An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
An high-affinity, NAD-dependent 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that acts unidirectionally to catalyze the dehydrogenation of CORTISOL to CORTISONE. It is found predominantly in mineralocorticoid target tissues such as the KIDNEY; COLON; SWEAT GLANDS; and the PLACENTA. Absence of the enzyme leads to a fatal form of childhood hypertension termed, APPARENT MINERALOCORTICOID EXCESS SYNDROME.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A chlorinated anilide that is used as an herbicide.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.
Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
11 beta,18,21-Trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
The consumption of edible substances.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.
The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
An agent derived from licorice root. It is used for the treatment of digestive tract ulcers, especially in the stomach. Antidiuretic side effects are frequent, but otherwise the drug is low in toxicity.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Large herbivorous tropical American lizards.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Corticosterone is activated when the bird is exposed to stress, such as migrating great distances. Common ravens usually travel ... Cockrem, J. F. (2007). "Stress, corticosterone responses and avian personalities". Journal of Ornithology. 148: 169-178. doi: ... When the environment changes in vast degrees, these birds will respond with a stress response. The hormone known as ... corticosterone is activated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. ...
... the implications for combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder". Journal of Traumatic Stress. 4 (2): 209-221. doi:10.1002/ ... corticosterone and body-brain integration". Brain Research. 1476: 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2011.12.049. PMID 22285436. "Why ... Stress can also be considered a brain-body reaction due to external or internal cues this can include the environment as well ... Focus groups, clinical cases, as well as religion play a crucial role in one's ability to cope with the stress of traumatic ...
Royo F.; Mayo S.; Carlsson H.E.; Hau J. (2008). "Egg corticosterone: A noninvasive measure of stress in egg-laying birds". ... Bortolotti G.R.; Marchant T.A.; Blas J.; German T. (2008). "Corticosterone in feathers is a long-term, integrated measure of ... Ikkatai Y.; Watanabe S. (2015). "Eye surface temperature detects stress response in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus)". ... relationship with stress". British Poultry Science. 27 (2): 325-337. doi:10.1080/00071668608416885. PMID 3742268. Wilcox C.S.; ...
Corticosterone levels in species measure the stress that they face in their populations. Marine iguanas show higher stress- ... Romero, Michael L. Wikelski; Martin (2002). "Exposure to Tourism Reduces Stress-induced Corticosterone Levels in Galapagos ... Results of a study show that marine iguanas in areas central to tourism are not chronically stressed, but do show lower stress ... Vitousek, M.N.; Romero, L.M.; Tarlow, E.; Cyr, N.E.; Wikelski, M. (2010). "Island tameness: an altered cardiovascular stress ...
This reduced anxiety and stress-induced corticosterone secretion at a systemic level. SK2 overexpression also reduced dendritic ... stress-induced corticosterone and dendritic arborization". Mol. Psychiatry. 14 (9): 847-55, 827. doi:10.1038/mp.2009.9. PMC ...
"Dietary tyrosine suppresses the rise in plasma corticosterone following acute stress in rats". Life Sciences. 37 (23): 2157-63 ... with reductions in stress hormone levels, reductions in stress-induced weight loss seen in animal trials, and improvements in ... However, a number of studies have found tyrosine to be useful during conditions of stress, cold, fatigue (in mice), prolonged ... Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF (1994). "Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress". Brain Research ...
Zamudio, S.R.; Quevedo-Corona, L.; Garcés, L.; De La Cruz, F. (2009). "The effects of acute stress and acute corticosterone ... Oscars seem to go into shock when they are stressed (when their aquarium is being cleaned, for example): they lie on their side ... In 2006, a single study in rabbits tried to find a link between a fear-motivated stress state and some of the physiological ... "The Stress Physiology of Extended Duration Tonic Immobility in the Juvenile Lemon Shark, Negaprion Brevirostris (Poey 1868)." ...
As well, the rats showed increased corticosterone while experiencing stress during a serial memory task. On the other hand, rat ... Furthermore, these rats do not show an increase in their corticosterone while experiencing stress, demonstrating differing ... 2009). The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are differentially involved in serial memory retrieval in non-stress and stress ... As well it shows that the different brain regions differentially activate corticosterone, a hormone related to memory effects. ...
The dose needs to be increased when in stress. Complications from an adrenalectomy can include insufficient cortisol production ... February 2003). "Leptin suppresses food intake and body weight in corticosterone-replaced adrenalectomized rats". Journal of ...
These findings show that anandamide and 2-AG divergently regulate the HPA axis response to stress: while habituation of the ... A decrease of anandamide was found along the axis that contributed to basal hypersecretion of corticosterone; in contrast, an ... Wasternack C, Hause B (June 2013). "Jasmonates: biosynthesis, perception, signal transduction and action in plant stress ... Studies have demonstrated differential synthesis of anandamide and 2-AG during tonic stress. ...
For example, recent investigations indicate that the stress hormone corticosterone may cause magpie aggression and swooping. ... These barriers cause population stresses and species can become vulnerable to localised extinction. Habitat loss and ...
The stress hormone corticosterone has also been identified as associated with the sexual behaviour of amplexus. A study ... "An acute increase in the stress hormone corticosterone is associated with mating behavior in both male and female red-spotted ... The increase in corticosterone found in females could be attributed to amplexus preventing them from foraging for food. ... However, overall it was found that males have a higher level of corticosterone compared to females, as amplexus is seen as more ...
In addition, stress and chronic stress can cause damage to the hippocampus through the overwhelming activity of the amygdala on ... Inverted U relationship between the level of peripheral corticosterone and the magnitude of hippocampal primed burst ... One model of BN produces stress-induced hyperphagia, where rats go through periods of restricted food and then are allowed free ... The "activity/stress" model produces starvation-induced immunodeficiency and various complications not observed in individuals ...
"Corticosterone-induced changes in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) content after stress". Cite journal ... "Comfort Food May Be "Self-Medication" for Stress, Dialing Down Stress Response". UC San Francisco. Retrieved 2018-01-14. "The ... "Corticosterone: narrow range required for normal body and thymus weight and ACTH". Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) " ... Stress & CVD) 2011-2014 Editorial Board, Endocrinology 1980-2007 Member of 3 NIH PRGs - Endocrinology; NNB; DK Fellowships, K- ...
Van de Kar LD, Javed A, Zhang Y, Serres F, Raap DK, Gray TS (May 2001). "5-HT2A receptors stimulate ACTH, corticosterone, ... Liu RJ, Aghajanian GK (January 2008). "Stress blunts serotonin- and hypocretin-evoked EPSCs in prefrontal cortex: role of ... Cell Stress & Chaperones. 25 (6): 899-908. doi:10.1007/s12192-020-01124-x. PMC 7591670. PMID 32519137. Cao X, Wang Y, Shu D, Qu ... corticosterone, and renin. Role in memory and learning Role in arthralgia. Role in Alzheimer's disease. Smooth muscle ...
Rats that have been prenatally stressed have elevated basal levels and abnormal circadian rhythm of corticosterone as adults. ... Stress hormone release tends to decline gradually after a stressor occurs. In post-traumatic stress disorder there appears to ... There is growing evidence that prenatal stress can affect HPA regulation in humans. Children who were stressed prenatally may ... For example, biologists studying stress in fish showed that social subordination leads to chronic stress, related to reduced ...
... either by direct corticosterone mimetic injection or stressing of the mother) has adverse outcomes. In addition to having ... These animals studies have found that postnatal care to prenatally stressed animals can reverse the adverse effects of ... Cortisol is the primary glucocorticoid produced in humans (equivalent to rodent corticosterone). This steroid hormone is both ... The hippocampus provides negative feedback to this loop and stressed pups have less sensitive glucocorticoid signaling ...
Newly hatched chicks that are visited by tourists show a stress response, with elevated levels of corticosterone in their blood ... The elevated corticosterone is detrimental to the development of muscle strength, growth, and immune function. Large breeding ... Human interactions can also cause stress to penguin chicks. ...
According to their study, low baseline levels of corticosterone (CORT), a hormone involved in stress response, predicted better ... Spencer, K.A; Buchanan, K.L; Goldsmith, A.R; Catchpole, C.K (2003). "Song as an honest signal of developmental stress in the ... According to the developmental stress hypothesis, zebra finches learn songs during a stressful period of development and their ... The researchers used associative learning as a correlate of cognition to support that nutritional stress during development can ...
An increase in stress hormones or nerve impulses due to stress can cause PNMT to convert more norepinephrine into epinephrine. ... One way that it can regulate PNMT expression is by corticosterone's positive influence on the maintenance of PNMT mRNA. ... Stress immobilization for a few hours has also been shown to increase PNMT activity in rats. This treatment takes about one ... Elevated PNMT expression is one of the ways that the stress response positively feeds back on itself. ...
... the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus regulates the neuroendocrine response to stress and is regulated by corticosterone ... Stress Invading microorganisms by increasing body temperature, resetting the body's thermostat upward. Olfactory stimuli are ... Romeo RD, Bellani R, Karatsoreos IN, Chhua N, Vernov M, Conrad CD, McEwen BS (April 2006). "Stress history and pubertal ... Sex steroids are not the only important influences upon hypothalamic development; in particular, pre-pubertal stress in early ...
Stress hormones in mice such as serum corticotropin releasing factor, adrenal corticotropin releasing hormone, and ... corticosterone were reduced after psoralidin administration. Structurally, psoralidin is a coumestan derivative; it has an ...
Also, other studies show levels of stress hormones such as corticosterone rise dramatically in these birds during and after a ... Landys, Mėta M.; Wingfield, John C.; Ramenofsky, Marilyn (2004). "Plasma corticosterone increases during migratory restlessness ...
... on corticosterone response to a swim stress and glucocorticoid binding capacity in the hippocampus in rats". The Japanese ...
Corticosterone is a stress hormone and is likely raised due to the implications of a loss in animals experiencing the loser ... Hormones like corticosterone are found to be higher in animals experiencing loser effects than those experiencing winner ... Some researchers even suggest that this increased level of corticosterone caused by the loser effect inhibits regions of the ... An example of this increase in corticosterone following a loss is seen in the copperhead snakes. Testosterone is another ...
Abnormalities in these systems also are known to be induced by stress, either severe, acute stress or chronic low-grade stress ... In adult rats, acute injections of corticosterone promote aggressive behavior and acute reduction of corticosterone decreases ... A study showed that social anxiety and stress was positively correlated with aggression in males, meaning as stress and social ... feelings of stress, dominance or pleasure (proximate causes) [...] Sometimes aggressive behavior serves as a stress relief or a ...
Glucocorticoids, including hormones such as cortisol and corticosterone, are highly involved in the stress response, and are ... Since they are involved in arousal, stress, and often physical exercise some of these hormones are also called stress hormones ... De Quervain, D.J.F.; B. Roozendaal; J.L. McGaugh (1998). "Stress and glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial ... In the case of chronic stress, glucocorticoids can be very damaging to memory. Vasopressin (Antidiuretic hormone; ADH): ...
... the levels of faecal corticosterone ('stress hormone') dramatically increased in the surviving elephants. When her tenure is ... Critics claim that the animals in zoos are under physical and mental stress. Elephants have been recorded displaying ...
Similarly, domesticated rats and guinea pigs have both reduced adrenal gland size and reduced blood corticosterone levels. It ... tamed foxes show a reduced adrenal gland size and have an up to fivefold reduction in both basal and stress-induced blood ...
She is founder and co-President of the Swiss Stress Network. Currently, Sandi's lab investigates stress, the brain, and ... 1997; 9(4): 637-642, Experience-dependent Facilitating Effect of Corticosterone on Spatial Memory Formation in the Water Maze ... 2007; Article ID: 78970, Stress and Memory: Behavioral Effects and Neurobiological Mechanisms. Sandi, C., Haller, J. Stress and ... what does stress do to the body? How stress can lead to inequality Carmen Sandi publications indexed by Google Scholar. ...
... early-life exposure to moderate levels of corticosterone was associated with stress resilience in adult rats, whereas exposure ... Stress[edit]. Schematic overview of the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis.Stress activates the HPA-axis and thereby ... Stress and development[edit]. Schematic overview of the hypothalamic-pituary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Stress activates the HPA-axis ... Early life stress[edit]. The role of early life stress in programming the HPA Axis has been well-studied in animal models. ...
Exposure to stress and the stress hormone corticosterone has been shown to decrease the expression of BDNF in rats, and, if ... BDNF is a critical mediator of vulnerability to stress, memory of fear/trauma, and stress-related disorders such as post- ... Warner-Schmidt JL, Duman RS (2006). "Hippocampal neurogenesis: opposing effects of stress and antidepressant treatment". ... "Neurobiology of BDNF in fear memory, sensitivity to stress, and stress-related disorders". Molecular Psychiatry: 1-24. doi ...
Exposure to stress and the stress hormone corticosterone has been shown to decrease the expression of BDNF in rats, and, if ... Xu Y, Ku B, Tie L, Yao H, Jiang W, Ma X, Li X (November 2006). "Curcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, ... Warner-Schmidt JL, Duman RS (2006). "Hippocampal neurogenesis: opposing effects of stress and antidepressant treatment". ...
... examination of neuroendocrine and neuroimmune responses in plasma revealed a trend toward increase in corticosterone in PTSD ... Posttraumatic stress disorder at Curlie. *Post traumatic stress disorder information from The National Child Traumatic Stress ... VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder (PDF). United ... Wikiquote has quotations related to: Posttraumatic stress disorder. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Posttraumatic stress ...
response to immobilization stress. • positive regulation of cortisol secretion. • steroid metabolic process. • positive ... response to corticosterone. • female pregnancy. • negative regulation of norepinephrine secretion. • adrenal gland development ... positive regulation of corticosterone secretion. • response to estrogen. • locomotory exploration behavior. • regulation of ...
response to corticosterone. • cellular response to amino acid starvation. • positive regulation of programmed cell death. • ... stress-induced premature senescence. • positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation. • replicative senescence. • response to ... The ability of p21 to inhibit apoptosis in response to replication fork stress has also been reported.[24] ... "Chk1 and p21 cooperate to prevent apoptosis during DNA replication fork stress". Mol. Biol. Cell. 17 (1): 402-12. doi:10.1091/ ...
Instead, extremely high levels of the precursor hormone corticosterone are produced, some of which is converted to 11- ... The specific mechanism involved is increased release of the "stress hormones", epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine ...
response to corticosterone. • response to hyperoxia. • intestinal epithelial cell maturation. • cellular response to ionizing ... stress-induced premature senescence. • intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cyclin-dependent protein ...
response to corticosterone. • cellular response to nicotine. • cellular response to alkaloid. • mating behavior. • response to ... response to salt stress. • response to steroid hormone. • response to amphetamine. • isoquinoline alkaloid metabolic process. • ... response to isolation stress. • glycoside metabolic process. • aromatic amino acid family metabolic process. • response to ... response to immobilization stress. • norepinephrine biosynthetic process. • cognition. • dopamine biosynthetic process. • ...
5), corticosterone (C. 21H. 30O. 4), cortisone (C. 21H. 28O. 5) and aldosterone (C. 21H. 28O. 5). (Note that aldosterone and ... including stress response, immune response, and regulation of inflammation, carbohydrate metabolism, protein catabolism, blood ... Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathway. The last part is mediated either by the ... aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). These enzymes are nearly identical (they ...
"Stress blunts serotonin- and hypocretin-evoked EPSCs in prefrontal cortex: role of corticosterone-mediated apical dendritic ... Van de Kar LD, Javed A, Zhang Y, Serres F, Raap DK, Gray TS (May 2001). "5-HT2A receptors stimulate ACTH, corticosterone, ...
Behl C, Widmann M, Trapp T, Holsboer F (November 1995). "17-beta estradiol protects neurons from oxidative stress-induced cell ...
... and the stress response have known deleterious effects on the immune system. High levels of perceived stress and ... Corticosterone is comparable to cortisol in this case.[30] For potassium to move out of the cell, cortisol moves an equal ... In the short term, activation of the HPA axis in response to stress is adaptive. However, long-term stress promoting chronic ... psychological stress, and physiological stressors such as hypoglycemia, illness, fever, trauma, surgery, fear, pain, physical ...
In species that do not create cortisol, this role is played by corticosterone instead. Glucocorticoids have many effects on ... which function to produce a rapid response throughout the body in stress situations.[4] ... The glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone are synthesized in the zona fasciculata; their functions include the regulation ...
Cian, C; Barraud, PA; Melin, B; Raphel, C (2001). "Effects of fluid ingestion on cognitive function after heat stress or ... "Selection for aerobic capacity affects corticosterone, monoamines and wheel-running activity". Physiology & Behavior. 93 (4-5 ... Sharma, VM; Sridharan, K; Pichan, G; Panwar, MR (1986). "Influence of heat-stress induced dehydration on mental functions". ... a sign of metabolic stress) is released during exercise from the brain.[26][34] ...
... has been found to be effective in depression, in people with Parkinson's disease,[23] and with post-traumatic stress ... Efficacy and tolerability of coaxil (tianeptine) in the therapy of posttraumatic stress disorder]. Zhurnal Nevrologii i ... Some researchers hypothesize that tianeptine has a protective effect against stress induced neuronal remodeling.[9][13] There ... and tianeptine in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder following an earthquake". European Psychiatry. 21 (3): 174-9. ...
StressEdit. The hippocampus contains high levels of glucocorticoid receptors, which make it more vulnerable to long-term stress ... "Cholesterol and perhaps estradiol protect against corticosterone-induced hippocampal CA3 dendritic retraction in ... Sex-specific responses to stress have also been demonstrated in the rat to have an effect on the hippocampus. Chronic stress in ... Some studies shows correlation of reduced hippocampus volume and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[127][128][129] A study ...
"Dietary tyrosine suppresses the rise in plasma corticosterone following acute stress in rats". Life Sci. 37 (23): 2157-63. doi: ... with reductions in stress hormone levels,[23] reductions in stress-induced weight loss seen in animal trials,[20] and ... Deijen JB, Orlebeke JF (1994). "Effect of tyrosine on cognitive function and blood pressure under stress". Brain Res. Bull. 33 ... A number of studies have found tyrosine to be useful during conditions of stress, cold, fatigue,[20] prolonged work and sleep ...
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of ... The primary glucocorticoid released by the adrenal gland is cortisol in humans and corticosterone in many other animals. Its ... corticosterone, and cortisol in humans. The major hormone that stimulates cortisol secretion in humans is the ...
Finn, Deborah A.; Purdy, Robert H. (2007). "Neuroactive Steroids in Anxiety and Stress". Handbook of Contemporary ...
... there was a decrease in corticosterone and aldosterone, hormones produced by the adrenal gland and important for stress ...
... the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus regulates the neuroendocrine response to stress and is regulated by corticosterone ... Sex steroids are not the only important influences upon hypothalamic development; in particular, pre-pubertal stress in early ... Romeo RD, Bellani R, Karatsoreos IN, Chhua N, Vernov M, Conrad CD, McEwen BS (April 2006). "Stress history and pubertal ... There is evidence linking hyperactivity of HPA hormones to stress-related skin diseases and skin tumors.[25] ...
Studies have shown that corticosterone treatment and adrenalectomy reduces or upregulated hippocampal BDNF expression.[9] ... blood NGF levels are increased in times of stress, during immune disease, and with asthma or arthritis, amongst other ...
Sex-specific responses to stress have also been demonstrated in the rat, to have an effect on the hippocampus. Chronic stress ... "Cholesterol and perhaps estradiol protect against corticosterone-induced hippocampal CA3 dendritic retraction in ... Some studies shows correlation of reduced hippocampus volume and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).[121][122][123] A study ... Chronic stress resulting in elevated levels of glucocorticoids, notably of cortisol, is seen to be a cause of neuronal atrophy ...
... and corticosterone share the first part of their biosynthetic pathways. The last parts are mediated either by the ... including surgical stress).[31] Anxiety increases aldosterone,[30] which must have evolved because of the time delay involved ... aldosterone synthase (for aldosterone) or by the 11β-hydroxylase (for corticosterone). These enzymes are nearly identical (they ...
response to corticosterone. • cellular response to amino acid starvation. • positive regulation of programmed cell death. • ... stress-induced premature senescence. • positive regulation of fibroblast proliferation. • replicative senescence. • response to ...
Cultural variables, such as diet varying with race and class; factors related to stress, socio-economic status and history have ... Piroli GG, Grillo CA, Reznikov LR, Adams S, McEwen BS, Charron MJ, Reagan LP (2007). "Corticosterone impairs insulin-stimulated ... "Insulin resistance: A marker of surgical stress". Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 2 (1): 69. doi ... "Role of the mixed-lineage protein kinase pathway in the metabolic stress response to obesity". Cell Reports. 4 (4): 681-8. doi ...
However, when stress was followed 24 h later by corticosterone in the drinking water, the surge in corticosterone was prevented ... We observed that post-stress corticosterone, given 1 day after acute stress in drinking water, reversed enhanced anxiety-like ... Further, stress elevated serum corticosterone levels in rats that received vehicle in the drinking water. ... Together, these observations suggest that corticosterone, delivered through drinking water even 24 h after acute stress, is ...
The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the development of muscular tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus ... Corticosterone / pharmacology*. Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*. Female. Insulin / blood. Male. Muscle, Skeletal / drug ... The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the development of muscular tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus ... Corticosterone treatment resulted in enhanced energy expenditure. The results indicate that the development of breast muscle ...
... and the ability of high levels of corticosterone to mo ... Male mice were implanted with a corticosterone pellet (192 mg/ ... Supraphysiological levels of the stress hormone corticosterone attenuate blood-brain barrier disruption and microglial ... and an attenuation in the quantity of microglia by corticosterone pretreatment. The interactions of chronic stress and chemical ... Corticosterone pretreatment attenuated the kainate-induced influx of IgG at all time points. Immunohistochemical localization ...
High physiological levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), exacerbate brain inflammatory responses to ... One answer may relate to a heightened physiological stress response associated with the short-term battlefield environment. ... Physiological-stress; Psychological-effects; Sleep-disorders; Fatigue; Neurological-reactions; Nervous-system-disorders; ... evidence suggests that the stressful environment under which troops operated may have altered the BBB and led to a stress/agent ...
It is unknown whether corticosterone (CORT) plays a role in mediating alterations of epithelial permeability in response to ... Chronic psychological stress (CPS) is associated with increased intestinal epithelial permeability and visceral hyperalgesia. ... Stressed and CORT-injected rats demonstrated a threefold increase in permeability for PEG-400 (MW) in colon, but not jejunum ... Corticosterone / metabolism*, pharmacology. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Hyperalgesia / metabolism. Intestinal Mucosa / drug ...
... stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.. Gobinath AR1, Workman JL2, Chow C2, Lieblich SE2, Galea LA3. ... The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum ... Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like ... stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male ...
Corticosterone. For the experiments on the effects of metyrapone and stress on corticosterone levels, corticosterone was ... that the role of corticosterone in stress-induced reinstatement was only determined for one form of stress, namely, ... Corticosterone is involved in a variety of behavioral and neurochemical effects of exposure to stress (Selye, 1956; Johnson et ... 3). This latter effect may be related to the lack of inhibitory control by corticosterone on stress-induced increases in CRF ...
... which elevate during stress. We investigated latitudinal variation in corticosterone (CORT) response to chronic predator stress ... Geographic variation in corticosterone response to chronic predator stress in tadpoles. Dahl, Emma Uppsala University, ... Chronic stress often affects growth and development negatively, and these effects are often mediated via glucocorticoid ... We hypothesized that more time-constrained high-latitude populations have evolved a lower CORT response to chronic stress to ...
... axis responses to osmotic stress induced by water deprivation (WD). … ... The vasopressin V1b receptor modulates plasma corticosterone responses to dehydration-induced stress J Neuroendocrinol. 2011 ... WD resulted in an increase in plasma corticosterone concentration in wild-type animals; however, this WD-induced increase in ... axis responses to osmotic stress induced by water deprivation (WD). Male wild-type and V1b⁻/⁻ mice were housed in metabolic ...
Altered circadian rhythms of corticosterone, melatonin, and phagocytic activity in response to stress in rats.. ... The stressed group displayed higher values of PI than the controls at most hours of the night, but the number of cells in the ... Stress significantly decreased the MESOR and amplitude of the melatonin rhythm, and significantly increased the MESOR of the ... Corticosterone is thought to be the main glucocorticoid secreted in response to stressful exercise, while melatonin buffers the ...
... Klein, ... Analysis of the data on kinetics of stress at 1, 7 and 28 days after the initial mixing of the animals gave the same results. ... The influence of a chronic social stress upon immunity was investigated in Wistar rats, submitted for four weeks to two ... Keywords: Adrenal Glands/pathology ; Animals ; Antibodies ; Bacterial/biosynthesis ; Chronic Disease ; Corticosterone/ ...
b,Methods:,/b, A model of corticosterone (CORT)-induced stress in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) was used to compare the ... span,,b,Objectives:,/b, To search for novel compounds that will protect neuronal cells under stressed conditions that may help ... Methods: A model of corticosterone (CORT)-induced stress in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) was used to compare the ... Nutraceuticals to promote neuronal plasticity in response to corticosterone-induced stress in human neuroblastoma cells Nutr ...
Stress Procedures. Rats were divided into the non-stress group (NS), acute stress (AS) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) ... Effect of Momordica charantia on Plasma Corticosterone Levels. In the acute stress and chronic unpredictable stress regimen, ... Plasma corticosterone level, being an immediate stress effector, is considered to be an important marker to evaluate stress ... The oxidative stress paradigms used in in vivo models were acute stress (AS) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Panax ...
Here we investigated effects of acute restraint stress and of the stress hormone corticosterone on CSD susceptibility as ... Stress is a putative migraine trigger, but the pathogenic mechanisms involved are unknown. Stress and stress hormones increase ... Although corticosterone levels rise also during acute stress, the latter likely triggers a spatiotemporally more complex ... Stress hormone corticosterone enhances susceptibility to cortical spreading depression in familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 ...
Following surgery, corticosterone responses to all stimuli were significantly influenced only in the septal lesion group. There ... The present study undertook to determine corticosterone and prolactin responses in response to a variety of stimuli in rats ... In the normal group, prolactin, but not corticosterone evidenced a differential response to the four stimuli. ... was no interaction between the location of lesion with the type of stimuli used to elicit the corticosterone response. ...
Early Life Stress Stimulates Hippocampal Reelin Gene Expression in a Sex-Specific Manner: Evidence for Corticosterone-Mediated ... To address the question whether corticosterone mediates the stress-induced up-regulation of reelin gene expression, we used age ... Since little is known how early life stress is translated on the molecular level, we mimicked early life stress in mouse models ... In contrast, no stress-induced alterations of reelin mRNA expression were found in female animals. This sex difference in ...
Dhabhar, F. S. (2000). Acute stress enhances while chronic stress suppresses skin immunity - the role of stress hormones and ... Pereyra, M. E. and Wingfield, J. C. (2003). Changes in plasma corticosterone and adrenocortical response to stress during the ... Sockman, K. W. and Schwabl, H. (2001). Plasma corticosterone in nestling American kestrels: effects of age, handling stress, ... Evidence from recent studies has suggested that the avian stress-related hormone corticosterone (CORT) may play a role in ...
Corticosterone (CORT) Elevation Does Not Facilitate LTD Expression.. Elevations in CORT levels associated with stress may play ... Exposure of the rat strains to stress induced a significant elevation in serum corticosterone levels but did not facilitate LTD ... Stress Induction.. The protocol for stress induction corresponded to methods that were previously reported as being effective ... corticosterone;. LFS,. low-frequency stimulation;. fEPSP,. field excitatory postsynaptic potential;. HFS,. high-frequency ...
Oxidative stress impacts almost all acute and chronic progressive disorders and on a cellular basis is intimately linked to ... that publishes original research and review articles dealing with the cellular and molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress in ... Skin Injuries Altered Radiation-Induced Corticosterone Stress Responses. Corticosterone is the main glucocorticoid involved in ... Measurements of Corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE2. Corticosterone, IgM (Abcam, Cambridge, MA), CRP, C3 (GenWay, San Diego ...
Catharus ustulatus Corticosterone Early seral forest Glucocorticoids Habitat quality Stress response Swainsons Thrush ... Holberton RL, Wingfield JC (2003) Modulating the corticosterone stress response: a mechanism for balancing individual risk and ... Romero LM (2004) Physiological stress in ecology: lessons from biomedical research. Trends Ecol Evol 19:249-255PubMedCrossRef ... For baseline corticosterone, the top model included stand age with limited support for models that included vegetation cover. ...
Sockman, K. W. and Schwabl, H. (2001). Plasma corticosterone in nestling American kestrels: effects of age, handling stress, ... Meylan, S. and Clobert, J. (2005). Is corticosterone-mediated phenotype development adaptive? Maternal corticosterone treatment ... Stressed mothers lay eggs with high corticosterone levels which produce low-quality offspring. J. Exp. Zool. A 303,998 -1006. ... Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks. J. ...
Stress-induced corticosterone levels were also augmented in dyn(−/−) mice (d).. *p,0.05; **p,0.01; ***p,0.001 vs respective ... decrease in corticosterone serum levels in prodynorphin knockout mice. Although stress-induced increases in corticosterone ... No differences between the genotypes were observed in stress-induced hyperthermia (c). Basal corticosterone serum levels were ... Stress and anxiety are mainly regulated by amygdala and hypothalamic circuitries involving several neurotransmitter systems and ...
... ... Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. The purpose of the present study was to ... Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic ... Chronic restraint or variable stresses differently affect the behavior, corticosterone secretion and body weight in rats. ...
Corticosterone is a major indicator of stress in non-human mammals. Glucocorticoids, such as corticosterone, guide fundamental ... Keep cool… corticosterone and stress. July 7, 2015 by Ana Arraztio Leave a Comment ... Measuring Corticosterone. Comparison of the EIA kit described in this post with traditional RIA, using 1 ul mouse tail bleed ... Corticosterone is a glucocorticoid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland in response to stimulation by ...
Consequently, conditional CRH knockout animals exhibited no alterations in circadian and stress-induced corticosterone release ... Consequently, conditional CRH knockout animals exhibited no alterations in circadian and stress-induced corticosterone release ... Although most studies have linked CRH/CRH receptor 1 signaling to aversive, stress-like behavior, recent work has revealed a ... Although most studies have linked CRH/CRH receptor 1 signaling to aversive, stress-like behavior, recent work has revealed a ...
Agnieszka Ścibiorc, Dorota Gołębiowska, Laboratory of Oxidative Stress, Center for Interdisciplinary Research, John Paul II ... Living in habitats affected by wind turbines may result in an increase in corticosterone levels in ground dwelling animals ... The physiological stress response results in release of glucocorticoid hormones. We studied two rodent species of the ... For the analysis of corticosterone concentrations in the faeces, we used ELISA tests with antibodies for this hormone. The ...
A similar transient reduction in adult neurogenesis did not affect depression-like behaviors or stress induced corticosterone. ... A similar transient reduction in adult neurogenesis did not affect depression-like behaviors or stress induced corticosterone. ... In order to assess the contribution of neurons born in adolescence to the adult stress response and depression-related behavior ... In order to assess the contribution of neurons born in adolescence to the adult stress response and depression-related behavior ...
We did not find any signs of stress in our running mice as the corticosterone levels did not differ between groups. ... Voluntary wheel running does not induce a corticosterone stress response. Body weights did not differ between groups at the ... Fecal corticosterone levels. Corticosterone measurements are described in Supplementary Methods.. Collection of samples. After ... we controlled for stress induction by the voluntary running intervention used in this study. The fecal corticosterone levels ...
... and antidepressant-like effects of ethyl acetate extract from Eugenia catharinensisin mice treated with corticosterone (20 mg/ ... Zafir A, Banu N (2009) Modulation of in vivo oxidative status by exogenous corticosterone and restraint stress in rats. Stress ... Corticosterone pre-treatment generated oxidative stress, altering antioxidant enzymes in the nervous tissue. The extract ... Ferulic acid reverses depression-like behavior and oxidative stress induced by chronic corticosterone treatment in mice. ...
Corticosterone was used to study the adrenoceptor signaling in rats, lizards or in vitro. It was also used in immune ... Corticosterone (Cort) is a glucocorticoid hormone. It is also the principal hormone that mediates stress responses in birds. It ... Corticosterone was used to study the adrenoceptor signaling in rats, lizards or in vitro. It was also used in immune ... Corticosterone ≥98.5% (HPLC) Synonym: 11β,21-Dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione, 11β,21-Dihydroxyprogesterone, 4-Pregnene-11β,21- ...
  • The effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on the development of muscular tissues of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) fed with diets differing in lipid content were investigated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results indicate that the development of breast muscle was more susceptible to stress mimicked by CORT administration. (biomedsearch.com)
  • High physiological levels of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT), exacerbate brain inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to the nerve agent, DFP: role in Gulf War Illness? (cdc.gov)
  • It is unknown whether corticosterone (CORT) plays a role in mediating alterations of epithelial permeability in response to CPS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Male rats were subjected to 1-h water avoidance (WA) stress or subcutaneous CORT injection daily for 10 consecutive days in the presence or absence of corticoid receptor antagonist RU-486. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Stressed and CORT-injected rats demonstrated a threefold increase in permeability for PEG-400 (MW) in colon, but not jejunum and significant increase in VMR to CRD, which was significantly reversed by RU-486. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated latitudinal variation in corticosterone (CORT) response to chronic predator stress in Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500-km latitudinal cline in Sweden tadpoles, in a laboratory experiment. (diva-portal.org)
  • We hypothesized that more time-constrained high-latitude populations have evolved a lower CORT response to chronic stress to maintain higher growth under stressful conditions. (diva-portal.org)
  • A model of corticosterone (CORT)-induced stress in human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) was used to compare the efficacy of 6 crude extracts and 10 pure compounds (6 polyphenols, 2 carotenoids, 1 amino acid analogue, and 1 known antidepressant drug) to increase neuronal plasticity and to decrease cytotoxicity. (nih.gov)
  • Significant improvement in mature BDNF protein expression by phlorotannin extract ( F. vesiculosus ) and β-carotene as an adjunct of fluoxetine confirm their potential to promote neuronal plasticity against CORT-induced stress. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence from recent studies has suggested that the avian stress-related hormone corticosterone (CORT) may play a role in immunocompetence and sexual selection. (biologists.org)
  • Corticosterone (Cort) is a glucocorticoid hormone. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The antidepressant effects of PAPZ were investigated with a corticosterone (CORT) model of depression in mice. (mdpi.com)
  • This experiment investigated the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis spore as a probiotic on the immune response , intestinal morphology and ileal dry matter digestibility in broiler chicks exposed to stress induced by corticosterone (CORT). (ac.ir)
  • Corticosterone (CORT) is the major corticosteroid in avian species. (ac.ir)
  • Initial plasma CORT did not change seasonally, but plasma CORT increased in response to acute stress. (elsevier.com)
  • We found no evidence that acute stress levels of CORT are functionally related to stress-depressed plasma T and, therefore, that plasma T decreases during stress as a result of elevated plasma CORT. (elsevier.com)
  • The present study was designed to explore the effects of lithium and ethanol in the markers of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione activities on oxidative stress induced by methylphenidate (MPD) and corticosterone (CORT) in the brain tissues. (journalcra.com)
  • Our results demonstrated that MPD and CORT treatment triggers oxidative stress in brain as revealed by an increased level of lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione respectively. (journalcra.com)
  • Following compound stress induction, the serum levels of corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone and interleukin‑1β and the mRNA expression levels of hypothalamic corticotropin‑releasing hormone (CRH), neuropeptide‑Y, c‑Fos and Fra‑2 were evaluated using enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay, radioimmunoassay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The results indicated that S. chinensis and R. rosea markedly decreased the stress‑induced elevation of CRH and peripheral CORT levels. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Contrary to the prediction that developmental stress decreases male reproductive success, we found that CORT-fed males also sired more offspring and were less likely to rear non-genetic offspring compared with control males, and thus had greater overall reproductive success. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The combination of these exposures with exogenous corticosterone (CORT), mimicking high physiological stress, exacerbates the observed neuroinflammation. (cdc.gov)
  • Even a single 2-hour episode of immobilization stress is known to trigger anxiety-like behavior and increase spine-density in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of rats 10 days later. (nature.com)
  • Further, stress elevated serum corticosterone levels in rats that received vehicle in the drinking water. (nature.com)
  • KEY RESULTS: We observed significant decreases in the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and tight junction proteins in the colon, but not the jejunum in stressed rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Altered circadian rhythms of corticosterone, melatonin, and phagocytic activity in response to stress in rats. (nel.edu)
  • The present work was aimed to evaluate whether swimming-exercise-induced stress leads to changes in the chronobiology parameters of the circadian rhythms of melatonin and corticosterone, and in the number and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages in 3-month-old male Wistar rats. (nel.edu)
  • The influence of a chronic social stress upon immunity was investigated in Wistar rats, submitted for four weeks to two different behavioral situations, balanced in a factorial design: housing with three females and membership rotation. (epfl.ch)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the antistress activity of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on stress-induced changes in albino rats and also to explore attenuating effects of MC on in vitro lipid peroxidation in rat brain. (ijp-online.com)
  • activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis during adolescence takes twice as long to recover to baseline following stress in rats ( Romeo, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • de Morais H, de Souza CP, da Silva LM, Ferreira DM, Werner MF, Andreatini R, da Cunha JM, Zanoveli JM (2014) Increased oxidative stress in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is related to depressive-like behavior in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. (springer.com)
  • Delwing-de Lima D, Fröhlich M, Dalmedico L, Gruenwaldt J, Aurélio M, Delwing Dal Magro D, Pereira EM, Wyse ATS (2017) Galactose alters markers of oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase activity in the cerebrum of rats: protective role of antioxidants. (springer.com)
  • Corticosterone was used to study the adrenoceptor signaling in rats, lizards or in vitro . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Corticosterone ELISA Kit for Rats and Mice is a competitive immunoassay for the quantitative measurement of corticosterone in rat and mouse serum or plasma. (mpbio.com)
  • Thus, corticosterone secretion in rats was investigated following lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acute cold-swimming or ether stress or synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) administration throughout the oestrous cycle. (unict.it)
  • By showing the unchanged corticosterone response to LPS, to acute stress and to exogenous CRF throughout the oestrous cycle, and the independence of the diurnal pattern of stress response on the oestrous cycle, the present study suggests that the oestrous cycle has no influence on the HPA activity under the present experimental conditions in rats. (unict.it)
  • We investigated whether male and female rats previously exposed to LNS displays at weaning altered corticosterone, intestinal permeability, and microbiota. (jnmjournal.org)
  • To do so, plasmatic levels of corticosterone, GFAP, interleukin (IL)-1ß and IL-6 were measured 48 h following a single, 15 min, (0 or 6 W/kg) EMF-exposure in rats subjected to fear conditioning and tests (group 1 and 2). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Induction of oxidative stress by restraint stress and corticosterone treatments in rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated the effect of zinc supplementation on the iron metabolism, erythropoiesis, and oxidative stress status in PS-induced rats. (springer.com)
  • These results indicated that dietary zinc supplementation had preventive effects against PS-induced iron dyshomeostasis, erythropoiesis inhibition, and oxidative stress status in rats. (springer.com)
  • Zhao M, Chen J, Wang W, Wang L, Ma L, Shen H, Li M (2008) Psychological stress induces hypoferremia through the IL-6-hepcidin axis in rats. (springer.com)
  • in rats, it is corticosterone. (alzforum.org)
  • Scientists from the University of California Berkeley have discovered that by knocking down a single gene, they can stop stress from causing female infertility and miscarriage - in rats. (eurekalert.org)
  • To test their hunch, Arnaud Barbazanges and his colleagues, who work for the French medical research organisation INSERM at the University of Bordeaux, repeatedly stressed female rats in their last week of pregnancy by placing them in a clear Perspex tube in bright light for short periods. (newscientist.com)
  • When these rats' pups grew up, the researchers put them through the same stressful experience as their mothers for 30 minutes, and measured how long it took for their corticosterone levels to return to normal. (newscientist.com)
  • Now Barbazanges and his colleagues have shown that corticosteroid receptors in the brains of the rats are less sensitive even when they had been exposed to high levels of stress-induced corticosterone in the womb. (newscientist.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Schisandra chinensis (S. chinensis) and Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) on rats subjected to 5 h of stress, induced by water‑floating followed by treadmill exercise. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Rats were distributed into four groups: S. chinensis (n=12), R. rosea (n=10), stress control (n=10) and quiet control (n=8). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The mRNA expression levels of c‑Fos and Fra‑2 in the hypothalamus were significantly increased after 5 h compound stress, and reduced levels of c‑Fos expression were detected in rats treated with R. rosea. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Thus, S. chinensis and R. rosea exert an anti‑stress effect in rats subjected to stress by balancing the HPA axis, and possibly by reducing the expression of c-Fos in the hypothalamus. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In organotypic cultures (prepared from P5 rats) that were 14-21 days cultured in vitro, two doses of corticosterone (30 and 100 nM) were tested. (uva.nl)
  • cortisol in humans, corticosterone in mice and rats). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Corticosterone is produced under the control of ACTH and the production has a circadian rhythm with peak levels in the latter portion of the day in nocturnal animals like rats and is believed to play a decisive role in sleep-wake cycles. (biovendor.com)
  • Stress hormone secretion and gut signal transducer (STAT) proteins after burn injury in rats. (biovendor.com)
  • Corticosterone effects were studied in vivo by treating rats s.c. with 10 mg/kg corticosterone for 7 or 14 days. (sun.ac.za)
  • Neither the spontaneous outflow nor the electrically stimulated release of [3H]NA from dorsal hippocampal slices of untreated rats was affected by exposure of the slices to corticosterone (10-7 M - 10-4 M) in the superfusion buffer. (sun.ac.za)
  • Thus, chronic corticosterone treatment of rats altered the noradrenergic system of the pons-medulla, but did not change the α2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of NA release in the dorsal hippocampus, a major terminal area of the LC neurons. (sun.ac.za)
  • Bipolar electrodes were implanted into the CA1 pyramidal cells of the dorsal hippocampus and the effect of electrical stimulation of these cells on corticosterone secretion was investigated in freely moving rats. (sun.ac.za)
  • The Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NOW) recently conducted a study of corticosterone release and rhythm in rats. (psychcentral.com)
  • Sarabdjitsingh found that certain genes are activated less when corticosterone patterns are flattened in rats. (psychcentral.com)
  • This corticosterone study in rats was backed by a grant from the NOW Mosaic program, a program that funds PhD research by students of ethnic minorities. (psychcentral.com)
  • Supraphysiological levels of the stress hormone corticosterone attenuate blood-brain barrier disruption and microglial activation in hippocampus of C57BL/6J mice treated with kainic acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we examined whether the adrenal hormone, corticosterone, and brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) were involved in such reinstatement. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we determined whether the adrenal hormone corticosterone and brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) are involved in the effects of stress and heroin-priming on relapse to heroin-seeking. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we investigated effects of acute restraint stress and of the stress hormone corticosterone on CSD susceptibility as surrogate migraine marker, in a transgenic mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1), which displays increased glutamatergic cortical neurotransmission and increased propensity for CSD. (uu.nl)
  • It may be directly regulated by the stress hormone corticosterone. (eurekalert.org)
  • Now a team of researchers in France says that the stress hormone corticosterone is to blame. (newscientist.com)
  • A 2017 study published in the Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience found that PF-3845 exerts rapid and long-lasting anti-anxiety effects in mice exposed acutely to stress or chronically to the stress hormone corticosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • ii) animals in which stress-induced corticosterone secretion was blocked by adrenalectomy, but who received exogenous corticosterone from a subcutaneous implant. (uniroma1.it)
  • Restraint stress increased the locomotor response to both amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) and morphine (2 mg/kg s.c.) in animals with an intact HPA axis, but not in animals in which stress-induced corticosterone secretion was suppressed. (uniroma1.it)
  • These results suggest that corticosterone secretion may be one of the mechanisms by which repeated stress amplifies behavioral responses to amphetamine and morphine. (uniroma1.it)
  • Although the secretion of stress hormones provides birds for fight or flight that is essential for survival in nature but it has been shown that they inhibits different functions of the immune system, leading not only to the incidence of diseases and mortality in birds and also to their reduced performance ( Virden and Kidd, 2009 ). (ac.ir)
  • M. I. Cordero, J. J. Merino and C. Sandi, "Correlational Relationship between Shock Intensity and Corticosterone Secretion on the Establishment and Subsequent Expression of Contextual Fear Conditioning," Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 112, No. 4, 1998, pp. 885-891. (scirp.org)
  • Glucocorticoid secretion is thought to contribute to stress adaptation by causing long-term changes in gene expression via cognate adrenocorticosteroid receptors (i.e., mineralocorticoid receptor [MR] and glucocorticoid receptor [GR]). The adrenocorticosteroid receptors function as ligand-gated transcription factors (De Kloet et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Male mice were implanted with a corticosterone pellet (192 mg/kg/d) to mimic the sustained activation of the HPA axis associated with chronic stress, and allowed to recover for seven days. (cdc.gov)
  • Vasopressin V1b receptor knockout (V1b⁻/⁻) mice were used to investigate a putative role for the V1b receptor (V1bR) in fluid regulation and in the hypothalamic-neurohypophysial system (HNS) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to osmotic stress induced by water deprivation (WD). (nih.gov)
  • however, this WD-induced increase in plasma corticosterone was significantly attenuated in V1b⁻/⁻ mice. (nih.gov)
  • We found that 20-min and 3-h restraint stress did not influence CSD susceptibility in mutant or wild-type mice, despite elevated levels of plasma corticosterone. (uu.nl)
  • mg/kg corticosterone increased CSD frequency exclusively in mutant mice, while corticosterone plasma levels were similarly elevated in mutants and wild types. (uu.nl)
  • This sex difference in stress-mediated stimulation of reelin expression was maintained into adulthood, since at P70 intergroup differences were still found in male, but not in female mice. (ovid.com)
  • These behavioral data are supported by an approximal 30% reduction in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and central amygdala and an accompanying 30-40% decrease in corticosterone serum levels in prodynorphin knockout mice. (nih.gov)
  • Although stress-induced increases in corticosterone levels were attenuated in prodynorphin knockout mice, they were associated with minor increases in depression-like behavior in the tail suspension and forced swim tests. (nih.gov)
  • Here we addressed whether deletion of CRH, specifically from GABAergic forebrain neurons ( Crh CKO -GABA mice) differentially affects general behavior under baseline and chronic stress conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Interestingly, following exposure to chronic social defeat stress, Crh CKO-GABA mice displayed a resilient phenotype, which was accompanied by a dampened, stress-induced expression of immediate early genes c-fos and zif268 in several brain regions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In order to assess the contribution of neurons born in adolescence to the adult stress response and depression-related behavior, we transiently reduced cell proliferation either during adolescence, or during adulthood in GFAP-Tk mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • This work investigated the antioxidant and antidepressant-like effects of ethyl acetate extract from Eugenia catharinensis in mice treated with corticosterone (20 mg/Kg). (springer.com)
  • Our results showed that the extract decreased the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test and that the extract was able to reverse the effect caused by corticosterone. (springer.com)
  • Wild-type and heterozygous 5-HTT knockout male mice were subjected to three weeks of chronic psychosocial stress. (biologists.org)
  • Heterozygous 5-HTT knockout mice exposed to high stress also showed significantly lower levels of serotonin turnover than wild-type littermates, selectively in the frontal cortex, which is a structure that is known to control fear and avoidance responses, and that is implicated in susceptibility to depression. (biologists.org)
  • Environmental enrichment during rearing alters corticosterone levels, thymocyte numbers, and aggression in female BALB/c mice: E.K. Hutchinson, et al. (cosmobio.co.jp)
  • The CRF1 receptor antagonist SSR125543 attenuates long-term cognitive deficit induced by acute inescapable stress in mice, independently from the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis: J. Philbert, et al. (cosmobio.co.jp)
  • Here we report that exposure to subchronic variable stress (SCVS) induces depression-associated behaviors in female mice, whereas males are resilient as they do not develop these behavioral abnormalities. (jneurosci.org)
  • 100 mg/kg), and then all mice (except unstressed group) were subjected to restraint stress for 6 h. (biomedcentral.com)
  • H-FSS mice exhibited increased fear levels and a deficit in fear extinction (within-session) in the auditory fear-conditioning test, and depressive-like behavior in the acute forced swim stress test. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast, acute swim stress increased monoamine levels but decreased turnover in the less fearful L-FSS mice. (elsevier.com)
  • L-FSS mice also showed a trend toward higher basal and stress-induced corticosterone levels and an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin in the hypothalamus and brainstem 30 min after stress compared to H-FSS mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, H-FSS mice showed increased basal noradrenaline tissue levels compatible with a fear phenotype or chronic stressed condition. (elsevier.com)
  • Low corticosterone levels and the poor monoamine response to stress in H-FSS mice may point to mechanisms similar to those found in principal fear disorders or post-traumatic stress disorder. (elsevier.com)
  • H. Tomizawa, D. Matsuzawa, S. Matsuda, D. Ishii, C. Sutoh and E. Shimizu, "A Transient Fear Reduction by Pair-Exposure with a Non-Fearful Partner during Fear Extinction Independent from Corticosterone Level in Mice," Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science , Vol. 3 No. 5, 2013, pp. 415-421. (scirp.org)
  • Herein, corticosterone administered in male Swiss mice, 60-90 days of age, at 20 mg/kg, once a day, for 21 days, was effective to induce depressive-like phenotype. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In mice, they induce increases in stress hormones in response to predator odors, injury, and a variety of other external and internal stressors, including psychological stress associated with physical restraint ( 3 - 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Researchers found that chronic exposure to a stress hormone causes modifications to DNA in the brains of mice, prompting changes in gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers added corticosterone-the major hormone that mice produce in stressful situations-to their drinking water for 4 weeks. (nih.gov)
  • After exposure, and again after a 4-week recovery period without corticosterone, the scientists tested the mice for behavioral and physiological changes. (nih.gov)
  • In the September 2010 issue of Endocrinology , the researchers reported that mice given corticosterone appeared more anxious during a maze test. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the researchers found decreased Fkbp5 methylation levels in the mice exposed to corticosterone. (nih.gov)
  • FS stress induced marked tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα in the brain of wild-type mice through activation of Src family kinases. (jneurosci.org)
  • Chronic stress often affects growth and development negatively, and these effects are often mediated via glucocorticoid hormones, which elevate during stress. (diva-portal.org)
  • Corticosterone is thought to be the main glucocorticoid secreted in response to stressful exercise, while melatonin buffers the adverse immunological effects of stress. (nel.edu)
  • The effect of corticosterone on CSD frequency was normalised by pre-administration of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone. (uu.nl)
  • The commonly used surrogates of stress are the glucocorticoid steroids produced by the adrenal cortex. (biologists.org)
  • Given that early seral and mature conifer forests are characterized by markedly different habitat features, we hypothesize that the observed differences in baseline corticosterone represent either reduced fitness of male thrushes in mature stands or an adaptive adjustment of glucocorticoid levels to match local environmental conditions that equalize fitness across stands of different ages. (springer.com)
  • Corticosterone is a glucocorticoid secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland in response to stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone. (being-bioreactive.com)
  • The physiological stress response results in release of glucocorticoid hormones. (wind-watch.org)
  • Corticosterone is synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal cortex that activates both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Developing animals can be exposed to stress indirectly by parental effects (e.g. [ 8 ]) or directly when environmental factors such as low food availability, inclement weather or sibling competition stimulate activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the release of glucocorticoid hormones [ 9 - 12 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Corticosterone was ineffective in changing morphology of the apical dendrites when tested in the presence of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU38486. (uva.nl)
  • These results suggest that high physiological levels of corticosterone, via activation of the glucocorticoid receptor, can, during the course of only a few hours, reduce the dendritic complexity of CA1 pyramidal neurons in young, developing hippocampal tissue. (uva.nl)
  • Glucocorticoid stress responses can be initiated by physiological perturbations (representing reflexive responses) or by brain processes linking environmental cues with probable negative outcomes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Corticosterone (C21H30O4, also called 11β,21-Dihydroxyproges-terone, Reichstein's Sub-stance H, or Kendall's Compound B) is, like cortisol and cortisone, a glucocorticoid hormone secreted from the cortex of adrenal gland. (biovendor.com)
  • Genetic variations in Fkbp5 have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and mood disorders, which are characterized by abnormal glucocorticoid regulation. (nih.gov)
  • These data confirm that melatonin and corticosterone act as modulators of the innate immune response, and that the circadian rhythm of the two hormones are altered in situations of stress. (nel.edu)
  • Stress and stress hormones increase neuronal excitability by enhancing glutamatergic neurotransmission, but inhibitory effects have also been reported. (uu.nl)
  • These hormones (primarily cortisol in primates, and corticosterone in birds, reptiles and rodents) are released in response to stressful environmental events, and are crucial in initiating the `flight or fight' response as well as a range of essential physiological and behavioural reactions to stress ( Nelson, 1995 ). (biologists.org)
  • Coloration signals the ability to cope with elevated stress hormones: effects of corticosterone on growth of barn owls are associated with melanism. (unil.ch)
  • Although adaptive on the short run, prolonged exposure to glucocorticoids hormones (GC), secreted following stress, may exhaust the capacity of an organism to cope with further stressors and, given the catabolic nature of these adrenal glucocorticoids, lead to an impairment in brain plasticity [ 5 , 7 , 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • On the final day, brain tissues and sera were isolated, and stress hormones and hippocampal oxidative alterations were examined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The corresponding mechanisms might involve modulations in the release of ROS, pro-inflammatory cytokines and stress hormones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To study the contribution of stress hormones towards stress-induced oxidative processes in the brain , we investigated the response of important free-radical scavenging enzymes toward chronic administration of two doses of corticosterone (low dose 10 mg/kg/day, high dose 40 mg/kg/day) in rodents . (bvsalud.org)
  • A direct pro-oxidant effect of stress hormones in the brain during physical and psychological stress was observed, indicating important implications for oxidative stress as a major pathological mechanism during chronic stress and a consequent target option for anti-stress therapeutic interventions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Stress hormones can impair memory and damage the hippocampus over time, and people with AD tend toward higher levels of circulating cortisol, the main human stress hormone. (alzforum.org)
  • Although, converting the yeast protein concentrates into YPC-pellets did not offer any substantial advantage in terms of enhancing production performance of the heat stressed broilers, it may be concluded that YPC additives may effectively sustain the production performance in heat stressed broilers than the conventional yeasts probably by modulation of the levels of circulatory thyroid hormones and cortisol. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • As soon as Ebaugh saw her attacker and his knife, her brain's pituitary gland sent signals to her adrenal glands, atop the kidneys, to start pumping out the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Mammals exhibit instinctive reactions to danger critical to survival, including surges in blood stress hormones. (sciencemag.org)
  • Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons (CRHNs) control stress hormones but how diverse stressors converge on CRHNs is poorly understood. (sciencemag.org)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone neurons (CRHNs) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus are master controllers of blood stress hormones ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • This delayed build-up of morphological and behavioral effects offers a stress-free time window of intervention after acute stress, which we used to test a protective role for glucocorticoids against stress. (nature.com)
  • This provides a framework in the amygdala for analyzing how the initial physiological and endocrine processes triggered by traumatic stress eventually give rise to debilitating emotional symptoms, as well as the protective effects of glucocorticoids against their development. (nature.com)
  • Rao RP, Anilkumar S, McEwen BS, Chattarji S. Glucocorticoids protect against the delayed behavioral and cellular effects of acute stress on the amygdala. (nature.com)
  • Glucocorticoids are pulsatile in nature, and can increase dramatically above a baseline (basal) level within a few minutes of a stressful event (the peak stress response). (biologists.org)
  • CRH is densely expressed in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) from where it regulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and consequently the circadian and stress-mediated release of glucocorticoids. (frontiersin.org)
  • The adrenal glands then dump glucocorticoids, the primary mediators of stress, into the bloodstream. (alzforum.org)
  • Glucocorticoids feed back on the hypothalamus and pituitary to dial down production of CRF and ACTH, and also mediate many of the physiological effects of stress, such as raising blood glucose and depressing the immune system. (alzforum.org)
  • But glucocorticoids are not the only mediators of stress effects in the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • For example, zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ) exposed to either dietary stress or experimentally elevated glucocorticoids during development sing lower quality songs as adults [ 22 , 25 , 26 ] and are less attractive to females [ 27 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The pathophysiology of depression includes glucocorticoids excess, glutamatergic excitotoxicity, and oxidative stress impairment. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 2008). Glucocorticoids are thought to contribute to termination of the initial stress response (Keller-Wood and Dallman 1984) and to participate in long-term restoration of homeostasis triggered by the initial response (Munck et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Notably, the link between alcohol intake and stress is complicated by the fact that exposure to alcohol, like many drugs of abuse, causes the release of glucocorticoids upon exposure and thus can be classified as an acute "stressor" of sorts (see Allen et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Thus, it was suggested that, in acute stress, microglial activation may be modulated through sympathetic nervous system, AR beta 1 and beta2.It was also suggested that adrenal glucocorticoids may play inhibitory roles in microglial activation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We observed that post-stress corticosterone, given 1 day after acute stress in drinking water, reversed enhanced anxiety-like behavior 10 days later. (nature.com)
  • Together, these observations suggest that corticosterone, delivered through drinking water even 24 h after acute stress, is capable of reversing the delayed enhancing effects on BLA synaptic connectivity and anxiety-like behavior. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 1: Corticosterone in drinking water after stress prevents increase in anxiety-like behavior 10 days later. (nature.com)
  • Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity. (nih.gov)
  • Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The former experiment tested the effects of an acute corticosterone elevation (25 min) on begging behavior, whereas the latter explored the effects of artificially elevated corticosterone for 24 to 48 h on growth. (biologists.org)
  • Although most studies have linked CRH/CRH receptor 1 signaling to aversive, stress-like behavior, recent work has revealed a crucial role for distinct CRH circuits in maintaining positive emotional valence and appetitive responses under baseline conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively our data reveals the requirement of GABAergic CRH circuits in maintaining appropriate social behavior in naïve animals and further supports the ability of CRH to promote divergent behavioral states under baseline and severe stress conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Periodic maternal separation decreases hippocampal neurogenesis without affecting basal corticosterone during the stress hyporesponsive period, but alters HPA axis and coping behavior in adulthood: N. Lajud, et al. (cosmobio.co.jp)
  • Wistar rat dams exposed to limited nesting stress (LNS) from post-natal days (PND) 2 to 10 display erratic maternal behavior, and their pups show delayed maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and impaired epithelial barrier at PND10 and a visceral hypersensitivity at adulthood. (jnmjournal.org)
  • 8 , 11 Disturbance of maternal behavior by limited nesting stress (LNS) exposure during the post-natal days (PND) 2 to 10 impacts significantly on the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in offspring with contrasting effects on corticosteronemia according to the strain studied. (jnmjournal.org)
  • 19. Annual international stress and behavior neuroscience and biopsychiatry conference , May 2013, Saint-Petersburg, Russia. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • We also found that the correlation between corticosterone levels and freezing behavior during extinction was disrupted in the pair-exposure situation. (scirp.org)
  • The pair-exposure changed an association between corticosterone levels and freezing behavior during extinction. (scirp.org)
  • S. E. File and L. A. Peet, "The Sensitivity of the Rat Corticosterone Response to Environmental Manipulations and to Chronic Chlordiazepoxide Treatment," Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 25, No. 5, 1980, pp. 753-758. (scirp.org)
  • Morus nigra leaves extract revokes the depressive-like behavior, oxidative stress, and hippocampal damage induced by corticosterone. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In conclusion, M. nigra leaves extract and syringic acid revoke depressive-like behavior induced by corticosterone via inhibition of oxidative stressand hippocampal damage. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 2) the observed highest level of corticosterone in FPP parrot suggests a role of stress in this self-injuring stereotypic behavior. (peerj.com)
  • The new finding provides clues into how chronic stress might affect human behavior. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα is important for regulation of depression-like behavior in the response of the brain to stress. (jneurosci.org)
  • The results suggest that corticosterone administration enhanced hepatic fatty acid synthesis and resulted in the redistribution of energy to abdominal store from peripheral tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Exposing organotypic slices to 30 nM corticosterone reduced apical length in a more delayed manner: only neurons examined more than 2 hours after exposure to corticosterone showed atrophy of the apical dendritic tree. (uva.nl)
  • Chronic exposure to corticosterone altered the expression of 3 HPA axis genes, including higher levels of Fkbp5 in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and blood. (nih.gov)
  • Stress significantly decreased the MESOR and amplitude of the melatonin rhythm, and significantly increased the MESOR of the corticosterone rhythm. (nel.edu)
  • In the CUS regimen (different stressors for 7 days), plasma corticosterone levels were significantly elevated whereas the levels of 5-HT, NE, E, and DA were depleted significantly. (ijp-online.com)
  • This study reveals the antistress activity of MC as it significantly reverted the stress-induced changes, and the activity might be attributed to its antioxidant activity since stress is known to involve several oxidative mechanisms. (ijp-online.com)
  • Quantitative determination of mRNA levels revealed that corticosterone treatment significantly up-regulated reelin mRNA expression in male, but not in female hippocampi. (ovid.com)
  • ALE also significantly normalized the stress-induced activation of astrocytes and microglial cells in the hippocampus as well as the elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). (biomedcentral.com)
  • plasma corticosterone levels increased significantly following LPS administration (2 mg/kg, ip) or following acute exposure to cold (4°C)-swimming or ether stress. (unict.it)
  • Fecal corticosterone metabolites did not differ significantly between the groups. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Corticosterone increased during labor and delivery at a significantly greater rate compared to cortisol, although overall cortisol levels were still higher. (medindia.net)
  • In the first two experiments corticosterone significantly decreased the noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) levels in the pons-medulla, an area which contains the A1-A7 noradrenergic cell groups, while the NA and DA levels in the dorsal hippocampus remained unchanged. (sun.ac.za)
  • In stress conditions, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical system is activated by the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRF) secreted by the hypothalamus, which, in turn, stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary. (ac.ir)
  • These results suggest that CRF, a major brain peptide involved in stress, contributes to relapse to heroin-seeking induced by stressors. (jneurosci.org)
  • The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two different stress paradigms (chronic restraint or variable stress) on behavioral and corticosterone release to a subsequent exposure to stressors. (unesp.br)
  • Considering that the HPA axis might respond differently when it is challenged with a novel or a familiar stressor we investigated the changes in the corticosterone levels following the exposure to two stressors: restraint (familiar stress) or forced novelty (novel stress). (unesp.br)
  • Dysfunction of this barrier is caused by various pathological, toxicological, and physical stressors, including heat stress (HS), leading to local or systemic inflammatory reactions. (mdpi.com)
  • Stress is caused by a variety of stressors, that is, harmful stimuli or challenges that lead to various physiological, behavioral, emotional and cognitive alterations known as stress responses. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • By contrast with the view that the stress response restores the stability of an organism's internal environment (homeostasis), it is now hypothesized that stressors cause well-organized responses with their own homeostasis, to promote adaptive coping ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Therefore, to maintain a healthy state, it is crucial to limit the extent of harmful external stimuli, reduce the adverse effects of severe or chronic stress and enhance the body's resistance to stressors. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • With modern stressors, such as work deadlines, we can't fight or flee, and chronic stress may instead lead to depression or other mood disorders. (nih.gov)
  • The stress response is an important component of an individual's suite of physiological and behavioural responses to environmental events. (biologists.org)
  • Stress and anxiety are mainly regulated by amygdala and hypothalamic circuitries involving several neurotransmitter systems and providing physiological responses to peripheral organs via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and other pathways. (nih.gov)
  • inhibiting swelling and inflammation, and suppressing immune responses following a stress event. (being-bioreactive.com)
  • Recent evidence implicates adult hippocampal neurogenesis in regulating behavioral and physiologic responses to stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • We found that the intervention in adolescence did not change adult baseline behavioral response in the forced swim test, sucrose preference test or social affiliation test, and did not change adult corticosterone responses to an acute stressor. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is also the principal hormone that mediates stress responses in birds. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Cortisol helps regulate the stress response via the negative feedback loop, which are activated when a person is subjected to specific situations that trigger the relationship between the emotionally charged memories of the traumatic event and the observable autonomic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any change of the internal or external milieu may represent a source of stress triggering a complex and coordinated set of physiological responses involving (among others) the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis [ 4 - 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • By being able to directly affect HPA axis activity [ 9 , 17 ] and being produced by cells outside the nervous system (including immune cells, adipocytes, endocrine, and endothelial cells), BDNF has a key position in integrating neural, immune, and endocrine responses to stress [ 8 , 18 , 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In concert with these different behavioral responses, transcriptional analysis of nucleus accumbens (NAc), a major brain reward region, by use of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) revealed markedly different patterns of stress regulation of gene expression between the sexes. (jneurosci.org)
  • A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex responses to overtly presented fearful faces in posttraumatic stress disorder. (ac.ir)
  • However, these effects were not always reproduced, and the present study aims to test the contribution of protocol-induced stress in EMF-induced responses. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Test of stress was performed by measuring the same biological responses 30 min, 5 h and 24 h following (group 3) daily handling, (groups 4 and 5) a single, 15 min, (0 or 6 W/kg) GSM-exposure, and (group 6) a single 15 min sham (0W/kg GSM)-exposure followed by a fear conditioning session. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • While THDOC may plausibly act via endogenous GABAergic mechanisms to reduce stress-induced endocrine and behavioral responses that are likely mediated in part by CRF neurons, these preliminary findings suggest that, at the dose and time point studied, THDOC does not identically mimic the actions of alprazolam, another drug which potentiates GABAergiv activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Stress responses are highly organized and regulated, and act to reduce the adverse impact of a stressor. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • However, when stress is severe or chronic, or there is a functional defect of inadequate response to stress, the organization and regulation of stress responses may be disrupted, resulting in various endocrine, metabolic, autoimmune and psychiatric disorders ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This article reviews the organization of neurocircuits that regulate stress responses, focusing on the HPA axis, which is of particular relevance to addictive processes (see Marinelli and Piazza 2002). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Reflexive stress responses occur during emergencies (e.g., infection, starvation, dehydration, or shock), when the brain must respond to a substantial challenge to homeostasis by mobilizing the HPA axis. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Rat Strain andHousing Conditions Alter Oxidative Stress and Hormone Responses to ChronicIntermittent Hypoxia. (biovendor.com)
  • The stress hormone increases recruit multiple tissue systems to coordinate appropriate responses to external and internal threats. (sciencemag.org)
  • Classical neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have provided numerous insights into CRHNs and stress hormone responses to diverse stimuli ( 1 - 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The information obtained would lay a foundation for the molecular interrogation of the upstream circuits for the stress responses in which they are involved and provide tools with which to dissect their functions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Immunoreactive corticosterone and corticosterone metabolites (ICCM) were quantified in excreta of permanently single housed (n=10) and permanently pair housed (n=20) roosters. (diva-portal.org)
  • The combination of these two factor led to adrenal enlargement (43.3%), thymus involution (39.5%) and increased basal corticosterone levels, all indices of activation of the hypothalamic-hypophysis-adrenal axis. (epfl.ch)
  • Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic restraint and variable stresses, promote higher corticosterone levels in response to a novel environment, but not to a challenge restraint stress, as compared to the control (non-stressed) group. (unesp.br)
  • They had higher tissue noradrenaline and serotonin levels and lower dopamine and serotonin turnover under basal conditions, although they were largely insensitive to stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • Neither dose of corticosterone affected the length of basal dendrites or spine density. (uva.nl)
  • This alteration was accompanied by the increase of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, nitrite, and protein carbonyl) and the decrease in nonprotein thiols level, besides impairmentin the hippocampus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • We pointed out the main factors increasing corticosterone levels in voles and features of the studied species that may determine the differences in their reaction including: the width of the ecological niche, spatial mobility, and predation pressure. (wind-watch.org)
  • WT and HP parrots showed lower corticosterone levels than FPP parrots. (peerj.com)
  • Some birds however have adapted to suppress this emergency response, keeping lower corticosterone levels in the face of environmental threats. (asknature.org)
  • Yasmin F, Saxena K, McEwen BS, Chattarji S. The delayed strengthening of synaptic connectivity in the amygdala depends on NMDA receptor activation during acute stress. (nature.com)
  • Chakraborty P, Chattarji S. Interventions after acute stress prevent its delayed effects on the amygdala. (nature.com)
  • The oxidative stress paradigms used in in vivo models were acute stress (AS) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). (ijp-online.com)
  • Although corticosterone levels rise also during acute stress, the latter likely triggers a spatiotemporally more complex biological response with multiple positive and negative modulators which may not be adequately modeled by exogenous administration of corticosterone alone. (uu.nl)
  • Acute stress resulting from capture and restraint for 30. (elsevier.com)
  • Plasma uric acid and glucose decreased during acute stress, but only plasma uric acid decreased during social challenge. (elsevier.com)
  • They provide novel information on the endocrine effects of acute stress, in particular on plasma T, in free-ranging birds, and are among the first in these birds to link these effects to metabolic changes. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, the dopaminergic system was activated differentially in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum of the two strains by acute stress. (elsevier.com)
  • Acute stress triggers an intense physiological response and cements an association in the brain's circuits between the event and fear. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Staining with Isolectin B4 revealed numerous microglial cells throughout the hippocampal parenchyma at 12 hours post treatment, and an attenuation in the quantity of microglia by corticosterone pretreatment. (cdc.gov)
  • In this context the hippocampal formation is of particular interest, because it is affected by stress on the structural and cognitive level. (ovid.com)
  • To address the question whether corticosterone mediates the stress-induced up-regulation of reelin gene expression, we used age-matched hippocampal slice cultures derived from male and female mouse pups. (ovid.com)
  • Therefore, suppression of neurogenesis during adolescence, when it is more robust than in adulthood, may have greater consequence for hippocampal function in encoding stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of a 30% ethanol extract of Aquilariae Lignum (ALE) in repeated stress-induced hippocampal oxidative injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Restraint stress considerably increased the serum levels of corticosterone and adrenaline and the hippocampal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The anti-oxidative stress effects of ALE were supported by the results of antioxidant components, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NFE2L2 (Nrf2) in the hippocampal tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We firstly demonstrated the neuroprotective potentials of A. Lignum against hippocampal oxidative injury in repeated restraint stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both treatments also exerted antioxidant property in the mice's brain, reducing the amount of oxidative stress and abolishing the corticosterone-induced damage in the hippocampal slices. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Although prolonged stress and corticosteroid exposure induce morphological changes in the hippocampal CA3 area, the adult CA1 area is quite resistant to such changes. (uva.nl)
  • These findings suggest that it is relevant to maintain plasma corticosterone levels low during hippocampal development. (uva.nl)
  • Chronic corticosterone treatment (14 days) did not alter the α2-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of [3H]NA release from dorsal hippocampal slices. (sun.ac.za)
  • Alcohol withdrawal induces long-lasting spatial working memory impairments: relationship with changes in corticosterone response in the prefrontal cortex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we examine electrophysiological changes in two novel non-auditory areas implicated in tinnitus and hyperacusis: the caudal pontine reticular nucleus (PnC), involved in arousal, and the paraflocculus lobe of the cerebellum (PFL), implicated in head-eye coordination and gating tinnitus and we measure the changes in corticosterone stress hormone levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Dietary restriction causes chronic elevation of corticosterone and enhances stress response in red-legged kittiwake chicks. (biovendor.com)
  • In contrast, no stress-induced alterations of reelin mRNA expression were found in female animals. (ovid.com)
  • These results suggest that RCI-induced alterations of corticosterone, CRP, C3, IgM, and PGE 2 cause homeostatic imbalance and may contribute to reduced survival. (hindawi.com)
  • Consequently, conditional CRH knockout animals exhibited no alterations in circadian and stress-induced corticosterone release compared to controls. (frontiersin.org)
  • HS-induced alterations of the gastrointestinal epithelium, which is associated with a leaky gut, are due to cellular oxidative stress, disruption of intestinal integrity, and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. (mdpi.com)
  • Conversely, the treatment with M. nigra leaves extract (10 mg/kg), syringic acid (1 mg/kg), or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), administered once a day for the last 7 days of the corticosterone treatment, was able to abolish the behavioral alterations elicited by corticosterone, reinforcing evidence of the M. nigra leaves extract and syringic acid having antidepressant-like effect. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Alterations to this rhythm - commonly brought on by disease and age - have been found to diminish a person's ability to respond to or cope with stress. (psychcentral.com)
  • Findings revealed that alterations in the production and release of the corticosterone hormone decreased a rat's ability to deal effectively with stress . (psychcentral.com)
  • Vazquez-Palacios G, Retana-Marquez S, Bonilla-Jaime H, Velazquez-Moctezuma J. Further definition of the effect of corticosterone on the sleep-wake pattern in the male rat. (biovendor.com)
  • Corticosterone mediates stress-related increased intestinal permeability in a region-specific manner. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chattarji AS, Tomar A, Suvrathan A, Ghosh S. Neighborhood matters: divergent patterns of stress - induced plasticity across the brain Affiliations. (nature.com)
  • We evaluated the consequences of kainate treatment on the blood-brain barrier and microglial activation, and the ability of high levels of corticosterone to modulate pathology. (cdc.gov)
  • Plasma corticosterone and monoamines-5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) in cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus regions of brain were determined in animals under different stressful conditions. (ijp-online.com)
  • Subjecting the animals to AS (immobilization for 150 min once only) resulted in significant elevation of plasma corticosterone levels and brain monoamine levels. (ijp-online.com)
  • Pretreatment with MC (200 and 400 mg/kg) attenuated the CUS-induced changes in the levels of above monoamines in cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus regions of brain and plasma corticosterone in a dose-dependent manner. (ijp-online.com)
  • Stress can also be considered a brain-body reaction due to external or internal cues this can include the environment as well as memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stress begins in the brain with the perception and interpretation of the stressful event and affects the brain itself as well as the rest of the body through plastic changes, leading to adaptation. (hindawi.com)
  • A growing body of evidence shows that chronic stress decreases the expression of BDNF contributing to neuronal atrophy in the hippocampus and that antidepressant treatment reverses or blocks these effects, restoring brain plasticity [ 8 , 9 , 15 , 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Chronic stress contributes to the development of brain disorders, such as neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Deep brain stimulation of the amygdala alleviates post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a rat model. (ac.ir)
  • Wang L, Wang WY, Zhao M, Ma L, Li M (2008) Psychological stress induces dysregulation of iron metabolism in rat brain. (springer.com)
  • Yu SY, Feng Y, Shen ZL, Li M (2011) Diet supplementation with iron augments brain oxidative stress status in a rat model of psychological stress. (springer.com)
  • Conventional wisdom says too much stress is a dangerous thing, weakening the heart, immune system, and perhaps the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • Overall, the evidence is accumulating that chronic adverse stress is bad for the brain during aging," said Mark Mattson at the National Institute on Aging in Baltimore, Maryland. (alzforum.org)
  • Scientists already knew that a negative feedback loop in the brain usually responds to increased corticosterone by turning off the adrenals. (newscientist.com)
  • These findings indicate that Shuyusan-containing serum appears to protect SH-SY5Y cells against corticosterone-induced impairment by adjusting the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. (medindia.net)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that tinnitus and hyperacusis are linked to excessive neural activity in a distributed brain network that not only includes the central auditory pathway, but also brain regions involved in arousal, emotion, stress and motor control. (cdc.gov)
  • This increased stress response has the potential to have wideranging effects on the central nervous system and may therefore contribute to brain-wide changes in neural activity. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate possible membrane and genomic effects of corticosterone on the noradrenergic system of the rat brain. (sun.ac.za)
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the brain to stress remain primarily unknown, however. (jneurosci.org)
  • For instance, stress is thought to downregulate the expression in the hippocampus of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the growth and development of immature neurons and enhances the survival of adult neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the brain to stress as well as the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders remain unclear. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, FS stress induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα by SFKs in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • The result was in contrast to that of wild type mouse which demonstrated significant stress-induced microglial activation in the brain. (nii.ac.jp)
  • To search for novel compounds that will protect neuronal cells under stressed conditions that may help to restore neuronal plasticity. (nih.gov)
  • Adolescence is a sensitive period in development where emotional circuitry and stress reactivity undergo plasticity establishing life-long set points. (frontiersin.org)
  • These data show a fine modulation of the crosstalk between central and peripheral pathways of adaptation and plasticity and suggest that the length of stress exposure is crucial to determine its final outcome on health or disease. (hindawi.com)
  • Dysregulation of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system has been implicated in stress-related psychopathologies such as depression and anxiety. (frontiersin.org)
  • The primary components of the stress system are corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), also known as corticotropin-releasing factor, locus coeruleus-norepinephrine-autonomic systems and their peripheral effectors, the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the limbs of the autonomic system ( 1 - 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Since most of corticosterone in blood is bound to a plasma protein called corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG), the determination of blood corticosterone with presently available commercial assay kits requires an initial extraction procedure. (biovendor.com)
  • In conclusion, the present results provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects the organism physiology and point to the importance of the chronic paradigm and challenge stress on the behavioral and hormonal adaptations induced by chronic stress. (unesp.br)
  • These data may serve as a useful animal model for better understanding the increased vulnerability to stress reported in individuals carrying the 5-HTTLPR S allele, and suggest that social avoidance represents a behavioral endophenotype of the interaction between 5-HTT and stress. (biologists.org)
  • Psychic numbing has been associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) because they share the same attributes of withdrawal and behavioral changes when presented with a stimuli that triggers a reminder of the traumatic event or with a very intense neutral stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the present study was to compare the fecal corticosterone levels of companion African grey parrots kept as wild-type parrots (WT), healthy pet parrots (HP) and feather picking pet parrots (FPP) during the breeding season and out of the breeding season. (peerj.com)
  • A statistical trend between fecal corticosterone concentration in the different seasons for the WT parrots (P=0.085) was observed, but not for the other groups. (peerj.com)
  • Corticosterone is also being studied in different fields such as impairment of long-term memory retrieval, chronic corticosterone elevation due to dietary restrictions and response to burn injuries etc. (biovendor.com)
  • Stress effects on neuronal structure: hippocampus, amygdala and prefrontal cortex. (nature.com)
  • Since little is known how early life stress is translated on the molecular level, we mimicked early life stress in mouse models and analyzed the expression of the glycoprotein Reelin, a master molecule for development and differentiation of the hippocampus. (ovid.com)
  • In the hippocampus, the extract increased superoxide dismutase activity and reversed the increase in catalase activity elicited by corticosterone. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the treatments protected the hippocampus against the damage induced by the association between corticosterone administration and glutamate excess. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Corticosterone also did not appear to have a direct membrane effect on the NA terminals in the dorsal hippocampus of the rat. (sun.ac.za)
  • For the analysis of corticosterone concentrations in the faeces, we used ELISA tests with antibodies for this hormone. (wind-watch.org)
  • 5 mg/kg) and the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam (1 mg/kg) attenuated mild stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations via GABAergic mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
  • Since cortisol is found in much higher concentrations than corticosterone, it has received greater attention as an indicator of stress in both mothers and newborns. (medindia.net)
  • As fetal stress increased, so did corticosterone concentrations. (medindia.net)
  • Corticosterone concentrations varied according to the delivery - compared to infants delivered by Caesarian section, vaginally delivered infants synthesized greater concentrations of corticosterone. (medindia.net)
  • When Caesarian delivery occurred because the baby's head was too large to pass through the birth canal, which was expected to be a stressor on the baby, the highest corticosterone concentrations were seen. (medindia.net)
  • Meanwhile, intervention to strengthen maternal contractions did not increase corticosterone concentrations. (medindia.net)
  • Chemogenetic activation of POMC neurons induced a stress hormone response, mimicking a stressor. (sciencemag.org)
  • These findings indicate that POMC neurons involved in appetite suppression also play a major role in the stress hormone response to a specific type of psychological stressor. (sciencemag.org)
  • Grundmann O, Lv Y, Kelber O, Butterweck V (2010) Mechanism of St. John's wort extract (STW3-VI) during chronic restraint stress is mediated by the interrelationship of the immune, oxidative defense, and neuroendocrine system. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of corticosterone in the effects of restraint Stress on the response to psychostimulants and opioids. (uniroma1.it)
  • Chronic exposure to psychological stress in humans and restraint stress in experimental animals results in increased oxidative stress and resultant tissue damage. (bvsalud.org)
  • In double knockout mouse that specifically lacks AR beta1 and beta2, microglial activation was not induced by exposure of restraint stress. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Corticosterone is the rat hormone equivalent of cortisol in humans. (psychcentral.com)
  • A buildup in the precursors used to form corticosterone increases salt retention, leading to hypertension in individuals with the classic form of CAH due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The use of fear conditioning in our protocol and the demonstration that it increases corticosterone after 30 min must be highlighted as a possible interacting parameter. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • At weaning, we monitored body weight, corticosterone plasma levels (enzyme immunoassay), in vivo intestinal to colon permeability (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa) and fecal microbiota (DNA extraction and amplification of the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene). (jnmjournal.org)
  • Fig. 3: Post-stress corticosterone prevents the delayed increase in spine-density in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). (nature.com)
  • Fig. 4: Post-stress corticosterone treatment leads to a reduction in stress-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels. (nature.com)
  • We studied two rodent species of the agricultural landscape (the common vole Microtus arvalis and the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius ) and tested the hypothesis that living in habitats affected by wind turbines results in an increase in corticosterone levels. (wind-watch.org)
  • In addition, corticosterone may increase the permeability of intestinal mucosa into pathogenic antigens by inducing the production of the pro-inflammatory agent. (ac.ir)
  • Results showed that corticosterone increase was found only in groups 2 and 6, and no effect on IL-1ß, IL-6 or GFAP was obtained. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Does stress increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, or worsen dementia? (alzforum.org)
  • Although stress has been linked to decreased sex drive, delayed pregnancy and an increase in miscarriages, this is the first time the molecular basis for the links has been explored. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, exposure to stress can precipitate relapse or increase alcohol use (Sinha 2007). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Corticosterone can be used as a non-invasive biomarker of stress study through the collection of urine and feces to avoid corticosterone increase of blood levels which is caused by normal invasive methods. (biovendor.com)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that salicylate results in an increase in corticosterone level in a dose-dependent manner consistent with the notion that stress may interact with hearing loss in tinnitus and hyperacusis development. (cdc.gov)
  • When these birds experience environmental stress, their emergency response functions as expected-corticosterone levels increase and interrupt the normal hormonal changes that transition them through various reproductive stages. (asknature.org)
  • To investigate potential tradeoffs caused by brief, moderate elevations of corticosterone in avian young, we artificially elevated the hormone levels in two ways: feeding corticosterone-containing worms and applying corticosterone dermal patches. (biologists.org)
  • the dominant avian stress hormone) during the nestling period and measured their adult reproductive success using common garden breeding experiments. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • One answer may relate to a heightened physiological stress response associated with the short-term battlefield environment. (cdc.gov)
  • These data suggest that, although the vasopressin V1bR is not required for normal HNS function, it is necessary for a full HPA-axis response to the osmotic stress of WD. (nih.gov)
  • As such, research into both the physiological consequences of stress and the evolutionary constraints imposed by the response to stress have recently become significant areas of research. (biologists.org)
  • Although the stress response is an adaptive method of dealing with potentially damaging environmental events or conditions ( Silverin, 1998 ), chronically high blood plasma levels of corticosteroids can have deleterious effects on several components of an individual's fitness. (biologists.org)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP) is a general stress-response protein, which is produced in response to inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. (unesp.br)
  • The common vole showed a distinct physiological response − the individuals living near the wind turbines had a higher level of corticosterone. (wind-watch.org)
  • The connection between central stress response pathways and peripheral targets involves the alteration of a number of neurochemical and/or inflammatory factors that ultimately affect neuronal functioning and/or survival [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Stress is defined in the literature as any non-specific response of the biological system that menaces its homeostasis ( Virden and Kidd, 2009 ). (ac.ir)
  • plasma corticosterone response to LPS administration or acute cold-swimming stress showed diurnal changes, with the lowest values at 18.00 h, which was independent of the oestrous cycle. (unict.it)
  • First, the basics: The body's response to stress is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis . (alzforum.org)
  • The takeoff point for researchers' interest in stress and AD is the observation that the short-term stress response is healthy and adaptive, but the effects of long-term, chronic stress may be a different story. (alzforum.org)
  • It is an adaptive response mediated by the stress system, which includes the central nervous system and peripheral components in various physiological and pathological states. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • CRH serves a crucial function in the activation of the stress response. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Recently, medical practitioners have shown interest in the use of Chinese medicines for the treatment of diseases and in the adjustment of the human response to stress. (medindia.net)
  • Specifically, cortisol is needed for activation of proteins that aid in an appropriate and healthy response to stress in humans. (psychcentral.com)
  • It is also secreted in higher levels during the body's 'fight or flight' response to stress. (psychcentral.com)
  • Moreover, their silencing markedly reduced the stress hormone response to physical restraint, but not predator odor. (sciencemag.org)
  • In the face of environmental stress, birds with fewer chances to breed suppress their stress response, keeping their focus on reproduction instead of survival. (asknature.org)
  • An anticipatory boost of corticosterone may prep the vole for the flight or fight response. (upi.com)
  • Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the plasma levels of melatonin and corticosterone. (nel.edu)
  • Most RIAs or EIAs require solvent extraction techniques to measure serum or plasma corticosterone levels, however extraction may be very difficult or impossible with mouse samples due to the large volumes of plasma or serum required for most extraction protocols. (being-bioreactive.com)
  • Some kits allow the quantification of corticosterone from as little as 1 ul serum / plasma. (being-bioreactive.com)
  • The principle of these kits is that serum or plasma samples are treated with an equal volume of a special Dissociation Reagent that liberates the corticosterone from any binding proteins. (being-bioreactive.com)
  • The 5-HTT genotype did not affect the physiological consequences of stress as measured by changes in body temperature, body weight gain and plasma corticosterone. (biologists.org)
  • The implanted pellets (50 mg) slowly release corticosterone producing a stable plasma level within the normal physiological range over a period of 20 days. (uniroma1.it)
  • Stress-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and central monoamine levels were examined in mouse strains that differ in fear-related behaviors. (elsevier.com)
  • Severe stress induces changes in neuronal function that are implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression. (jneurosci.org)
  • Chronic or acute exposure to severe stress, however, often results in long-term neuronal changes that are implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression. (jneurosci.org)
  • SIRPα was also found to regulate the FS stress-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of other neuronal proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • The animals received saline or corticosterone (21 days) and, in the last 7 days, they were treated with the extract (50, 125, 200 or 250 mg/Kg) or vehicle. (springer.com)
  • Exposure of the rat strains to stress induced a significant elevation in serum corticosterone levels but did not facilitate LTD expression. (pnas.org)
  • This is the first study suggesting impact of wind farms on physiological stress reactions in wild rodent populations. (wind-watch.org)
  • Furthermore, conditions mimicking the physiological stress experienced during the war can exacerbate this effect. (cdc.gov)
  • Strikingly, although the immobilization-induced surge in corticosterone by itself has delayed detrimental effects on amygdalar structure and function, there exists a window of opportunity even after stress to mitigate its impact with a second surge of exogenously administered corticosterone. (nature.com)
  • The interactions of chronic stress and chemical intoxication, and subsequent effects on neuroanatomy and physiology are complicated, and though many literature reports describe exacerbation of neurotoxicity by stress, our data suggest steroid treatment can be protective. (cdc.gov)
  • We tested the effects of adrenalectomy, chronic exposure to the corticosterone synthesis inhibitor metyrapone (100 mg/kg, s.c., twice daily), acute exposure to metyrapone, acute intracerebroventricular injections of CRF (0.3 and 1.0 μg), and intracerebroventricular injections of the CRF antagonist α-helical CRF (3 and 10 μg). (jneurosci.org)
  • The effects of environmental stress on the physiology and behaviour of higher vertebrates has become an important avenue of research in recent years. (biologists.org)
  • Taken together, our data suggest a pronounced impact of endogenous prodynorphin-derived peptides on anxiety, but not stress coping ability and that these effects are mediated via kappa-opioid receptors. (nih.gov)
  • The extract increased the catalase and superoxide dismutase activities and reversed the effects of corticosterone. (springer.com)
  • As a general conclusion, it may be claimed that administration of B. subtilis- based probiotic alleviates certain negative effects of the stress induced by the corticosterone injection. (ac.ir)
  • Wei C, Zhou J, Huang X, Li M (2008) Effects of psychological stress on serum iron and erythropoiesis. (springer.com)
  • Messaoudi I, El-Heni J, Hammouda F, Saïd K, Kerkeni A (2009) Protective effects of selenium, zinc, or their combination on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat kidney. (springer.com)
  • Part 3 delves into recent work uncovering specific mechanisms and implicating particular receptors in good and bad effects of stress, as well as possible therapeutic approaches under consideration. (alzforum.org)
  • If, as seems likely from the French experiments, these effects can begin before birth, then the best start in life is a stress-free gestation. (newscientist.com)
  • Chinese researchers investigated the effect of glutamine and buteric acid and in India yeast was used to reduce heat stress effects. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • Chinese researchers investigated the effects of dietary glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid on performance, carcass characteristics and serum parameters in broilers under circular heat stress. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • An 35 days experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation (1 g/kg) of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ), yeast protein concentrate (YPC) and YPC-pellets on production performance of heat stressed broilers (Cobb 400, n = 128). (allaboutfeed.net)
  • There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we examine the effects of developmental stress on adult male reproductive investment and success in the zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effects, antioxidant effects, and neuroprotective effects of M. nigra leaves extract and syringic acid in an animal model of depression induced by corticosterone. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • It also discusses areas of intersection between stress and reward pathways, as these are likely important in mediating the deleterious effects of stress on substance abuse and addiction. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Higher levels of cortisol, which can be the result of chronic stress, have been shown to have negative effects on the body that can include impaired cognitive performance, blood sugar imbalances, increased blood pressure, suppressed thyroid function, decreased bone density and muscle tissue and lowered immunity. (psychcentral.com)
  • Future studies will be needed to better understand the effects of chronic stress. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms involved in the effect of stress on reinstatement of heroin-seeking are not understood, but it appears that the neurochemical events underlying reinstatement by footshock and heroin are not identical. (jneurosci.org)
  • Stress is a putative migraine trigger, but the pathogenic mechanisms involved are unknown. (uu.nl)
  • Identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying this gene-by-environment risk factor could help our understanding of the individual differences in resilience to stress. (biologists.org)
  • However, it is uncertain if stress somehow causes decline, and if it does, what the mechanisms might be. (alzforum.org)