An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A semi-synthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic that is used in the treatment of TUBERCULOSIS.
An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces spectabilis. It is active against gram-negative bacteria and used for the treatment of gonorrhea.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces fradiae. It is composed of neomycins A, B, and C. It acts by inhibiting translation during protein synthesis.
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.
A lesion in the skin and subcutaneous tissues due to infections by MYCOBACTERIUM ULCERANS. It was first reported in Uganda, Africa.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.
An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A component of NEOMYCIN that is produced by Streptomyces fradiae. On hydrolysis it yields neamine and neobiosamine B. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Enzymes of a subclass of TRANSFERASES that catalyze the transfer of an amidino group from donor to acceptor. EC 2.1.4.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Cyclic peptide antibiotic similar to VIOMYCIN. It is produced by Streptomyces capreolus.
A slow-growing mycobacterium that infects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, giving rise to indolent BURULI ULCER.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.

Efflux-mediated aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei. (1/1407)

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and polymyxins. We used Tn5-OT182 to mutagenize B. pseudomallei to identify the genes involved in aminoglycoside resistance. We report here on the identification of AmrAB-OprA, a multidrug efflux system in B. pseudomallei which is specific for both aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. We isolated two transposon mutants, RM101 and RM102, which had 8- to 128-fold increases in their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and clarithromycin but not to the lincosamide clindamycin. Sequencing of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions revealed a putative operon consisting of a resistance, nodulation, division-type transporter, a membrane fusion protein, an outer membrane protein, and a divergently transcribed regulatorprotein. Consistent with the presence of an efflux system, both mutants accumulated [3H] dihydro streptomycin, whereas the parent strain did not. We constructed an amr deletion strain, B. pseudomallei DD503, which was hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides and which was used successfully in allelic exchange experiments. These results suggest that an efflux system is a major contributor to the inherent high-level aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance found in B. pseudomallei.  (+info)

The effect of streptomycin, oxytetracycline, tilmicosin and phenylbutazone on spermatogenesis in bulls. (2/1407)

To determine whether declining semen quality associated with health problems may be due to certain antibiotic or anti-inflammatory treatments, semen was collected 3 times per week for up to 42 d from 6 normal bulls after treatment with oxytetracycline, tilmicosin, dihydrostreptomycin, or phenylbutazone. No adverse effects on semen quality were observed.  (+info)

Enterococcal endocarditis: duration and mode of treatment. (3/1407)

This report summarizes data on sixteen patients with enterococcal endocarditis treated with penicillin and streptomycin. The experience reported suggests that a four week period is adequate for routine therapy in these patients, as in other forms of streptococcal endocarditis. It provides an additional group of patients successfully treated with penicillin and streptomycin. Two relapses were encountered. One of these received inadequate daily doses of penicillin. The other patient was clearly a failure of penicillin and streptomycin, but the failure in this instance could not be attributed to foreshortened treatment (6 weeks) or to high level streptomycin resistance of the infecting strain of Enterococcus.  (+info)

A five-year assessment of controlled trials of in-patient and out-patient treatment and of plaster-of-Paris jackets for tuberculosis of the spine in children on standard chemotherapy. Studies in Masan and Pusan, Korea. Fifth report of the Medical Research Council Working Party on tuberculosis of the spine. (4/1407)

In two centres in Korea 350 patients with a diagnosis of tuberculosis of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine were allocated at random: in Masan to in-patient rest in bed (IP) for six months followed by out-patient treatment or to ambulatory out-patient treatment (OP) from the start; in Pusan to out-patient treatment with a plaster-of-Paris jacket (J) for nine months or to ambulatory treatment without any support (No J). All patients recieved chemotherapy with PAS with isoniazid for eighteen months, either supplemented with streptomycin for the first three months (SPH) or without this supplement (PH), by random allocation. The main analysis of this report concerns 299 patients (eighty-three IP, eighty-three OP, sixty-three J, seventy No J; 143 SPH, 156 PH). Pre-treatment factors were similar in both centres except that the patients in Pusan had, on average, less extensive lesions although in a greater proportion the disease was radiographically active. One patient (J/SPH) died with active spinal disease and three (all No J/SPH) with paraplegia. A fifth patient (IP/PH) who died from cardio respiratory failure also had pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-three patients required operation and/or additional chemotherapy for the spinal lesion. A sinus or clinically evident abscess was either present initially or developed during treatment in 41 per cent of patients. Residual lesions persisted in ten patients (four IP, two OP, one J, three No J; six SPH, four PH) at five years. Thirty-two patients had paraparesis on admission or developing later. Complete resolution occurred in twenty on the allocated regimen and in eight after operation or additional chemotherapy or both. Of the remaining four atients, all of whom had operation and additional chemotherapy, three died and one still had paraparesis at five years. Of 295 patients assessed at five years 89 per cent had a favourable status. The proportions of the patients responding favourably were similar in the IP (91 per cent) and OP (89 per cent) series, in the J (90 per cent) and No J (84 per cent) series and in the SPH (86 per cent) and PH (92 per cent) series.  (+info)

In vitro activities of antibiotics alone and in combination against Brucella melitensis at neutral and acidic pHs. (5/1407)

Brucellae survive acidic pHs in phagolysosomes. Azithromycin, streptomycin, and quinolones were active against Brucella melitensis at pH 7.0 but not at pH 5.0; rifampin and doxycycline retained activity at pH 5.0. Regardless of pH, azithromycin-rifampin and ofloxacin-rifampin showed less synergy than established streptomycin-doxycycline and rifampin-doxycycline combinations.  (+info)

Estimation of growth rates of Escherichia coli BJ4 in streptomycin-treated and previously germfree mice by in situ rRNA hybridization. (6/1407)

The growth physiology of Escherichia coli during colonization of the intestinal tract was studied with four animal models: the streptomycin-treated mouse carrying a reduced microflora, the monoassociated mouse with no other microflora than the introduced strain, the conventionalized streptomycin-treated mouse, and the conventionalized monoassociated mouse harboring a full microflora. A 23S rRNA fluorescent oligonucleotide probe was used for hybridization to whole E. coli cells fixed directly after being taken from the animals, and the respective growth rates of E. coli BJ4 in the four animal models were estimated by correlating the cellular concentrations of ribosomes with the growth rate of the strain. The growth rates thus estimated from the ribosomal content of E. coli BJ4 in vivo did not differ in the streptomycin-treated and the monoassociated mice. After conventionalization there was a slight decrease of the bacterial growth rates in both animal models.  (+info)

Alkalinization-induced K+ current of the mouse megakaryocyte. (7/1407)

We have recently found that mouse megakaryocytes responded to extracellular alkalinization to pH > 8.0, generating a K+ current under voltage-clamped conditions with the whole cell recording mode of the patch-clamp technique. The purpose of this study was to physiologically and pharmacologically characterize the alkaline-dependent K+ conductance of the megakaryocyte membrane. The alkalinization-induced K+ current (I(ALK)) did not seem to be Ca2+-dependent since I(ALK) was allowed to be generated under intracellularly Ca2+-buffered conditions with 10 mM EGTA, which completely prevented the generation of caffeine-induced Ca2+-activated currents of mouse megakaryocytes; and no [Ca2+]i elevation was evoked by the alkalinization protocol in contrast to a significant increase in [Ca2+]i in response to caffeine when [Ca2+]i was measured with a fura 2 ratiometry. I(ALK) was strongly suppressed with tetraethylammonium (TEA), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and streptomycin (SM), but was completely resistant to quinidine (QND). The values of IC50 for the suppression of I(ALK) with TEA, 4-AP and SM were 5.6, 0.47 and 1.5 mM, respectively. Voltage-gated K+ currents (I(K)) of the same megakaryocyte preparation were weakly suppressed with TEA and 4-AP, while they were significantly suppressed with either SM or QND. These results suggest that mouse megakaryocytes possess K+ conductance that was activated by extracellular alkalinization and that probably differs from conventional K+ conductance in its pharmacological properties.  (+info)

Frequency of F116-mediated transduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a freshwater environment. (8/1407)

Transduction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa streptomycin resistance by a generalized transducing phage, F116, was shown to occur during a 10-day incubation in a flow-through environmental test chamber suspended in a freshwater reservoir. Mean F116 transduction frequencies ranged from 1.4 X 10(-5) to 8.3 X 10(-2) transductants per recipient during the in situ incubation. These transduction frequencies were comparable to transduction frequencies determined in preliminary laboratory transduction experiments. The results demonstrate the potential for naturally occurring transduction in aquatic environments and concurrent environmental and ecological ramifications.  (+info)

The prevalence of selected tetracycline and streptomycin resistance genes and class 1 integrons in Enterobacteriaceae (n = 80) isolated from dairy farm soil and nondairy soils was evaluated. Among 56 bacteria isolated from dairy farm soils, 36 (64.3%) were resistant to tetracycline, and 17 (30.4%) were resistant to streptomycin. Lower frequencies of tetracycline (9 of 24 or 37.5%) and streptomycin (1 of 24 or 4.2%) resistance were observed in bacteria isolated from nondairy soils. Bacteria (n = 56) isolated from dairy farm soil had a higher frequency of tetracycline resistance genes including tetM (28.6%), tetA (21.4%), tetW (8.9%), tetB (5.4%), tetS (5.4%), tetG (3.6%), and tetO (1.8%). Among 24 bacteria isolated from nondairy soils, four isolates carried tetM, tetO, tetS, and tetW in different combinations; whereas tetA, tetB, and tetG were not detected. Similarly, a higher prevalence of streptomycin resistance genes including strA (12.5%), strB (12.5%), ant(3″) (12.5), aph(6)-1c (12.5%), ...
Supply Streptomycin Sulfate, Streptomycin Sulfate 10%WP, 20%WP for global agrochemical & pesticide importers. Fungicide Streptomycin sulfate 10 WP, Streptomycin sulfate 20 WP, Nanjing Essence Fine-chemical Co., Ltd., Chinas First Pesticide Formulator
Streptomycin Sulfate is a water-soluble antibacterial originally antiseptic from Streptomyces griseus. Streptomycin Sulfate acts by bounden to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome arch to inhibition of protein amalgam and afterlife in affected bacteria. Streptomycin Sulfate is awful alive adjoin gram-negative with some action adjoin gram-positive bacteria. Gibco® Streptomycin Sulfate is acclimated abandoned or…
Reprinted from BMJ 1948:ii:769-782). A MEDICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL INVESTIGATION LONDON SATURDAY OCTOBER 30 1948. The following gives the short-term results of a controlled investigation into the effects of streptomycin on one type of pulmonary tuberculosis. The inquiry was planned and directed by the Streptomycin in Tuberculosis Trials Committee, composed of the following members: Dr. Geoffrey Marshall (chairman), Professor J. W. S. Blacklock, Professor C. Cameron, Professor N. B. Capon, Dr. R. Cruickshank, Professor J. H. Gaddum, Dr. F. R. G. Heaf, Professor A. Bradford Hill, Dr. L. E. Houghton, Dr. J. Clifford Hoyle, Professor H. Raistrick, Dr. J. G. Scadding, Professor W. H. Tytler, Professor G. S. Wilson, and Dr. P. DArcy Hart (secretary). The centres at which the work was carried out and the specialists in charge of patients and pathological work were as follows:. Brompton Hospital, London.-Clinician: Dr. J. W. Crofton, Streptomycin Registrar (working under the direction of the honorary ...
Gibco™ Penicillin-Streptomycin (10,000 U/mL) 20 x 100mL Gibco™ Penicillin-Streptomycin (10,000 U/mL) Antibiotics
Penicillin-Streptomycin Solution, 50X - Size: 6 x 100 mL 5,000 I.U. Penicillin (per mL) 5,000 µg/mL Streptomycin Technical Advantage: Effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria This product is a mix of the antibiotics Penicillin (5,000 IU) and Streptomycin (5,000 µg/mL) in a 50-fold working concentration. Penicillin (Penicillin G) works by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis, while Streptomycin
IDENTIFICATION AND USE: streptomycin is an antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis. Streptomycin is an Aminoglycoside Antibacterial and Antimycobacterial. The chemical classification of streptomycin is Aminoglycosides.. Streptomycin is a broad-spectrum aminoglycoside antibiotic typically used for treatment of active tuberculosis, always in combination with other antituberculosis agents. Streptomycin is usually used in combination with agents that are known to be hepatotoxic and the role of streptomycin in liver injury has been difficult to assess, but most information suggests that streptomycin is not hepatotoxic.. HUMAN EXPOSURE/TOXICITY: intravenous and intramuscular therapy with streptomycin has been linked to mild and asymptomatic elevations in serum alkaline phosphatase, but therapy rarely affects aminotransferase levels or bilirubin and changes typically resolve rapidly once ...
A rising isolation trend of drug-resistant M. bovis from human clinical cases is documented in the literature. Here we assessed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from cattle for drug susceptibility by the gold standard agar proportion method and a simplified resazurin microtitre assay (d-REMA). A total of 38 M. tuberculosis complex strains, including M. bovis (n = 36) and M. caprae (n = 2) isolates, from cattle in Tunisia were tested against isoniazid, rifampin, streptomycin, ethambutol, kanamycin and pyrazinamide. M. caprae isolates were found to be susceptible to all test drugs. All M. bovis strains were resistant to pyrazinamide, as expected. In addition, one M. bovis isolate showed high-level resistance to streptomycin (MIC | 500.0 μg/ml). Concordant results with the two methods were found. The most common target genes associated with streptomycin resistance, namely the rrs, rpsL and gidB genes, were DNA sequenced. A non-synonymous mutation at codon 43 (K43R) was found in the rpsL gene.
Bertani, Giuseppe (1951) A method for detection of mutations, using streptomycin dependence in Escherichia coli. Genetics, 36 (6). p. 598. ...
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis pandemic is a major health problem, further complicated by an increasing incidence of drug-resistant isolates and the existence of highly transmissible strains, such as those in the Beijing family. Streptomycin (STR)-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates have been analyzed to look for mutations in the rpsL, rrs, and gidB genes. In addition, the Rv1258c gene, which encodes Tap, an efflux pump that transports STR, has been sequenced. Mutations affecting codons 43 and 88 of the rpsL gene were found in 44.4% of the strains, and 16.7% of the strains carried mutations in the rrs gene, both of which probably contribute to STR resistance. Many strains presented with mutations in the gidB gene, but the implication of those mutations in STR resistance remains unclear. Interestingly, a cytosine nucleotide insertion between positions 580 and 581 (denominated Tap580) in the Rv1258c gene has been found in all Beijing isolates included in this study, suggesting that it might be a
Penicillin-Streptomycin (100×),Cell Culture,Cell Culture and Detection,Products,Beijing TransGen Biotech Co.Ltd,OverviewContents& storageCitations & referencesRelated ImagesDownloadOverviewDescriptionPenicillin-Streptomycin (100×) contains
Top Quality 99% Streptomycin Sulphate CAS : 3810-74-0 Streptomycin Sulphate Product Name: Streptomycin Sulphate (Sterile and injection grade) Streptomycin Sulphate Purity: 99% Streptomycin Sulphate CAS No.: 3810-74-0 Streptomycin Sulphate EINECS...
|p||strong|Technical Advantage:|/strong|  Effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria|br /| This product is a mix of the antibiotics Penicillin (10,000 IU) and Streptomycin (10,000 µg/ml) in a 100-fold working concentration. Penicillin (Penicillin G) works by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis, while Streptomycin inhibits protein synthesis.  Penicillin-Streptomycin is effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.|br /| -  Complete Certificate of Analysis available for each production lot, along with full formulation information|br /| -  Produced under the highest industry standards to ensure superior results|/p|
|p||strong|Technical Advantage: |/strong| Effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria|br /| This product is a mix of the antibiotics Penicillin (5,000 IU) and Streptomycin (5,000 µg/mL) in a 50-fold working concentration.  Penicillin (Penicillin G) works by inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis, while Streptomycin inhibits protein synthesis.  Penicillin-Streptomycin is effective against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.  This antibiotic is recommended for use in cell culture media at 20 ml/L.|br /| -  Complete Certificate of Analysis available for each production lot, along with full formulation information|br /| -  Produced under the highest industry standards to ensure superior results|/p|
[65 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Streptomycin sulfate Global Market and Forecast Research report by ChemReport. DescriptionWe provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production...
The substitution of codon 43 in the gene rpsL is the single most common mutation found in streptomycin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The characterization of this mutation has been hampered by the need for prior cultivation of the mycobacteria, the need for DNA sequencing, or both. In this report we describe a simple and culture-independent technique to detect this mutation directly from sputum samples, requiring little more than a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) machine and a simple agarose minigel. There is no need for labeled probes or DNA sequencing. In a preliminary test of feasibility, interpretable results were obtained from all of 16 smear-positive and 1 of 4 smear-negative, culture-positive samples. Two of two samples containing M. tuberculosis with rpsL codon 43 mutations were correctly identified.
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In the course of a study of streptomycin therapy of infectious diseases conducted at the Vanderbilt University Hospital and other hospitals in Nashville, the striking results which were obtained in the treatment of tularemia focused attention on this disease. These results were so impressive as to justify the conclusion that streptomycin treatment of tularemia is curative, in the strict sense of the word. The high incidence of tularemic pneumonia and the number of occasions in which the source of the infection was obscure and the diagnosis in doubt, suggested that this form of pneumonia is much more prevalent in this ...
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In the recently published report, SNR Research has provided a unique insight into the Global Penicillin/Streptomycin Market for the forecasted period of 6-years (2019-2025). The report has covered the significant aspects that are contributing to the growth of the Global Penicillin/Streptomycin Market. The primary objective of this report is to highlight the various key market dynamics such as drivers, trends, and restraints that are impacting the Global Penicillin/Streptomycin Market market. This report has provided an indication to the readers about Penicillin/Streptomycin markets current status.. The report is a compilation of first-hand information, qualitative and quantitative assessment by industry analysts, inputs from industry experts and industry participants across the value chain. The report provides in-depth analysis of parent market trends, macro-economic indicators and governing factors along with market attractiveness as per segments. The report also maps the qualitative impact of ...
Check the compatibility of Breastfeeding with Streptomycin. Streptomycin and breastfeeding. Do we have alternatives for Streptomycin?
The antibiotic streptomycin inhibits initiation and causes misreading of mRNA in prokaryotes (bacteria). Very effective against Mycobacterium tuberculos...
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There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead) to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM) on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control) of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant
Streptomycin, antibiotic synthesized by the soil organism Streptomyces griseus. Streptomycin was discovered by American biochemists Selman Waksman, Albert Schatz, and Elizabeth Bugie in 1943. The drug acts by interfering with the ability of a microorganism to synthesize certain vital proteins. It
Penicillin and Streptomycin Markets in Africa to 2021 - Market Size, Development, and Forecasts Penicillin and Streptomycin Markets in Africa to 2021 - Market Size, - Market research report and industry analysis - 11057581
A new business intelligence report released by Contrive Datum Insights with the title Global Penicillin and Streptomycin Market 2020 by Manufacturers, Type and Application, forecast to 2027 is designed with an objective to provide a micro-level analysis of the market. The report offers a comprehensive study of the current state expected at the major drivers, market strategies, and key vendors growth. The report presents energetic visions to conclude and study the market size, market hopes, and competitive surroundings. The research also focuses on the important achievements of the market, Research & Development, and regional growth of the leading competitors operating in the market. The current trends of the global Penicillin and Streptomycin market in conjunction with the geographical landscape of this vertical have also been included in this report ...
The industry report Penicillin and Streptomycin Market in Australia to 2019 - Market Size, Development, and Forecasts offers the most up-to-date market data on the actual market situation, and future outlook for penicillins and streptomycins in Australia. The research includes historic market data from 2008 to 2014 and forecasts until 2019 which makes the report an invaluable resource for industry executives, marketing, sales and product managers, analysts, and other people looking for key industry data in readily accessible and clearly presented tables and graphs ...
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Cell culture. Cerebellar granule neurons were isolated from the cerebella of 8-d-old Sprague Dawley rats (supplied by the Biological Services Unit, University College London) as described by Taylor et al. (1997). The neurons were separated from non-neuronal cells by centrifugation at 1200 × g for 20 min through 40.5% Percoll (Sigma, Poole, UK) and were plated in basal medium Eagle (BME; Life Technologies, Paisley, UK) supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (Globepharm, Esher, UK), 25 mm KCl, 35 mmglucose, and penicillin/streptomycin on polyornithine-coated dishes or glass coverslips. Cells were plated at a density of 5.6 × 105/cm2. Approximately 24 hr after plating, cytosine arabinofuranoside (Sigma) was added to the culture medium to a final concentration of 10 μm to prevent the proliferation of any non-neuronal cells. Using this protocol 95-99% of the cultured cells were neurons (Hatten, 1985; Gao et al., 1991). Apoptosis was induced by reducing the extracellular potassium concentration ...
In this lab simulation students conduct a modified Ames Test, which predicts carcinogenicity of chemicals. Students are provided with a virtual strain of Escherichia coli that is sensitive to (killed by) the antibiotic streptomycin, several virtual chemicals to test for mutagenicity, and two types of media (nutrient Agar and nutrient Agar + Streptomycin). The simulation allows students to propose a hypothesis about the types of chemicals that are likely to be mutagens and design an experiment to test their hypothesis.. ...
Methods. Cell culture. ARPE19 and HUVE cell lines were purchased from the American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). Cell culture reagents, fetal bovine serum, and chemicals came from Invitrogen-Gibco (Rockville,MD), and containers from Corning Glass (Acton, MA).. Human ARPE19 cells were grown in 1:1 (vol/vol) mixture of Dulbeccos modified Eagles and Hams F12 medium (DF), containing 3 mM L-glutamine, 10% fetal bovine serum, and antibiotic mixtures of 100 U/ml penicillin G and 100 μg/ml streptomycin sulfate (Invitrogen-Gibco, Rockville, MD). HUVE cells were grown in F12K medium, containing 0.1 mg/ml heparin, 20% fetal bovine serum, 0.03 mg/ml endothelial cell growth supplement (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA), and antibiotic mixtures of 100 U/ml penicillin G and 100 μg/ml streptomycin sulfate. Both types of cells were seeded onto 100 mmx20 mm plates. The cultures were maintained in a humidified 5% CO2 environment at 37 °C. All the cells within the same passages were grown to 70% ...
Dear Friends, I have few questions about Agrobacterium. I would be grateful to you if you can quickly answer them. 1. Can EHA-105 grow on Streptomycin? If not, on repeated subculturing on streptomycin, can it overcome the antibiotic through mutations ? 2. How authentic is the Lactose test to confirm that a bacterium is Agrobacterium ? Are there any other confirmatory tests available? Regards, Sheshagiri, India _________________________________________________________________ How good are you in a Formula One car? Play now ...
The dielectrophoretic collection spectra of antibiotic-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis have been determined. These indicate that in the absence of antibiotic treatment there is a strong similarity between the dielectric properties of sensitive and resistant strains, and that there is a significant difference between the sensitive strains before and after treatment with the antibiotic streptomycin after 24 h exposure. This method offers possibilities for the assessment of bacterial resistance to antibiotics.. ...
Chemicals, enzymes, and reagents. Restriction and modification enzymes and ligase were from New England Biolabs (Beverly, MA). TripleMaster Taq DNA polymerase was from Brinkmann Eppendorf (Hamburg, Germany). The plasmid pCMV-hRL from Promega (Madison, WI) containing a human codon optimized version of Renilla luciferase, was used as the template for the amplification of reporter gene fragments. The rapamycin-dimerizing proteins FRB and FKBP12 were obtained from the constructs pcDNA-Nrluc-FRB and pcDNA-FKBP12-Crluc from our previous study ( 13). Rapamycin was from Sigma (St. Louis, MO). LipofectAMINE transfection reagent was from Invitrogen (Carlsbad, CA). The plasmid extraction kit and DNA gel extraction kit were from Qiagen (Valencia, CA). Coelenterazine was from Nanolight (Pinetop, AZ). Bacterial culture media were from BD Diagnostic Systems (Sparks, MD). All cell culture media, fetal bovine serum (FBS), the antibiotics streptomycin, and penicillin, were from Invitrogen. Oligonucleotides were ...
Although high-level resistance to streptomycin arises from mutations in a ribosomal protein, the source of low-level resistance to this antibiotic remained obscure for several decades. Now that mystery is solved, although it raises several others, according to Kenji Nishimura, Susumu Okamoto, and others who work with Kozo Ochi at the National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Japan. They report that low-level streptomycin resistance arises because of a mutation to a gene encoding a specific methyl transferase that, in turn, leaves a particular nucleotide unmethylated at the site along the ribosome called the 530 loop. In this unmethylated state, the ribosome remains capable of making proteins even in the presence of streptomycin, which ordinarily blocks protein synthesis.
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The industry report Penicillin and Streptomycin Market in Italy to 2022 - Market Size, Development, and Forecasts offers the most up-to-date market data on the actual ...
The industry report Penicillin and Streptomycin Market in Spain to 2022 - Market Size, Development, and Forecasts offers the most up-to-date market data on the actual ...
Question - Suffering with lung TB, given AKT-4 with streptomycin injection. Suggest?. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Isoniazid, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
We have studied the influence of streptomycin (Sm) on the kinetics and accuracy of translation by wild-type as well as Ram-mutant ribosomes in an in vitro system that mimics the performance characteristics of ribosomes in bacteria. It can be shown in this system that the accuracy of translation is m …
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Pharmaceutical Information » Question Category » Education & Reference » Pharmacology » Test microorganism used in the microbiological assay of Streptomycin ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Streptomycin. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
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The purpose of the experiment was to determine whether the bacteria, E.coli, that acquired resistance to the antibiotics, Streptomycin, over generations would maintain the bacterias antibiotic resistance or if the bacteria would revert back to its original state of susceptibility. Three sets of bacteria were tested over nine days. For the first four days, or generations, the bacterium was treated with the antibiotic. The next four days, the bacterium was not treated with antibiotics. On the ninth day, the bacterium was again treated with the antibiotic. The researchers conducted two 2-sample t-tests to compare the zones of inhibition, or areas of non-growth, of the first generation to the fourth generation, and the first generation to the ninth generation. The zone of inhibition decreased from the first generation to the ninth generation, signaling that Streptomycin resistance was successfully bred into the bacterium. The zone of inhibition from the first generation was very close in size to ...
streptomycin-dependent salmonella typhi containing o and h antigens was administered as a live oral antityphoid vaccine to chimpanzees. five animals served as controls; 5 others received the vaccine 4 times at 3-day intervals; 4 further animals were given 4 doses of vaccine at 3-day intervals together with streptomycin; and 1 animal received the 4 doses of vaccine and a daily dose of streptomycin. the individual vaccine doses varied between 36x10(9) and 82x10(9) organisms, totalling about 258x10 ...
The Janus cassette permits marker-free allelic replacement or knockout in streptomycin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) through sequential positive and negative selection. Spontaneous revertants of Janus can lead to high level of false-positives during negative selection, which necessitate a time-consuming post-selection screening process. We hypothesized that an additional counter-selectable marker in Janus would decrease the revertant frequency and reduce false-positives, since simultaneous reversion of both counter-selectable makers is much less likely. Here we report a modified cassette, Sweet Janus (SJ), in which the sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis conferring sucrose sensitivity is added to Janus. By using streptomycin and sucrose simultaneously as selective agents, the frequency of SJ double revertants was about 105-fold lower than the frequency of Janus revertants. Accordingly, the frequency of false-positives in the SJ-mediated negative selection was about 100-fold ...
Human HEK 293 or HEK 293T cells were maintained in DMEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 2 mM glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, and 100 g/ml streptomycin at 37°C in a CO2 atmosphere. Human MCF10A cells were cultured as described in Debnath et al. (2003). For 3D cell culture, 8-well μ-slides (Ibidi) were coated with growth factor reduced Matrigel (BD; diluted in serum-free medium to 2.5 mg/ml), and 20,000 cells were resuspended in 5 mg/ml Matrigel. For Caco-2 3D cell culture, µ-slides were coated with 100 µl of Matrigel. Approximately 50,000 Caco-2 cells were seeded in DMEM with 20% FCS and 2% Matrigel and maintained for 7 d. For long-term culturing of MCF10A cells, the 3-D Life Hydrogel system (Cellendes) was used. In short, chemically defined maleimide polymers were incubated with cross-linkers carrying thiol groups, which then polymerize into a gel-like network. Furthermore, RGD peptides were added that mimic components of the extracellular matrix. MCF10A cells (3,000 cells per 8 ...
Walker JB, Walker MS (1969). "Streptomycin biosynthesis. Transamination reactions involving inosamines and inosadiamines". ...
Walker JB (1971). "Enzymatic reactions involved in streptomycin biosynthesis and metabolism". Lloydia. 34 (4): 363-71. PMID ... Walker JB, Walker MS (1969). "Streptomycin biosynthesis. Transamination reactions involving inosamines and inosadiamines". ...
Walker MS, Walker JB (1971). "Streptomycin biosynthesis. Separation and substrate specificities of phosphatases acting on ... guanidinodeoxy-scyllo-inositol phosphate and streptomycin-(streptidino)phosphate". J. Biol. Chem. 246 (22): 7034-40. PMID ...
... (also known as penicillin-streptomycin) is a mixture of penicillin G and streptomycin that is widely used in ... Streptomycin is a broad spectrum antibiotic against Gram negative bacteria and is also relatively inexpensive, but can be ... Penicillin-Streptomycin Solution. TOKU-E. Retrieved 19 June 2018. Martinez-Liarte, Jose H; Solano, Francisco; Lozano, Jose A ( ... Penicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that is effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria, whereas streptomycin is an ...
Later, Alexander and Leidy studied the effect of antibiotics on Hib, finding streptomycin to be highly effective. The combined ... Alexander, Hattie E. (1946-08-01). "Streptomycin in pediatrics". The Journal of Pediatrics. 29 (2): 192-198. doi:10.1016/S0022- ... Alexander, HE; Leidy, G (1946), "Influence of Streptomycin on Type b Haemophilus influenzae.", Science (published Aug 2, 1946 ...
In the late 1940s he furthered the introduction and use of streptomycin for pulmonary tuberculosis. He was appointed chairman ... Rubie J, Marshall G (6 November 1948). "Streptomycin: Present Position". Br Med J. 2 (4583): 831-832. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4583. ...
Bugie was eventually awarded 0.2% of the royalties for streptomycin. After the discovery of streptomycin, Bugie worked on ... In 1944 Bugie, Waksman and Schatz identified streptomycin in cultures of soil organisms, an antibiotic which was found to be ... "Streptomycin - arrogance and anger". Pharmaceutical Journal. Retrieved 2018-08-16. "Their Dispute Over Discovery of ... "Elizabeth Bugie - the invisible woman in the discovery of streptomycin". Scientista , Women in STEM. Retrieved 2018-08-16. ...
UL was streptomycin resistant. The aerobiological stability of UL was a major concern, being sensitive to sunlight, and losing ... Gentamicin may be easier to obtain than streptomycin. There is also tentative evidence to support the use of quinolone ... Treatment is typically with the antibiotic streptomycin. Gentamicin, doxycycline, or ciprofloxacin may also be used. Between ... chloramphenicol or streptomycin. Long treatment courses may be necessary as relapses are common. Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, ...
Streptomycin followed by 10 months of Isoniazid and Ethambutol • No hepatotoxic drugs - 18-24 months of Streptomycin, ... In the US only, streptomycin is not considered a first line drug by ATS/IDSA/CDC because of high rates of resistance. The WHO ... streptomycin is SM or S. First-line anti-tuberculous drug names are often remembered with the mnemonic "RIPE," referring to the ... streptomycin is abbreviated STM. Other abbreviations have been widely used (for example, the notations RIF, RFP, and RMP have ...
... produces streptomycin, monazomycin. List of Streptomyces species LPSN Straininfo of ... "Streptomycin production by a new strain. Streptomyces mashuensis". The Journal of Antibiotics. 8 (2): 44-7. PMID 13242478. ed.- ... "Streptomycin production by a new strain. Streptomyces mashuensis". The Journal of Antibiotics. 8 (2): 44-7. PMID 13242478. ...
Wainwright, M. (1991). Streptomycin: discovery and resultant controversy. Journal of the History and Philosophy of the Life ... and streptomycin and on the hypothesis that bacteria and other non-virus microbes cause cancer. Wainwright identifies as an ...
... discovery of Streptomycin); Rosalind Franklin (DNA); Carl Djerassi (the pill); Stephen Jay Gould (Evolutionary biology); Baruch ...
Streptomycin in Tuberculosis Trials Committee (1948). "Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. A Medical Research ...
"Streptomycin in Non-tuberculous Infections". Br Med J. 2 (4576): 552-553. 18 September 1948. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4576.552. PMC ...
Streptomycin in Tuberculosis Trials Committee (1948). "Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. A Medical Research ... The first published RCT in medicine appeared in the 1948 paper entitled "Streptomycin treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis", ...
The 1952 prize was awarded solely to Selman Waksman "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against ... Milton Wainwright (2005). "A Response to William Kingston, "Streptomycin, Schatz versus Waksman, and the balance of credit for ... Steve Ainsworth (25 February 2006). "Streptomycin: arrogance and anger" (PDF). The Pharmaceutical Journal. 276: 237. Archived ...
Resistant to isoniazid and streptomycin. Differential characteristics Phylogenetic position between rapidly and slowly growing ...
Medical Research Council (October 1948). "STREPTOMYCIN treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis". British Medical Journal. 2 (4582 ...
Comroe JH Jr (1978). "Pay dirt: the story of streptomycin. Part I: from Waksman to Waksman". American Review of Respiratory ... With the discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis, in 1943, the lethal impact of the ... "Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the balance of credit for discovery". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied ...
Streptomycin is produced by Streptomyces griseus. Tetracycline is produced by Streptomyces aureofaciens Vancomycin is produced ... which can produce antibiotics including streptomycin and tetracycline. Microorganisms used in fermentation are rarely identical ...
This enzyme participates in streptomycin biosynthesis. As of late 2007, only one structure has been solved for this class of ... Walker MS, Walker JB (1966). "Enzymic studies on the biosynthesis of streptomycin, transamidation of inosamine and streptamine ...
Comroe, J. H. Jr (1978). "Pay dirt: the story of streptomycin. Part I: from Waksman to Waksman". American Review of Respiratory ... October 19 - The antibiotic streptomycin (the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis) is first isolated by Albert Schatz in ...
1943 Streptomycin Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, ... Streptomycin cannot be given orally as it must be administered by regular intramuscular injection. In 1943, Albert Schatz ... discovered Streptomycin. 1944 Americium Americium is a synthetic element that has the symbol Am and atomic number 95. A ...
... produces streptomycin II and carboxypeptidase. List of Streptomyces species LPSN ...
Streptomycin-induced chlorophyll-less races of Euglena. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 69, 279-282 Lwoff, A. (Ed.) 1951. ... With his colleague Luigi Provasoli he showed that photosynthetic organisms could be 'bleached' by the antibiotic streptomycin ...
Walker JB, Skorvaga M (1973). "Phosphorylation of streptomycin and dihydrostreptomycin by Streptomyces. Enzymatic synthesis of ...
In humans: Doxycycline Minocycline Aminoglycosides (except for streptomycin) Ampicillin Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (Augmentin ... streptomycin and oxytetracycline (in farm animals); penicillin and potentiated sulfonamides (in horses). Ory EM, Yow EM (July ...
Systemic streptomycin (1g/day) against Klebsiella organisms. Oral potassium iodide for liquefaction of secretion. Placental ...
Role of ribosomes in streptomycin activated suppression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 54: 1076-1083, 1965. Nirenberg, M.; Caskey ...
... produces streptomycin and endo-xylanase. List of Streptomyces species LPSN Straininfo of ...
Do not apply inoculum to seeds that are treated with a bactericide, such as streptomycin, unless you use a resistant strain of ...
1943 Streptomycin is Discovered. Related Posts. 1983 U.S led Invasion of Grenada. 25 October, 2020. 25 October, 2020. jobzz ...
  • medical citation needed] When purifying protein from a biological extract, streptomycin sulfate is sometimes added as a means of removing nucleic acids. (
  • Penicillin Streptomycin mixtures contain 5,000 units of penicillin (base) and 5,000 µg of streptomycin (base)/ml utilizing penicillin G (sodium salt) and streptomycin sulfate in 0.85% saline. (
  • A formulation for preparing Streptomycin Sulfate 400-mg/mL Injection. (
  • We provide independent and unbiased information on manufacturers, prices, production news and consumers for the global and regional (North America, Asia and Europe) market of Streptomycin sulfate. (
  • Seventy eight and twenty six μg of streptomycin per fruit and per leaf were recovered from apple tree just after spraying (200 μg streptomycin sulfate/ml). (
  • NDA 060107 describes STREPTOMYCIN SULFATE , which is a drug marketed by Copanos , Lilly , Pfizer , and X Gen Pharms , and is included in six NDAs. (
  • Additional details are available on the STREPTOMYCIN SULFATE profile page. (
  • The generic ingredient in STREPTOMYCIN SULFATE is streptomycin sulfate . (
  • Streptomycin , antibiotic synthesized by the soil organism Streptomyces griseus . (
  • Streptomycin is produced by Streptomyces griseus and contains three groups: N- methyl -L-2- glucosamine , a methyl pentose and an inositol derivative with two guanidyl residues (therefore I'm not even trying to draw it here). (
  • Albert Schatz first isolated streptomycin in 1943 from Streptomyces griseus. (
  • For example, streptomycin , which has been used to treat tuberculosis and plague, is produced by the bacterium Streptomyces griseus. (
  • Ed Yong, The Atlantic , "The Absurdity of the Nobel Prizes in Science," 3 Oct. 2017 Waksman was awarded a Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 1952 for his work in discovering Streptomyces grieses and creating streptomycin . (
  • Streptomycin is an aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseus. (
  • The production of streptomycin using Streptomyces griseus using two types of chitin as a substrate was studied using a variety of fermentation techniques. (
  • Streptomycin is naturally produced by the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus, and its activity is directed against gram-negative bacteria and the tubercle bacillus. (
  • Extracts of the bluensomycin producer Streptomyces hygroscopicus form glebosus ATCC 14607 (S. glebosus) were found to have aminodeoxy-scyllo-inositol kinase activity but to lack 1D-1-guanidino-3-amino-1,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inositol kinase activity, showing for the first time that these two reactions in streptomycin producers must be catalyzed by different enzymes. (
  • Actinomycetes were isolated from soybean rhizosphere soil collected at two field sites in Brazil, All the isolates were identified as Streptomyces species and were screened for streptomycin production and the presence of two genes, strA and strB1, known to be involved in streptomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces griseus. (
  • In previous work, we showed that S. coelicolor AtrA binds in vitro to the promoter of S. griseus strR , the streptomycin cluster-situated regulator. (
  • We show here that S. griseus carries a single close homologue of atrA and that expression of S. coelicolor AtrA in S. griseus causes a DNA binding-dependent reduction in streptomycin production and in the mRNA levels of strR and genes of streptomycin biosynthesis. (
  • Therefore, to our knowledge, our results provide the first in vivo evidence that A-factor-ArpA-AdpA-StrR regulatory cascade represents only part of the full complexity of regulation of streptomycin biosynthesis in S. griseus . (
  • Since 2014, Estonia Import of Penicillins or Streptomycins in Dosage Forms was down by 8% year on year. (
  • In 2019, the country was number 97 comparing other countries in Import of Penicillins or Streptomycins in Dosage Forms with $2,915,759.71. (
  • Since 2014, Malawi Import of Penicillins or Streptomycins in Dosage Forms rose 6.3% year on year. (
  • The industry report Penicillin and Streptomycin Market in Italy to 2022 - Market Size, Development, and Forecasts offers the most up-to-date market data on the actual market situation, and future outlook for penicillins and streptomycins in Italy. (
  • Because it was effective against a wide variety of diseases, streptomycin was used often, with the result that many initially sensitive microorganisms, including the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, became resistant to the antibiotic. (
  • Can be as effective as ethambutol when used in the initial phase of antituberculosis treatment and was previously included in recommendations for this treatment phase, but M. tuberculosis resistant to streptomycin has been reported with increasing frequency worldwide and the drug has become less useful. (
  • She was diagnosed with tuberculosis during her imprisonment and was able to receive the life-saving streptomycin after her immigration to America. (
  • Down and almost out in Scotland: George Orwell, tuberculosis and getting streptomycin in 1948. (
  • Streptomycin had had a dramatic effect on tuberculous meningitis ( MRC 1948a ), a form of tuberculosis that was always fatal. (
  • After I was appointed as a registrar at the Brompton Hospital in September 1946, Professor Scadding suggested that I should become a half-time member of the Medical Research Council (MRC) Tuberculosis Unit, with responsibility for coordinating the Brompton Hospital component of the MRC trial of streptomycin for pulmonary tuberculosis (Scadding was a member of the committee appointed to oversee the trial). (
  • Given the uncertain prognosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and the limited supply of the drug, Bradford Hill proposed that it would be unethical not to assess what advantage streptomycin offered in this form of the disease compared with the current standard treatment - bed rest. (
  • Horinouchi S, Kumada Y, Beppu T (1984) Unstable genetic determinant of A-factor biosynthesis in streptomycin-producing organisms: cloning and characterization. (
  • Below are the list of possible Streptomycin biosynthesis protein products. (
  • There is no cross-resistance between Kasumin and streptomycin as Kasumin controls streptomycin-resistant strains of E. amylovora . (
  • In 2008 and 2009, severe fire blight ( Erwinia amylovora ) occurred in Illinois apple orchards, leading to speculation that streptomycin-resistant strains of E. amylovora might be present in some orchards. (
  • The plasmid was transferred by electrotransformation into the recipient strains P. multocida P4000 ( 18 ) and Escherichia coli JM109 (Stratagene, Amsterdam, The Netherlands), where it mediated resistance to spectinomycin (MIC ≥ 512 μg/ml) and streptomycin (MIC = 256 μg/ml). (
  • Antibiotic resistance profiles were determined for 53 isolates from cultivated and uncultivated sites, and approximately half the strains were streptomycin resistant. (
  • Isolates were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. (
  • The prevalence of selected tetracycline and streptomycin resistance genes and class 1 integrons in Enterobacteriaceae ( n = 80) isolated from dairy farm soil and nondairy soils was evaluated. (
  • Similarly, a higher prevalence of streptomycin resistance genes including strA (12.5%), strB (12.5%), ant(3″) (12.5), aph(6)-1c (12.5%), aph(3″) (10.8%), and addA (5.4%) was detected in bacteria isolated from dairy farm soils than in nondairy soils. (
  • Other tetracycline ( tetC , tetD , tetE , tetK , tetL , tetQ , and tetT ) and streptomycin ( aph(6)-1c and ant(6) ) resistance genes were not detected in both dairy and nondairy soil isolates. (
  • Among 36 tetracycline- and 17 streptomycin-resistant isolates from dairy farm soils, 11 (30.6%) and 9 (52.9%) isolates carried multiple resistance genes encoding resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin, respectively, which was higher than in bacteria isolated from nondairy soils. (
  • Since PCR detection for the known spectinomycin/streptomycin or spectinomycin resistance genes ( 31 ) yielded negative results, it was assumed that plasmid pCCK647 harbored a so-far-undescribed type of spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance gene. (
  • The arrows indicate the extents of the genes tet (B) (tetracycline resistance), aadA14 (spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance), rep (plasmid replication), bla ROB-1 (ampicillin resistance), mobA , mobB , and mobC (plasmid mobilization), with the arrowheads showing the directions of transcription. (
  • Genes encoding streptomycin/spectinomycin adenylyltransferases [ANT(3")(9)] have been reported to exist in gram-negative organisms and Staphylococcus aureus . (
  • Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherich. (
  • Streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolates from cattle, pigs, and chicken in Kenya. (
  • Seven of the 29 streptomycin-resistant isolates harbored both the strA and strB genes. (
  • The strA gene was disrupted by a functional trimethoprim gene, dfrA14 in 10 of the 21 isolates harboring the three streptomycin resistance genes. (
  • The strB, strA, and catA1 genes were transferable by conjugation and this points to the significance of conjugative resistance plasmids in the spread and persistence of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in food animals in Kenya. (
  • Sequence comparison of 16S rRNA and trpBA (tryptophan synthetase) genes revealed that streptomycin-producing streptomycetes were phylogenetically diverse, It appeared that a population of streptomycetes had colonized the rhizosphere and that a proportion of these were capable of streptomycin production. (
  • Streptomycin is usually only used in the UK when the bacteria causing a case of TB have become resistant to the other medicines that are usually prescribed. (
  • Streptomycin will be given in combination with other medications that target the bacteria in different ways. (
  • The antibiotic streptomycin inhibit s initiation and causes misreading of mRNA in prokaryote s (bacteria). (
  • Because initially only several bacteria were resistant to streptomycin, it was fairly easy to find out the trick of the resistant bacteria. (
  • medical citation needed] In veterinary medicine, streptomycin is the first-line antibiotic for use against gram negative bacteria in large animals (horses, cattle, sheep, etc. (
  • Streptomycin also is used as a pesticide, to combat the growth of bacteria beyond human applications. (
  • We have studied the influence of streptomycin (Sm) on the kinetics and accuracy of translation by wild-type as well as Ram-mutant ribosomes in an in vitro system that mimics the performance characteristics of ribosomes in bacteria. (
  • Antimicrobial spectrum: Streptomycin acts against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. (
  • bacteria, which produces the antibiotic streptomycin. (
  • Antimicrobial activity of phenolics and glucosinolate hydrolysis products and their synergy with streptomycin against pathogenic bacteria. (
  • A disc diffusion assay was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals and 3 standard antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and streptomycin) against the four bacteria. (
  • The application of dual combinations demonstrated synergy between streptomycin and gallic acid, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, allylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate against the Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Streptomycin is partially systemic and can reach fire blight bacteria that have entered flower nectaries. (
  • This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. (
  • Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas , Burkholderia , and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. (
  • The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas , Burkholderia , and Stenotrophomonas species. (
  • Among 56 bacteria isolated from dairy farm soils, 36 (64.3%) were resistant to tetracycline, and 17 (30.4%) were resistant to streptomycin. (
  • Lower frequencies of tetracycline (9 of 24 or 37.5%) and streptomycin (1 of 24 or 4.2%) resistance were observed in bacteria isolated from nondairy soils. (
  • 3. Streptomycin suppressed the aerobic bacteria in some of the cultures and it was observed that slants of Endamoeba medium overlaid with serum-saline supported the growth of certain anaerobic bacteria under aerobic conditions. (
  • Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic primarily effective against gram-negative bacteria and Mycobacterium species. (
  • MCE Penicillin-Streptomycin (100×), Sterile is used to prevent bacterial contamination of cell culture due to their effective combined action against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. (
  • Albert Israel Schatz (2 February 1920 - 17 January 2005) was an American microbiologist and science educator, best known as the discoverer of the antibiotic streptomycin . (
  • Sarah Kaplan, ajc , "Scientists discover potentially powerful new antibiotic in dirt," 13 Feb. 2018 The 1952 medicine and physiology prize went to Selman Waksman for the discovery of the antibiotic streptomycin , and ignored Waksman's graduate student Albert Schatz, who actually found the chemical. (
  • It voted today to no longer allow farmers to use the antibiotic streptomycin to prevent a type of fruit blight. (
  • Another application of the antibiotic streptomycin under the brand name of Plantomycin is the treatment of the illness of fruit trees called fire blight. (
  • One group consists of enzymes [referred to as AAD(3")(9) or ANT(3")(9)] which adenylylate spectinomycin at the 9-OH position of the spectinomycin actinamine ring but also adenylylate the aminoglycoside antibiotic streptomycin at the 3"-OH position of the streptomycin glucosamine ring and thereby mediate combined resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin ( 39 ). (
  • While some antibacterial antibiotics are inhibitory to certain eukaryotes, this seems not to be the case for streptomycin, especially in the case of anti-fungal activity. (
  • Today, streptomycin has been replaced with more effective antibiotics. (
  • Streptomycin, Kasumin and oxytetracycline are registered for blossom blight control on pome fruit in the U.S. Informational summaries about these antibiotics and their use patterns are explained. (
  • Due to the perceived health and environmental risks associated with the use of antibiotics in agriculture, the use of streptomycin in plant agriculture was restricted within the EU in 2004 ( Phillips, 2007 ). (
  • Streptomycin consists of three components, which are linked together by glycoside bonds, and it belongs to the group of the aminoglycoside antibiotics. (
  • Approval of the antibiotics streptomycin and tetracycline to control fire blight in organic apples and pears expired in October 2014, and the NOSB did not renew it. (
  • Pigs are reservoir hosts of the pathogen and streptomycin is among the antibiotics proposed to eliminate leptospiral infection. (
  • Streptomycin belongs to the class of medicines known as aminoglycoside antibiotics. (
  • Streptomycin injection is used to treat moderate to severe bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. (
  • Streptomycin injection is usually used for serious bacterial infections for which other medicines may not work. (
  • Pediatric Population: Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of streptomycin injection in children. (
  • Geriatric Population: No information is available on the relationship of age to the effects of streptomycin injection in geriatric patients. (
  • However, elderly patients are more likely to have kidney problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving streptomycin injection. (
  • Suffering with lung TB, given AKT-4 with streptomycin injection. (
  • My daughter is suffering with lung TB doctor has given her AKT-4 for three months with streptomycin injection twice in a long she has to take AKT-4. (
  • Deerfield Beach, FL -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 03/20/2017 -- Global Streptomycin Market 2017-2021 industry mainly involves of companies following and operating different processes such as manufacturing, producing, distribution, sales, and meeting the supply and demand chain of the market regarding various types of medical products. (
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  • The Global Streptomycin Market 2017-2021 research analysis in the report includes each and every characteristic of the Global Streptomycin Market 2017-2021 market worldwide, which begins from the description of the Global Streptomycin Market 2017-2021market and concludes towards the Global Streptomycin Market 2017-2021 market separation. (
  • Moreover, every category of the Global Streptomycin Market 2017-2021 market is divided and examined based on size of the market, types of goods, their uses, the end-use companies of the Global Streptomycin Market 2017-2021 market, and their share of profit as well as loss. (
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  • Between 0.5 and 1 mL of Penicillin-Streptomycin solution are added to 100 mL of cell culture media for a final concentration of 50 to 100 I.U./mL penicillin and 50 to 100 (μg/mL) streptomycin. (
  • Streptomycin (Sigma) was introduced to various final concentrations by adding appropriate volumes of freshly prepared stock solutions (1 and 10 mg/ml in sterile water), and the cultures were allowed to grow at 37°C with vigorous aeration to an optical density at 600 nm of 0.3 to 0.4 (5 × 10 7 to 1 × 10 8 cells/ml). (
  • Streptomycin was discovered by American biochemists Selman Waksman , Albert Schatz, and Elizabeth Bugie in 1943. (
  • An American soil biologist, Selman Waksman, had been systematically testing soil fungi, and one of his assistants, Albert Schatz, had isolated two fungi that produced streptomycin. (
  • None of the 416 E. amylovora isolates tested were resistant to streptomycin (Agri-Mycin 17WP) at 50 mg/liter. (
  • Seven non- E. amylovora bacterial isolates were collected from E. amylovora -infected shoots that contained both a str A- str B streptomycin resistance gene and IS 1133 on transposon Tn 5393 , which could be a potential source of streptomycin resistance for E. amylovora in Illinois in the future. (
  • Although there have been reports of streptomycin adenylyltransferases in enterococci ( 6 , 8 , 18 ), none of the isolates reported were resistant to spectinomycin, suggesting a mechanism other than one involving the ANT(3")(9) enzyme. (
  • The aims of this study were to determine the genetic basis of streptomycin and chloramphenicol resistance in 30 Escherichia coli isolates from food animals in Kenya and the role of plasmids in the spread of the resistance. (
  • Our various ranges include Streptomycin Sulphate, Aspartame Sweetener, Calcium D Pentothenate, Homophthalic Acid, Anhydride, Vitamin E-50, 4-Chloro-1 Butanol and similar such other chemicals. (
  • The effect of mutation to streptomycin resistance on the speed of polypeptide elongation in Escherichia coli was investigated. (
  • Escherichia coli]} author = {Galas, D J, and Branscomb, E W} abstractNote = {The effect of mutation to streptomycin resistance on the speed of polypeptide elongation in Escherichia coli was investigated. (
  • Establishing streptomycin epidemiological cut-off values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli. (
  • This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (
  • The growth physiology of Escherichia coli during colonization of the intestinal tract was studied with four animal models: the streptomycin-treated mouse carrying a reduced microflora, the monoassociated mouse with no other microflora than the introduced strain, the conventionalized streptomycin-treated mouse, and the conventionalized monoassociated mouse harboring a full microflora. (
  • Global and Chinese Streptomycin Industry, 2017 Market Research Report' is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Chinease with a focus on the China market. (
  • In the recent times, the global market for Emea europe middle east and africa penicillin and streptomycin market report 2017 has surfaced as one of the most promising markets in the pharmaceutical industry, thanks to the significant rise in research and development activities by leading vendors of Emea europe middle east and africa penicillin and streptomycin market report 2017 across the world. (
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  • A longer persistence of streptomycin (more than 98 days) was noticed with higher concentrations of spray (400 μg/ml). (
  • Possible evolutionary relationships between streptomycin and bluensomycin biosynthetic pathways: detection of novel inositol kinase and O-carbamoyltransferase activities. (
  • However, a clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecalis exhibiting high-level resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin (MICs of ≥2,000 μg/ml) was recently recognized in a multilaboratory study of screening methods for detection of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci ( 32 ). (
  • Streptomycin is traditionally given intramuscularly, and in many nations is only licensed to be administered intramuscularly, though in some regions the drug may also be administered intravenously. (
  • Thirty-three patients with viridans streptococcal infective endocarditis were treated for two weeks with intramuscular procaine pencillin, 1.2 million units every 6 hours, plus streptomycin, 500 mg intramuscularly every 12 hours. (
  • Six pigs with leptospirosis and six age, gender and breed matched healthy pigs were intramuscularly administered streptomycin at a dose of 10 mg kg -1 bodyweight once daily for four consecutive days. (
  • A range of submerged fermentations were undertaken in a standard 2 L bioreactor fitted with Rushton Turbines, at chitin concentrations from 0.4 %w/v to 10 %w/v, to study the effect on streptomycin yield. (
  • Maximum streptomycin yields were obtained at a chitin concentration of 10 %w/v. The total streptomycin yields from submerged fermentation were fairly consistent over the range of chitin concentrations used. (
  • The purpose of this study was to determine streptomycin concentrations and the possible effect of the presence of Leptospira in the liver and kidneys on drug distribution. (
  • All pigs were euthanized and the concentrations of streptomycin in their liver and kidney were determined employing an HPLC-MC method. (
  • The decreased concentrations of streptomycin in infected pigs could be at least partially attributed to the hepatic and renal damage caused by leptospirae and in turn the possible reduced efficacy of streptomycin to its reduced concentrations at the main sites of infection. (
  • 2016. (
  • In this report, the EMEA Penicillin and Streptomycin market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (
  • Streptomycin is also occasionally used to treat infections such as brucellosis and endocarditis. (
  • As for TB, when treating these infections, streptomycin should be used in combination with another antibiotic to help prevent resistance occuring. (
  • medical citation needed] Tularemia infections have been treated mostly with streptomycin. (
  • Streptomycin continues to be an important drug for synergistic therapy of serious enterococcal infections ( 10 ). (
  • 10,000 I.U./mL Penicillin, 10,000 (μg/mL) Streptomycin For reducing the chances of microbial contamination in cell culture. (
  • This antibiotic solution is formulated as follows: Penicillin 10,000 Units/mL, Streptomycin 10 mg/mL, Amphotericin B 25 µg/mL. (
  • Penicillin-Streptomycin (100×) is a liquid formulation which contains 10,000 units/mL of penicillin and 10 mg/mL of streptomycin in 0.9% NaCl. (
  • On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. (
  • A recent article in Nature, arguing that "the misallocation of credit is endemic in science," used Selman Waksman as an illustration, claiming that the true discoverer of streptomycin was one of his graduate students. (
  • Waksman was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1952 for his discovery of streptomycin, although much of the credit for the discovery has since been ascribed to Schatz. (
  • Schatz later successfully sued to be legally recognized as a co-discoverer of streptomycin. (
  • In October of 1943, Schatz discovered streptomycin. (
  • She learned of the controversy surrounding the discovery of streptomycin and Schatz s ultimate recognition for his work. (
  • These suggestions will differ based on the occurrence of streptomycin resistance in the fire blight pathogen in your orchard or in your region. (
  • The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems. (
  • A study of chitosan oligomers showed that short chain oligosaccharides inhibit Bacillus subtilis in a similar manner to streptomycin. (
  • 100 ATS, CDC, and IDSA state that streptomycin is no longer considered interchangeable with ethambutol unless the strain is known to be susceptible to streptomycin or the patient is from a population in which streptomycin resistance is unlikely. (
  • 26 For initial treatment of fibrocavitary or severe nodular/bronchiectatic pulmonary disease caused by macrolide-susceptible MAC, ATS and IDSA recommend a daily regimen of clarithromycin (or azithromycin), ethambutol, and rifampin (or rifabutin) and state that consideration can be given to adding amikacin or streptomycin during the first 2-3 months of treatment for extensive (especially fibrocavitary) disease or when previous therapy has failed. (
  • Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside that can be used as a substitute for ethambutol and for drug-resistant MTB. (
  • ethambutol .pyrazanamide and streptomycin she must be treated under category 2. (
  • A novel spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance gene, designated aadA14 , was detected on the mobilizable 5,198-bp plasmid pCCK647 from Pasteurella multocida . (
  • The aadA gene, which encodes resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin via an adenylyltransferase [ANT(3")(9)] enzyme, has been reported to exist in gram-negative organisms ( 3 , 6 , 15 , 16 , 33 ) and Staphylococcus aureus ( 7 ). (
  • Transferable plasmid-mediated resistance to streptomycin in a clinical isolate of Yersinia pestis. (
  • Gut colonization ability was assayed by the streptomycin-treated mouse colonization model, which was previously used to study the colonization abilities and growth physiologies of E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium in the intestinal environment ( 13 , 15-17 ). (
  • This makes streptomycin a more suitable selective agent as it causes bleaching rather than cell death (Klee et al. (
  • Thermo Scientific Remel BHI agar with Sheep Blood, Penicillin, Streptomycin is for selective isolation of fastidious fungi and yeast. (
  • Magliulo G, Parrotto D, Gagliardi M, Alla FR.Selective damage of the vestibular apparatus following toxic effects of streptomycin. (
  • Organic orchardists have been allowed to use streptomycin, as a last resort, to control fire blight. (
  • But if it gets that far for the translation to start, misreading occurs because the streptomycin causes isoleucine (with triplet AUU) to be build in too, when only a phenylalanine (UUU) is ment to go into the polypeptide chain, resulting in a "wrong" protein. (
  • Streptomycin is a protein synthesis inhibitor. (
  • Mode of Action: Streptomycin acts by inhibiting prokaryote protein synthesis by binding to the S12 protein of the 30S ribosomal subunit, thus preventing the transition from imitation complex to chain-elongating ribosome. (
  • Mode of Resistance: A mutation in rpsL, a gene for S12 ribosomal protein, prevents binding of streptomycin to the ribosome. (
  • It has also been used to precipitate nucleic acids during protein purification techniques and to study mechanisms of Streptomycin resistance. (
  • Streptomycin inhibits elongation at transpeptidation step during protein synthesis and binds to 30S subunit, causing misreading. (
  • The rpsL50 gene mutation conveys streptomycin resistance. (
  • Comparison of the streptomycin and bluensomycin biosynthetic pathways provides a unique opportunity to evaluate those proposed mechanisms for the evolutionary acquisition of new biosynthetic capabilities that involve gene duplication and subsequent mutational changes in one member of the pair. (
  • During a study of high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci, we encountered an isolate of Enterococcus faecalis that was streptomycin resistant but did not appear to contain the 6′-adenylyltransferase gene ( aadE ) when examined by PCR with specific primers. (
  • 32,000 μg/ml, failed to produce an aadE (also referred to as the ant6 ′ gene)-specific product when tested by PCR, and did not hybridize with an aadE -specific gene probe, suggesting an alternate mechanism of streptomycin resistance. (
  • Monoclonal Antibody to Streptomycin/Dihydrostreptomycin (includes BSA Conjugated Control). (
  • Shake flasks were also used to evaluate any effect of chitin concentration on streptomycin production. (
  • Ribosome slowed by mutation to streptomycin resistance. (
  • Galas, D J, and Branscomb, E W. Ribosome slowed by mutation to streptomycin resistance. (
  • The change in a bacterial cell from average susceptibility to streptomycin to resistance to 1000 µg. (
  • In enzymology, a streptomycin 3"-adenylyltransferase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + streptomycin ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } diphosphate + 3"-adenylylstreptomycin Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and streptomycin, whereas its two products are diphosphate and 3''-adenylylstreptomycin. (
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:streptomycin 3"-adenylyltransferase. (
  • The antimicrobial activity of single compounds and dual combinations (streptomycin-phytochemicals) were quantitatively assessed by measuring the inhibitory halos. (
  • Short-term intramuscular therapy with procaine penicillin plus streptomycin for infective endocarditis due to viridans streptococci. (

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