Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Streptomyces griseus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.Streptomyces coelicolor: A soil-dwelling actinomycete with a complex lifecycle involving mycelial growth and spore formation. It is involved in the production of a number of medically important ANTIBIOTICS.Streptomyces lividans: An actinomycete used for production of commercial ANTIBIOTICS and as a host for gene cloning.Streptomyces antibioticus: An actinomycete from which the antibiotic OLEANDOMYCIN is obtained.Streptomyces aureofaciens: An actinomycete from which the antibiotic CHLORTETRACYCLINE is obtained.Anthraquinones: Compounds based on ANTHRACENES which contain two KETONES in any position. Substitutions can be in any position except on the ketone groups.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Naphthacenes: Polyacenes with four ortho-fused benzene rings in a straight linear arrangement. This group is best known for the subclass called TETRACYCLINES.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Prodigiosin: 4-Methoxy-5-((5-methyl-4-pentyl-2H-pyrrol-2-ylidene)methyl)- 2,2'-bi-1H-pyrrole. A toxic, bright red tripyrrole pigment from Serratia marcescens and others. It has antibacterial, anticoccidial, antimalarial, and antifungal activities, but is used mainly as a biochemical tool.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Streptomycetaceae: A family of soil bacteria. It also includes some parasitic forms.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.4-Butyrolactone: One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Tylosin: Macrolide antibiotic obtained from cultures of Streptomyces fradiae. The drug is effective against many microorganisms in animals but not in humans.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Leucomycins: An antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kitasatoensis. The complex consists of a mixture of at least eight biologically active components, A1 and A3 to A9. Leucomycins have both antibacterial and antimycoplasmal activities.Cephamycins: Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Candicidin: Mixture of antifungal heptaene macrolides from Streptomyces griseus or Actinomyces levoris used topically in candidiasis. The antibiotic complex is composed of candicidins A, B, C, and D, of which D is the major component.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Biosynthetic Pathways: Sets of enzymatic reactions occurring in organisms and that form biochemicals by making new covalent bonds.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.ChitinaseDNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Spiramycin: A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. The drug is effective against gram-positive aerobic pathogens, N. gonorrhoeae, and staphylococci. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and Toxoplasma gondii.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Polyenes: Hydrocarbons with more than one double bond. They are a reduced form of POLYYNES.Chromomycins: A complex of several closely related glycosidic antibiotics from Streptomyces griseus. The major component, CHROMOMYCIN A3, is used as a fluorescent stain of DNA where it attaches and inhibits RNA synthesis. It is also used as an antineoplastic agent, especially for solid tumors.Oleandomycin: Antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces antibioticus.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Ivermectin: A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Thiostrepton: One of the CYCLIC PEPTIDES from Streptomyces that is active against gram-positive bacteria. In veterinary medicine, it has been used in mastitis caused by gram-negative organisms and in dermatologic disorders.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Streptothricins: A group of antibiotic aminoglycosides differing only in the number of repeating residues in the peptide side chain. They are produced by Streptomyces and Actinomyces and may have broad spectrum antimicrobial and some antiviral properties.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Xylan Endo-1,3-beta-Xylosidase: A xylosidase that catalyses the random hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-xylosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-xylans.Clavulanic Acid: Clavulanic acid and its salts and esters. The acid is a suicide inhibitor of bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes from Streptomyces clavuligerus. Administered alone, it has only weak antibacterial activity against most organisms, but given in combination with other beta-lactam antibiotics it prevents antibiotic inactivation by microbial lactamase.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.

Classification of thermophilic streptomycetes, including the description of Streptomyces thermoalcalitolerans sp. nov. (1/4730)

A polyphasic taxonomic study was undertaken to clarify relationships within and between representative thermophilic alkalitolerant streptomycetes isolated from soil and appropriate marker strains. The resultant data, notably those from DNA-DNA relatedness studies, support the taxonomic integrity of the validly described species Streptomyces thermodiastaticus, Streptomyces thermoviolaceus and Streptomyces thermovulgaris. However, the genotypic and phenotypic data clearly show that Streptomyces thermonitrificans Desai and Dhala 1967 and S. thermovulgaris (Henssen 1957) Goodfellow et al. 1987 represent a single species. On the basis of priority, S. thermonitrificans is a later subjective synonym of S. thermovulgaris. Similarly, 10 out of the 11 representative thermophilic alkalitolerant isolates had a combination of properties consistent with their classification as S. thermovulgaris. The remaining thermophilic alkalitolerant isolate, Streptomyces strain TA56, merited species status. The name Streptomyces thermoalcalitolerans sp. nov. is proposed for this strain. A neutrophilic thermophilic isolate, Streptomyces strain NAR85, was identified as S. thermodiastaticus.  (+info)

Diperamycin, a new antimicrobial antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities. (2/4730)

Antibacterial antibiotics, diperamycin (1) was produced in the culture broth of Streptomyces griseoaurantiacus MK393-AF2. Various spectroscopic analyses of 1 suggested that 1 belonged to a member of cyclic hexadepsipeptide antibiotic. Antibiotic 1 had potent inhibitory activity against various Gram-positive bacteria including Enterococcus seriolicida and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  (+info)

Characterization of an insertion sequence element associated with genetically diverse plant pathogenic Streptomyces spp. (3/4730)

Streptomycetes are common soil inhabitants, yet few described species are plant pathogens. While the pathogenicity mechanisms remain unclear, previous work identified a gene, nec1, which encodes a putative pathogenicity or virulence factor. nec1 and a neighboring transposase pseudogene, ORFtnp, are conserved among unrelated plant pathogens and absent from nonpathogens. The atypical GC content of nec1 suggests that it was acquired through horizontal transfer events. Our investigation of the genetic organization of regions adjacent to the 3' end of nec1 in Streptomyces scabies 84.34 identified a new insertion sequence (IS) element, IS1629, with homology to other IS elements from prokaryotic animal pathogens. IS1629 is 1,462 bp with 26-bp terminal inverted repeats and encodes a putative 431-amino-acid (aa) transposase. Transposition of IS1629 generates a 10-bp target site duplication. A 77-nucleotide (nt) sequence encompassing the start codon and upstream region of the transposase was identified which could function in the posttranscritpional regulation of transposase synthesis. A functional copy of IS1629 from S. turgidiscabies 94.09 (Hi-C-13) was selected in the transposon trap pCZA126, through its insertion into the lambda cI857 repressor. IS1629 is present in multiple copies in some S. scabies strains and is present in all S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies strains examined. A second copy of IS1629 was identified between ORFtnp and nec1 in S. acidiscabies strains. The diversity of IS1629 hybridization profiles was greatest within S. scabies. IS1629 was absent from the 27 nonpathogenic Streptomyces strains tested. The genetic organization and nucleotide sequence of the nec1-IS1629 region was conserved and identical among representatives of S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies. These findings support our current model for the unidirectional transfer of the ORFtnp-nec1-IS1629 locus from IS1629-containing S. scabies (type II) to S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies.  (+info)

Electron microscopy studies of cell-wall-anchored cellulose (Avicel)-binding protein (AbpS) from Streptomyces reticuli. (4/4730)

Streptomyces reticuli produces a 35-kDa cellulose (Avicel)-binding protein (AbpS) which interacts strongly with crystalline cellulose but not with soluble types of cellulose. Antibodies that were highly specific for the NH2-terminal part of AbpS were isolated by using truncated AbpS proteins that differed in the length of the NH2 terminus. Using these antibodies for immunolabelling and investigations in which fluorescence, transmission electron, or immunofield scanning electron microscopy was used showed that the NH2 terminus of AbpS protrudes from the murein layer of S. reticuli. Additionally, inspection of ultrathin sections of the cell wall, as well as biochemical experiments performed with isolated murein, revealed that AbpS is tightly and very likely covalently linked to the polyglucane layer. As AbpS has also been found to be associated with protoplasts, we predicted that a COOH-terminal stretch consisting of 17 hydrophobic amino acids anchors the protein to the membrane. Different amounts of AbpS homologues of several Streptomyces strains were synthesized.  (+info)

Multiple genetic modifications of the erythromycin polyketide synthase to produce a library of novel "unnatural" natural products. (5/4730)

The structures of complex polyketide natural products, such as erythromycin, are programmed by multifunctional polyketide synthases (PKSs) that contain modular arrangements of functional domains. The colinearity between the activities of modular PKS domains and structure of the polyketide product portends the generation of novel organic compounds-"unnatural" natural products-by genetic manipulation. We have engineered the erythromycin polyketide synthase genes to effect combinatorial alterations of catalytic activities in the biosynthetic pathway, generating a library of >50 macrolides that would be impractical to produce by chemical methods. The library includes examples of analogs with one, two, and three altered carbon centers of the polyketide products. The manipulation of multiple biosynthetic steps in a PKS is an important milestone toward the goal of producing large libraries of unnatural natural products for biological and pharmaceutical applications.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships among diverse bacteriophages and prophages: all the world's a phage. (6/4730)

We report DNA and predicted protein sequence similarities, implying homology, among genes of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages and prophages spanning a broad phylogenetic range of host bacteria. The sequence matches reported here establish genetic connections, not always direct, among the lambdoid phages of Escherichia coli, phage phiC31 of Streptomyces, phages of Mycobacterium, a previously unrecognized cryptic prophage, phiflu, in the Haemophilus influenzae genome, and two small prophage-like elements, phiRv1 and phiRv2, in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The results imply that these phage genes, and very possibly all of the dsDNA tailed phages, share common ancestry. We propose a model for the genetic structure and dynamics of the global phage population in which all dsDNA phage genomes are mosaics with access, by horizontal exchange, to a large common genetic pool but in which access to the gene pool is not uniform for all phage.  (+info)

Characterization of aklavinone-11-hydroxylase from Streptomyces purpurascens. (7/4730)

Aklavinone-11-hydroxylase (RdmE) is a FAD monooxygenase participating in the biosynthesis of daunorubicin, doxorubicin and rhodomycins. The rdmE gene encodes an enzyme of 535 amino acids. The sequence of the Streptomyces purpurascens enzyme is similar to other Streptomyces aromatic polyketide hydroxylases. We overexpressed the gene in Streptomyces lividans and purified aklavinone-11-hydroxylase to apparent homogeneity with four chromatographic steps utilizing a kinetic photometric enzyme assay. The enzyme is active as the monomer with a molecular mass of 60 kDa; it hydroxylates aklavinone and other anthracyclinones. Aklavinone-11-hydroxylase can use both NADH and NADPH as coenzyme but it is slowly inactivated in the presence of NADH. The apparent Km for NADPH is 2 mM and for aklavinone 10 microM. The enzyme is inactivated in the presence of phenylglyoxal and 2,3-butanedione. NADPH protects against inactivation of aklavinone-11-hydroxylase by phenylglyoxal.  (+info)

A 20-kDa domain is required for phosphatidic acid-induced allosteric activation of phospholipase D from Streptomyces chromofuscus. (8/4730)

Two phospholipase D (PLD) enzymes with both hydrolase and transferase activities were isolated from Streptomyces chromofuscus. There were substantial differences in the kinetic properties of the two PLD enzymes towards monomeric, micellar, and vesicle substrates. The most striking difference was that the higher molecular weight enzyme (PLD57 approximately 57 kDa) could be activated allosterically with a low mole fraction of phosphatidic acid (PA) incorporated into a PC bilayer (Geng et al., J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 12195-12202). PLD42/20, a tightly associated complex of two peptides, one of 42 kDa and the other 20 kDa, had a 4-6-fold higher Vmax toward PC substrates than PLD57 and was not activated by PA. N-Terminal sequencing of both enzymes indicated that both components of PLD42/20 were cleavage products of PLD57. The larger component included the N-terminal segment of PLD57 and contained the active site. The N-terminus of the smaller peptide corresponded to the C-terminal region of PLD57; this peptide had no PLD activity by itself. Increasing the pH of PLD42/20 to 8.9, followed by chromatography of PLD42/20 on a HiTrap Q column at pH 8.5 separated the 42- and 20-kDa proteins. The 42-kDa complex had about the same specific activity with or without the 20-kDa fragment. The lack of PA activation for the 42-kDa protein and for PLD42/20 indicates that an intact C-terminal region of PLD57 is necessary for activation by PA. Furthermore, the mechanism for transmission of the allosteric signal requires an intact PLD57.  (+info)

  • How many antibiotics are produced by the genus Streptomyces? (
  • Here we show that in Streptomyces , a genus of Actinobacteria abundant in soil and symbiotic niches, the ability to rapidly degrade cellulose is largely restricted to two clades of host-associated strains and is not a conserved characteristic of the Streptomyces genus or host-associated strains. (
  • In particular my research group is interested in the genus Streptomyces because this genus alone is responsible for the production of a high number of clinically relevant specialised metabolites including antibiotics, anti-fungal, antihelminthic and anti-cancer drugs. (
  • StreptomeDB, a directory of Streptomyces isolates, contains over 2400 compounds isolated from more than 1900 strains. (
  • Our comparative genomics identify that while plant biomass degrading genes (CAZy) are widespread in Streptomyces , key enzyme families are enriched in highly cellulolytic strains. (
  • The cancer-cell-cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the acetone extracts of two cultured marine-derived Streptomyces strains belonging to the MAR4 group yielded six new napyradiomycins, compounds A-F (1-6), together with three known compounds, napyradiomycins B2-B4 (7-9). (
  • Fourteen Streptomyces strains were isolated from soil samples of five different areas of Cukurova University. (
  • We also have an interest on how these industrially relevant Streptomyces strains develop in their natural environment. (
  • In this Newton Institutional Links funded project, Lina Pintor-Escobar is trying to identify new antibiotics from three Colombian Streptomyces strains. (
  • This molecule, EN-7, is active against pathogenic species that are resistant to ciprofloxacin and other clinically important antibiotics. (
  • abstract = "We identified two new radical scavengers, 12T061A (1, C19H20O7) and 12T061C (2, C20H22O7), from a culture of the Streptomyces sp. (
  • abstract = "ε-Lysine acylase from Streptomyces mobaraensis (Sm-ELA), which specifically catalyzes hydrolysis of the ε-amide bond in various Nε-acyl-l-lysines, was cloned and sequenced. (
  • abstract = "The neutral metalloprotease (Npr) of Streptomyces cacaoi is synthesized as a prepro-Npr precursor form consisting of a secretory signal peptide, a propeptide and the mature metalloprotease. (
  • Evolutionary analyses identify complex genomic modifications that drive plant biomass deconstruction in Streptomyces , including acquisition and selective retention of CAZy genes and transcriptional regulators. (
  • Fedorenko, V. 2010-05-20 00:00:00 LanK is TetR-like regulatory protein recently shown to regulate the export and glycosylation of landomycins in Streptomyces cyanogenus S136. (
  • Streptomyces offers potential advantages including superior secretion mechanisms, higher yields, a simpler end-product purification process, making Streptomyces an attractive alternative to E. coli and Bacillus subtilis. (
  • Streptomyces isolates are typically initiated with the aerial hyphal formation from the mycelium. (
  • In addition, the amino acid sequence of PMH displays a high similarity to that of the Streptomyces acyl-peptide hydrolase (ACPH), which is a member of the prolyl oligopeptidase (POP) family of serine proteases. (
  • Nystatin (Streptomyces noursei), amphotericin B (Streptomyces nodosus), and natamycin (Streptomyces natalensis) are antifungals isolated from Streptomyces. (
  • Streptomyces isolates have yielded the majority of human, animal, and agricultural antibiotics, as well as a number of fundamental chemotherapy medicines. (
  • Streptomyces and closely related genera produce more than 50% of the 200 commercially available antibiotics and most of the 10,000 known antibiotics . (
  • We investigated an ethnopharmacological (cure) from an alkaline/radon soil in the area of Boho, in the Fermanagh Scarplands (N. Ireland) for the presence of Streptomyces , a well-known producer of antibiotics. (
  • Expanding the use of the last line of antibiotics and demand for new drugs will continue to play an essential role for the potent Streptomyces from previously unexplored environmental sources. (
  • Historically, Streptomyces from environmental sources has been pivotal in the discovery of important bioactive secondary metabolites including antibiotics, immunosuppressive drugs, anticancer drugs, and other biologically active compounds [ 3 - 6 ]. (
  • The most interesting property of Streptomyces is its ability to produce secondary metabolites including antibiotics and bioactive compound ( 2 ) value in human and veterinary medicine, agriculture, and unique biochemical tools. (
  • Sansanmycins were a group of nucleosidyl-peptide antibiotics, produced by Streptomyces sp SS (CGMCC no. 1764). (
  • Streptomyces kanasensis ZX01 produces some antibiotics and a glycoprotein with antiviral activity. (
  • Streptomyces tenebrarius H6 mainly produces three kinds of antibiotics: apramycin, carbamoyltobramycin and some carbamoylkanamycin B. In our present study, a dehydrogenase gene tacB in the tobramycin biosynthetic gene cluster was disrupted by in-frame deletion. (
  • This finding could be a valuable tool for using Streptomyces as a host to produce proteins at the industrial and pharmaceutical levels without the use of antibiotics in the production step. (
  • Remarkably, Streptomyces are also the original sources of most of the antibiotics that are prescribed by doctors to treat bacterial infections. (
  • Mode of interaction between β-lactam antibiotics and the exocellular DD-carboxypeptidase-transpeptidase from Streptomyces R39. (
  • Leicester Research Archive: Resistance to antibiotics in antibiotic-producing streptomyces. (
  • The TS producing organism, Streptomyces azureus, biosynthesizes thiostrepton-resistance methyltransferase (TSR), an enzyme that uses S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) as a methyl donor, to modify the TS target site. (
  • In contrast, the resistance of the erythromycin-producing organism, Streptomyces erythreus. (
  • Linda Kinkel describes the important relationships between plants and microbes and her research on Streptomyces that protect against plant pathogens. (
  • potato is caused by the actinomycete, Streptomyces scabies (Lambert and Loria, 1989. (
  • IAA production by Streptomyces scabies and its role in plant microbe interaction. (
  • Chicken manure caused a temporary initial increase in soil pH to 8 or higher, which is at the upper limit for Streptomyces scabies to cause potato scab. (
  • Molecular monitoring of Gramonol herbicide biodegradation in relation to streptomyces scabies isolates. (
  • Taxtomina parcialmente purificada e preparações de Streptomyces scabies na indução. (
  • Dentre os indutores de resistência, as fitotoxinas apresentam potencial como ativadoras de plantas e neste caso, mais especificamente a taxtomina, produzida por Streptomyces scabies . (
  • O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial da fitotoxina taxtomina parcialmente purificada (TPP) e preparações de Streptomyces scabies como potenciais indutores de resistência em soja à Phakopsora pachyrhizi . (
  • Foram realizados ensaios para avaliar o efeito direto dos potenciais indutores deresistência a base de suspensão de células de Streptomyces scabies , filtrado de meio de cultivo de Streptomyces scabies , TPP e acibenzolar-S-metílico sobre a germinação de urediniósporos através do teste de microgotas em placas de Petri de poliestireno. (
  • Among the resistance inducers, phytotoxins have the potential as plant activators and in this case, more specifically thaxtomin, produced by Streptomyces scabies . (
  • Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the potential of the partially purified phytotoxin thaxtomin (TPP) and preparation of Streptomyces scabies as potential inducers of resistance in soybean to Phakopsora pachyrhizi . (
  • GLUCOSE ISOMERASE (Streptomyces violaceoniger) Explanation This enzyme preparation has not previously been reviewed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. (
  • 1. An enzyme extracted and isolated from the microorganism Streptomyces megasporus SD5 or mutant thereof which is isolated by a process which comprises the steps of: a) cultivating the microorganism Streptomyces megasporus SD5 or mutant thereof under aerobic conditions at a temperature in the range of 45° C. to 65° C. in an alkaline aqueous nutrient medium and b) recovering the enzyme. (
  • 13. An enzyme extracted and isolated from the microorganism Streptomyces megasporous SD5 which is a serine protease of 264 amino acids and has a molecular weight of about 35 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. (
  • Modification of the Streptomyces R61 DD-peptidase by N-bromosuccinimide resulted in a rapid loss of enzyme activity. (
  • Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides. (
  • Morphological differentiation in Streptomyces involves the formation of a lawn of aerial hyphae on the colony surface that stands up into the air and differentiates into chains of spores ( 1 ). (
  • We describe the isolation of Streptomyces bikiniensis from multiple blood cultures in a single patient over the course of 1 week, further illustrating that Streptomyces is pathogenic and a cause of bacteremia even in the absence of overt clinical symptoms and risk factors. (
  • the isolation of Streptomyces from repeat blood cultures strongly suggests a pathogenic role. (
  • The now uncommonly used streptomycin takes its name directly from Streptomyces. (
  • Streptomyces mashuensis (originally classified as Streptoverticillium mashuense is typically associated with the production of the antibacterial metabolites, streptomycin and monazomycin. (
  • Thus, Streptomyces is a rich source of the secondary metabolites in which common intermediates in the cell (amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, terpenes, etc.) are condensed into more complex structures by defined biochemical pathways. (
  • Fungi trigger Streptomyces exploratory growth in part by altering the composition of the growth medium, and Streptomyces explorer cells can communicate this exploratory behaviour to other physically separated streptomycetes using an airborne volatile organic compound (VOC). (
  • 1961) Witt and Stackebrandt 1991 is a heterotypic synonym of "Streptomyces caespitosus" (NBRC 13490). (
  • Streptomyces are Gram-positive and have high G + C DNA content with a complex life cycle having the potential to produce many clinically important bioactive molecules. (
  • It is because of technical advances in isolation, fermentation, spectroscopy, and genomic studies which led to the efficient recovering of Streptomyces and their new chemical compounds with distinct activities. (
  • Extreme Streptomyces have been an excellent source of a new class of compounds which include alkaloids, angucycline, macrolide, and peptides. (
  • However, depressingly in the last decades, the continual rediscovery of similar and known compounds from terrestrial Streptomyces has resulted. (
  • Streptomyces are remarkable in terms of the morphological and metabolic differentiation phenomena that they present. (