). (asm.org)
- We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians , a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. (biomedcentral.com)
- Pus culture yielded a gram-positive microorganism identified as Kocuria Varians by the Vitek 2 system. (biomedcentral.com)
- Anaerobic culture did not find any anaerobic microorganism activity. (biomedcentral.com)
- It means that it is a highly defined media that differentiate organisms based on their ability to grow when an essential nutrient is strictly limited. (ukessays.com)
- However, there are exceptions that make this method fallible, as there are some organisms that are Gram indeterminate or Gram variable. (wikibooks.org)
- Routine examination of CSF includes visual observation of color and clarity and tests for glucose, protein, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, red blood cell count, white blood cell count with differential, syphilis serology (testing for antibodies indicative of syphilis), Gram stain, and bacterial culture. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- A gram stain is the most common differential stain. (ukessays.com)
- Expectations Vs. reality Should be able to decrease the number of secondary identification systems required in Clinical Microbiology Very good technology, but not perfect Experienced technologists still needed Better patient care through faster definitive results Positive effect on workflow? (slidegur.com)
- Gram staining focuses on the differences of such structure in its method of identification. (wikibooks.org)