Streptococcus thermophilus: A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Thermus thermophilus: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in hot springs of neutral to alkaline pH, as well as in hot-water heaters.Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Lactobacillus delbrueckii: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Streptococcus suis: A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Thermus: Gram-negative aerobic rods found in warm water (40-79 degrees C) such as hot springs, hot water tanks, and thermally polluted rivers.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.DNA Transformation Competence: The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Streptococcus bovis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Streptococcus mitis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Galactokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the formation of galactose 1-phosphate and ADP from ATP and D-galactose. Galactosamine can also act as the acceptor. A deficiency of this enzyme results in GALACTOSEMIA. EC equi: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Streptococcus oralis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.UDPglucose 4-Epimerase: A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC, Artificial: A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Litchi: A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE that bears sweet fruits. Unusual fatty acids such as cyclopropanoic fatty acids have been identified in the seeds.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Mucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Streptococcus gordonii: A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.3-Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase: An NAD+ dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 3-carboxy-2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate to 3-carboxy-4-methyl-2-oxopentanoate. It is involved in the biosynthesis of VALINE; LEUCINE; and ISOLEUCINE.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Scarce evidence of yogurt lactic acid bacteria in human feces after daily yogurt consumption by healthy volunteers. (1/126)

In a double-blind prospective study including 114 healthy young volunteers, the presence in human feces of the yogurt organisms Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus after repeated yogurt consumption (15 days) was analyzed by culture, specific PCR, and DNA hybridization of total fecal DNA. Detection of yogurt lactic acid bacteria in total fecal DNA by bacterial culture and PCR assay was consistently negative. DNA compatible with yogurt bacteria was found by hybridization experiments in only 10 (10.52%) of 96 individuals after consumption of fresh yogurt and in 2 (2.10%) of 96 individuals after consumption of pasteurized yogurt (P = 0.01).  (+info)

Rapid separation of microorganisms by quartz microchip capillary electrophoresis. (2/126)

We developed and optimized a system coupling microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection for the analysis of microorganisms. The MCE-LIF system successfully separated pure cultures of lactic acid bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae within 200 s. The results indicate that the MCE system can be conveniently used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of microorganisms. Thus, MCE can provide a cheap and simple method for the on-line detection of microbial contamination.  (+info)

Characterization of the cro-ori region of the Streptococcus thermophilus virulent bacteriophage DT1. (3/126)

The virulent cos-type Streptococcus thermophilus phage DT1 was previously isolated from a mozzarella whey sample, and its complete genomic sequence is available. The putative ori of phage DT1 is characterized by three inverted and two direct repeats located in a noncoding region between orf36 and orf37. As the replication ability of the putative ori and flanking genes could not be established, its ability to confer phage resistance was tested. When ori is cloned on a high-copy-number plasmid, it provides protection to S. thermophilus strains against phage infection during milk fermentation. This protection is phage specific and strain dependent. Then, a detailed transcriptional map was established for the region located between the cro-like gene (orf29) and the ori. The results of the Northern blots indicated that the transcription of this region started 5 min after the onset of phage infection. Comparative analysis of the expression of the cro-ori region in the three S. thermophilus cos-type phages DT1, Sfi19 (virulent), and Sfi21 (temperate) reveals significant differences in the number and size of transcripts. The promoter upstream of orf29 was further investigated by primer extension analysis, and its activity was confirmed by a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase assay, which showed that the phage promoter is more efficient than the constitutive bacterial promoter of the S. thermophilus operon encoding the general proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. However, the phage promoter is less efficient than the pts promoter in Lactococcus lactis and in Escherichia coli.  (+info)

The doubly phosphorylated form of HPr, HPr(Ser~P)(His-P), is abundant in exponentially growing cells of Streptococcus thermophilus and phosphorylates the lactose transporter LacS as efficiently as HPr(His~P). (4/126)

In Streptococcus thermophilus, lactose is taken up by LacS, a transporter that comprises a membrane translocator domain and a hydrophilic regulatory domain homologous to the IIA proteins and protein domains of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS). The IIA domain of LacS (IIALacS) possesses a histidine residue that can be phosphorylated by HPr(His~P), a protein component of the PTS. However, determination of the cellular levels of the different forms of HPr, namely, HPr, HPr(His~P), HPr(Ser-P), and HPr(Ser-P)(His~P), in exponentially lactose-growing cells revealed that the doubly phosphorylated form of HPr represented 75% and 25% of the total HPr in S. thermophilus ATCC 19258 and S. thermophilus SMQ-301, respectively. Experiments conducted with [32P]PEP and purified recombinant S. thermophilus ATCC 19258 proteins (EI, HPr, and IIALacS) showed that IIALacS was reversibly phosphorylated by HPr(Ser-P)(His~P) at a rate similar to that measured with HPr(His~P). Sequence analysis of the IIALacS protein domains from several S. thermophilus strains indicated that they can be divided into two groups on the basis of their amino acid sequences. The amino acid sequence of IIALacS from group I, to which strain 19258 belongs, differed from that of group II at 11 to 12 positions. To ascertain whether IIALacS from group II could also be phosphorylated by HPr(His~P) and HPr(Ser-P)(His~P), in vitro phosphorylation experiments were conducted with purified proteins from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, which possesses a IIALacS very similar to group II S. thermophilus IIALacS. The results indicated that S. salivarius IIALacS was phosphorylated by HPr(Ser-P)(His~P) at a higher rate than that observed with HPr(His~P). Our results suggest that the reversible phosphorylation of IIALacS in S. thermophilus is accomplished by HPr(Ser-P)(His~P) as well as by HPr(His~P).  (+info)

Glutamine synthesis is essential for growth of Streptococcus thermophilus in milk and is linked to urea catabolism. (5/126)

Growth of a glutamine synthetase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus thermophilus was compared to that of the parent strain in milk that was not supplemented or was supplemented with ammonium chloride, glutamine, or the urease inhibitor flurofamide. It was concluded that one of the functions of urease is to supply ammonia for the synthesis of glutamine.  (+info)

The specificity of oligopeptide transport by Streptococcus thermophilus resembles that of Lactococcus lactis and not that of pathogenic streptococci. (6/126)

Peptide transport is a crucial step in the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus in protein- or peptide-containing media. The objective of the present work was to determine the specificity of peptide utilization by this widely used lactic acid bacterium. To reach that goal, complementary approaches were employed. The capability of a proteinase-negative S. thermophilus strain to grow in a chemically defined medium containing a mixture of peptides isolated from milk as the source of amino acids was analysed. Peptides were separated into three size classes by ultrafiltration. The strain was able to use peptides up to 3.5 kDa during growth, as revealed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. The same strain was grown in chemically defined medium containing a tryptic digest of casein, and the respective time-course consumption of the peptides during growth was estimated. The ability to consume large peptides (up to 23 residues) was confirmed, as long as they are cationic and hydrophobic. These results were confirmed by peptide transport studies. Extension of the study to 11 other strains revealed that they all shared these preferences.  (+info)

Molecular and biochemical analysis of the galactose phenotype of dairy Streptococcus thermophilus strains reveals four different fermentation profiles. (7/126)

Lactose-limited fermentations of 49 dairy Streptococcus thermophilus strains revealed four distinct fermentation profiles with respect to galactose consumption after lactose depletion. All the strains excreted galactose into the medium during growth on lactose, except for strain IMDOST40, which also displayed extremely high galactokinase (GalK) activity. Among this strain collection eight galactose-positive phenotypes sensu stricto were found and their fermentation characteristics and Leloir enzyme activities were measured. As the gal promoter seems to play an important role in the galactose phenotype, the galR-galK intergenic region was sequenced for all strains yielding eight different nucleotide sequences (NS1 to NS8). The gal promoter played an important role in the Gal-positive phenotype but did not determine it exclusively. Although GalT and GalE activities were detected for all Gal-positive strains, GalK activity could only be detected for two out of eight Gal-positive strains. This finding suggests that the other six S. thermophilus strains metabolize galactose via an alternative route. For each type of fermentation profile obtained, a representative strain was chosen and four complete Leloir gene clusters were sequenced. It turned out that Gal-positive strains contained more amino acid differences within their gal genes than Gal-negative strains. Finally, the biodiversity regarding lactose-galactose utilization among the different S. thermophilus strains used in this study was shown by RAPD-PCR. Five Gal-positive strains that contain nucleotide sequence NS2 in their galR-galK intergenic region were closely related.  (+info)

Genomic organization and molecular analysis of virulent bacteriophage 2972 infecting an exopolysaccharide-producing Streptococcus thermophilus strain. (8/126)

The Streptococcus thermophilus virulent pac-type phage 2972 was isolated from a yogurt made in France in 1999. It is a representative of several phages that have emerged with the industrial use of the exopolysaccharide-producing S. thermophilus strain RD534. The genome of phage 2972 has 34,704 bp with an overall G+C content of 40.15%, making it the shortest S. thermophilus phage genome analyzed so far. Forty-four open reading frames (ORFs) encoding putative proteins of 40 or more amino acids were identified, and bioinformatic analyses led to the assignment of putative functions to 23 ORFs. Comparative genomic analysis of phage 2972 with the six other sequenced S. thermophilus phage genomes confirmed that the replication module is conserved and that cos- and pac-type phages have distinct structural and packaging genes. Two group I introns were identified in the genome of 2972. They interrupted the genes coding for the putative endolysin and the terminase large subunit. Phage mRNA splicing was demonstrated for both introns, and the secondary structures were predicted. Eight structural proteins were also identified by N-terminal sequencing and/or matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Detailed analysis of the putative minor tail proteins ORF19 and ORF21 as well as the putative receptor-binding protein ORF20 showed the following interesting features: (i) ORF19 is a hybrid protein, because it displays significant identity with both pac- and cos-type phages; (ii) ORF20 is unique; and (iii) a protein similar to ORF21 of 2972 was also found in the structure of the cos-type phage DT1, indicating that this structural protein is present in both S. thermophilus phage groups. The implications of these findings for phage classification are discussed.  (+info)

  • We showed here that two Streptococcus thermophilus fermentations, performed with the same strain in media varying only by their yeast extract composition and more especially their peptide contents, led to similar growth kinetics and final biomasses but several genes and proteins were differentially expressed/produced. (
  • One particular probiotic strain, Streptococcus thermophilus , is an important strain that may support colon health, support the immune system, protect against small intestine irritation, and also fight against antibiotic-associated diarrhea. (
  • thermophilus' (previous name Streptococcus thermophilus ) is a Gram-positive bacterium and a homofermentative facultative anaerobe, of the Streptococcus viridans viridans group.European Bioinformatics Institute: [ Bacteria Genomes - Streptococcus Thermophilus] It tests negative for cytochrome, oxidase, and catalase, and positive for alpha-hemolytic activity. (
  • Moreover, it is a proven fact that this bacterium (Streptococcus thermophilus) boosts ceramide amounts in the skin. (
  • A study carried out on mice using Streptococcus thermophilus indicates that the bacterium considerably reduces inflammation through strengthening intestinal walls and thus minimizing the likelihood of a syndrome known as leaky gut. (
  • In the present work, we aimed at investigating how the respective compositions of two different yeast extracts, with a specific focus on peptide content, influenced Streptococcus thermophilus metabolism during growth under pH-controlled conditions. (
  • Z95921 Streptococcus thermophilus sodA gene. (
  • M63636 Streptococcus thermophilus beta-D-galactosidase (lacZ) gene, complete cds. (
  • In Streptococcus thermophilus , production of ComX is transient and tightly regulated during growth: it is positively regulated by the cell-cell communication system ComRS during the activation phase and negatively regulated during the shut-off phase by unidentified late competence gene(s). (
  • In addition to free amino acids quantification, we used a multi-omics approach (peptidomics, proteomics and transcriptomics) to identify peptide initially present in the two culture media, and to follow S. thermophilus gene expression and bacterial protein production during growth. (
  • However, transcriptomics and proteomics showed differential gene expression and protein production in several S. thermophilus metabolic pathways, especially amino acid, citrate, urease, purine and pyrimidine metabolisms. (
  • Probiotics are important for a lot of reasons, and Streptococcus thermophilus is one that needs to be in your probiotic supplement formula. (
  • There is a wide array of strong probiotics and one such and which is cited as most potent is known as Streptococcus thermophilus. (
  • One way to bind molecules of cholesterol and prevent them from seeping to our bloodstream is by use of probiotics like Streptococcus thermophilus. (
  • Similar to other known probiotics, Streptococcus thermophilus is associated with several minor effects. (
  • Similar to other probiotics, it is important to first consult with your physician so as to ensure you take the correct products that contain Streptococcus thermophilus. (
  • Scientists are continually working on other probiotics aside from thermophilus bacteria to identify how they work and which health benefits they have. (
  • It is now clinically proven that Streptococcus thermophilus reduces severe diarrhea especially when it comes to infants. (
  • Here, we combined mathematical modeling and experimental approaches to identify the components of the ComRS system which are critical for both dynamics and amplitude of ComX production in S. thermophilus . (
  • The means by which S. thermophilus defends itself against bacteriophage is the subject of much current research, in particular the CRISPR system. (
  • Abstract:A wild microorganism, isolated from HTST pasteurized milk processed in a continuous 4 hour operation, was identified as Streptococcus thermophilus, giving greater celular growth in M17 broth, incubated for 6 hours at 45°C. The viable cell count was evaluated in PCA, APT, :MRS e M17, the media M17 and MRS being shown to allow for better growth. (
  • We showed here that two Streptococcus thermophilus fermentations, performed with the same strain in media varying only by their yeast extract composition and more especially their peptide contents, led to similar growth kinetics and final biomasses but several genes and proteins were differentially expressed/produced. (
  • On the other hand, both the amounts of EPS and the carbohydrate consumption rates were influenced by the type of carbohydrate source used during S. thermophilus Sfi20 fermentations. (
  • For instance, streptococci use cell-cell communication systems to synchronize competence induction between individuals, allowing them to behave such as a multicellular organism. (
  • After storage at 10°C for 6 days, 57.1% of Streptococcus cells remained viable, and organism formed adhesive structures on stainless steel surfaces in 20 hours, these being observed using a scanning eletronic microscope. (
  • The means by which S. thermophilus defends itself against bacteriophage is the subject of much current research, in particular the CRISPR system. (
  • Among the four CRISPR-Cas systems present in Streptococcus thermophilus , CRISPR1 and CRISPR3 have the ability to readily acquire new spacers following bacteriophage or plasmid exposure. (
  • Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus thermophilus 81. (
  • In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, infants aged 5-24 months who were admitted to a chronic medical care hospital were randomised to receive a standard infant formula or the same formula supplemented with Bifidobacterium bifidum and S thermophilus. (
  • The supplementation of infant formula with B bifidum and S thermophilus can reduce the incidence of acute diarrhoea and rotavirus shedding in infants admitted to hospital. (
  • At least 81 types of Streptococcus thermophilus can been found in commercial yogurts and cheeses. (
  • Streptococcus Thermophilus F reeze Drying Powder es uno de los cultivos típicos de fermentación de yogur, y proporciona L. bulgaricus con ácido fólico y ácido fórmico que utiliza para la síntesis de purinas. (
  • Streptococcus Thermophilus F reeze Drying Powder is one of typical yogurt fermentation culture, and provides L. bulgaricus with folic acid and formic acid which it uses for purine synthesis. (
  • Catégorie de produit de Cocci Spp , nous sommes des fabricants spécialisés en provenance de Chine, Streptococcus Thermophilus , Streptococcus Thermophilus Fos fournisseurs / usine, de haute qualité en gros produits de Streptococcus Thermophilus Freeze Drying Powder R & D et de fabrication, nous avons le parfait service après-vente et support technique. (
  • We report here the complete genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus DGCC 7710. (
  • Here, we report a survey of 35 samples of whey derived from 27 dairy fermentation facilities in ten countries against a panel of S. thermophilus strains. (
  • Compared to the non- A. awamori -fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori -fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. (
  • Et ce groupe peut être utilisé pour la fermentation des plantes, en particulier dans la fermentation des jus de fruits. (
  • In this study, b-galactosidase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were measured in Streptococcus thermophilus cells to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide availability on the homolactic fermentation process . (