A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Topoisomerase IV binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting 2 parC and 2 parE subunits. Topoisomerase IV is a decatenating enzyme that resolves interlinked daughter chromosomes following DNA replication.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Pathological processes involving the NASOPHARYNX.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.
Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharnyx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation in the upper body and respiratory tract.
The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Immune response capacity after human splenic autotransplantation: restoration of response to individual pneumococcal vaccine subtypes. (1/5890)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate features of general immune function, in particular the restoration of the humoral immune response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides, in humans undergoing a spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: After splenectomy, patients have an increased risk of overwhelming infection or sepsis involving encapsulated bacteria such as pneumococci. The value of human spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma has long been questioned. Mononuclear phagocyte system function appeared to be similar to that in splenectomized persons. The presence of specific antipneumococcal antibodies would allow other parts of the mononuclear phagocyte system, such as those in the liver, to phagocytose opsonized bacteria. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy followed by autotransplantation were compared with the next 14 consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy alone. After a minimum of 6 months, the patients were vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Blood samples were taken at the time of vaccination and after 3 and 6 weeks for antipneumococcal capsular polysaccharides IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against types 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 23. Splenic regrowth was evaluated by scintigraphy. RESULTS: Surprisingly, several of the nonautotransplanted patients showed scintigraphic activity, indicating the presence of either accessory spleens or traumatic seeding (splenosis). Significant antibody titer increases (more than twofold) were found for both IgM and IgG in the autotransplanted patients. Splenectomized-only patients showed no significant increase in Ig levels in patients without splenic regrowth and partial improvement in patients with splenosis/accessory spleens. CONCLUSIONS: Considering this significant antipneumococcal antibody increase, spleen autotransplants can be expected to permit an adequate humoral response to pneumococcal infections and presumably also to other TI-2 antigens, and to protect against overwhelming postsplenectomy infection or sepsis.  (+info)

Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease in Switzerland, 1985-1994. Swiss Pneumococcal Study Group. (2/5890)

BACKGROUND: Cost effective use of new vaccines against pneumococcal disease in children requires detailed information about the local epidemiology of pneumococcal infections. METHODS: Data on 393 culture-confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal infection in children (<17 years) hospitalized in Swiss paediatric clinics were collected retrospectively for the years 1985-1994. RESULTS: Meningitis (42%) was most frequent, followed by pneumonia (28%) and bacteraemia (26%). The overall annual incidence was 2.7 cases per 100000 children <17 years old and 11 cases per 100000 children <2 years old. Annual incidence rates were stable over the study period. Lethality was high for meningitis (8.6%) and bacteraemia (8.9%). A history of basal skull fracture was reported in 3.3% of children with pneumococcal meningitis. Residence in a rural region was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal infection (relative risk = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.00). CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease seems to be less frequent in Switzerland than in other European and non-European countries. This may be due to differences in diagnostic strategies and lower frequency of risk factors such as the use of day care. Children with a history of basal skull fracture are at increased risk for pneumococcal meningitis. Further investigation of the association of invasive pneumococcal infection with rural residence and the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections might give new insight into the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and the development of antibiotic resistance.  (+info)

Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. (3/5890)

We examined the repertoire of antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B capsular polysaccharide induced with the conventional polysaccharide vaccine in adults at the molecular level two ways. In the first, we purified from the sera of seven vaccinees antipneumococcal antibodies and determined their amino acid sequences. Their VH regions are mainly the products of VH3 family genes (candidate genes, 3-23, 3-07, 3-66, and 3-74), but the product of a VH1 family gene (candidate gene, 1-03) is occasionally used. All seven individuals have small amounts of polyclonal kappa+ antibodies (Vkappa1 to Vkappa4 families), although kappa+ antibodies are occasionally dominated by antibodies formed with the product of the A27 Vkappa gene. In contrast, lambda+ anti-6B antibodies are dominated by the antibodies derived from one of 3 very similar Vlambda2 family genes (candidate genes, 2c, 2e, and 2a2) and Clambda1 gene product. The Vlambda2(+) antibodies express the 8.12 idiotype, which is expressed on anti-double-stranded-DNA antibodies. In one case, Vlambda is derived from a rarely expressed Vlambda gene, 10a. In the second approach, we studied a human hybridoma (Dob1) producing anti-6B antibody. Its VH region sequence is closely related to those of the 3-15 VH gene (88% nucleotide homology) and JH4 (92% homology). Its VL region is homologous to the 2a2 Vlambda2 gene (91%) and Jlambda1/Clambda1. Taken together, the V region of human anti-6B antibodies is commonly formed by a VH3 and a Vlambda2 family gene product.  (+info)

Previous respiratory tract infections and antibiotic consumption in children with long- and short-term carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. (4/5890)

Previous respiratory tract infections (RTI) and antibiotics consumption as possible risk factors for extended duration of PRP carriage were investigated in 24 children (cases) with previous carriage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci (PRP) for a duration exceeding 120 days (median 168 days) and a control group of 53 children with a duration of PRP carriage less than 90 days (median 21 days). The cases had experienced 0.99 episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) per life-year compared to 0.79 episodes in the controls (P = 0.32). For antibiotic-treated RTI other than AOM, the corresponding numbers were 0.49 and 0.29 episodes per life-year, respectively (P = 0.01). No differences in antibiotic consumption in the 3 months preceding the carriage, nor during the carriage period were noted. Other factors than impaired host defence to respiratory tract pathogens or antibiotics consumption seem to be more important in determining the duration of PRP carriage.  (+info)

Pneumococcal psoas abscess. (5/5890)

A 47-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe low back pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left sided psoas muscle abscess. On the first hospital day, US-guided drainage was performed. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from the pus. Thereafter, the open drainage of the abscess and antibiotic treatment were given with subsequent clinical improvement. Only 10 cases of pneumococcal psoas abscess have been previously reported in the world literature.  (+info)

Increased activity of 16-membered lactone ring macrolides against erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae: characterization of South African isolates. (6/5890)

The susceptibility of 40 erythromycin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and 40 multiply-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to six macrolide antibiotics, representing 14-, 15- and 16-membered lactone ring structures, was tested. The genetic basis for macrolide resistance in the strains was also determined. Both erm and mef determinants were encountered in the 36 S. pneumoniae isolates tested, but only mef in the five S. pyogenes isolates tested. All isolates showed cross-resistance among the 14-membered macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin and the 15-membered macrolide, azithromycin. However, the erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes isolates retained full susceptibility to spiramycin and josamycin (16-membered agents). These latter two antibiotics were also more active than the other macrolides against erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates, especially josamycin which was 8-64 times more active than erythromycin; spiramycin was only two to eight times more active than erythromycin.  (+info)

Moxifloxacin: a comparison with other antimicrobial agents of in-vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. (7/5890)

Two hundred representative isolates, including 26 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with intermediate resistance to penicillin, were selected from a collection obtained from blood cultures of patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. The MICs of moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039), grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline and penicillin G were determined by a standard agar dilution technique. Moxifloxacin had the highest in-vitro activity against S. pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.25 mg/L; MIC range 0.06-0.25 mg/L). The MIC90 values were one dilution lower than those obtained with sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin, three dilutions lower than those obtained with levofloxacin, and four dilutions lower than those of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.  (+info)

Maternal immunization. (8/5890)

Maternal immunization can enhance passive immunity of infants to pathogens that cause life-threatening illnesses. In most instances, immunization during pregnancy will provide important protection for the woman as well as for her offspring. The tetanus toxoid and influenza vaccines are examples of vaccines that provide a double benefit. Other vaccines under evaluation include those for respiratory syncytial virus, pneumococci, group B streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Although most IgG antibody crosses the placenta in the third trimester, the process is time-dependent, dictating that immunization should be accomplished ideally at least 6 weeks prior to delivery. IgG1 antibodies are transferred preferentially. Maternal immunization has not interfered with active immunization of the infant. Inactivated vaccines administered in the third trimester of pregnancy pose no known risk to the woman or to her fetus.  (+info)

Background. Penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates are confined mainly to a few sero-groups. Capsular transformation may serve as a mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance to new serotypes. Methods. Antibiogram and molecular typing, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), were performed on 46 nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid (MEF) isolates expressing serotype 11A, 45 MEF isolates expressing serotype 15B/C (recovered during 1998-2003 from Israeli children ...
Gene target information for rpmG - 50S ribosomal protein L33 (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Gene target information for rpsI - 30S ribosomal protein S9 (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among children and the elderly. The ability to effectively treat pneumococcal infection has been compromised due to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance, particularly to β-lactam drugs. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and molecular evolution of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolated from invasive diseases before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in Casablanca, Morocco. Isolates were obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory of Ibn Rochd University Hospital Centre of Casablanca. Serogrouping was done by Pneumotest Kit and serotyping by the Quellung capsular swelling. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by disk diffusion and E-test methods. The PNSP were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by genotyping of pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x genes. A total of 361 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from 2007
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization with penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a child-care center. AU - Boken, Daniel J.. AU - Chartrand, Stephen A.. AU - Goering, Richard V.. AU - Kruger, Robert. AU - Harrison, Christopher J.. PY - 1995/10. Y1 - 1995/10. N2 - We obtained nasopharyngeal cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae from 54 children ages 2 to 24 months attending an Omaha child-care center (CCC) in April 1994. Thirty-two (59%) of the 54 children were colonized with S. pneumoniae belonging to serotypes 23, 19, 6 and 11. Seventeen (53%) of the pneumococcal isolates were highly resistant to penicillin (minimal inhibitory concentration ≥2.0 mUg/ml; HR-SP) and 7 (22%) were intermediately resistant to penicillin (0.12 ≤minimal inhibitory concentration ≤ 1.0 mUg/ml; IR-SP). Within each pneumococcal capsular serotype, there were 1 to 3 DNA subtypes based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis. A single pulsed field gel electrophoresis strain predominated in most CCC rooms, ...
The pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) is a surface-exposed protein of the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. It belongs to a group of proteins designated the lipoprotein receptor I antigen family. The gene encoding PsaA from an encapsulated strain of pneumococcal serotype 6B was cloned and sequenced. The peptide sequence was compared to that of homologs found in S. pneumoniae serotype 2, viridans streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. Identity values among the deduced peptides ranged from 57 to 98%. The polymorphism of psaA was examined among the 23 encapsulated vaccine serotypes by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Ten different enzymes were used to analyze 80 strains representing the 23 serotypes in a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. This analysis showed that restriction sites within the gene were highly conserved, with only a minor variation occurring in 10% of the strains, the result of an additional Tsp509I site. The lack of variation for the ...
Few data exist on the distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in many countries and in non-invasive disease overall. Here, data are presented from 772 paediatric isolates from children with community-acquired respiratory tract infections isolated from the PROTEKT global surveillance study during 1999-2000. Overall, 60.0 % of isolates were covered by the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine formulation (PCV7), with greater coverage in the USA compared with Europe (69.6 vs 55.5 %, P = 0.014). Geographically dispersed clones of serogroups 3, 11 and 15 accounted for most of the isolates outside PCV7 coverage. Overall, macrolide, penicillin and cotrimoxazole non-susceptibility rates were high; however, all isolates were susceptible to telithromycin. Although only 7.4 % of isolates were resistant to amoxycillin/clavulanate, a higher prevalence of resistance was found in isolates from the USA and South Korea. This study shows the feasibility and importance of serotyping antibiotic surveillance study
We investigated changes in serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities among 386 isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae collected from numerous hospitals in Korea from 1996 to 2008. Serotypes 19F (9.8 %), 23F (8.3 %), 19A (7.8 %), 6A (7.5 %), 3 (7.3 %), 9V (6.5 %), 6B (6.2 %), 14 (4.9 %), 1 (3.9 %), 11A (3.9 %) and 4 (3.1 %) represented 69.2 % of all isolates. While the overall proportion of PCV7 serotypes was stable over time, we observed modest decreases in children <5 years old and in adults ≥65 years old between 1996-1999 and 2007-2008. An increased prevalence of non-PCV7 serotypes in these age groups was primarily attributable to an increase in serotypes 3, 6A and 19A. Most invasive S. pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance rates to erythromycin (74.9 %), tetracycline (71.1 %) and clindamycin (61.7 %). Between 1996-2003 and 2004-2008, non-susceptibility rates to cefotaxime and multi-drugs (three or more classes) in PCV7 serotypes showed a declining trend, while in non-PCV7
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Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection - Pipeline Review, H2 2015 Summary Global Markets Directs, Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection - Pipeline Review, H2 - Market research report and industry analysis - 9643878
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mevalonate analogues as substrates of enzymes in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway of Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Kudoh, Takashi. AU - Park, Chan Sun. AU - Lefurgy, Scott T.. AU - Sun, Meihao. AU - Michels, Theodore. AU - Leyh, Thomas S.. AU - Silverman, Richard B.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Survival of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae requires a functional mevalonate pathway, which produces isopentenyl diphosphate, the essential building block of isoprenoids. Flux through this pathway appears to be regulated at the mevalonate kinase (MK) step, which is strongly feedback-inhibited by diphosphomevalonate (DPM), the penultimate compound in the pathway. The human mevalonate pathway is not regulated by DPM, making the bacterial pathway an attractive antibiotic target. Since DPM has poor drug characteristics, being highly charged, we propose to use unphosphorylated, cell-permeable prodrugs based on mevalonate that will be phosphorylated in turn by MK and ...
Additional file 1: of Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes among children in India prior to the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a cross-sectional study
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel quantitative PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae using the competence regulator gene target comX. AU - Habets, M.N.. AU - Cremers, A.J.. AU - Bos, M.P.. AU - Savelkoul, Paul H.. AU - Eleveld, M.J.. AU - Meis, J.F.. AU - Hermans, P.W.. AU - Melchers, W.J.. AU - de Jonge, M.I.. AU - Diavatopoulos, D.A.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for an estimated 1.6 million deaths worldwide every year. While rapid detection and timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics is preferred, this is often difficult due to the amount of time that detection with blood cultures takes. In this study, a novel quantitative PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae was developed. To identify novel targets, we analysed the pneumococcal genome for unique, repetitive DNA sequences. This approach identified comX, which is conserved and present in duplicate copies in Streptococcus pneumoniae but not in other bacterial species. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen responsible for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (1). In 2000, the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the U.S. childhood vaccine schedule, followed by the PCV13 in 2010 (2). Conjugate vaccines were shown to be immunogenic and prevented pneumococcal disease in children and even in immunocompromised patients (3). However, it has been known that vaccine use modifies the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease and colonization, and investigations have documented increases in the rates of carriage and infections caused by non-PCV7 and later non-PCV13 serotypes (1, 4-6).. Recently, the serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae isolates recovered in the United States (2011-2012) was investigated (7). Serotypes 19A, 3, and 35B were found to be the most prevalent serotypes among S. pneumoniae recovered ...
As is characteristic of the lactic acid bacteria, S. pneumoniae is a nutritionally fastidious facultative anaerobe requiring a complex medium for growth. This bacterium obtains energy strictly via fermentation and is incapable of respiratory metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically, as is true of all streptococcal species (38). The only nutrients from which the streptococci can obtain sufficient energy to support growth and cell division are carbohydrates, which are oxidized to pyruvate via glycolysis (with the exception of a few species that can ferment arginine). We identified a large set of genes that encode enzymes necessary for transport of at least 12 different carbohydrates into the cell and for their subsequent conversion to an intermediate in glycolysis.. S. pneumoniae R6, as expected, encodes all genes necessary for the oxidation of carbohydrates to pyruvate via glycolysis and would be expected to reoxidize most, if not all, of the NADH produced by the reduction of pyruvic acid ...
As is characteristic of the lactic acid bacteria, S. pneumoniae is a nutritionally fastidious facultative anaerobe requiring a complex medium for growth. This bacterium obtains energy strictly via fermentation and is incapable of respiratory metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically, as is true of all streptococcal species (38). The only nutrients from which the streptococci can obtain sufficient energy to support growth and cell division are carbohydrates, which are oxidized to pyruvate via glycolysis (with the exception of a few species that can ferment arginine). We identified a large set of genes that encode enzymes necessary for transport of at least 12 different carbohydrates into the cell and for their subsequent conversion to an intermediate in glycolysis.. S. pneumoniae R6, as expected, encodes all genes necessary for the oxidation of carbohydrates to pyruvate via glycolysis and would be expected to reoxidize most, if not all, of the NADH produced by the reduction of pyruvic acid ...
Genom Data. 2017 Feb 27;12:38-40. doi: 10.1016/j.gdata.2017.02.013. eCollection 2017.. Impact of aspirin on the transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.. Afzal M1, Shafeeq S2.. Author information. Abstract. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a medicine used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. Here, we for the very first time reported the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of aspirin-regulated genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presence of 5 mM aspirin in chemically-defined medium (CDM) using microarray analysis. Our results showed that expression of several genes was differentially expressed in the presence of aspirin. These genes were further grouped into COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups) functional categories based on the putative functions of the corresponding proteins. Most of affected genes belong to COG category E (Amino acid transport and metabolism), G (Carbohydrate transport and metabolism), J (Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis), and I (Lipid ...
Abstract(#br) Background(#br) Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 is among the most common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in The Gambia. We anticipate that introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) into routine vaccination in The Gambia will reduce serotype 5 IPD. However, the emergence of new clones that have altered their genetic repertoire through capsular switching or genetic recombination after vaccination with PCV-13 poses a threat to this public health effort. In order to monitor for potential genetic changes post-PCV-13 vaccination, we established the baseline population structure, epidemiology, and antibiotic resistance patterns of serotype 5 before the introduction of PCV-13.(#br) Methods(#br)Fifty-five invasive S. pneumoniae... serotype 5 isolates were recovered from January 2009 to August 2011 in a population-based study in the Upper River Region of The Gambia. Serotyping was done by latex agglutination and confirmed by ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections among children in India. India introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in several states in 2017, and is expected to expand to nationwide coverage in the near future. To establish a baseline for measuring the impact of PCV in India, we assessed overall and serotype-specific nasopharyngeal carriage in two pediatric populations. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Palwal District, Haryana, from December 2016 to July 2017, prior to vaccine introduction. Children 2-59 months of age with clinical pneumonia seeking healthcare and those in the community with no clear illness were targeted for enrollment. A nasopharyngeal swab was collected and tested for pneumococcus using conventional culture and sequential multiplex PCR. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance using an E test. Children were considered colonized if pneumococcus was isolated by culture or PCR. The prevalence of
Routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), available since 2000, has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) attributable to serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. However, IPD caused by nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes has increased, and nonvaccine serotypes are now responsible for the majority of the remaining cases of IPD occurring in children. A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration, which, in addition to the 7 serotypes included in the original PCV7, contains the 6 pneumococcal serotypes responsible for 63% of IPD cases now occurring in children younger than 5 years. Because of the expanded coverage provided by PCV13, it will replace PCV7. This statement provides recommendations for (1) the transition from PCV7 to PCV13; (2) the routine use of PCV13 for healthy children and children with an underlying medical condition that increases ...
BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 12;16(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1335-3.. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation in children and adolescents with asthma: impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and evaluation of potential effect of thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.. Esposito S1, Terranova L2, Patria MF3, Marseglia GL4, Miraglia Del Giudice M5, Bodini A6, Martelli A7, Baraldi E8, Mazzina O9, Tagliabue C10, Licari A11, Ierardi V12, Lelii M13, Principi N14.. Author information. Abstract. BACKGROUND:. The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in a group of school-aged children and adolescents with asthma because these results might indicate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of such patients and the potential protective efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).. METHODS:. Oropharyngeal samples were obtained from 423 children with documented asthma (300 males, 70.9 %), and tested for the ...
Neutrophils, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes, comprise a crucial component of innate immunity, controlling bacterial and fungal infection through a combination of both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms. Indeed, neutrophils are believed to play an important role in controlling infection caused by the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the method by which neutrophils kill the pneumococcus as well as other Gram-positive bacteria, is not fully understood. We investigated human neutrophil killing of the pneumococcus in a complement-dependent opsonophagocytic assay. In contrast to other Gram-positive organisms, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase did not affect killing of S. pneumoniae. Supernatant from degranulated neutrophils killed the pneumococcus, suggesting a role for granular products. When neutrophil granule proteases were inhibited with either a protease mixture, or specific serine protease inhibitors 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate, ...
Abstract. A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to define the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and circulating serotypes in Laos. Of 10,799 patients with hemocultures and 353 patients with cerebrospinal fluid samples, 0.21% and 5.4%, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, giving a total of 35 IPD patients. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect serotypes represented in the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A blinded evaluation comparing serotype as defined by the Quellung reaction versus the polymerase chain reaction demonstrated 100% concordance. The most frequent serotype (n = 33 patients) was 1 (n = 6), followed by serotypes 5, 6A/B/C, 14, and 23F. Serotypes represented in the 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) infected 39% of patients, with 73% coverage for the PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines. Although the sample size is small, these data suggest that the PCV-7 vaccine may have relatively low efficacy in Laos.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) are Gram-positive cocci and commensals of the human upper respiratory tract. Pneumococcal pathogenesis requires adherence to host cells and dissemination through cellular barriers and to evade host defense mechanisms. The Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is an important virulence factor which has a crucial role in pneumococcal adhesion to host cells and immune evasion by manipulating the host complement system. To elucidate the pneumococcal adherence and uptake mechanism via factor H glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate and heparin) were employed as competitive inhibitors in infection experiments with epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Glycosaminoglycans significantly inhibited the FH mediated pneumococcal adherence and subsequent invasion to host epithelial cells. Furthermore, the short consensus repeats of FH which promotes the adhesion of pneumococci to host cells were identified by blocking experiments with domain mapped
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) are Gram-positive cocci and commensals of the human upper respiratory tract. Pneumococcal pathogenesis requires adherence to host cells and dissemination through cellular barriers and to evade host defense mechanisms. The Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is an important virulence factor which has a crucial role in pneumococcal adhesion to host cells and immune evasion by manipulating the host complement system. To elucidate the pneumococcal adherence and uptake mechanism via factor H glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate and heparin) were employed as competitive inhibitors in infection experiments with epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Glycosaminoglycans significantly inhibited the FH mediated pneumococcal adherence and subsequent invasion to host epithelial cells. Furthermore, the short consensus repeats of FH which promotes the adhesion of pneumococci to host cells were identified by blocking experiments with domain mapped
The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence. Over the past two decades, effectors of cellular killing (i.e., fratricides) have been recognized as important targets of the pneumococcal competence QS pathway. Recently, direct interactions between the ComCDE and the paralogous BlpRH pathway, regulating bacteriocin production, were identified, further strengthening the interconnections between these two QS systems. Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibacterial activity of a competence-stimulating peptide in experimental sepsis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Oggioni, Marco R.. AU - Iannelli, Francesco. AU - Ricci, Susanna. AU - Chiavolini, Damiana. AU - Parigi, Riccardo. AU - Trappetti, Claudia. AU - Claverys, Jean Pierre. AU - Pozzi, Gianni. PY - 2004/12/1. Y1 - 2004/12/1. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major cause of human disease, produces a 17-mer autoinducer peptide pheromone (competence-stimulating peptide [CSP]) for the control of competence for genetic transformation. Due to previous work linking CSP to stress phenotypes, we set up an in vivo sepsis model to assay its effect on virulence. Our data demonstrate a significant increase in the rates of survival of mice, reductions of blood S. pneumoniae counts, and prolonged times to death for mice treated with CSP. In vitro the dose of CSP used in the animal model produced a transitory inhibition of growth. When a mutant with a mutation in the CSP sensor ...
We monitored the timing of acquisition of nasopharyngeal colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 125 healthy infants during their first 2 years of life. S. pneumoniae was isolated at least once from 59 (47%) of 125 infants aged between 2 and 18 months. Twenty-four infants (19%) were colonized with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae at some time during the study. During the course of this investigation, we identified sequential pneumococcal isolates of the same serotype from 5 infants, in which the penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increased over time. For 4 of the 5 infants, sequential isolates were identical, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Sequential S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal isolates from some healthy infants demonstrated drift in penicillin MIC values over time, from penicillin-susceptible to penicillin-resistant.. ...
A novel form of phosphocholine (PC), p-nitrophenyl-6-(O-phosphocholine)hydroxyhexanoate (EPC) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) has been compared with unencapsulated, avirulent Streptococcus pneumoniae (R36a) and with the traditional thymus-dependent form of PC, diazophenylphosphocholine (DPPC)-conjugated KLH for its vaccine potential against virulent S. pneumoniae. Immunization with any of these three PC-containing Ags protects normal mice against a lethal challenge with 10(4) S. pneumoniae, whereas only EPC-KLH provides total protection to Xid mice. DPPC-KLH and unencapsulated S. pneumoniae confer less than 40% protection in Xid mice. Passive transfer of a PC-specific hybridoma Ab made from EPC-KLH-immunized Xid mice also provided protection against lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae. Protective anti-PC Ab were capable of binding to the surface of virulent bacteria, whereas anti-PC Ab incapable of binding to the bacterial surface failed to protect. Furthermore, serum Ab from EPC-KLH ...
The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its impact on the outcome among hospitalized patients of pneumococcal pneumonia acquired in the community. Consecutive patients with culture-proven pneumococcal pneumonia were prospectively studied with regard to the...
Process for producing purified capsular polysaccharides from a streptococcus pneumoniae cell lysate and process for manufacturing a pneumococcal vaccine. An abbreviated process for producing a solution containing substantially purified capsular polysaccharides from a streptococcus pneumoniae cell lysate broth is described. ultrafiltration and diafiltration of s. clarified pneumoniae followed by adjusting the ph to less than 4.5, preferably about 3.5, precipitating at least 98% of the protein in the solution without seriously affecting the polysaccharide yield. In addition, following ultrafiltration, diafiltration and acidification at a pH of less than 4.5, activated carbon filtration precipitates at least 90% of the remainder of the protein, without seriously affecting polysaccharide yield. exemplarily, the serotypes of s. Non-limiting pneumoniae which may be purified using the abbreviated process of the invention are 1, 4, 5, 6a, 6b, 7f, 9v, 14, 18c, 19a, 19f and 23f. in one embodiment,
The bacterial chromosome is compacted in a manner optimal for DNA transactions to occur. The degree of compaction results from the level of DNA-supercoiling and the presence of nucleoid-binding proteins. DNA-supercoiling is homeostatically maintained by the opposing activities of relaxing DNA topoisomerases and negative supercoil-inducing DNA gyrase. DNA-supercoiling acts as a general cis regulator of transcription, which can be superimposed upon other types of more specific trans regulatory mechanism. Transcriptomic studies on the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, which has a relatively small genome (~2 Mb) and few nucleoid-binding proteins, have been performed under conditions of local and global changes in supercoiling. The response to local changes induced by fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which target DNA gyrase subunit A and/or topoisomerase IV, involves an increase in oxygen radicals which reduces cell viability, while the induction of global supercoiling changes by novobiocin (a DNA gyrase
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Different Types of Nasopharyngeal Swabs in Children. AU - Dube, Felix S.. AU - Kaba, Mamadou. AU - Whittaker, Elizabeth. AU - Zar, Heather J.. AU - Nicol, Mark P.. PY - 2013/6/26. Y1 - 2013/6/26. N2 - Background:A better understanding of the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is important to assess the impact of vaccination and the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. We compared the recovery of S. pneumoniae from nylon flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs.Methods:The recovery of S. pneumoniae from mocked specimens using flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs were compared by culture. The yield from paired nasopharyngeal (NP) samples obtained from healthy children sampled with flocked and Dacron swabs was also determined using culture and lytA-targeted real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Results:Using mock specimen, the percentage recovery of S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (serotype 19F) strain from the flocked ...
Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen found among lung cancer patients that has shown increased resistance towards various antibiotics. Reports on bacterial colonization especially S. pneumoniae colonization in patients with lung cancer are scarce.The study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae isolated from lung cancer patients with pneumonia infection not undergoing any surgical procedure.Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples for blood culture and PCR were collected from 152 lung cancer patients with pneumonia. Blood culture and BAL specimens were cultured to isolate S. pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration assay.Of the 152 blood samples, 85 (55.9%) samples from blood culture method and 97 (63.8%) samples from BAL specimens were positive for bacterial growth. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant organism
EMIROGLU, Melike et al. Recurrent meningitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a girl with cochlear implant and head trauma despite 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2019, vol.117, n.4, pp.e373-e376. ISSN 0325-0075. http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.e373.. Recurrent bacterial meningitis is a very rare phenomenon in children. Skull base fractures and cochlear implant are the important predisposing factors and, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequently isolated agent. Implementation of 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) has reduced the occurence of invasive pneumococcal diseases. Vaccination breakthrough is typically related to underlying predisposing conditions. Herein, we reported recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a patient with a cochlear implant who experienced a head trauma after being fully vaccinated with PCV13. The patient experienced three meningitis episodes within one year. S.pneumoniae was determined on CSF culture in the ...
We have analyzed by gene amplification and sequencing mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants obtained during therapy or in vitro. Mutations leading to substitutions in ParC were detected in the two mutants obtained in vivo, BM4203-R (substitution of a histidine for an aspartate at position 84 [Asp-84--,His]; Staphylococcus aureus coordinates) and BM4204-R (Ser-80--,Phe), and in two mutants obtained in vitro (Ser-80--,Tyr). An additional mutant obtained in vitro, BM4205-R3, displayed a higher level of fluoroquinolone resistance and had a mutation in gyrA leading to a Ser-84--,Phe change. We could not detect any mutation in the three remaining mutants obtained in vitro. Total DNA from BM4203-R, BM4204-R, and BM4205-R3 was used to transform S. pneumoniae CP1000 by selection on fluoroquinolones. For the parC mutants, transformants with phenotypes indistinguishable from those of the ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of invasive infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococci isolated at 14 different centers in Turkey between January 2011-April 2012. Totally 79 clinical isolates from invasive infections were investigated, which were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (33, 42%), blood (31, 39%) and the other sterile body fluids (15, 19%). Susceptibility to penicillin, cefotaxime and erythromycin was determined by E-test (bioMerieux, France) according to CLSI standards. Latex agglutination method was used for determination of serogroups. Serotypes were determined by the capsular swelling (Quellung reaction) method (Denmark, Statens Serum Institute). It was found that most common serotypes among 79 strains were 19 F (12, 15%), 6 A (7, 9%), 23 F (5, 6%), 6 B (4, 5%), 19 A (4, 5%) and 3 (4, 5%). For all invasive pneumococcal diseases, during the first 2 years of age, the potential coverage rates ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Knowledge of co-colonization with multiple pneumococcal serotypes is becoming very important in the light of both serotype replacement and switching as a result of vaccination. Co-colonization has been reported to occur in up to 30 % of carriers, especially in populations with high Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage rates. For the determination of co-colonization, single colonies of nasopharyngeal specimens are serotyped with the Quellung method, a costly method with a low sensitivity. Here we explore the use of a multiplex PCR to identify simultaneous carriage of the capsular serotypes targeted by the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. We applied this multiplex PCR to 50 primary cultures from the nasopharyngeal swabs of healthy Warao Amerindian children, a population with a high pneumococcal carriage rate, most of them with vaccine serotypes, and we identified a second serotype in 20 % (n=10) of the pneumococci carriers. These results were confirmed by detailed serotyping of multiple colonies isolated from the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characteristics of Streptococcus pneumoniae and atypical bacterial infections in children 2-5 years of age with community-acquired pneumonia. AU - Esposito, Susanna. AU - Bosis, Samantha. AU - Cavagna, Roberta. AU - Faelli, Nadia. AU - Begliatti, Enrica. AU - Marchisio, Paola. AU - Blasi, Francesco. AU - Bianchi, Ciro. AU - Principi, Nicola. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - The characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection were compared with those associated with atypical bacterial infection and with mixed S. pneumoniae-atypical bacterial infection in 196 children aged 2-5 years. S. pneumoniae infections were diagnosed in 48 patients (24.5%); atypical bacterial infections, in 46 (23.5%); and mixed infections, in 16 (8.2%). Although white blood cell counts and C-reactive protein levels were higher in patients with pneumococcal infections, no other clinical, laboratory, or radiographic characteristic was significantly ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with high morbidity in children, especially when related with the respiratory tract and otitis infections. The most severe complication of pneumococcal infection is invasive pneumococcal disease, including sepsis or meningitis. Although these forms of pneumococcal infection are relatively infrequent, in the neonatal period they are related with high morbidity and mortality.. Diagnosis of pneumococcal bacteremia typically relies on performing a blood culture, which is followed by gram staining, subculturing on sheep blood agar, and biochemical tests such as the bile solubility and the optochin susceptibility tests. The detection of pneumococcus may, however, take up to three days using the conventional methods. Furthermore, S. pneumoniae has a strong tendency of autolysis, which may significantly delay or hamper the diagnosis. Additionally, issues remain in the differentiation between S. pneumoniae and the closely related viridans species. GenomEra® S. ...
The relative invasive disease potential of Streptococcus pneumoniae among children after PCV introduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis ...
Few epidemiological data are available since the introduction of 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in 2010. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy Italian infants and young children and to evaluate the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal colonization. In the trimester September-December 2011 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from healthy children aged 3-59 months presenting for routine well careat 16 primary care pediatricians in Milan.SP carriage isolates were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial resistance using EUCAST breakpoints. Among 1250 enrolled children, 618 had received at least 1 dose of PCV13, 292 at least 1 dose of PCV7, 94 a combination of the two vaccines and 246 were not vaccinated. The prevalence of SP carriage was 27% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25-30).At multivariable analysis, age. ≥. 25 months (prevalence ratio [PR]. = 0.74) and use of antibiotics in the previous 3 months ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14兔多克隆抗体(ab79528)经Agg实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major public health concern, being responsible for more than 1.5 million deaths annually through pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia. Available vaccines target only a subset of serotypes, so vaccination is often accompanied by a rise in the frequency of nonvaccine serotypes. Epidemiological studies suggest that such a change in serotype frequencies is often coupled with an increase of antibiotic resistance among nonvaccine serotypes. Building on previous multilocus models for bacterial pathogen population structure, we have developed a theoretical framework incorporating variation of serotype and antibiotic resistance to examine how their associations may be affected by vaccination. Using this framework, we find that vaccination can result in a rapid increase in the frequency of preexisting resistant variants of nonvaccine serotypes due to the removal of competition from vaccine serotypes.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activity of tebipenem, a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, against penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Kobayashi, Reiko. AU - Konomi, Mami. AU - Hasegawa, Keiko. AU - Morozumi, Miyuki. AU - Sunakawa, Keisuke. AU - Ubukata, Kimiko. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. N2 - The in vitro activity of tebipenem (TBM), a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, against Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates (n = 202) was compared with those of 15 reference agents. The isolates were classified into five genotypic classes after PCR identification of abnormal pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b genes: (i) penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) isolates with no abnormal pbp genes (n = 34; 16.8%), (ii) genotypic penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (gPISP) isolates with only an abnormal pbp2x gene [gPISP (2x)] (n = 48; 23.8%), (iii) gPISP isolates with abnormal pbp1a and pbp2x genes (n = 32; 15.8%), (iv) gPISP isolates with abnormal pbp2x and pbp2b genes (n = 16; 7.9%), and (v) ...
Pneumococcal surface adhesin A (psaA) gene is universally confirmed as one of the Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesion genes, but it is disputed whether the psaA gene is a Streptococcus pneumoniae species-specific gene. In the present study, the presence of the psaA gene in 34 streptococcus mitis group isolates was identified by the PCR approach and a comparison of sequencing PCR products (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 as the control strain). Also, the evolutionary scenarios of these psaA genes in these streptococcus mitis group isolates were analyzed by a phylogenetic tree based on the housekeeping genes (sodA and rnpB) and psaA genes. As a result, a high degree of conservation of open reading frame sequences in all six Streptococcus pneumoniae strains (100% similarity) and in the other species of the streptococcus mitis group (92.6-100% similarity) was revealed. Further genetics research based on housekeeping genes and psaA gene phylogenies showed that the psaA gene was of vertical inheritance only in
Copyright: © 2017 Bittaye et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intermediate resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin in children in day-care centers. AU - Doyle, M. G.. AU - Morrow, A. L.. AU - Van, R.. AU - Pickering, L. K.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - This study was performed to determine the prevalence, serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 3 years of age in day-care centers in Houston, TX. Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained on two occasions, in March and May, 1989, from 140 children in 4 day-care centers. All penicillin- resistant S. pneumoniae organisms isolated in this study had minimum inhibitory concentrations to penicillin of between 0.1 and 0.5 μg/ml and were thus intermediately resistant. No highly resistant S. pneumoniae (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥1.0 μg/ml) was isolated in this study. Nasal carriage of S. pneumoniae occurred in 39% of children; carriage of intermediately resistant S. pneumoniae occurred in 4% of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine-mediated protection against serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae in immunodeficient mice. AU - Tian, Haijun. AU - Groner, Avi. AU - Boes, Marianne. AU - Pirofski, Liise Anne. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS) vaccines are less immunogenic in immunocompromised than immunocompetent individuals. However, neither the efficacy of PPS vaccines in immunocompromised individuals nor the host cellular subsets required for vaccine efficacy against pneumococcal disease have been directly investigated. In this study, we vaccinated CD4-deicient (CD4 -/-), CD8-deficient (CB8-/-), and secretory immunoglobulin M-deficient (sIgM-/-) mice and wild-type C57BL/6 (Wt) mice with a conjugate of PPS of serotype 3 and tetanus toxoid (PPS3-TT) and determined the antibody response and efficacy of vaccination against systemic and pulmonary challenge with ...
A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to define the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and circulating serotypes in Laos. Of 10,799 patients with hemocultures and 353 patients with cerebrospinal fluid samples, 0.21% and 5.4%, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, giving a total of 35 IPD patients. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect serotypes represented in the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A blinded evaluation comparing serotype as defined by the Quellung reaction versus the polymerase chain reaction demonstrated 100% concordance. The most frequent serotype (n = 33 patients) was 1 (n = 6), followed by serotypes 5, 6A/B/C, 14, and 23F. Serotypes represented in the 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) infected 39% of patients, with 73% coverage for the PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines. Although the sample size is small, these data suggest that the PCV-7 vaccine may have relatively low efficacy in Laos. Further studies
OBJECTIVES: The overall reported burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varies among countries in Europe. This review describes the epidemiology and serotype distribution of IPD in European children from studies published from 1990 to 2008.. METHODS: Averages were derived from all studies from all countries that had available data.. RESULTS: Before widespread immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the overall mean annual incidence of IPD in children aged ,2 years was 44.4/100 000. The mean case fatality rate for IPD was 3.5%, and resistant rates were approximately 23% for penicillin G (minimum inhibitory concentration , or =2mg/l), 41% for erythromycin, and 9% (, or =5 years) for third-generation cephalosporins. The most common serotypes causing IPD were 14, 6B, 19F, and 23F, all of which are included in PCV7. Vaccine serotype coverage ranged from 37% to 100% for PCV7, with mean increases in coverage of 7% and 16% for investigational 10- and 13-valent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endophthalmitis caused by streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Miller, John J.. AU - Scott, Ingrid. AU - Flynn, Harry W.. AU - Smiddy, William E.. AU - Corey, Richard P.. AU - Miller, Darlene. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Purpose To investigate clinical settings, management strategies, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual acuity outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods Records were reviewed of all patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae treated at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2003. Main outcome measures Visual acuity and antibiotic sensitivities. Results Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients met study inclusion criteria. The median follow-up was 7 months (range, 3 months to 10 years). Clinical settings included acute postoperative (10 eyes), corneal stitch abscess (5), corneal ulcer (3), bleb-associated (4), post-trauma ...
A double-blind, randomized study involving 264 toddlers attending day care centers was conducted to document the effect of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the carriage rate of pneumococci. Of 3750 cultures done on nasopharyngeal samples obtained from subjects during a 2-year follow-up period after vaccination, 65% were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. In all age windows, the rate of carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci was lower among subjects who received the pneumococcal vaccine than among control subjects, because the acquisition rate was lower in the former group. The effect was most pronounced among subjects aged ⩽36 months. The sample size enabled us to study protection against carriage of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F; significant protection against all serotypes except 19F was seen in the pneumococcal-vaccine group. The rate of carriage of serotype 6A (not included in the vaccine) was also reduced significantly, but the rate of carriage of serotype ...
Ubukata and coworkers (32) have designed a similar system whereby they detected penicillin resistance with DNA extracted from clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae. Their system is based on three sets of primers designed for amplification of thepbp2B gene from penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, as well as two classes of mutations of thepbp2B gene which are present in penicillin-resistant pneumococci in Japan. The primer used to detect penicillin-susceptible strains in their study most likely also amplifies DNA from resistant strains (on the basis of pbp2B sequence data of Smith and Klugman [31]), since the primer sequence covers an area of the pbp2B gene which is not unique only to penicillin-susceptible isolates. In fact, it is identical to sequences which are also found in penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates. In our study we describe four resistance primers which expand the genetic variabilities of resistance detected in the pbp2B gene.. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by ...
Linear regression analysis was used to compare penicillin MICs determined with 3,129 recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to MICs obtained with nine other beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A strong correlation between penicillin MICs and those obtained with other beta-lactams was demonstrated. It may be possible to test penicillin and use MICs obtained with penicillin to predict MICs of other beta-lactam antimicrobials for Streptococcus pneumoniae.
We observed that differences in the in vivo growth kinetics of pneumococcal strains of capsular types 3, 4, 5, and 6 were reminiscent of differences that we had previously reported for type 2 strain D39 and its pneumolysin-deficient mutant, PLN. Capsular type 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 exhibits exponential growth in the blood of XID mice until the death of the mice at 24 to 36 h. In contrast, PLN reaches a plateau in growth that is maintained for several days. Capsular type 3 and 5 strains exhibited exponential growth and caused rapid death of XID mice following intravenous challenge, similar to the observation with D39. Strains of capsular types 4 and 6 exhibited growth kinetics reminiscent of PLN. Since the observed differences in the pathogenesis of types 3 and 5 compared to 4 and 6 were reminiscent of the effects of pneumolysin deficiency in type 2, we examined the levels of in vitro pneumolysin production for the entire panel of strains. The onset of pneumolysin production in most ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission in Portuguese and Finnish day-care centres. AU - Pessoa, Delphine. AU - Hoti, Fabian. AU - Syrjänen, Ritva. AU - Sá-Leão, Raquel. AU - Kaijalainen, Tarja. AU - Gomes, M. Gabriela M. AU - Auranen, Kari. PY - 2013/4/18. Y1 - 2013/4/18. N2 - Background: Day-care centre (DCC) attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in the population. The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage is highest in DCC attendees but varies across countries and is found to be consistently lower in Finland than in Portugal. We compared key parameters underlying pneumococcal transmission in DCCs to understand which of these contributed to the observed differences in carriage prevalence.Methods: Longitudinal data about serotype-specific carriage in DCC attendees in Portugal (47 children in three rooms; mean age 2 years; range 1-3 years) and Finland (91 children in seven rooms; mean age 4 ...
The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance and vaccine escape in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae can be largely attributed to competence-induced transformation. To better understand why competence-induced transformation is so effective, we studied the dynamics of this process at the single-cell level. We show that within isogenic populations, all cells become naturally competent and bind exogenous DNA. In addition, we find that transformation is highly efficient and that the chromosomal location of the integration site or whether the transformed gene is encoded on the leading or lagging strand has limited influence on recombination efficiency. Indeed, we have observed multiple recombination events in single recipients in real-time. However, because of saturation of the DNA uptake and integration machinery and because a single stranded donor DNA replaces the original allele, we find that transformation efficiency has an upper threshold of approximately 50% of the population.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae are fastidious bacteria. Care must be taken during transport of specimen. Specimens must be transported promptly to the laboratory preferably within 1-2 hours.. Blood can only be transported after collecting in a culture broth containing appropriate anticoagulant. The inoculated medium can be held at room temperature (20°C- 25 °C) for 4 - 6 hours before incubation at 37 °C. The samples during transportation should be protected from extremes of temperature (less than 18 °C, more than 30 °C) and direct sunlight.. SOP for processing clinical specimens for laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae will be continued in the following posts: ...
After our recent discovery of a Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A superbug (Legacy strain) that is resistant to all Food and Drug Administration-approved antimicrobial drugs for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children, other S. pneumoniae isolates from children with AOM were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among 40 isolates studied, 16 (40%) were serotype 19A, and 9 (23%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. Two others had unreported sequence types (STs) that expressed the 19A capsule, and 8 (88%) of the 9 multidrug-resistant strains were serotype 19A, including the Legacy strain with the new ST-2722. In genetic relatedness, ST-2722 belonged to a cluster of reported strains of S. pneumoniae in which all strains had 6 of the same alleles as ST-156. The multidrug-resistant strains related to ST-156 expressed different capsular serotypes: 9V, 14, 11A, 15C, and 19F ...
Background: Little is known about pneumococcal carrier states in older adults. The main aim of this study was to evaluate pneumococcal colonization patterns among older adults in two centres in Milan, Italy, before the widespread use of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in this age group, to investigate demographic and clinical features that are associated with pneumococcal colonization and to estimate the potential coverage offered by PCV13. Results: Among 417 adults ≥65 years old (171, 41.1 %, ≥75 years), 41 (9.8 %) were pneumococcal carriers. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that pneumococcal colonization was significantly less common among individuals with underlying co-morbidities than among those without (odds ratio [OR] 0.453, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.235-0.875, p = 0.018; adjusted OR 0.503, 95 % CI 0.255-0.992, p = 0.047). Moreover, among these patients, those with cardiac disease had a significantly lower risk of colonization (OR 0.308, 95 % CI ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is both an aggressive pathogen and a normal part of the human respiratory microbiome. Clinicians and microbiologists have struggled to develop tests that can identify pneumococcal respiratory infection and accurately distinguish colonization from invasive disease. Molecular methods hold the promise of an improved ability to rapidly detect microorganisms in respiratory secretions and to make an accurate diagnosis; however, interpretation of diagnostic testing for S. pneumoniae remains problematic. Molecular assays, such as those targeting the pneumolysin gene, may cross-react with other streptococcal species, confounding detection and quantification. Assays that target the autolysin gene appear to be more specific. Even when accurately identified, however, the significance of S. pneumoniae DNA detected in clinical samples is difficult to determine. Here we will discuss the challenges faced in the interpretation of molecular testing for S. pneumoniae, and some strategies ...
The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected] Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been successful, but their use has increased infections by nonvaccine serotypes. Oral streptococci often harbor capsular polysaccharide (PS) synthesis loci (cps). Although this has not been observed in nature, if pneumococcus can replace its cps with oral streptococcal cps, it may increase its serotype repertoire. In the current study, we showed that oral Streptococcus strain SK95 and pneumococcal strain D39 both produce structurally identical capsular PS, and their genetic backgrounds influence the amount of capsule production and shielding from nonspecific killing. SK95 is avirulent in a well-established in vivo mouse model. When acapsular pneumococcus was transformed with SK95 cps, the transformant became virulent and killed all mice. Thus, cps from oral Streptococcus strains ...
Pre o de Broncho-vaxom, laborat rio Takeda, droga: Lisado bacteriano + Diplococcus pneumoniae + Haemophilus influenzae + Klebsiella ozanae + Klebsiella pneumoniae + Neisseria catarrhalis + Staphylococcus aureus + Streptococcus. Encontre pre os atualizados de todos os medicamentos / rem dios / princ pios ativos comerciais e gen ricos.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at increased risk for infections due to their baseline disease and the subsequent immunocompromising regimen. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) has a high mortality and morbidity, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. A polysaccharide vaccine covering 23 different serotypes of pneumococcus (PPSV23) is currently recommended to immunocompromised patients to reduce their risk of invasive pneumococcal infections (such as bacteremia, meningitis, or pneumonia). Its immunogenicity is however limited, both in magnitude and duration, even in healthy individuals. Several studies have investigated the immunogenicity of PPSV23 in patients with IBD and have reported a marked inhibitory effect of immunosuppressive therapy on vaccine responses.. A pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV) was originally developed to protect young children and demonstrated as highly effective and safe. PCV13 contains polysaccharides from thirteen different serotypes, ...
The Quellung reaction, also called the Neufeld reaction, is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacillus anthracis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope. If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge. Quellung is the German word for swelling and describes the microscopic appearance of pneumococcal or other bacterial capsules after their polysaccharide antigen has combined with a specific antibody. The antibody usually comes from a bit of serum taken from an immunized laboratory animal. As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the capsule appears to swell, because of increased surface tension, and its outlines become clearly demarcated. The pneumococcal Quellung reaction was first described in 1902 by the ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen in all age groups worldwide that causes a variety of diseases, ranging from life threatening septicaemia and meningitis to less severe sinusitis and otitis media. The factors that determine the virulence of S. pneumoniae are very complex but a key aspect of the organisms disease causing potential is the ability of the bacteria to regulate virulence factor expression and activity. In this study two main approaches were taken to investigate virulence gene expression in S. pneumoniae. Firstly, the feasibility of Recombinase based In vivo Expression Technology, RIVET, for use in S. pneumoniae to study gene expression in vitro, and then in vivo was assessed. However, the system was found to be unsuitable for use in this study. Secondly, the requirement for and the role of virulence gene regulators identified by Signature Tagged Mutagenesis were investigated. The requirement for different virulence gene regulators varied according to the murine ...
Clinical Trials - clinicaltrials.gov Primary Objective: Evaluation of the - Carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx of children Secondary O...
The invention described herein provides human antibodies produced in non-human animals that specifically bind to Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (PPS-3). The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells including hybridomas and recombinant host cell systems. Kits and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies are also provided in addition to methods of treating, inhibitng or preventing S. pneumoniae infection or conditions or disorders caused by such infection by administering to a patient the pharmaceutical compositions described herein.
Discussion This study prospectively surveyed the nasopharyngeal colonization of children attending a single DCC. Very high rates of carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae are documented. Our findings supports earlier studies from similar centers over the last decade.9-21 Recent research established daycare attendance as an important factor influencing the epidemiology of many infectious diseases.26-28 A number of studies have demonstrated a strong association between daycare attendance and increased carriage of S. pneumoniae, especially of resistant strains.13,28,29 Study findings demonstrated that daycare attendance and patterns of antibiotic use may be important factors influencing the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Every child in the study acquired a pneumococcus strain. Carriage occurred in 47% of children cultured. We found that the carriage rate increased with age, reflecting an increase in the number of types acquired. At baseline, it was observed that ...
Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their use can prevent some cases of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. They are given by injection either into a muscle or just under the skin.
Erratum: PspA protects Streptococcus pneumoniae from killing by apolactoferrin, and antibody to PspA enhances killing of pneumococci by apolactoferrin (Infection and Immunity (2004) 72, 9 (5031-5040 ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains one of the major human pathogens and one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, and meningitis. Aside from the threats posed by emerging antibiotic resistance and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, the mortality rate among those patients with severe pneumococcal disease who receive seemingly appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapy remains unacceptably high. Because of its involvement in the pathogenesis of invasive disease, pneumolysin, one of the best-characterized virulence factors of the pneumococcus, represents not only a potential vaccine target, but also a target for adjunctive therapy to antibiotics in patients with acute pneumococcal disease. In this paper we review the cytolytic and pro-inflammatory properties of pneumolysin and their involvement in sub-version of host defenses and extra-pulmonary dissemination of the pneumococcus, as well as strategies, both immunological and ...
Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping remains critical in the epidemiological surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The Quellung reaction is the gold standard for serotyping pneumococci. In recent years, some alternative serotyping procedures that include PCR, real-time PCR, sequencing analysis of specific genes, and whole genome sequencing, have been developed.1 Some of these techniques are reduced to a limited number of detectable serotypes2 or require expensive equipment (sequencing analysis).1 Recently, a commercial assay S. PneumoStrip test (Operon S.A., Zaragoza, Spain) for pneumococcal serotyping in strains isolated in culture, based on PCR followed by reverse strip hybridisation, has been reported as easy, sensitive and specific procedure.3 The targets of the test are 76 serotypes (42 individually and 34 in pairs). The objective of this work was to assess the performance of the S. PneumoStrip test for the detection of S. pneumoniae serotypes directly in ...
Pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is known to have a completely different chemical structure compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus: the polyglycerophosphate in the backbone is replaced in the pneumococcal LTA by a pentamer repeating unit consisting of one ribitol and a tetrasaccharide carrying the unusual substituents phosphocholine andN-acetyl-D-galactosamine. NeitherD-alaninenorN-acetyl D-glucosamine, which play central roles in the biological activity of the staphylococcal LTA, has been reported. The extraction using butanol is more gentle compared with the previously reported chloroform-methanol extraction and results in a higher yield of LTA. We characterized the LTA of two different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae: R6 (serotype 2) and Fp23 (serotype 4). NMR analysis confirmed the structure of LTA from R6 but showed that its ribitol carries an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine substituent. The NMRdata for the LTA from Fp23 indicate that this LTA additionally contains ribitolbound ...
UAB.edu The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx and can cause pneumonia. Then, it can spread from the lungs to the bloodstream and cause organ damage. This opportunistic pathogen commonly infects young children, those who are immunocompromised and the elderly. In 2015, S. pneumoniae infections worldwide killed an estimated 192,000 to 366,000 children under age 5. To understand how this pathogen adapts to different locations in the body, and also how the host responds to the invading microbe, researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and Yale University School of Medicine measured bacterial and host gene expression at five different sites in a mouse model -- the nasopharynx, lungs, blood, heart, and kidneys -- using three genetically different strains of S. pneumoniae. Their resulting in vivo atlas of host-pathogen interactions at disease-relevant anatomical sites is now published in Proceeding of the National Academy of
The increasing number of penicillin-resistant clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae has raised questions about the mechanism involved. We have isolated a large number of independent, spontaneous laboratory mutants with increasing resistance against either piperacillin or cefotaxime. Both clas …
OBJECTIVE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) primarily affects children less than 5 years old, the elderly and certain at-risk groups; especially people infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to analyze invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children and adolescents infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with relation to morbidity, the case fatality ratio, pneumococcus serotypes, susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone and to the proportion of susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that has already been licensed. METHODS: A total of 19 cases of IPD were identified among HIV seropositive patients aged from 1 month to 20 years and hospitalized between 1993 and 2000. Data were recorded on standardized charts containing information on age, clinical diagnosis and progression, serotypes and the susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone of the Sp strains ...
Conclusions A twofold increased risk of mortality was found with aspirin treatment in animal models of S pneumoniae infection. No relevant human studies were identified. It is difficult to generalise from animal models to clinical medicine, but based on these findings and the prevalence and severity of S pneumoniae infections worldwide, future study of the effects of antipyretic therapy in S pneumoniae infection in humans is recommended. ...
Pre- vs. post-vaccination changes in correlations between IgG concentrations (ELISA titres) and opsonophagocytic activity (OPA) against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6B, 14 and 23F induced by the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine were studied in paired serum samples received from elderly individ …
Propargyl-choline was efficiently incorporated into teichoic acid (TA) polymers on the surface of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The introduction of a fluorophore by click chemistry enabled sufficient labeling of the pneumococcus, as well as its specific detection when mixed with other bacterial species. The labe
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Streptococcus pneumoniae , Gram-positive, encapsulated, coccus prokaryote (dividing). Causes (lower respiratory infection) pneumonia and (upper respiratory infections) bronchitis, laryngitis, otitis media (middle ear) and sinusitis. Bacillus sp., rod prokaryote; causes skin and wound infections. Magnification: x6,000 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image F017/4007
Institutions: 2) University of Leicester . UK, 3) John Hopkins University . USA, 4) AstraZeneca. UK , 5) AstraZeneca. Sweden. The pneumococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is an important human pathogen causing pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis and associated with very high morbidity and mortality. It is likely that host genetic factors play a significant role in susceptibility to pneumococcal disease, as is clearly the case for other infectious diseases, such as malaria and tuberculosis. However, genetic linkage analysis is impractical in pneumococcal disease due to the paucity of sibling cases or multiple-case families. As an alternative approach to the identification of candidate disease genes, we have developed a murine model of genetic susceptibility to pneumococcal infection.. Nine inbred strains of mice were infected intranasally with Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 and BALB/c and CBA/Ca were found to be resistant and susceptible respectively. A genome scan for loci responsible for this ...
The aim of this project was to characterise a neuraminidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae by relating its amino acid sequence to the enzymatic activity of the protein, leading to the production of mutated neuraminidases that could be tested as protective immunogens. The sequence of the cloned neuraminidase gene (nan A), was compared to other bacterial neuraminidases to identify conserved residues, and also utilising crystallography data, predictions were made of the residues likely to be important in catalysis. Three residues, glutamic acid (E) 647, arginine (R) 663 and tyrosine (Y) 752 were chosen for further study. To assess the importance of these residues in catalysis, conservative substitutions of these residues (E647 > Q, R663 > H and Y752 > F) were made and the subsequent effect of enzyme activity measured. The wild-type and mutated neuraminidase genes were cloned into the expression vector pQE30 and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The purified neuraminidases were assayed for ...
An increase in the incidence of empyema worldwide could be related to invasive pneumococcal disease caused by emergent nonvaccine replacement serotypes. To determine bacterial pathogens and pneumococcal serotypes that cause empyema in children in Australia, we conducted a 2-year study of 174 children with empyema. Blood and pleural fluid samples were cultured, and pleural fluid was tested by PCR. Thirty-two (21.0%) of 152 blood and 53 (33.1%) of 160 pleural fluid cultures were positive for bacteria; Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common organism identified. PCR identified S. pneumoniae in 74 (51.7%) and other bacteria in 19 (13.1%) of 145 pleural fluid specimens. Of 53 samples in which S. pneumoniae serotypes were identified, 2 (3.8%) had vaccine-related and 51 (96.2%) had nonvaccine serotypes; 19A (n = 20; 36.4%), 3 (n = 18; 32.7%), and 1 (n = 8; 14.5%) were the most common. High proportions of nonvaccine serotypes suggest the need to broaden vaccine coverage ...
A nurse at the Northwest Public Health Clinic in Ranchlands administers vaccines. Photo by Alberta Health ServicesThanks to routine childhood immunization, Calgary is among the first cities in the world to record the near eradication of some of the more serious forms of illness caused by a common bacterium.. Calgary researchers report seven strains of the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, which can cause serious infections known as Invasive Pneumococcal Disease (IPD), have been wiped out in children under the age of five and nearly eliminated in all other age groups.. This is a major victory for childhood immunization programs, says Dr. Otto Vanderkooi, a University of Calgary researcher who is also a pediatric infectious disease specialist at Alberta Childrens Hospital.. This is an organism that continues to cause a million deaths around the world each year, adds Vanderlooi, who is also the lead author of a paper published in the Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal this past ...
Author: Seeberger, Peter H. et al.; Genre: Patent; Published online: 2015-03-11; Open Access; Title: Synthetic vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. ... Guilherme, L.; Ferreira, F. M.; Köhler, K. F.; Postol, E.; Kalil, J. (2013). "A Vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes". ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Primary or secondary[edit]. Distinction between primary versus secondary immunodeficiencies are based ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae: 0.006 - 64 μg/ml. *Streptococcus pyogenes: ≤0.004 - 2 μg/ml ... strep throat (note: no documented resistance of Group A Streptococcus to penicillin has ever been reported, and penicillin or ...
Streptococcus Pneumoniae; and Streptococcus pyogenes. The Gram-negative bacterium B.burgdorferi has five Factor H binding ...
... penicillin with activity against Gram-positive bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, some ... Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. Genito-urinary tract infections prevent infection (prophylaxis) in ... penicillin therapies had only been effective against Gram-positive organisms such as staphylococci and streptococci. Ampicillin ...
... species of Streptococcus), including group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which cause ... sinusitis and pneumonia can all be caused by Group A Strep, but are much more commonly associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae ... "Group A Strep". CDC.gov. CDC. Retrieved 7 December 2014. "Group A Strep". CDC.gov. CDC. Retrieved 7 December 2014. Good MF, ... Kellogg JA, Bankert DA, Elder CJ, Gibbs JL, Smith MC (September 2001). "Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae revisited". ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. 肺炎雙球菌 2,200,000 2,300 Haemophilus influenzae. 流感嗜血桿菌 1,830,140 1,700 ...
"Streptococcus pneumoniae, Invasive (Pneumococcal disease)" (PDF). Retrieved April 23, 2017. Burton, Deron C., Brendan Flannery ... In the United States, bacterial pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (pneumococcus) which enters human body ...
Fox A. "Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococci". University of South Carolina. Retrieved 2009-03-01. Martin, A. M. (2012-12 ... If not, the organism is 'catalase-negative'. Streptococcus and Enterococcus spp. are catalase-negative. While the catalase test ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae( Pneumococcus)". Retrieved 2010-06-08. "Rotavirus Homepage CDC Rotavirus". Retrieved 2010-06-08. > ...
Mycotic (Infected) Aneurysm Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Khosrow Afsari, et al. Infect Med. 2001;18(6) http://www. ...
A latex agglutination test may be positive in meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, ... Older children are more commonly affected by Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (serotypes 6, ... In adults, Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae together cause 80% of bacterial meningitis cases. Risk of ... Routine vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), which is active against ...
LeMieux J, Woody S, Camilli A (September 2008). "Roles of the sortases of Streptococcus pneumoniae in assembly of the RlrA ... August 2008). "A second pilus type in Streptococcus pneumoniae is prevalent in emerging serotypes and mediates adhesion to host ... December 2008). "Sortase-mediated pilus fiber biogenesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Structure. 16 (12): 1838-48. doi:10.1016 ... gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis Group, biotype I)". Journal of Bacteriology. 191 (21): 6643-53. doi:10.1128/JB.00909-09. PMC ...
Siber, George R. (1 July 1980). "Bacteremias due to Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae". American Journal of ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis". Infection and Immunity. 45 (1): 248-54. PMC 263308 . PMID 6429048. ... "A modified Farr assay is more specific than ELISA for measuring antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides ... "Development of a model of low-inoculum Streptococcus pneumoniae intrapulmonary infection in infant rats". Infection and ...
Risk of carrying Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae. A possible increased risk of periodontitis. Overall ...
... induce transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In addition, Engelmoer and Rozen in 2011 demonstrated that in S. pneumoniae ... Peterson S, Cline RT, Tettelin H, Sharov V, Morrison DA (Nov 2000). "Gene expression analysis of the Streptococcus pneumoniae ... Engelmoer, D J; Rozen, D E (2011). "Competence increases survival during stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Evolution. 65 (12 ... more than 16 genes that are switched on only during competence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, since bacteria tend to ...
World Health Organization: Streptococcus pneumoniae Advance Market Commitment PATH's Vaccine Resource Library pneumococcus ... Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their use can prevent some cases of pneumonia ... "Acute Respiratory Infections (Update September 2009): Streptococcus pneumoniae". Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR). World ... these are the 23 most prevalent or invasive pneumococcal types of Streptococcus pneumoniae).[citation needed] Local reactions ...
doi:10.1111/j.1751-7915.2010.00213.x Weber P (2001). "[Streptococcus pneumoniae: lack of emergence of pristinamycin resistance ...
Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, was performed by ... The organisms most commonly involved are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Other ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is more common in the winter, and should be suspected in persons aspirating a large amount of ... A Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine is available for adults, and has been found to decrease the risk of invasive pneumococcal ...
Vaccination against encapsulated bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended. "Newborn Screening Program - ...
Streptococcus pyogenes synthesizes a hyaluronic acid capsule. Streptococcus pneumoniae has at least 91 different capsular ... "The Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsule Inhibits Complement Activity and Neutrophil Phagocytosis by Multiple Mechanisms". ... Streptococcus agalactiae produces a polysaccharide capsule of nine antigenic types that all contain sialic acid (Ia, Ib, II, ... Capsules too small to be seen with an ordinary microscope, such as the M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes, are called ...
Experimental evidence for a 10 TMS model has been reported for FtsW of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The S. pneumoniae protein has ... Gérard, Philippe; Vernet, Thierry; Zapun, André (2002-04-01). "Membrane topology of the Streptococcus pneumoniae FtsW division ...
Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus grp., Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, ... penicillin susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae that does not produce Beta-lactamase and Legionella ... Escherichia coli: 0.015 μg/mL - 4 μg/mL Klebsiella pneumoniae: 0.06 μg/mL - 16 μg/mL Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin- ... Klebsiella pneumoniae, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ...
Antibiotic macrolides are used to treat infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae) and ... Azithromycin has been used to treat strep throat (Group A streptococcal (GAS) infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes) in ... Beta-hemolytic streptococci, pneumococci, staphylococci, and enterococci are usually susceptible to macrolides. Unlike ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae transformation". Journal of Bacteriology. 182 (4): 1016-23. doi:10.1128/jb.182.4.1016-1023.2000. PMC ... showing that virulence was able to pass from virulent to non-virulent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Griffith ...
2012). "Control of virulence by small RNAs in Streptococcus pneumoniae". PLoS Pathogens. 8: e1002788. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat. ... was used to determine genetic interactions between five query genes and the rest of the genome in Streptococcus pneumoniae, ... with 64 other genes and is thought to be a master regulator complex carbohydrate metabolism in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Tn-seq ... This method identified 56 new sRNAs in non-coding regions of S. pneumoniae. Hayes, Finbar (2003). "Transposon-Based Strategies ...
"Inducible clindamycin resistance in β-hemolytic streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae". Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 15: 27-30. PMID ...
Proctor M, Manning PJ (September 1990). "Production of immunoglobulin A protease by Streptococcus pneumoniae from animals". ... Neisseria species including Neisseria gonorrhoeae (which causes gonorrhea), Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus ...
Bacteriostatic action on hemolytic streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans streptococci. Through experimental ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacterial meningitis. It is primarily localized to the subarachnoid space ... Microglia interact with streptococcus via their TLR2 receptor; this interaction then activates microglia to produce nitric ... "TLR2 and caspase-8 are essential for group B Streptococcus-induced apoptosis in microglia". Journal of Immunology. 179 (9): ...
... penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP)[33], Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistant (SPPR)[34] or drug- ... It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci.[7][11] ... pneumoniae.[31] Optochin sensitivity in a culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae ... S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diagnosis is performed after taking swab from the infected conjuctva. ... Other agents causing ophthalmia neonatorum include Herpes simplex virus (HSV 2), Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus ...
False positives can also occur with contamination of clinical specimens with the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas ...
"Atypical pneumonia" is atypical in that it is caused by atypical organisms (other than Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus ... occult pneumonia is rather often present in patients with pneumonia and can also be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, as the ... The term was introduced in the 1930s and was contrasted with the bacterial pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, at ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae Usually occurs in younger age groups and may be associated with neurological and systemic (e.g. rashes) ...
Streptococcus. α. optochin susceptible. *S. pneumoniae *Pneumococcal infection. optochin resistant. *Viridans streptococci: S. ...
... yang memerangi infeksi Streptococcus pyogenes dan oleh Streptococcus pneumoniae. Sejarah[sunting , sunting sumber]. Catatan ...
Other organisms may occasionally cause gas gangrene (for example, Klebsiella pneumoniae in the context of diabetes).[8] ... Bacteroides and anaerobic streptococci). The exotoxin is commonly found in C. perfringens type A strain and is known as alpha ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumonia), Listeria, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrea ...
Ortqvist, A; Hedlund, J; Kalin, M (December 2005). "Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical features ...
Streptococcus. α. optochin susceptible. *S. pneumoniae *Pneumococcal infection. optochin resistant. *Viridans streptococci: S. ...
SCH-530,348 SCH530348 has been recently shown to attenuate the neutrophilic inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae]]. ''. tüve uurimisega. Kui Griffith süstis hiiri ohutu tüve (II-R) bakterite või kuumusega tapetud ... "Role of a Deoxyribonuclease in the Genetic Transformation of Diplococcus pneumoniae". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Granada medium is selective and differential for Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) which grows as distinctive ... On the right is a positive Streptococcus culture; on the left is a positive Staphylococcus culture. ... Blood agar (used in strep tests) contains bovine heart blood that becomes transparent in the presence of β-hemolytic organisms ...
There exists a genetic switch controlling Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) that allows the bacterium to randomly ... "Comprehensive Methylome Characterization of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae at Single-Base Resolution". PLoS ...
... pneumoniae, Streptococcus and Haemophilius species. Etest is a 'ready-to-use' , inert and non poreus plastic reagent strip with ... streptococci, Abiotrophia, Haemophilus, gonococci, meningococci and Campylobacter. In general, media recommendations from the ...
Streptococcus agalactiae • Streptococcus faecalis • Streptococcus mutans • Wolinella recta • Xanthomonas campestris • Yersinia ... Klebsiella pneumoniae • Legionella • Listeria monocytogenes • Micrococcus luteus • Mycobacterium smegmatis • Mycobacterium ... Thomas EL, Pera KA, Smith KW, Chwang AK (February 1983). "Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by the lactoperoxidase ...
The most common causes of acute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus ... Common bacteria responsible for nonacute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,[5] and Haemophilus species ... β-hemolytic streptococci, and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. C. diphtheriae causes membrane formation in conjunctiva of ...
Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the PROTEKT surveillance ...
Pri dojenčkih in manjših otrocih je daleč najpogostejše vnetje zaradi bakterije Streptococcus pneumoniae, sledita okužba z ...
B95.3) Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... B95.) Streptococcus and staphylococcus as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters *(B95.0) Streptococcus, group A, ... B96.0) Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... B96.1) Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ...
For example, Klebsiella pneumoniae and coxsackievirus B have been strongly correlated with ankylosing spondylitis and diabetes ... which follows infection with Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci. Although rheumatic fever has been attributed to molecular ...
"Structure of MurF from Streptococcus pneumoniae co-crystallized with a small molecule inhibitor exhibits interdomain closure". ...
Streptococcus microaerophile, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Eikenella corrodens.[6][8] ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae: umeetan ematen diren endokarditis kasuen %3-7ren eragilea. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... Streptococcus viridans: endokarditis azpiakutuaren eragilea da zenbait kasutan. Hala ere, gaur egun osasun sistema garatua ...
J13) Pljučnica, ki jo povzroča Streptococcus pneumoniae. *(J14) Pljučnica, ki jo povzroča Haemophilus influenzae ...
The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, ... Other commonly implicated bacteria include Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella ...
T. E. Ercan u. a.: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and obsessive-compulsive disease: a case report. In: J Child Neurol. 23(3), ... B. Maini, M. Bathla, G. S. Dhanjal u. a.: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection. In: ... N. Müller u. a.: Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and Tourette's syndrome. In: Psychiatry Res. 129(2), 15. Dez 2004, S. 119-125 ... B. Maini, M. Bathla, G. S. Dhanjal u. a.: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection. In: ...
Protracted bacterial bronchitis is usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, non-typable Haemophilus influenzae, or Moraxella ... Strep throat. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Retropharyngeal abscess. larynx. Croup. Laryngomalacia. Laryngeal cyst. ... A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella ... A small number of cases are due to high levels of air pollution or bacteria such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Bordetella ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis.[7] Causes of bacterial infection of the trachea are most commonly ... Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae.[9] In patients who are in hospital, additional bacteria that may cause ... tracheitis include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[7] A person affected with tracheitis ...
... penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP)[33], Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistant (SPPR)[34] or drug- ... It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci.[7][11] ... pneumoniae.[31] Optochin sensitivity in a culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae ... S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin ...
S pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and otitis media ... Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred ... encoded search term (Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae)) and Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae ... Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Updated: Aug 27, 2018 * Author: Claudia Antonieta Nieves Prado, MD; Chief ...
2000) Bacteriophages of Streptococcus pneumoniae: a molecular approach. in Streptococcus pneumoniae: molecular biology and ... Genome of the Bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain R6. JoAnn Hoskins, William E. Alborn Jr., Jeffrey Arnold, Larry C. ... Genome of the Bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae Strain R6. JoAnn Hoskins, William E. Alborn Jr., Jeffrey Arnold, Larry C. ... 2000) Phase variation of Streptococcus pneumoniae. in Gram-positive pathogens. eds Fischetti V. A., Novick R. P., Ferretti J. J ...
Streptococcus Pneumoniae indications and usages ATC and ICD codes, combinations with other active ingredients and trade names ... Streptococcus Pyogenes. Streptococcus Viridans Ismigen - Teva; Zambon. Provax - Almirall Streptococcus Pneumoniae. Haemophilus ... Streptococcus Mitis. Streptococcus Pyogenes Aerovac - Sankyo. Paspat Oral - Sankyo Streptococcus Pneumoniae. Haemophilus ... Streptococcus Haemolyticus. Streptococcus Viridans Paspat - Sankyo; Altana Pharma; Nycomed; Pfizer Streptococcus Pneumoniae. ...
Human Neutrophils Kill Streptococcus pneumoniae via Serine Proteases Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Human Neutrophils Kill Streptococcus pneumoniae via Serine Proteases. Alistair J. Standish and Jeffrey N. Weiser ... are believed to play an important role in controlling infection caused by the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. ... In contrast to other Gram-positive organisms, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase did not affect killing of S. pneumoniae. ...
In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly ... This review compares the relationship between the bacteriocin and the competence QS pathways in both S. pneumoniae and S. ... Streptococcus as a potential tool to efficiently investigate putative competence pathways in nontransformable streptococci. ... The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems ...
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Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). People with pneumococcal disease can ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae BY DR HASAN ASKARI BDS MS PHD FDS DDS MJDS MFDS MD -PRESIDENT OF INTERNATIONAL DENTAL RESEARCH UNIT ... Streptococcus pneumoniae * 1. Streptococcus pneumoniae BY DR HASAN ASKARI BDS MS PHD FDS DDS MJDS MFDS MD -PRESIDENT OF ... Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) by Freelance clinica... 23515 views * Streptococcus pneumoniae by Yashwant Kumar 9553 ... PNEUMOCOCCI • Bronchopneumonia • Caused by staphylococci streptococci, H influenzae proteus and pseudomonas. • Occurs infants , ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae secretes hydrogen peroxide leading to DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cells Prashant Rai, Marcus ... Chromosome segregation drives division site selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae Renske van Raaphorst, Morten Kjos, and Jan- ... Improving vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae using synthetic glycans Paulina Kaplonek, Naeem Khan, Katrin Reppe, ... analogs with pan-group quorum-sensing inhibition activity in Streptococcus pneumoniae Yifang Yang, Jingjun Lin, Anthony ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae are lancet-shaped, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria with over 90 known serotypes. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae are lancet-shaped, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria with 100 known serotypes. Most S. ... There are 100 known serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease. ... pneumoniae serotypes can cause disease, but only a minority of serotypes produce the majority of pneumococcal infections. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:1951-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:1045-9.CrossRefPubMed ... Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome among children in North America. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30: ... Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated HUS is well described from different parts of the world [3, 4, 5]. ...
... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/streptococcus-pneumoniae-drug-resistant-invasive-disease/) * Streptococcus pneumoniae, invasive ... Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Invasive Disease (Child, ,5 Years) (Streptococcus pneumoniae) , 2000 Case Definition (https://wwwn. ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-disease-non-drug-resistant-child/) ... cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-disease-child/case-definition/2000/) ...
Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Invasive Disease (Child, ,5 Years) (Streptococcus pneumoniae). 2000 Case Definition ... Streptococcus pneumoniae causes many clinical syndromes, depending on the site of infection (e.g., acute otitis media, ... A clinically compatible case in a child less than 5 years of age caused by laboratory-confirmed culture of S. pneumoniae from a ... Isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or, less commonly, joint, pleural, ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... streptococcus pneumoniae in Medicine Expand. Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneu·mo·ni·ae (nōō-mōnē-ē, nyōō-). n. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology.. Isturiz R1, Sings HL1, Hilton B1, Arguedas A2, Reinert RR3, ... Streptococcus pneumoniae causes mucosal and invasive diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the 7-valent ... Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology. Expert review of vaccines 2017;16(10):1007-27. [Expert Rev ... letter to the editor on Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology. Expert review of vaccines 2017;16(10): ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae News and Research. RSS Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Pneumococcus, is a very common bacterial infection ... Streptococcus pneumoniae likely is not a term immediately recognizable by most individuals, even if they have had unpleasant ... S. pneumoniae uses hosts immune defenses to spread infection, study reveals The bacteria that cause most cases of pneumonia ... Good bacteria can help inhibit growth of S. pneumoniae A new study from the Forsyth Institute is helping to shed more light on ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae News and Research. RSS Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Pneumococcus, is a very common bacterial infection ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen and is known to be associated with increased risk of fatal heart ... Researchers explore new ways to treat, prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae Scientists from Massachusetts Eye and Ear/Harvard ... These properties are predicted to allow the bacterium -- Streptococcus pneumoniae -- to specifically stick to the surface of ...
What is an invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection?. Streptococcus pneumoniae are bacteria that are commonly found in the ... What can be done to prevent the spread of S. pneumoniae?. Vaccines can help to prevent invasive S. pneumoniae infections. ... How can I learn more about S. pneumoniae?. *If you have concerns about S. pneumoniae infection, contact your healthcare ... Who gets S. pneumoniae infections?. Many people carry S. pneumoniae without becoming ill. Unvaccinated children, the elderly, ...
It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci. S. pneumoniae played a central ... pneumoniae. Optochin sensitivity in a culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae Natural competence Transformation (genetics) ... S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic ( ...
Emergence of vancomycin tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.. Novak R1, Henriques B, Charpentier E, Normark S, Tuomanen E. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant ... Here we show that loss of function of the VncS histidine kinase of a two-component sensor-regulator system in S. pneumoniae ... We conclude that broad antibiotic tolerance of S. pneumoniae has emerged in the community by a molecular mechanism that ...
LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 78 recorded cases of Streptococcus spp. with 4 deaths up to 1976; 5th most common laboratory- ... Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pneumoniae. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae: Molecular Biology and Mechanisms of Disease, ed Liebert MA (Larchmont, New York), pp 81-114. ... Each year, Streptococcus pneumoniae infections cause millions of deaths worldwide. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) based ... 1985) Structural studies of the capsular polysaccharide from Streptococcus pneumoniae type 5. Carbohydr Res 140:101-110. ... Semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidate against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5. Marilda P. Lisboa, Naeem Khan, ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: gor, A5N45_09080, ERS020408_00588, ERS022363_01056, GM537_05150, GM541_ ... The structure and activity of the glutathione reductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae.. Sikanyika, M., Aragao, D., McDevitt, C. ... The glutathione reductase (GR) from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized ... The glutathione reductase (GR) from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in children: vaccine implications Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in children attending 59 Canadian child care centres. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153(5): ... Background and epidemiology: The spectrum of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants and children ranges from ... Studies suggest that about 28% to 55% of cases of acute otitis media (AOM) may be attributable to S. pneumoniae.1 The risk of ...
Validation of Factor 6d Antiserum for Serotyping Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6C Michael R. Jacobs, Ron Dagan, Saralee ... Direct Serogrouping of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains in Clinical Samples by Use of a Latex Agglutination Test Juan Carlos ... Association of Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae with Age in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Matthias Imöhl, Ralf René ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC ® 700677™ Designation: Slovakia 14-10 TypeStrain=False Application: Respiratory research ... Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein) Chester (ATCC® 700677™) Strain Designations: Slovakia 14-10 [29055] / Type Strain: no / ... Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the pneumococcal molecular ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae Life History Streptococcus pneumoniae is found worldwide. The common hos... ... Information On Streptococcus Pneumoniae Essay. 1114 words - 5 pages Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive and fast- ... Multidrug Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae Essay. 1698 words - 7 pages Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is Gram-positive ... Find Another Essay On Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus suis Meningitis Essay. 714 words - 3 pages a serious blood ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC ® 700674™ Designation: S. Africa 19A-7 TypeStrain=False Application: Respiratory research ... Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein) Chester (ATCC® 700674™) Strain Designations: S. Africa 19A-7 [17619] / Type Strain: no / ... Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the pneumococcal molecular ... Three predominant clones identified within penicillin-resistant South African isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb. ...
Improved Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other S. mitis Group Streptococci by MALDI Biotyper Using an Improved ... Streptococcus pneumoniae expressing serotype 3 has a high virulence and a high case fatality ratio. Most studies of serotype 3 ... Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 3 in Mexico (1994 to 2017): Decrease of the Unusual Clonal Complex 4909 Lineage following ...
Carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx of children Secondary O... ... STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP ... Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: Prevalence, Mechanisms, and Clinical Implications.. Streptococcus pneumoniae ... Nasopharyngeal Streptococcus Pneumoniae Carriage. 2014-07-23 21:29:32 , BioPortfolio. Home » Topics » Pneumonia » Research » ...
DNA transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied using donor molecules labelled either at the 3 or at the 5 end, on one ... Polarity of DNA entry in transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Mol Gen Genet. 1988 Aug;213(2-3):444-8. doi: 10.1007/ ... DNA transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied using donor molecules labelled either at the 3 or at the 5 end, on one ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae has become a paradigm for understanding the evolution of resistance mechanisms, the simplest of which ... β-Lactam resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae: penicillin-binding proteins and non-penicillin-binding proteins ... A much more complex resistance mechanism has evolved in S. pneumoniae that is mediated by a sophisticated restructuring of the ...
We find that influenza viral titers increase when Streptococcus pneumoniae is present and that the bacteria establish and grow ... pneumoniae infection enhances viral release from infected cells. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of ... influenza coinfection and the differences in pathogenesis of influenza and S. pneumoniae strains. ...
  • If the result is 41.0 mcg/mL or greater and less than 181.0 mcg/mL, then Streptococcus pneumoniae IgG antibodies for 23 serotypes will be performed at an additional charge. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • More than 90 serotypes of S pneumoniae have been identified, based on varying polysaccharides that are found in the bacterial cell wall. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • There are approximately 100 serotypes of S. pneumoniae however, the current conjugate vaccine (PCV13), which is routinely given to children, only targets 13 serotypes. (id-hub.com)
  • Similar results were observed for S. pneumoniae serotypes 1 and 5. (edu.au)
  • Thirty-two (59%) of the 54 children were colonized with S. pneumoniae belonging to serotypes 23, 19, 6 and 11. (elsevier.com)
  • Vaccination can drive an increase in frequencies of antibiotic resistance among nonvaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States during 1999--2000, including a comparison of resistance rates since 1994--1995. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A total of 1,531 recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae were collected from 33 medical centers nationwide during the winter of 1999--2000 and characterized at a central laboratory. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae , or pneumococcus , is a Gram-positive , alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions) , facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. (medscape.com)
  • abstract = "We obtained nasopharyngeal cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae from 54 children ages 2 to 24 months attending an Omaha child-care center (CCC) in April 1994. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for an estimated 1.6 million deaths worldwide every year. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • [2] As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly, [5] and of septicemia in those infected with HIV . (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of child mortality. (inserm.fr)
  • Overall, these results showed that an upregulation of IL-17A- and a timely regulation of IFN-γ-related gene expression, together with development of a Th17 response, are relevant characteristics of the protective immunity against S. pneumoniae acute pneumonia. (inserm.fr)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae Rapid Test Kit is a qualitative rapid assay which is intended to be used for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen in urine without any dilution and as an aid in the diagnosis of pneumonia, meningitis and otitis media. (cd-diatest.com)
  • S. Pneumoniae colonizes upper respiratory tract tissues causing severe pneumonia and mild/acute earache/otitis. (cd-diatest.com)
  • Bacterial pneumonia accounts for 12-16% of invasive pneumococcal disease among children aged 2 years and younger whereas S. Pneumoniae has become the leading cause of bacterial meningitis among children younger than 5 years of age in the United States. (cd-diatest.com)
  • Researchers have uncovered a crucial link between dietary zinc intake and protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae, the primary bacterial cause of pneumonia. (clinicalnews.org)
  • The characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae infection were compared with those associated with atypical bacterial infection and with mixed S. pneumoniae-atypical bacterial infection in 196 children aged 2-5 years. (elsevier.com)
  • This study shows the major role of both S. pneumoniae and atypical bacteria in the development of community-acquired pneumonia in young children, the limited role of clinical, laboratory, and radiological features in predicting etiology, and the importance of the use of adequate antimicrobial agents for treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • Zhou S, Zhao Q. Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Pneumonia Patients with Lung Cancer, Jundishapur J Microbiol. (kowsarpub.com)
  • The study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae isolated from lung cancer patients with pneumonia infection not undergoing any surgical procedure. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant organism colonized in lung cancer patients diagnosed to have pneumonia and showed higher resistance towards erythromycin. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Our results emphasize the need for a continuous monitoring of S. pneumoniae colonization and resistance patterns, which needs to be considered during treatment of lung cancer patients with pneumonia. (kowsarpub.com)
  • The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major public health concern, being responsible for more than 1.5 million deaths annually through pneumonia, meningitis, and septicemia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Clinical signs and symptoms and physical examination findings alone cannot distinguish S pneumoniae disease from infections caused by other pathogens. (medscape.com)
  • Cancer patients are highly susceptible to severe pneumococcal infections and Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common pathogen found among them ( 18 ). (kowsarpub.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (Pnc) binds to nasopharyngeal (NP) epithelial cells in the first steps of nasopharyngeal carriage and colonization through bacterial adhesins. (elsevier.com)
  • However, individual clones of penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae may be spread from child to child, suggesting that colonization with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae should now be considered a CCC-associated phenomenon. (elsevier.com)
  • Reports on bacterial colonization especially S. pneumoniae colonization in patients with lung cancer are scarce. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Bronchial colonization can be found in lung cancer patients mainly caused by S. pneumoniae along with Haemophilus influenza and Staphylococcus aureus ( 19 ). (kowsarpub.com)
  • We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) nasopharyngeal carriage in healthy Italian infants and young children and to evaluate the impact of PCV13 on pneumococcal colonization. (unimi.it)
  • Almeida V de C, Mussi-Pinhata MM, Negrini BVM, Cervi MC, Isaac ML. Nasopharyngeal colonization with streptococcus pneumoniae among infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers vaccinated with the polysaccharide vaccine during pregnancy. (usp.br)
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection - Pipeline Review, H2 2015', provides an overview of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection's therapeutic pipeline. (marketresearch.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (marketresearch.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (marketresearch.com)
  • Protection against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 acute infection shows a signature of Th17- and IFN-γ-mediated immunity. (inserm.fr)
  • Could tailor-made vaccines halve serious Streptococcus pneumoniae infection? (id-hub.com)
  • The researchers also highlight that in Maela, infant infection with S. pneumoniae may be significantly reduced by removing some components from the conjugate vaccine. (id-hub.com)
  • There was no significant difference in the efficacy of the different treatment regimens followed by children with S. pneumoniae infection, whereas clinical failure occurred significantly more frequently among children with atypical bacterial or mixed infection who were not treated with a macrolide. (elsevier.com)
  • The detection of S. pneumoniae in 60 patients by at least one of the 3 detection methods indicates that these patients harbored S. pneumoniae infection. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Objective To determine the penicillin resistance and serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains and to identify clonal relationships of isolates resistant to penicillin by means of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). (acibadem.edu.tr)
  • Addgene: Gene Expression Platform for Synthetic Biology in the Human Pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. (addgene.org)
  • This study aimed to describe the prevalence and molecular evolution of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolated from invasive diseases before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in Casablanca, Morocco. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The yield from paired nasopharyngeal (NP) samples obtained from healthy children sampled with flocked and Dacron swabs was also determined using culture and lytA-targeted real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Results:Using mock specimen, the percentage recovery of S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (serotype 19F) strain from the flocked swabs was 100%, while it was 41% from Dacron swabs and 7% from rayon swabs. (edu.au)
  • Recently, researchers from the Wellcome Sanger Institute (Cambridge, UK), Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, Canada) and Imperial College London (London, UK) have optimized computer models for vaccines targeting Streptococcus pneumoniae, suggesting that vaccine programs need to be tailored to target specific subgroups of the population. (id-hub.com)
  • https://www.imperial.ac.uk/news/195034/tailor-made-vaccines-could-almost-halve-rates/ , which states "Analysis of vaccine effectiveness was then carried out on S. pneumoniae genomic data from Massachusetts, USA and the Maela refugee camp in Thailand. (id-hub.com)
  • Background:A better understanding of the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is important to assess the impact of vaccination and the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. (edu.au)
  • Competence in S. pneumoniae is induced by DNA-damaging agents such as mitomycin C , fluoroquinolone antibiotics ( norfloxacin , levofloxacin and moxifloxacin ), and topoisomerase inhibitors . (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite good access to antibiotics, Streptococcus pneumoniae is still a significant cause of illness and death worldwide. (erswhitebook.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen found among lung cancer patients that has shown increased resistance towards various antibiotics. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae has shown an increased resistance towards various antibiotics ( 20 ). (kowsarpub.com)
  • S. pneumoniae is gaining resistance to the in vitro activity of several antimicrobial agents and, even if questions remain regarding the clinical impact of this phenomenon, increasing numbers of reports indicate that antibiotic resistance can lead to more treatment failures, if not higher mortality. (erswhitebook.org)
  • Blood culture and BAL specimens were cultured to isolate S. pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration assay. (kowsarpub.com)
  • Resistance rates with S. pneumoniae have increased markedly in the United States during the past 5 years. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Despite awareness and prevention efforts, antimicrobial resistance with S. pneumoniae continues to increase in the United States. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We compared the recovery of S. pneumoniae from nylon flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs.Methods:The recovery of S. pneumoniae from mocked specimens using flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs were compared by culture. (edu.au)
  • p = 0.005).Conclusion:Flocked swabs released more S. pneumoniae compared to both Dacron and rayon swabs from mock specimens. (edu.au)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant organism isolated from both blood culture (45.9%) and BAL (46.4%) specimens. (kowsarpub.com)
  • The method employs a unique combination of monoclonal antibody-dye conjugate and monoclonal solid phase antibodies directed to different epitopes to selectively identify Streptococcus pneumoniae with a high degree of sensitivity. (cd-diatest.com)
  • As the test sample is added, the labelled antibody-dye conjugate binds to the S. pneumoniae antigen forming an antibody-antigen complex. (cd-diatest.com)
  • The surrounding capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been identified as a major virulence factor and is targeted by pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV). (edu.au)
  • S pneumoniae can cause a wide variety of clinical symptoms owing to its ability to cause disease by either direct extension from the nasopharynx into surrounding anatomic structures or vascular invasion with hematogenous spread. (medscape.com)
  • Here we report the 2,038,615-bp genomic sequence of the gram-positive bacterium S. pneumoniae R6. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive bacterium that causes a variety of infectious diseases in children and adults. (mayocliniclabs.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is a gram-positive bacterium first isolated from the saliva of a patient with rabies by Pasteur in 1881. (cd-diatest.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae Rapid Test Kit is a qualitative rapid assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen in urine without any dilution. (cd-diatest.com)
  • Penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates are confined mainly to a few sero-groups. (bgu.ac.il)
  • All S pneumoniae isolates, regardless of the isolation site, should be tested for susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. (medscape.com)
  • Biliary disease has also been documented despite the fact that susceptibility to lysis by bile is an identifying characteristic of S. pneumoniae. (elsevier.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most significant causes of bacterial disease in humans. (asm.org)
  • An additional observed benefit following the introduction of PCV-7 was a reduction in the rates of antimicrobial-resistant S. pneumoniae invasive pneumococcal disease. (erswhitebook.org)