A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.
Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.
Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Topoisomerase IV binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting 2 parC and 2 parE subunits. Topoisomerase IV is a decatenating enzyme that resolves interlinked daughter chromosomes following DNA replication.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Pathological processes involving the NASOPHARYNX.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
Facilities which provide care for pre-school and school-age children.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The space and structures directly internal to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE and external to the inner ear (LABYRINTH). Its major components include the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE that connects the cavity of middle ear (tympanic cavity) to the upper part of the throat.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A genus of the family Chinchillidae which consists of three species: C. brevicaudata, C. lanigera, and C. villidera. They are used extensively in biomedical research.
Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Presence of pus in a hollow organ or body cavity.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.
Infections of the nervous system caused by bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS, and marked by prominent inflammation of the MENINGES. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B is the most common causative organism. The condition primarily affects children under 6 years of age but may occur in adults.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibiotic derivative of CEPHALEXIN.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharnyx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation in the upper body and respiratory tract.
The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.
The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Immune response capacity after human splenic autotransplantation: restoration of response to individual pneumococcal vaccine subtypes. (1/5890)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate features of general immune function, in particular the restoration of the humoral immune response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides, in humans undergoing a spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: After splenectomy, patients have an increased risk of overwhelming infection or sepsis involving encapsulated bacteria such as pneumococci. The value of human spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma has long been questioned. Mononuclear phagocyte system function appeared to be similar to that in splenectomized persons. The presence of specific antipneumococcal antibodies would allow other parts of the mononuclear phagocyte system, such as those in the liver, to phagocytose opsonized bacteria. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy followed by autotransplantation were compared with the next 14 consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy alone. After a minimum of 6 months, the patients were vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Blood samples were taken at the time of vaccination and after 3 and 6 weeks for antipneumococcal capsular polysaccharides IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against types 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 23. Splenic regrowth was evaluated by scintigraphy. RESULTS: Surprisingly, several of the nonautotransplanted patients showed scintigraphic activity, indicating the presence of either accessory spleens or traumatic seeding (splenosis). Significant antibody titer increases (more than twofold) were found for both IgM and IgG in the autotransplanted patients. Splenectomized-only patients showed no significant increase in Ig levels in patients without splenic regrowth and partial improvement in patients with splenosis/accessory spleens. CONCLUSIONS: Considering this significant antipneumococcal antibody increase, spleen autotransplants can be expected to permit an adequate humoral response to pneumococcal infections and presumably also to other TI-2 antigens, and to protect against overwhelming postsplenectomy infection or sepsis.  (+info)

Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease in Switzerland, 1985-1994. Swiss Pneumococcal Study Group. (2/5890)

BACKGROUND: Cost effective use of new vaccines against pneumococcal disease in children requires detailed information about the local epidemiology of pneumococcal infections. METHODS: Data on 393 culture-confirmed cases of invasive pneumococcal infection in children (<17 years) hospitalized in Swiss paediatric clinics were collected retrospectively for the years 1985-1994. RESULTS: Meningitis (42%) was most frequent, followed by pneumonia (28%) and bacteraemia (26%). The overall annual incidence was 2.7 cases per 100000 children <17 years old and 11 cases per 100000 children <2 years old. Annual incidence rates were stable over the study period. Lethality was high for meningitis (8.6%) and bacteraemia (8.9%). A history of basal skull fracture was reported in 3.3% of children with pneumococcal meningitis. Residence in a rural region was associated with an increased risk of pneumococcal infection (relative risk = 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.00). CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric, invasive pneumococcal disease seems to be less frequent in Switzerland than in other European and non-European countries. This may be due to differences in diagnostic strategies and lower frequency of risk factors such as the use of day care. Children with a history of basal skull fracture are at increased risk for pneumococcal meningitis. Further investigation of the association of invasive pneumococcal infection with rural residence and the use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections might give new insight into the dynamics of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection and the development of antibiotic resistance.  (+info)

Repertoire of human antibodies against the polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B. (3/5890)

We examined the repertoire of antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae 6B capsular polysaccharide induced with the conventional polysaccharide vaccine in adults at the molecular level two ways. In the first, we purified from the sera of seven vaccinees antipneumococcal antibodies and determined their amino acid sequences. Their VH regions are mainly the products of VH3 family genes (candidate genes, 3-23, 3-07, 3-66, and 3-74), but the product of a VH1 family gene (candidate gene, 1-03) is occasionally used. All seven individuals have small amounts of polyclonal kappa+ antibodies (Vkappa1 to Vkappa4 families), although kappa+ antibodies are occasionally dominated by antibodies formed with the product of the A27 Vkappa gene. In contrast, lambda+ anti-6B antibodies are dominated by the antibodies derived from one of 3 very similar Vlambda2 family genes (candidate genes, 2c, 2e, and 2a2) and Clambda1 gene product. The Vlambda2(+) antibodies express the 8.12 idiotype, which is expressed on anti-double-stranded-DNA antibodies. In one case, Vlambda is derived from a rarely expressed Vlambda gene, 10a. In the second approach, we studied a human hybridoma (Dob1) producing anti-6B antibody. Its VH region sequence is closely related to those of the 3-15 VH gene (88% nucleotide homology) and JH4 (92% homology). Its VL region is homologous to the 2a2 Vlambda2 gene (91%) and Jlambda1/Clambda1. Taken together, the V region of human anti-6B antibodies is commonly formed by a VH3 and a Vlambda2 family gene product.  (+info)

Previous respiratory tract infections and antibiotic consumption in children with long- and short-term carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. (4/5890)

Previous respiratory tract infections (RTI) and antibiotics consumption as possible risk factors for extended duration of PRP carriage were investigated in 24 children (cases) with previous carriage of penicillin-resistant pneumococci (PRP) for a duration exceeding 120 days (median 168 days) and a control group of 53 children with a duration of PRP carriage less than 90 days (median 21 days). The cases had experienced 0.99 episodes of acute otitis media (AOM) per life-year compared to 0.79 episodes in the controls (P = 0.32). For antibiotic-treated RTI other than AOM, the corresponding numbers were 0.49 and 0.29 episodes per life-year, respectively (P = 0.01). No differences in antibiotic consumption in the 3 months preceding the carriage, nor during the carriage period were noted. Other factors than impaired host defence to respiratory tract pathogens or antibiotics consumption seem to be more important in determining the duration of PRP carriage.  (+info)

Pneumococcal psoas abscess. (5/5890)

A 47-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe low back pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left sided psoas muscle abscess. On the first hospital day, US-guided drainage was performed. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from the pus. Thereafter, the open drainage of the abscess and antibiotic treatment were given with subsequent clinical improvement. Only 10 cases of pneumococcal psoas abscess have been previously reported in the world literature.  (+info)

Increased activity of 16-membered lactone ring macrolides against erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae: characterization of South African isolates. (6/5890)

The susceptibility of 40 erythromycin-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes and 40 multiply-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to six macrolide antibiotics, representing 14-, 15- and 16-membered lactone ring structures, was tested. The genetic basis for macrolide resistance in the strains was also determined. Both erm and mef determinants were encountered in the 36 S. pneumoniae isolates tested, but only mef in the five S. pyogenes isolates tested. All isolates showed cross-resistance among the 14-membered macrolides erythromycin, clarithromycin and roxithromycin and the 15-membered macrolide, azithromycin. However, the erythromycin-resistant S. pyogenes isolates retained full susceptibility to spiramycin and josamycin (16-membered agents). These latter two antibiotics were also more active than the other macrolides against erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates, especially josamycin which was 8-64 times more active than erythromycin; spiramycin was only two to eight times more active than erythromycin.  (+info)

Moxifloxacin: a comparison with other antimicrobial agents of in-vitro activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae. (7/5890)

Two hundred representative isolates, including 26 strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with intermediate resistance to penicillin, were selected from a collection obtained from blood cultures of patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia. The MICs of moxifloxacin (BAY 12-8039), grepafloxacin, sparfloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, tetracycline and penicillin G were determined by a standard agar dilution technique. Moxifloxacin had the highest in-vitro activity against S. pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.25 mg/L; MIC range 0.06-0.25 mg/L). The MIC90 values were one dilution lower than those obtained with sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin, three dilutions lower than those obtained with levofloxacin, and four dilutions lower than those of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin.  (+info)

Maternal immunization. (8/5890)

Maternal immunization can enhance passive immunity of infants to pathogens that cause life-threatening illnesses. In most instances, immunization during pregnancy will provide important protection for the woman as well as for her offspring. The tetanus toxoid and influenza vaccines are examples of vaccines that provide a double benefit. Other vaccines under evaluation include those for respiratory syncytial virus, pneumococci, group B streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Although most IgG antibody crosses the placenta in the third trimester, the process is time-dependent, dictating that immunization should be accomplished ideally at least 6 weeks prior to delivery. IgG1 antibodies are transferred preferentially. Maternal immunization has not interfered with active immunization of the infant. Inactivated vaccines administered in the third trimester of pregnancy pose no known risk to the woman or to her fetus.  (+info)

Background. Penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates are confined mainly to a few sero-groups. Capsular transformation may serve as a mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance to new serotypes. Methods. Antibiogram and molecular typing, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), were performed on 46 nasopharyngeal and middle ear fluid (MEF) isolates expressing serotype 11A, 45 MEF isolates expressing serotype 15B/C (recovered during 1998-2003 from Israeli children ...
Gene target information for rpmG - 50S ribosomal protein L33 (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Gene target information for rpsT - 30S ribosomal protein S20 (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence, determinants, and molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates colonizing the nasopharynx of healthy children in Rome. AU - Petrosillo, N.. AU - Pantosti, A.. AU - Bordi, E.. AU - Spanó, A.. AU - Del Grosso, M.. AU - Tallarida, B.. AU - Ippolito, G.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The aim of this study was to determine the factors favouring Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal colonization of healthy children attending daycare centres and to describe the circulation of penicillin-nonsusceptible strains using molecular techniques. A single nasopharyngeal swab was obtained from 610 children attending daycare centres in the southeast area of Rome. Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates were serotyped, and antibiotic susceptibility was assayed by the E test. The genetic determinants of erythromycin resistance were detected by a duplex polymerase chain reaction, and the penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The overall ...
Rapid and sensitive detection of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal isolates is very critical in the treatment of various pneumococcal diseases, especially pneumococcal meningitis. Direct detection of penicillin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal isolates from clinical specimens without conventional culture methods could make targeted antimicrobial treatment against antibiotic-resistant pneumococci possible from the start of therapy.. On the basis of the pbp2b sequences determined in this study and retrieved from a public database (GenBank), we developed a multiplex PCR method to detect penicillin-nonsusceptible isolates. Two forward primers (149-F1, 5′-TTA TGC AGT TGC TTT GAA T-3′; 155-F2, 5′-AAC CCW AAR ACA GGT GCT-3′; nucleotides 447 to 465 and 463 to 480 in R6, respectively) and one reverse primer (322-R, 5′-GTT ATC AAA CTG CCC AAA GGC-3′; nucleotides 963 to 984 in R6) were used in the multiplex PCR. Primer 149-F1 is specific for group II isolates, while primer 155-F2 corresponds to ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among children and the elderly. The ability to effectively treat pneumococcal infection has been compromised due to the acquisition of antibiotic resistance, particularly to β-lactam drugs. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and molecular evolution of penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PNSP) isolated from invasive diseases before and after pneumococcal conjugate vaccine implementation in Casablanca, Morocco. Isolates were obtained from the Microbiology Laboratory of Ibn Rochd University Hospital Centre of Casablanca. Serogrouping was done by Pneumotest Kit and serotyping by the Quellung capsular swelling. Antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by disk diffusion and E-test methods. The PNSP were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and by genotyping of pbp1a, pbp2b, and pbp2x genes. A total of 361 S. pneumoniae isolates were collected from 2007
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization with penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a child-care center. AU - Boken, Daniel J.. AU - Chartrand, Stephen A.. AU - Goering, Richard V.. AU - Kruger, Robert. AU - Harrison, Christopher J.. PY - 1995/10. Y1 - 1995/10. N2 - We obtained nasopharyngeal cultures for Streptococcus pneumoniae from 54 children ages 2 to 24 months attending an Omaha child-care center (CCC) in April 1994. Thirty-two (59%) of the 54 children were colonized with S. pneumoniae belonging to serotypes 23, 19, 6 and 11. Seventeen (53%) of the pneumococcal isolates were highly resistant to penicillin (minimal inhibitory concentration ≥2.0 mUg/ml; HR-SP) and 7 (22%) were intermediately resistant to penicillin (0.12 ≤minimal inhibitory concentration ≤ 1.0 mUg/ml; IR-SP). Within each pneumococcal capsular serotype, there were 1 to 3 DNA subtypes based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis. A single pulsed field gel electrophoresis strain predominated in most CCC rooms, ...
BACKGROUND: In April 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 for use in the United States. We evaluated rates of pneumococcal colonization, by serotype and antibiotic resistance, in Massachusetts communities where serial cross-sectional surveillance has been conducted for the past decade.. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from children 0 to ,7 years of age and seen by primary care providers for well child or acute illness visits in 2001, 2004, 2007, 2009, and 2011. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped by Quellung reaction and classified as PCV7 serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F), additional PCV13 serotypes (1, 3, 5, 6A, 7F, 19A), or non-PCV13 serotypes. Changes in colonization and impact of PCV13 were assessed using generalized linear mixed models, adjusting for known risk factors and accounting for clustering by community.. RESULTS: Introduction of PCV13 did not affect the rate of overall pneumococcal colonization (31% in 2011). Colonization with ...
The pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) is a surface-exposed protein of the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. It belongs to a group of proteins designated the lipoprotein receptor I antigen family. The gene encoding PsaA from an encapsulated strain of pneumococcal serotype 6B was cloned and sequenced. The peptide sequence was compared to that of homologs found in S. pneumoniae serotype 2, viridans streptococci, and Enterococcus faecalis. Identity values among the deduced peptides ranged from 57 to 98%. The polymorphism of psaA was examined among the 23 encapsulated vaccine serotypes by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Ten different enzymes were used to analyze 80 strains representing the 23 serotypes in a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. This analysis showed that restriction sites within the gene were highly conserved, with only a minor variation occurring in 10% of the strains, the result of an additional Tsp509I site. The lack of variation for the ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Possible overestimation of penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization rates due to misidentification of oropharyngeal streptococci. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Few data exist on the distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes in many countries and in non-invasive disease overall. Here, data are presented from 772 paediatric isolates from children with community-acquired respiratory tract infections isolated from the PROTEKT global surveillance study during 1999-2000. Overall, 60.0 % of isolates were covered by the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine formulation (PCV7), with greater coverage in the USA compared with Europe (69.6 vs 55.5 %, P = 0.014). Geographically dispersed clones of serogroups 3, 11 and 15 accounted for most of the isolates outside PCV7 coverage. Overall, macrolide, penicillin and cotrimoxazole non-susceptibility rates were high; however, all isolates were susceptible to telithromycin. Although only 7.4 % of isolates were resistant to amoxycillin/clavulanate, a higher prevalence of resistance was found in isolates from the USA and South Korea. This study shows the feasibility and importance of serotyping antibiotic surveillance study
We investigated changes in serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities among 386 isolates of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae collected from numerous hospitals in Korea from 1996 to 2008. Serotypes 19F (9.8 %), 23F (8.3 %), 19A (7.8 %), 6A (7.5 %), 3 (7.3 %), 9V (6.5 %), 6B (6.2 %), 14 (4.9 %), 1 (3.9 %), 11A (3.9 %) and 4 (3.1 %) represented 69.2 % of all isolates. While the overall proportion of PCV7 serotypes was stable over time, we observed modest decreases in children <5 years old and in adults ≥65 years old between 1996-1999 and 2007-2008. An increased prevalence of non-PCV7 serotypes in these age groups was primarily attributable to an increase in serotypes 3, 6A and 19A. Most invasive S. pneumoniae isolates showed high resistance rates to erythromycin (74.9 %), tetracycline (71.1 %) and clindamycin (61.7 %). Between 1996-2003 and 2004-2008, non-susceptibility rates to cefotaxime and multi-drugs (three or more classes) in PCV7 serotypes showed a declining trend, while in non-PCV7
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Mevalonate analogues as substrates of enzymes in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway of Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Kudoh, Takashi. AU - Park, Chan Sun. AU - Lefurgy, Scott T.. AU - Sun, Meihao. AU - Michels, Theodore. AU - Leyh, Thomas S.. AU - Silverman, Richard B.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Survival of the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae requires a functional mevalonate pathway, which produces isopentenyl diphosphate, the essential building block of isoprenoids. Flux through this pathway appears to be regulated at the mevalonate kinase (MK) step, which is strongly feedback-inhibited by diphosphomevalonate (DPM), the penultimate compound in the pathway. The human mevalonate pathway is not regulated by DPM, making the bacterial pathway an attractive antibiotic target. Since DPM has poor drug characteristics, being highly charged, we propose to use unphosphorylated, cell-permeable prodrugs based on mevalonate that will be phosphorylated in turn by MK and ...
Additional file 1: of Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes among children in India prior to the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a cross-sectional study
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel quantitative PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae using the competence regulator gene target comX. AU - Habets, M.N.. AU - Cremers, A.J.. AU - Bos, M.P.. AU - Savelkoul, Paul H.. AU - Eleveld, M.J.. AU - Meis, J.F.. AU - Hermans, P.W.. AU - Melchers, W.J.. AU - de Jonge, M.I.. AU - Diavatopoulos, D.A.. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for an estimated 1.6 million deaths worldwide every year. While rapid detection and timely treatment with appropriate antibiotics is preferred, this is often difficult due to the amount of time that detection with blood cultures takes. In this study, a novel quantitative PCR assay for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae was developed. To identify novel targets, we analysed the pneumococcal genome for unique, repetitive DNA sequences. This approach identified comX, which is conserved and present in duplicate copies in Streptococcus pneumoniae but not in other bacterial species. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important pathogen responsible for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), bacteremia, meningitis, and otitis media and continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide (1). In 2000, the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the U.S. childhood vaccine schedule, followed by the PCV13 in 2010 (2). Conjugate vaccines were shown to be immunogenic and prevented pneumococcal disease in children and even in immunocompromised patients (3). However, it has been known that vaccine use modifies the epidemiology of pneumococcal disease and colonization, and investigations have documented increases in the rates of carriage and infections caused by non-PCV7 and later non-PCV13 serotypes (1, 4-6).. Recently, the serotype distribution of S. pneumoniae isolates recovered in the United States (2011-2012) was investigated (7). Serotypes 19A, 3, and 35B were found to be the most prevalent serotypes among S. pneumoniae recovered ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activities of cethromycin (ABT-773), a new ketolide, against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains that are not susceptible to penicillin or macrolides. AU - Mason, Edward O.. AU - Lamberth, Linda B.. AU - Wald, Ellen R.. AU - Bradley, John S.. AU - Barson, William J.. AU - Kaplan, Sheldon L.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Pneumococcal resistance to antimicrobials presents problems to physicians for empirical treatment of acute otitis media (AOM). Three hundred thirty-three isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae selected for nonsusceptibility to penicillin (MIC ,0.1 μg/ml) from the middle ear (n = 325) or mastoid (n = 8) of children seen between 1994 and 2000 at four childrens hospitals in the United States were tested by broth microdilution for susceptibility to nine antibiotics. Using NCCLS 2002 breakpoints, resistance to the following drugs was as indicated: amoxicillin, 1%; azithromycin, 71%; cefprozil, 71%; ceftriaxone, 2%; cefdinir, 98%; erythromycin, 70%; ...
As is characteristic of the lactic acid bacteria, S. pneumoniae is a nutritionally fastidious facultative anaerobe requiring a complex medium for growth. This bacterium obtains energy strictly via fermentation and is incapable of respiratory metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically, as is true of all streptococcal species (38). The only nutrients from which the streptococci can obtain sufficient energy to support growth and cell division are carbohydrates, which are oxidized to pyruvate via glycolysis (with the exception of a few species that can ferment arginine). We identified a large set of genes that encode enzymes necessary for transport of at least 12 different carbohydrates into the cell and for their subsequent conversion to an intermediate in glycolysis.. S. pneumoniae R6, as expected, encodes all genes necessary for the oxidation of carbohydrates to pyruvate via glycolysis and would be expected to reoxidize most, if not all, of the NADH produced by the reduction of pyruvic acid ...
As is characteristic of the lactic acid bacteria, S. pneumoniae is a nutritionally fastidious facultative anaerobe requiring a complex medium for growth. This bacterium obtains energy strictly via fermentation and is incapable of respiratory metabolism, either aerobically or anaerobically, as is true of all streptococcal species (38). The only nutrients from which the streptococci can obtain sufficient energy to support growth and cell division are carbohydrates, which are oxidized to pyruvate via glycolysis (with the exception of a few species that can ferment arginine). We identified a large set of genes that encode enzymes necessary for transport of at least 12 different carbohydrates into the cell and for their subsequent conversion to an intermediate in glycolysis.. S. pneumoniae R6, as expected, encodes all genes necessary for the oxidation of carbohydrates to pyruvate via glycolysis and would be expected to reoxidize most, if not all, of the NADH produced by the reduction of pyruvic acid ...
Genom Data. 2017 Feb 27;12:38-40. doi: 10.1016/j.gdata.2017.02.013. eCollection 2017.. Impact of aspirin on the transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.. Afzal M1, Shafeeq S2.. Author information. Abstract. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) is a medicine used to treat pain, fever, and inflammation. Here, we for the very first time reported the genome-wide transcriptional profiling of aspirin-regulated genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presence of 5 mM aspirin in chemically-defined medium (CDM) using microarray analysis. Our results showed that expression of several genes was differentially expressed in the presence of aspirin. These genes were further grouped into COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups) functional categories based on the putative functions of the corresponding proteins. Most of affected genes belong to COG category E (Amino acid transport and metabolism), G (Carbohydrate transport and metabolism), J (Translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis), and I (Lipid ...
Abstract(#br) Background(#br) Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5 is among the most common serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in The Gambia. We anticipate that introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) into routine vaccination in The Gambia will reduce serotype 5 IPD. However, the emergence of new clones that have altered their genetic repertoire through capsular switching or genetic recombination after vaccination with PCV-13 poses a threat to this public health effort. In order to monitor for potential genetic changes post-PCV-13 vaccination, we established the baseline population structure, epidemiology, and antibiotic resistance patterns of serotype 5 before the introduction of PCV-13.(#br) Methods(#br)Fifty-five invasive S. pneumoniae... serotype 5 isolates were recovered from January 2009 to August 2011 in a population-based study in the Upper River Region of The Gambia. Serotyping was done by latex agglutination and confirmed by ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections among children in India. India introduced the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in several states in 2017, and is expected to expand to nationwide coverage in the near future. To establish a baseline for measuring the impact of PCV in India, we assessed overall and serotype-specific nasopharyngeal carriage in two pediatric populations. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Palwal District, Haryana, from December 2016 to July 2017, prior to vaccine introduction. Children 2-59 months of age with clinical pneumonia seeking healthcare and those in the community with no clear illness were targeted for enrollment. A nasopharyngeal swab was collected and tested for pneumococcus using conventional culture and sequential multiplex PCR. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance using an E test. Children were considered colonized if pneumococcus was isolated by culture or PCR. The prevalence of
Routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), available since 2000, has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) attributable to serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. However, IPD caused by nonvaccine pneumococcal serotypes has increased, and nonvaccine serotypes are now responsible for the majority of the remaining cases of IPD occurring in children. A 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration, which, in addition to the 7 serotypes included in the original PCV7, contains the 6 pneumococcal serotypes responsible for 63% of IPD cases now occurring in children younger than 5 years. Because of the expanded coverage provided by PCV13, it will replace PCV7. This statement provides recommendations for (1) the transition from PCV7 to PCV13; (2) the routine use of PCV13 for healthy children and children with an underlying medical condition that increases ...
BMC Infect Dis. 2016 Jan 12;16(1):12. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1335-3.. Streptococcus pneumoniae colonisation in children and adolescents with asthma: impact of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and evaluation of potential effect of thirteen-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.. Esposito S1, Terranova L2, Patria MF3, Marseglia GL4, Miraglia Del Giudice M5, Bodini A6, Martelli A7, Baraldi E8, Mazzina O9, Tagliabue C10, Licari A11, Ierardi V12, Lelii M13, Principi N14.. Author information. Abstract. BACKGROUND:. The main aim of this study was to evaluate Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in a group of school-aged children and adolescents with asthma because these results might indicate the theoretical risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of such patients and the potential protective efficacy of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).. METHODS:. Oropharyngeal samples were obtained from 423 children with documented asthma (300 males, 70.9 %), and tested for the ...
Neutrophils, or polymorphonuclear leukocytes, comprise a crucial component of innate immunity, controlling bacterial and fungal infection through a combination of both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms. Indeed, neutrophils are believed to play an important role in controlling infection caused by the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the method by which neutrophils kill the pneumococcus as well as other Gram-positive bacteria, is not fully understood. We investigated human neutrophil killing of the pneumococcus in a complement-dependent opsonophagocytic assay. In contrast to other Gram-positive organisms, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase did not affect killing of S. pneumoniae. Supernatant from degranulated neutrophils killed the pneumococcus, suggesting a role for granular products. When neutrophil granule proteases were inhibited with either a protease mixture, or specific serine protease inhibitors 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of nontypeable and atypical Streptococcus pneumoniae pediatric isolates from 1994 to 2010. AU - Ing, Jessica. AU - Mason, Edward. AU - Kaplan, Sheldon. AU - Lamberth, Linda B.. AU - Revell, Paula A.. AU - Luna, Ruth Ann. AU - Hulten, Kristina G.. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, sinusitis, and acute otitis media in children. Although optochin susceptibility, bile solubility, and Quellung testing are the standards for identifying and differentiating pneumococci, there are several reports of nontypeable pneumococci that give inconsistent results with one or more of these tests. We characterized 52 isolates previously labeled as nontypeable pneumococci. Microbiological methods included repeating the Quellung reaction using a new and expanded group of antisera, optochin susceptibility and bile solubility tests, and automated Vitek 2 identification. Molecular methods included PCR detection ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae causes a high burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally, especially in children from resource-poor settings. Like many bacteria, the pneumococcus can import DNA from other strains or even species by transformation and homologous recombination, which has allowed the pneumococcus to evade clinical interventions such as antibiotics and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs). Pneumococci are enclosed in a complex polysaccharide capsule that determines the serotype; the capsule varies in size and is associated with properties including carriage prevalence and virulence. We determined and quantified the association between capsule and recombination events using genomic data from a diverse collection of serotypes sampled in Malawi. We determined both the amount of variation introduced by recombination relative to mutation (the relative rate) and how many individual recombination events occur per isolate (the frequency). Using univariate analyses, we found an ...
Abstract. A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to define the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and circulating serotypes in Laos. Of 10,799 patients with hemocultures and 353 patients with cerebrospinal fluid samples, 0.21% and 5.4%, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, giving a total of 35 IPD patients. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect serotypes represented in the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A blinded evaluation comparing serotype as defined by the Quellung reaction versus the polymerase chain reaction demonstrated 100% concordance. The most frequent serotype (n = 33 patients) was 1 (n = 6), followed by serotypes 5, 6A/B/C, 14, and 23F. Serotypes represented in the 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) infected 39% of patients, with 73% coverage for the PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines. Although the sample size is small, these data suggest that the PCV-7 vaccine may have relatively low efficacy in Laos.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) are Gram-positive cocci and commensals of the human upper respiratory tract. Pneumococcal pathogenesis requires adherence to host cells and dissemination through cellular barriers and to evade host defense mechanisms. The Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is an important virulence factor which has a crucial role in pneumococcal adhesion to host cells and immune evasion by manipulating the host complement system. To elucidate the pneumococcal adherence and uptake mechanism via factor H glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate and heparin) were employed as competitive inhibitors in infection experiments with epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Glycosaminoglycans significantly inhibited the FH mediated pneumococcal adherence and subsequent invasion to host epithelial cells. Furthermore, the short consensus repeats of FH which promotes the adhesion of pneumococci to host cells were identified by blocking experiments with domain mapped
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) are Gram-positive cocci and commensals of the human upper respiratory tract. Pneumococcal pathogenesis requires adherence to host cells and dissemination through cellular barriers and to evade host defense mechanisms. The Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC) is an important virulence factor which has a crucial role in pneumococcal adhesion to host cells and immune evasion by manipulating the host complement system. To elucidate the pneumococcal adherence and uptake mechanism via factor H glycosaminoglycans (dermatan sulfate and heparin) were employed as competitive inhibitors in infection experiments with epithelial cells or human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Glycosaminoglycans significantly inhibited the FH mediated pneumococcal adherence and subsequent invasion to host epithelial cells. Furthermore, the short consensus repeats of FH which promotes the adhesion of pneumococci to host cells were identified by blocking experiments with domain mapped
The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. Natural transformation provides bacteria with a mechanism to repair damaged genes or as a source of new advantageous traits. In S. pneumoniae, the competence pathway is controlled by the two-component signal transduction pathway ComCDE, which directly regulates SigX, the alternative sigma factor required for the initiation into competence. Over the past two decades, effectors of cellular killing (i.e., fratricides) have been recognized as important targets of the pneumococcal competence QS pathway. Recently, direct interactions between the ComCDE and the paralogous BlpRH pathway, regulating bacteriocin production, were identified, further strengthening the interconnections between these two QS systems. Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antibacterial activity of a competence-stimulating peptide in experimental sepsis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Oggioni, Marco R.. AU - Iannelli, Francesco. AU - Ricci, Susanna. AU - Chiavolini, Damiana. AU - Parigi, Riccardo. AU - Trappetti, Claudia. AU - Claverys, Jean Pierre. AU - Pozzi, Gianni. PY - 2004/12/1. Y1 - 2004/12/1. N2 - Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major cause of human disease, produces a 17-mer autoinducer peptide pheromone (competence-stimulating peptide [CSP]) for the control of competence for genetic transformation. Due to previous work linking CSP to stress phenotypes, we set up an in vivo sepsis model to assay its effect on virulence. Our data demonstrate a significant increase in the rates of survival of mice, reductions of blood S. pneumoniae counts, and prolonged times to death for mice treated with CSP. In vitro the dose of CSP used in the animal model produced a transitory inhibition of growth. When a mutant with a mutation in the CSP sensor ...
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a cell-surface protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae that is present on a number of clinical isolates as well as on the nonencapsulated laboratory strain Rx1. PspA was originally identified by monoclonal antibodies that can protect mice against intravenous challenge with some pneumococcal strains. A gene, pspA, required for the production of PspA was inactivated with use of insertional inactivation. By immunizing CBA/N (Xid) mice with congenic PspA+ and PspA- pneumococci, it was possible to demonstrate that PspA can elicit protective antipneumococcal antibodies. This result may be significant to future vaccine research, since Xid mice, like children, are not responsive to the present pneumococcal vaccine. When pspA was inactivated in three virulent, encapsulated strains of pneumococci, all three strains showed a reduction in virulence and two became totally avirulent: the 50% lethal dose was less than 10 colony-forming units (cfu) for the parents and ...
View supplemental data for amantadine - Comparative genomic analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates: Identification of genes contributing to invasive pneumococcal disease
We monitored the timing of acquisition of nasopharyngeal colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae in 125 healthy infants during their first 2 years of life. S. pneumoniae was isolated at least once from 59 (47%) of 125 infants aged between 2 and 18 months. Twenty-four infants (19%) were colonized with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae at some time during the study. During the course of this investigation, we identified sequential pneumococcal isolates of the same serotype from 5 infants, in which the penicillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) increased over time. For 4 of the 5 infants, sequential isolates were identical, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Sequential S. pneumoniae nasopharyngeal isolates from some healthy infants demonstrated drift in penicillin MIC values over time, from penicillin-susceptible to penicillin-resistant.. ...
A novel form of phosphocholine (PC), p-nitrophenyl-6-(O-phosphocholine)hydroxyhexanoate (EPC) coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) has been compared with unencapsulated, avirulent Streptococcus pneumoniae (R36a) and with the traditional thymus-dependent form of PC, diazophenylphosphocholine (DPPC)-conjugated KLH for its vaccine potential against virulent S. pneumoniae. Immunization with any of these three PC-containing Ags protects normal mice against a lethal challenge with 10(4) S. pneumoniae, whereas only EPC-KLH provides total protection to Xid mice. DPPC-KLH and unencapsulated S. pneumoniae confer less than 40% protection in Xid mice. Passive transfer of a PC-specific hybridoma Ab made from EPC-KLH-immunized Xid mice also provided protection against lethal challenge with S. pneumoniae. Protective anti-PC Ab were capable of binding to the surface of virulent bacteria, whereas anti-PC Ab incapable of binding to the bacterial surface failed to protect. Furthermore, serum Ab from EPC-KLH ...
The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its impact on the outcome among hospitalized patients of pneumococcal pneumonia acquired in the community. Consecutive patients with culture-proven pneumococcal pneumonia were prospectively studied with regard to the...
Process for producing purified capsular polysaccharides from a streptococcus pneumoniae cell lysate and process for manufacturing a pneumococcal vaccine. An abbreviated process for producing a solution containing substantially purified capsular polysaccharides from a streptococcus pneumoniae cell lysate broth is described. ultrafiltration and diafiltration of s. clarified pneumoniae followed by adjusting the ph to less than 4.5, preferably about 3.5, precipitating at least 98% of the protein in the solution without seriously affecting the polysaccharide yield. In addition, following ultrafiltration, diafiltration and acidification at a pH of less than 4.5, activated carbon filtration precipitates at least 90% of the remainder of the protein, without seriously affecting polysaccharide yield. exemplarily, the serotypes of s. Non-limiting pneumoniae which may be purified using the abbreviated process of the invention are 1, 4, 5, 6a, 6b, 7f, 9v, 14, 18c, 19a, 19f and 23f. in one embodiment,
The bacterial chromosome is compacted in a manner optimal for DNA transactions to occur. The degree of compaction results from the level of DNA-supercoiling and the presence of nucleoid-binding proteins. DNA-supercoiling is homeostatically maintained by the opposing activities of relaxing DNA topoisomerases and negative supercoil-inducing DNA gyrase. DNA-supercoiling acts as a general cis regulator of transcription, which can be superimposed upon other types of more specific trans regulatory mechanism. Transcriptomic studies on the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae, which has a relatively small genome (~2 Mb) and few nucleoid-binding proteins, have been performed under conditions of local and global changes in supercoiling. The response to local changes induced by fluoroquinolone antibiotics, which target DNA gyrase subunit A and/or topoisomerase IV, involves an increase in oxygen radicals which reduces cell viability, while the induction of global supercoiling changes by novobiocin (a DNA gyrase
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Different Types of Nasopharyngeal Swabs in Children. AU - Dube, Felix S.. AU - Kaba, Mamadou. AU - Whittaker, Elizabeth. AU - Zar, Heather J.. AU - Nicol, Mark P.. PY - 2013/6/26. Y1 - 2013/6/26. N2 - Background:A better understanding of the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is important to assess the impact of vaccination and the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. We compared the recovery of S. pneumoniae from nylon flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs.Methods:The recovery of S. pneumoniae from mocked specimens using flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs were compared by culture. The yield from paired nasopharyngeal (NP) samples obtained from healthy children sampled with flocked and Dacron swabs was also determined using culture and lytA-targeted real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Results:Using mock specimen, the percentage recovery of S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (serotype 19F) strain from the flocked ...
Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer deaths. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common pathogen found among lung cancer patients that has shown increased resistance towards various antibiotics. Reports on bacterial colonization especially S. pneumoniae colonization in patients with lung cancer are scarce.The study aimed to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae isolated from lung cancer patients with pneumonia infection not undergoing any surgical procedure.Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples for blood culture and PCR were collected from 152 lung cancer patients with pneumonia. Blood culture and BAL specimens were cultured to isolate S. pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance was determined by minimum inhibitory concentration assay.Of the 152 blood samples, 85 (55.9%) samples from blood culture method and 97 (63.8%) samples from BAL specimens were positive for bacterial growth. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the predominant organism
EMIROGLU, Melike et al. Recurrent meningitis by Streptococcus pneumoniae in a girl with cochlear implant and head trauma despite 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. Arch. argent. pediatr. [online]. 2019, vol.117, n.4, pp.e373-e376. ISSN 0325-0075. http://dx.doi.org/10.5546/aap.2019.e373.. Recurrent bacterial meningitis is a very rare phenomenon in children. Skull base fractures and cochlear implant are the important predisposing factors and, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequently isolated agent. Implementation of 13-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) has reduced the occurence of invasive pneumococcal diseases. Vaccination breakthrough is typically related to underlying predisposing conditions. Herein, we reported recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a patient with a cochlear implant who experienced a head trauma after being fully vaccinated with PCV13. The patient experienced three meningitis episodes within one year. S.pneumoniae was determined on CSF culture in the ...
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious cause of morbidity among children in developed countries. The real impact of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal pneumonia is difficult to assess accurately. Children aged ≤16 years with clinical and radiological pneumonia were enrolled in a multicenter prospective study. Children aged ≤16 years admitted for a minor elective surgery was recruited as controls. Nasopharyngeal samples for PCR serotyping of S. pneumoniae were obtained in both groups. Informations on age, gender, PCV7 vaccination status, day care/school attendance, siblings, tobacco exposure were collected. In children with CAP (n=236), 54% of the nasopharyngeal swabs were PCR-positive for S. pneumoniae compared to 32% in controls (n=105) (p=0.003). Serotype 19A was the most common pneumococcal serotype carried in children with CAP (13%) and in controls (15%). Most common serotypes were non-vaccine types (39.4% for CAP and 47.1% for controls) and serotypes
We have analyzed by gene amplification and sequencing mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA, gyrB, and parC genes of fluoroquinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae mutants obtained during therapy or in vitro. Mutations leading to substitutions in ParC were detected in the two mutants obtained in vivo, BM4203-R (substitution of a histidine for an aspartate at position 84 [Asp-84--,His]; Staphylococcus aureus coordinates) and BM4204-R (Ser-80--,Phe), and in two mutants obtained in vitro (Ser-80--,Tyr). An additional mutant obtained in vitro, BM4205-R3, displayed a higher level of fluoroquinolone resistance and had a mutation in gyrA leading to a Ser-84--,Phe change. We could not detect any mutation in the three remaining mutants obtained in vitro. Total DNA from BM4203-R, BM4204-R, and BM4205-R3 was used to transform S. pneumoniae CP1000 by selection on fluoroquinolones. For the parC mutants, transformants with phenotypes indistinguishable from those of the ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of invasive infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococci isolated at 14 different centers in Turkey between January 2011-April 2012. Totally 79 clinical isolates from invasive infections were investigated, which were isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (33, 42%), blood (31, 39%) and the other sterile body fluids (15, 19%). Susceptibility to penicillin, cefotaxime and erythromycin was determined by E-test (bioMerieux, France) according to CLSI standards. Latex agglutination method was used for determination of serogroups. Serotypes were determined by the capsular swelling (Quellung reaction) method (Denmark, Statens Serum Institute). It was found that most common serotypes among 79 strains were 19 F (12, 15%), 6 A (7, 9%), 23 F (5, 6%), 6 B (4, 5%), 19 A (4, 5%) and 3 (4, 5%). For all invasive pneumococcal diseases, during the first 2 years of age, the potential coverage rates ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activity of tebipenem, a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, against penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Kobayashi, Reiko. AU - Konomi, Mami. AU - Hasegawa, Keiko. AU - Morozumi, Miyuki. AU - Sunakawa, Keisuke. AU - Ubukata, Kimiko. PY - 2005/3/1. Y1 - 2005/3/1. N2 - The in vitro activity of tebipenem (TBM), a new oral carbapenem antibiotic, against Streptococcus pneumoniae clinical isolates (n = 202) was compared with those of 15 reference agents. The isolates were classified into five genotypic classes after PCR identification of abnormal pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b genes: (i) penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (PSSP) isolates with no abnormal pbp genes (n = 34; 16.8%), (ii) genotypic penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae (gPISP) isolates with only an abnormal pbp2x gene [gPISP (2x)] (n = 48; 23.8%), (iii) gPISP isolates with abnormal pbp1a and pbp2x genes (n = 32; 15.8%), (iv) gPISP isolates with abnormal pbp2x and pbp2b genes (n = 16; 7.9%), and (v) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of A-80556 using microdialysis in a Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis model. AU - Destache, Christopher J.. AU - Pakiz, Catherine B.. AU - Stoysich, Anne M.. N1 - Funding Information: Acknowledgements This study was sponsored in part by a grant from Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, IL, USA. We thank Jeff Alder, Ph.D for reviewing this manuscript before submission. This study was approved by the Animal Research Committee of Creighton University Health Sciences (ARC #0212).. PY - 1996/12. Y1 - 1996/12. N2 - Using microdialysis in a rabbit model of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a new fluoroquinolone, A-80556, were determined. A-80556 (10 mg/kg iv) was administered to four rabbits. Saline was given to four separate control animals. A microdialysis probe perfused the CSF (2 μL/min) and effluent was collected at 0-0.25, 0.25-1, 1-2, 2-4, and 4-6 h after injection of A-80556. Seven blood samples ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A retrospective analysis of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in Trinidad.. AU - Williams, K. P.. AU - Monteil, M. A.. PY - 2000/3. Y1 - 2000/3. N2 - A retrospective analysis of culture-positive cases of S pneumoniae from normally sterile body fluids is reported. Over 40% of patients were 5 years old or less while 28% of patients were 50 years old or more. Meningitis (44%) was the commonest clinical presentation followed closely by pneumonia (31%). The commonest predisposing disorder was human immunodeficiency virus infection though there were no identifiable risk factors in the majority of patients. Mortality from invasive pneumococcal disease was significantly higher in elderly patients compared with other age groups (p = 0.0003). In this study, all S pneumoniae isolates, for which there were antibiotic sensitivity data, were penicillin and/or amoxycillin sensitive.. AB - A retrospective analysis of culture-positive cases of S pneumoniae from normally sterile body ...
Pneumococcal surface adhesin A (psaA) gene is universally confirmed as one of the Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesion genes, but it is disputed whether the psaA gene is a Streptococcus pneumoniae species-specific gene. In the present study, the presence of the psaA gene in 34 streptococcus mitis group isolates was identified by the PCR approach and a comparison of sequencing PCR products (Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 as the control strain). Also, the evolutionary scenarios of these psaA genes in these streptococcus mitis group isolates were analyzed by a phylogenetic tree based on the housekeeping genes (sodA and rnpB) and psaA genes. As a result, a high degree of conservation of open reading frame sequences in all six Streptococcus pneumoniae strains (100% similarity) and in the other species of the streptococcus mitis group (92.6-100% similarity) was revealed. Further genetics research based on housekeeping genes and psaA gene phylogenies showed that the psaA gene was of vertical inheritance only in
Copyright: © 2017 Bittaye et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intermediate resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin in children in day-care centers. AU - Doyle, M. G.. AU - Morrow, A. L.. AU - Van, R.. AU - Pickering, L. K.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - This study was performed to determine the prevalence, serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 3 years of age in day-care centers in Houston, TX. Nasopharyngeal cultures were obtained on two occasions, in March and May, 1989, from 140 children in 4 day-care centers. All penicillin- resistant S. pneumoniae organisms isolated in this study had minimum inhibitory concentrations to penicillin of between 0.1 and 0.5 μg/ml and were thus intermediately resistant. No highly resistant S. pneumoniae (minimum inhibitory concentration ≥1.0 μg/ml) was isolated in this study. Nasal carriage of S. pneumoniae occurred in 39% of children; carriage of intermediately resistant S. pneumoniae occurred in 4% of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide vaccine-mediated protection against serotype 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae in immunodeficient mice. AU - Tian, Haijun. AU - Groner, Avi. AU - Boes, Marianne. AU - Pirofski, Liise Anne. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/4. Y1 - 2007/4. N2 - Pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS) vaccines are less immunogenic in immunocompromised than immunocompetent individuals. However, neither the efficacy of PPS vaccines in immunocompromised individuals nor the host cellular subsets required for vaccine efficacy against pneumococcal disease have been directly investigated. In this study, we vaccinated CD4-deicient (CD4 -/-), CD8-deficient (CB8-/-), and secretory immunoglobulin M-deficient (sIgM-/-) mice and wild-type C57BL/6 (Wt) mice with a conjugate of PPS of serotype 3 and tetanus toxoid (PPS3-TT) and determined the antibody response and efficacy of vaccination against systemic and pulmonary challenge with ...
A prospective hospital-based study was undertaken to define the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and circulating serotypes in Laos. Of 10,799 patients with hemocultures and 353 patients with cerebrospinal fluid samples, 0.21% and 5.4%, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae, giving a total of 35 IPD patients. We developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect serotypes represented in the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine. A blinded evaluation comparing serotype as defined by the Quellung reaction versus the polymerase chain reaction demonstrated 100% concordance. The most frequent serotype (n = 33 patients) was 1 (n = 6), followed by serotypes 5, 6A/B/C, 14, and 23F. Serotypes represented in the 7-valent polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) infected 39% of patients, with 73% coverage for the PCV-10 and PCV-13 vaccines. Although the sample size is small, these data suggest that the PCV-7 vaccine may have relatively low efficacy in Laos. Further studies
OBJECTIVES: The overall reported burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) varies among countries in Europe. This review describes the epidemiology and serotype distribution of IPD in European children from studies published from 1990 to 2008.. METHODS: Averages were derived from all studies from all countries that had available data.. RESULTS: Before widespread immunization with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), the overall mean annual incidence of IPD in children aged ,2 years was 44.4/100 000. The mean case fatality rate for IPD was 3.5%, and resistant rates were approximately 23% for penicillin G (minimum inhibitory concentration , or =2mg/l), 41% for erythromycin, and 9% (, or =5 years) for third-generation cephalosporins. The most common serotypes causing IPD were 14, 6B, 19F, and 23F, all of which are included in PCV7. Vaccine serotype coverage ranged from 37% to 100% for PCV7, with mean increases in coverage of 7% and 16% for investigational 10- and 13-valent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endophthalmitis caused by streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Miller, John J.. AU - Scott, Ingrid. AU - Flynn, Harry W.. AU - Smiddy, William E.. AU - Corey, Richard P.. AU - Miller, Darlene. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Purpose To investigate clinical settings, management strategies, antibiotic sensitivities, and visual acuity outcomes of endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Design Retrospective, observational case series. Methods Records were reviewed of all patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae treated at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 2003. Main outcome measures Visual acuity and antibiotic sensitivities. Results Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients met study inclusion criteria. The median follow-up was 7 months (range, 3 months to 10 years). Clinical settings included acute postoperative (10 eyes), corneal stitch abscess (5), corneal ulcer (3), bleb-associated (4), post-trauma ...
A double-blind, randomized study involving 264 toddlers attending day care centers was conducted to document the effect of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the carriage rate of pneumococci. Of 3750 cultures done on nasopharyngeal samples obtained from subjects during a 2-year follow-up period after vaccination, 65% were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. In all age windows, the rate of carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci was lower among subjects who received the pneumococcal vaccine than among control subjects, because the acquisition rate was lower in the former group. The effect was most pronounced among subjects aged ⩽36 months. The sample size enabled us to study protection against carriage of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6B, 9V, 14, 19F, and 23F; significant protection against all serotypes except 19F was seen in the pneumococcal-vaccine group. The rate of carriage of serotype 6A (not included in the vaccine) was also reduced significantly, but the rate of carriage of serotype ...
Ubukata and coworkers (32) have designed a similar system whereby they detected penicillin resistance with DNA extracted from clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae. Their system is based on three sets of primers designed for amplification of thepbp2B gene from penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, as well as two classes of mutations of thepbp2B gene which are present in penicillin-resistant pneumococci in Japan. The primer used to detect penicillin-susceptible strains in their study most likely also amplifies DNA from resistant strains (on the basis of pbp2B sequence data of Smith and Klugman [31]), since the primer sequence covers an area of the pbp2B gene which is not unique only to penicillin-susceptible isolates. In fact, it is identical to sequences which are also found in penicillin-resistant pneumococcal isolates. In our study we describe four resistance primers which expand the genetic variabilities of resistance detected in the pbp2B gene.. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by ...
Linear regression analysis was used to compare penicillin MICs determined with 3,129 recent clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae to MICs obtained with nine other beta-lactam antimicrobial agents. A strong correlation between penicillin MICs and those obtained with other beta-lactams was demonstrated. It may be possible to test penicillin and use MICs obtained with penicillin to predict MICs of other beta-lactam antimicrobials for Streptococcus pneumoniae.
We observed that differences in the in vivo growth kinetics of pneumococcal strains of capsular types 3, 4, 5, and 6 were reminiscent of differences that we had previously reported for type 2 strain D39 and its pneumolysin-deficient mutant, PLN. Capsular type 2 Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 exhibits exponential growth in the blood of XID mice until the death of the mice at 24 to 36 h. In contrast, PLN reaches a plateau in growth that is maintained for several days. Capsular type 3 and 5 strains exhibited exponential growth and caused rapid death of XID mice following intravenous challenge, similar to the observation with D39. Strains of capsular types 4 and 6 exhibited growth kinetics reminiscent of PLN. Since the observed differences in the pathogenesis of types 3 and 5 compared to 4 and 6 were reminiscent of the effects of pneumolysin deficiency in type 2, we examined the levels of in vitro pneumolysin production for the entire panel of strains. The onset of pneumolysin production in most ...
CNS infection is a life-threatening condition in developing countries and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been reported as the most common cause of bacterial meningitis; however, there is limited data on pneumococcal meningitis in Indonesia. This cross-sectional study aimed to isolate and identity S. pneumoniae strains from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens collected as part of routine testing from patients with clinically diagnosed central nervous system infection at a national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia in 2017. S. pneumoniae isolation and identification were performed using conventional culture and molecular tools. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns were monitored through minimum inhibitory concentration testing. From 147 CSF specimens, one S. pneumoniae strain was identified from a patient with bacterial meningitis symptoms. The isolate was serotype 6B (ST5661) and susceptible to 18 antimicrobial agents tested, including penicillin, tetracycline, and the macrolide group. Our data
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparative analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae transmission in Portuguese and Finnish day-care centres. AU - Pessoa, Delphine. AU - Hoti, Fabian. AU - Syrjänen, Ritva. AU - Sá-Leão, Raquel. AU - Kaijalainen, Tarja. AU - Gomes, M. Gabriela M. AU - Auranen, Kari. PY - 2013/4/18. Y1 - 2013/4/18. N2 - Background: Day-care centre (DCC) attendees play a central role in maintaining the circulation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) in the population. The prevalence of pneumococcal carriage is highest in DCC attendees but varies across countries and is found to be consistently lower in Finland than in Portugal. We compared key parameters underlying pneumococcal transmission in DCCs to understand which of these contributed to the observed differences in carriage prevalence.Methods: Longitudinal data about serotype-specific carriage in DCC attendees in Portugal (47 children in three rooms; mean age 2 years; range 1-3 years) and Finland (91 children in seven rooms; mean age 4 ...
The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance and vaccine escape in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae can be largely attributed to competence-induced transformation. To better understand why competence-induced transformation is so effective, we studied the dynamics of this process at the single-cell level. We show that within isogenic populations, all cells become naturally competent and bind exogenous DNA. In addition, we find that transformation is highly efficient and that the chromosomal location of the integration site or whether the transformed gene is encoded on the leading or lagging strand has limited influence on recombination efficiency. Indeed, we have observed multiple recombination events in single recipients in real-time. However, because of saturation of the DNA uptake and integration machinery and because a single stranded donor DNA replaces the original allele, we find that transformation efficiency has an upper threshold of approximately 50% of the population.
Streptococcus pneumoniae and H. influenzae are fastidious bacteria. Care must be taken during transport of specimen. Specimens must be transported promptly to the laboratory preferably within 1-2 hours.. Blood can only be transported after collecting in a culture broth containing appropriate anticoagulant. The inoculated medium can be held at room temperature (20°C- 25 °C) for 4 - 6 hours before incubation at 37 °C. The samples during transportation should be protected from extremes of temperature (less than 18 °C, more than 30 °C) and direct sunlight.. SOP for processing clinical specimens for laboratory diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae will be continued in the following posts: ...
After our recent discovery of a Streptococcus pneumoniae 19A superbug (Legacy strain) that is resistant to all Food and Drug Administration-approved antimicrobial drugs for treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) in children, other S. pneumoniae isolates from children with AOM were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among 40 isolates studied, 16 (40%) were serotype 19A, and 9 (23%) were resistant to multiple antimicrobial drugs. Two others had unreported sequence types (STs) that expressed the 19A capsule, and 8 (88%) of the 9 multidrug-resistant strains were serotype 19A, including the Legacy strain with the new ST-2722. In genetic relatedness, ST-2722 belonged to a cluster of reported strains of S. pneumoniae in which all strains had 6 of the same alleles as ST-156. The multidrug-resistant strains related to ST-156 expressed different capsular serotypes: 9V, 14, 11A, 15C, and 19F ...
Background: Little is known about pneumococcal carrier states in older adults. The main aim of this study was to evaluate pneumococcal colonization patterns among older adults in two centres in Milan, Italy, before the widespread use of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in this age group, to investigate demographic and clinical features that are associated with pneumococcal colonization and to estimate the potential coverage offered by PCV13. Results: Among 417 adults ≥65 years old (171, 41.1 %, ≥75 years), 41 (9.8 %) were pneumococcal carriers. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that pneumococcal colonization was significantly less common among individuals with underlying co-morbidities than among those without (odds ratio [OR] 0.453, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.235-0.875, p = 0.018; adjusted OR 0.503, 95 % CI 0.255-0.992, p = 0.047). Moreover, among these patients, those with cardiac disease had a significantly lower risk of colonization (OR 0.308, 95 % CI ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is both an aggressive pathogen and a normal part of the human respiratory microbiome. Clinicians and microbiologists have struggled to develop tests that can identify pneumococcal respiratory infection and accurately distinguish colonization from invasive disease. Molecular methods hold the promise of an improved ability to rapidly detect microorganisms in respiratory secretions and to make an accurate diagnosis; however, interpretation of diagnostic testing for S. pneumoniae remains problematic. Molecular assays, such as those targeting the pneumolysin gene, may cross-react with other streptococcal species, confounding detection and quantification. Assays that target the autolysin gene appear to be more specific. Even when accurately identified, however, the significance of S. pneumoniae DNA detected in clinical samples is difficult to determine. Here we will discuss the challenges faced in the interpretation of molecular testing for S. pneumoniae, and some strategies ...
The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected] Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been successful, but their use has increased infections by nonvaccine serotypes. Oral streptococci often harbor capsular polysaccharide (PS) synthesis loci (cps). Although this has not been observed in nature, if pneumococcus can replace its cps with oral streptococcal cps, it may increase its serotype repertoire. In the current study, we showed that oral Streptococcus strain SK95 and pneumococcal strain D39 both produce structurally identical capsular PS, and their genetic backgrounds influence the amount of capsule production and shielding from nonspecific killing. SK95 is avirulent in a well-established in vivo mouse model. When acapsular pneumococcus was transformed with SK95 cps, the transformant became virulent and killed all mice. Thus, cps from oral Streptococcus strains ...
Pre o de Broncho-vaxom, laborat rio Takeda, droga: Lisado bacteriano + Diplococcus pneumoniae + Haemophilus influenzae + Klebsiella ozanae + Klebsiella pneumoniae + Neisseria catarrhalis + Staphylococcus aureus + Streptococcus. Encontre pre os atualizados de todos os medicamentos / rem dios / princ pios ativos comerciais e gen ricos.
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are at increased risk for infections due to their baseline disease and the subsequent immunocompromising regimen. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) has a high mortality and morbidity, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. A polysaccharide vaccine covering 23 different serotypes of pneumococcus (PPSV23) is currently recommended to immunocompromised patients to reduce their risk of invasive pneumococcal infections (such as bacteremia, meningitis, or pneumonia). Its immunogenicity is however limited, both in magnitude and duration, even in healthy individuals. Several studies have investigated the immunogenicity of PPSV23 in patients with IBD and have reported a marked inhibitory effect of immunosuppressive therapy on vaccine responses.. A pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV) was originally developed to protect young children and demonstrated as highly effective and safe. PCV13 contains polysaccharides from thirteen different serotypes, ...
The Quellung reaction, also called the Neufeld reaction, is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Bacillus anthracis, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope. If the reaction is positive, the capsule becomes opaque and appears to enlarge. Quellung is the German word for swelling and describes the microscopic appearance of pneumococcal or other bacterial capsules after their polysaccharide antigen has combined with a specific antibody. The antibody usually comes from a bit of serum taken from an immunized laboratory animal. As a result of this combination, and precipitation of the large, complex molecule formed, the capsule appears to swell, because of increased surface tension, and its outlines become clearly demarcated. The pneumococcal Quellung reaction was first described in 1902 by the ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen in all age groups worldwide that causes a variety of diseases, ranging from life threatening septicaemia and meningitis to less severe sinusitis and otitis media. The factors that determine the virulence of S. pneumoniae are very complex but a key aspect of the organisms disease causing potential is the ability of the bacteria to regulate virulence factor expression and activity. In this study two main approaches were taken to investigate virulence gene expression in S. pneumoniae. Firstly, the feasibility of Recombinase based In vivo Expression Technology, RIVET, for use in S. pneumoniae to study gene expression in vitro, and then in vivo was assessed. However, the system was found to be unsuitable for use in this study. Secondly, the requirement for and the role of virulence gene regulators identified by Signature Tagged Mutagenesis were investigated. The requirement for different virulence gene regulators varied according to the murine ...
Clinical Trials - clinicaltrials.gov Primary Objective: Evaluation of the - Carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx of children Secondary O...
The invention described herein provides human antibodies produced in non-human animals that specifically bind to Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide (PPS-3). The invention further provides methods for making the antibodies in a non-human animal and for expressing the antibodies in cells including hybridomas and recombinant host cell systems. Kits and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the antibodies are also provided in addition to methods of treating, inhibitng or preventing S. pneumoniae infection or conditions or disorders caused by such infection by administering to a patient the pharmaceutical compositions described herein.
Discussion This study prospectively surveyed the nasopharyngeal colonization of children attending a single DCC. Very high rates of carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae are documented. Our findings supports earlier studies from similar centers over the last decade.9-21 Recent research established daycare attendance as an important factor influencing the epidemiology of many infectious diseases.26-28 A number of studies have demonstrated a strong association between daycare attendance and increased carriage of S. pneumoniae, especially of resistant strains.13,28,29 Study findings demonstrated that daycare attendance and patterns of antibiotic use may be important factors influencing the epidemiology of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Every child in the study acquired a pneumococcus strain. Carriage occurred in 47% of children cultured. We found that the carriage rate increased with age, reflecting an increase in the number of types acquired. At baseline, it was observed that ...
We found that neutrophils from influenza-infected mice were not able to either phagocytose bacteria or produce ROS in response to incubation with S. pneumoniae as readily as those from uninfected mice. In addition, neutrophil-depleted mice infected with influenza for 6 days were more susceptible to S. pneumoniae infection than either uninfected depleted mice or depleted mice infected with influenza for 3 days. Lung cytokine levels, such as IL-10, were elevated in mice infected with influenza for 6 days followed by S. pneumoniae. These data indicate that influenza-induced changes in neutrophil-independent mechanisms increase susceptibility to a S. pneumoniae infection. We developed a novel ex vivo tracheal explant system to determine whether influenza-induced tissue damage increases adherence of S. pneumoniae. Using this system, we were able to model an influenza infection from the initial stages of infection to denudation and repair of the respiratory epithelium. We found that adherence was only ...
Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their use can prevent some cases of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis. There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines: conjugate vaccines and polysaccharide vaccines. They are given by injection either into a muscle or just under the skin.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) remains one of the major human pathogens and one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis, and meningitis. Aside from the threats posed by emerging antibiotic resistance and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus, the mortality rate among those patients with severe pneumococcal disease who receive seemingly appropriate antimicrobial chemotherapy remains unacceptably high. Because of its involvement in the pathogenesis of invasive disease, pneumolysin, one of the best-characterized virulence factors of the pneumococcus, represents not only a potential vaccine target, but also a target for adjunctive therapy to antibiotics in patients with acute pneumococcal disease. In this paper we review the cytolytic and pro-inflammatory properties of pneumolysin and their involvement in sub-version of host defenses and extra-pulmonary dissemination of the pneumococcus, as well as strategies, both immunological and ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is both a commensal and a major pathogen that causes invasive disease in people of all ages. The introduction of serotype-specific pneumococcal vaccines has reduced the burden of disease but has also led to replacement with new strains; thus, serotyping remains important for vaccine-related disease surveillance. Conventional serotyping methods are laborious and expensive. We developed an easy-to-perform genotypic TaqMan array card (TAC) to identify S. pneumoniae strains, including lytA-based sequences, and 53 sequence-specific PCRs to identify 74 serotypes/serogroups covering all current vaccine types as well as prevalent nonvaccine types. The TAC method was evaluated on 146 clinical S. pneumoniae isolates and 13 nonpneumococcal species that naturally inhabit the upper respiratory tract and yielded 97% (142/146) sensitivity and 100% (13/13) specificity versus results of standard Quellung serotyping. The calculated limit of detection was 20 to 200 fg (∼8 to 84 genome
Introduction. Streptococcus pneumoniae serotyping remains critical in the epidemiological surveillance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The Quellung reaction is the gold standard for serotyping pneumococci. In recent years, some alternative serotyping procedures that include PCR, real-time PCR, sequencing analysis of specific genes, and whole genome sequencing, have been developed.1 Some of these techniques are reduced to a limited number of detectable serotypes2 or require expensive equipment (sequencing analysis).1 Recently, a commercial assay S. PneumoStrip test (Operon S.A., Zaragoza, Spain) for pneumococcal serotyping in strains isolated in culture, based on PCR followed by reverse strip hybridisation, has been reported as easy, sensitive and specific procedure.3 The targets of the test are 76 serotypes (42 individually and 34 in pairs). The objective of this work was to assess the performance of the S. PneumoStrip test for the detection of S. pneumoniae serotypes directly in ...
Pneumococcal lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is known to have a completely different chemical structure compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus: the polyglycerophosphate in the backbone is replaced in the pneumococcal LTA by a pentamer repeating unit consisting of one ribitol and a tetrasaccharide carrying the unusual substituents phosphocholine andN-acetyl-D-galactosamine. NeitherD-alaninenorN-acetyl D-glucosamine, which play central roles in the biological activity of the staphylococcal LTA, has been reported. The extraction using butanol is more gentle compared with the previously reported chloroform-methanol extraction and results in a higher yield of LTA. We characterized the LTA of two different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae: R6 (serotype 2) and Fp23 (serotype 4). NMR analysis confirmed the structure of LTA from R6 but showed that its ribitol carries an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine substituent. The NMRdata for the LTA from Fp23 indicate that this LTA additionally contains ribitolbound ...
UAB.edu The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx and can cause pneumonia. Then, it can spread from the lungs to the bloodstream and cause organ damage. This opportunistic pathogen commonly infects young children, those who are immunocompromised and the elderly. In 2015, S. pneumoniae infections worldwide killed an estimated 192,000 to 366,000 children under age 5. To understand how this pathogen adapts to different locations in the body, and also how the host responds to the invading microbe, researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, the University of Maryland School of Medicine, and Yale University School of Medicine measured bacterial and host gene expression at five different sites in a mouse model -- the nasopharynx, lungs, blood, heart, and kidneys -- using three genetically different strains of S. pneumoniae. Their resulting in vivo atlas of host-pathogen interactions at disease-relevant anatomical sites is now published in Proceeding of the National Academy of
Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Khan, Rabia; Ferreira, Daniela M.; Mitsi, Elena; German, Esther; Rørvik, Gro Herredsvela; Berild, Dag; Schenck, Karl; Kwon, Keehwan & Petersen, Fernanda Cristina (2018). Antibodies reactive to commensal Streptococcus mitis show cross-reactivity with virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. Frontiers in Immunology. ISSN 1664-3224. 9:747, s 1- 10 . doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00747 Fulltekst i vitenarkiv. Vis sammendrag Current vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterial species that afflicts people by causing a wide spectrum of diseases, do not protect against all pneumococcal serotypes. Thus, alternative vaccines to fight pneumococcal infections that target common proteins are under investigation. One promising strategy is to take advantage of immune cross-reactivity between commensal and pathogenic microbes for cross-protection. In this study, we examined the antibody-mediated cross-reactivity between S. pneumoniae and Streptococcus mitis, a commensal species ...
The increasing number of penicillin-resistant clinical strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae has raised questions about the mechanism involved. We have isolated a large number of independent, spontaneous laboratory mutants with increasing resistance against either piperacillin or cefotaxime. Both clas …
Background: Bacterial adherence to buccal epithelial cells in chronic smokers has been reported to increase in vitro. However, it is unclear whether such adherence increases in hosts without epithelial changes linked to chronic smoking. Objective: This was an in vivo investigation of whether or not there was a change in the Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence to buccal epithelial cells of rats exposed to different periods and degrees of environmental cigarette smoke. Method: Eighteen rats were divided into acute and chronic exposure groups, each containing 9 rats. Both groups were further divided into 3 subgroups each, which were exposed to low or high levels of cigarette smoke, or none at all. After the administration of smoke, S. pneumoniae (ATCC 49619) was inoculated into the buccal mucosa. One hour later, buccal epithelial cell samples were taken and the number of bacteria adhering to 40 buccal epithelial cells was counted. Pre- and postinoculation values and the groups administered smoke and ...
OBJECTIVE: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) primarily affects children less than 5 years old, the elderly and certain at-risk groups; especially people infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to analyze invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) in children and adolescents infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with relation to morbidity, the case fatality ratio, pneumococcus serotypes, susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone and to the proportion of susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) included in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine that has already been licensed. METHODS: A total of 19 cases of IPD were identified among HIV seropositive patients aged from 1 month to 20 years and hospitalized between 1993 and 2000. Data were recorded on standardized charts containing information on age, clinical diagnosis and progression, serotypes and the susceptibility to penicillin and ceftriaxone of the Sp strains ...
Conclusions A twofold increased risk of mortality was found with aspirin treatment in animal models of S pneumoniae infection. No relevant human studies were identified. It is difficult to generalise from animal models to clinical medicine, but based on these findings and the prevalence and severity of S pneumoniae infections worldwide, future study of the effects of antipyretic therapy in S pneumoniae infection in humans is recommended. ...
Streptococcus Pneumoniae; and Streptococcus pyogenes. The Gram-negative bacterium B.burgdorferi has five Factor H binding ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. ... Guilherme, L.; Ferreira, F. M.; Köhler, K. F.; Postol, E.; Kalil, J. (2013). "A Vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes". ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Primary or secondary[edit]. Distinction between primary versus secondary immunodeficiencies are based ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae: 0.006 - 64 μg/ml. *Streptococcus pyogenes: ≤0.004 - 2 μg/ml ... strep throat (note: no documented resistance of Group A Streptococcus to penicillin has ever been reported, and penicillin or ...
2019). "Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 199. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00199. PMC 6389715. ... PGLYRP2-deficient mice are more sensitive to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced keratitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced ... pneumoniae-induced lung infection. These results indicate that under certain conditions PGLYRP2 has pro-inflammatory effects. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that causes respiratory infections. Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as group A ... Schroeder MR, Stephens DS (2016-09-21). "Macrolide Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Frontiers in Cellular and Infection ... Streptococcus) is a bacterium that can cause a variety of pathologies, including impetigo and strep throat, as well as other, ... Brouwer S, Barnett TC, Rivera-Hernandez T, Rohde M, Walker MJ (November 2016). "Streptococcus pyogenes adhesion and ...
Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae). LC-MS has emerged as one of the most commonly used techniques in global ...
... species of Streptococcus), including group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which cause ... sinusitis and pneumonia can all be caused by Group A Strep, but are much more commonly associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae ... Kellogg JA, Bankert DA, Elder CJ, Gibbs JL, Smith MC (September 2001). "Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae revisited". ... Burdash NM, West ME (March 1982). "Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae by the Phadebact coagglutination test". J. Clin. ...
In terms of streptococcus pneumoniae, it also used to confirm the causative bacterium. X-Ray Imaging of the chest is performed ... Streptococcus Pneumoniae is what causes an Osler's triad of meningitis, pneumonia and endocarditis. The portal of entry for ... Streptococcus pneumoniae and endocarditis are usually treated with penicillin, which has said to be the most effective but ... The native aortic valve is the most frequent site of vegetation for streptococcus pneumoniae, and is considered the most common ...
"Streptococcus pneumoniae, Invasive (Pneumococcal disease)" (PDF). Retrieved April 23, 2017. Burton, Deron C.; Flannery, Brendan ... In the United States, bacterial pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (pneumococcus) which enters human body ...
Fox A. "Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococci". University of South Carolina. Retrieved 2009-03-01. Martin, A. M. (2012-12 ... If not, the organism is 'catalase-negative'. Streptococcus and Enterococcus spp. are catalase-negative. While the catalase test ...
Mycotic (Infected) Aneurysm Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Khosrow Afsari, et al. Infect Med. 2001;18(6) http://www. ...
Tuomanen's lab investigated how the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae utilizes mobile genetic elements to alter its genome. ... "Emergence of vancomycin tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Nature. 399 (6736): 590-593. Bibcode:1999Natur.399..590N. doi: ... Charpentier also helped demonstrate how S. pneumoniae develop vancomycin resistance. Charpentier worked as an assistant ... published her discovery of an RNA molecule involved in the regulation of virulence-factor synthesis in Streptococcus pyogenes. ...
A common case is found in Streptococcus pneumoniae where there is mutation in the gene for PBP, and the mutant PBPs have ... Jacobs, M. R. (1999). "Drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: rational antibiotic choices". The American Journal of Medicine ... "The crystal structure of the penicillin-binding protein 2x from Streptococcus pneumoniae and its acyl-enzyme form: implication ... There are six mutant PBPs in S. pneumoniae, of which PBP1a, PBP2b, PBP2x and sometimes PBP2a are responsible for reduced ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. 肺炎雙球菌 2,200,000 2,300 Haemophilus influenzae. 流感嗜血桿菌 1,830,140 1,700 ...
LeMieux J, Woody S, Camilli A (September 2008). "Roles of the sortases of Streptococcus pneumoniae in assembly of the RlrA ... "A second pilus type in Streptococcus pneumoniae is prevalent in emerging serotypes and mediates adhesion to host cells". ... "Sortase-mediated pilus fiber biogenesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Structure. 16 (12): 1838-48. doi:10.1016/j.str.2008.10. ... and ten other putative MSCRAMM and pilus family proteins of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Streptococcus bovis ...
Berry, A M; Lock, R A; Hansman, D; Paton, J C (1989). "Contribution of autolysin to virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae". ... In Steptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae), it was found that N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase, a cell wall autolysin, could ... "The molecular characterization of the first autolytic lysozyme of Streptococcus pneumoniae reveals evolutionary mobile domains ... July 2019). "SS mediates bacterial cell separation during cell division and contributes to full virulence in Streptococcus suis ...
The bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, ... Other commonly implicated bacteria include Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella ... "Sepsis due to streptococcus". The current terms are dependent on the microorganism that is present: bacteremia if bacteria are ...
Bacillus anthracis Streptococcus pyogenes synthesizes a hyaluronic acid capsule. Streptococcus pneumoniae has at least 91 ... Hyams C, Camberlein E, Cohen JM, Bax K, Brown JS (February 2010). "The Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule inhibits complement ... Hathaway LJ, Grandgirard D, Valente LG, Täuber MG, Leib SL (March 2016). "Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease ... Hamaguchi S, Zafar MA, Cammer M, Weiser JN (March 2018). "Capsule Prolongs Survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae during ...
... penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP), Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistant (SPPR), or drug-resistant ... A pneumococcal infection is an infection caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, which is also called the ... Regev-Yochay G, Trzcinski K, Thompson CM, Malley R, Lipsitch M (2006). "Interference between Streptococcus pneumoniae and ... Nilsson, P; Laurell, MH (2001). "Carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae by children in day-care centers ...
Risk of carrying Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae. A possible increased risk of periodontitis. Overall ...
... induce transformation in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In addition, Engelmoer and Rozen in 2011 demonstrated that in S. pneumoniae ... Peterson S, Cline RT, Tettelin H, Sharov V, Morrison DA (Nov 2000). "Gene expression analysis of the Streptococcus pneumoniae ... Engelmoer, D J; Rozen, D E (2011). "Competence increases survival during stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Evolution. 65 (12 ... more than 16 genes that are switched on only during competence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, since bacteria tend to ...
... with common bacterial causes including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis ... A vaccine against streptococcus pneumoniae, available for adults, is recommended for healthy individuals over 65 and all adults ... They may be treated with a quinolone active against streptococcus pneumoniae (such as levofloxacin) or a β-lactam antibiotic ( ... However, the most common cause is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Certain groups of people are more susceptible to CAP-causing ...
... s are vaccines against the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their use can prevent some cases of ... "Acute Respiratory Infections (Update September 2009): Streptococcus pneumoniae". Initiative for Vaccine Research (IVR). World ... these are the 23 most prevalent or invasive pneumococcal types of Streptococcus pneumoniae).[medical citation needed] Health ...
doi:10.1111/j.1751-7915.2010.00213.x Weber P (2001). "[Streptococcus pneumoniae: lack of emergence of pristinamycin resistance ...
Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, was performed by ... The organisms most commonly involved are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Other ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is more common in the winter, and it should be suspected in persons aspirating a large number of ... A Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine is available for adults, and has been found to decrease the risk of invasive pneumococcal ...
Vaccination against encapsulated bacteria including Streptococcus pneumoniae is recommended. "Newborn Screening Program - ...
"Control of virulence by small RNAs in Streptococcus pneumoniae". PLOS Pathogens. 8 (7): e1002788. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat. ... was used to determine genetic interactions between five query genes and the rest of the genome in Streptococcus pneumoniae, ...
Experimental evidence for a 10 TMS model has been reported for FtsW of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The S. pneumoniae protein has ... Gérard, Philippe; Vernet, Thierry; Zapun, André (2002-04-01). "Membrane topology of the Streptococcus pneumoniae FtsW division ...
Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus grp., Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, ... penicillin susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae that does not produce Beta-lactamase and Legionella ... Escherichia coli: 0.015 μg/mL - 4 μg/mL Klebsiella pneumoniae: 0.06 μg/mL - 16 μg/mL Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin- ... Klebsiella pneumoniae, vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ...
... penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP)[33], Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistant (SPPR)[34] or drug- ... It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci.[7][11] ... pneumoniae.[31] Optochin sensitivity in a culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae ... S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diagnosis is performed after taking swab from the infected conjuctva. ... Other agents causing ophthalmia neonatorum include Herpes simplex virus (HSV 2), Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus ...
Ang mga organismo na pinaka-karaniwang sangkot ay ang Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae at Klebsiella pneumoniae ... Ang bakteryang Streptococcus pneumoniae, isang karaniwang sanhi ng pulmonya, larawan gamit ang electron na mikroskopyo ... Ang mga pagbabakuna laban sa Haemophilus influenzae at Streptococcus pneumoniae ay mayroong magandang ebidensiya para ... Mayroong bakuna sa Streptococcus pneumoniae para sa mga nasa hustong gulang, at napag-alaman na binabawasan ang panganib ng ...
False positives can also occur with contamination of clinical specimens with the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas ...
"Atypical pneumonia" is atypical in that it is caused by atypical organisms (other than Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus ... occult pneumonia is rather often present in patients with pneumonia and can also be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, as the ... The term was introduced in the 1930s and was contrasted with the bacterial pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, at ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae Usually occurs in younger age groups and may be associated with neurological and systemic (e.g. rashes) ...
Streptococcus. α. optochin susceptible. *S. pneumoniae *Pneumococcal infection. optochin resistant. *Viridans streptococci: S. ...
... yang memerangi infeksi Streptococcus pyogenes dan oleh Streptococcus pneumoniae. Sejarah[sunting , sunting sumber]. Catatan ...
Other organisms may occasionally cause gas gangrene (for example, Klebsiella pneumoniae in the context of diabetes).[8] ... Bacteroides and anaerobic streptococci). The exotoxin is commonly found in C. perfringens type A strain and is known as alpha ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumonia), Listeria, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrea ...
Ortqvist, A; Hedlund, J; Kalin, M (December 2005). "Streptococcus pneumoniae: epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical features ...
Streptococcus. α. optochin susceptible. *S. pneumoniae *Pneumococcal infection. optochin resistant. *Viridans streptococci: S. ...
SCH-530,348 SCH530348 has been recently shown to attenuate the neutrophilic inflammatory response to Streptococcus pneumoniae ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae]]. ''. tüve uurimisega. Kui Griffith süstis hiiri ohutu tüve (II-R) bakterite või kuumusega tapetud ... "Role of a Deoxyribonuclease in the Genetic Transformation of Diplococcus pneumoniae". Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Granada medium is selective and differential for Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus) which grows as distinctive ... On the right is a positive Streptococcus culture; on the left is a positive Staphylococcus culture. ... Blood agar (used in strep tests) contains bovine heart blood that becomes transparent in the presence of β-hemolytic organisms ...
There exists a genetic switch controlling Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) that allows the bacterium to randomly ... "Comprehensive Methylome Characterization of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae at Single-Base Resolution". PLoS ...
... pneumoniae, Streptococcus and Haemophilius species. Etest is a 'ready-to-use' , inert and non poreus plastic reagent strip with ... streptococci, Abiotrophia, Haemophilus, gonococci, meningococci and Campylobacter. In general, media recommendations from the ...
Streptococcus agalactiae • Streptococcus faecalis • Streptococcus mutans • Wolinella recta • Xanthomonas campestris • Yersinia ... Klebsiella pneumoniae • Legionella • Listeria monocytogenes • Micrococcus luteus • Mycobacterium smegmatis • Mycobacterium ... Thomas EL, Pera KA, Smith KW, Chwang AK (February 1983). "Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by the lactoperoxidase ...
The most common causes of acute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus ... Common bacteria responsible for nonacute bacterial conjunctivitis are Staphylococcus, Streptococcus,[5] and Haemophilus species ... β-hemolytic streptococci, and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. C. diphtheriae causes membrane formation in conjunctiva of ...
Increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the PROTEKT surveillance ...
Pri dojenčkih in manjših otrocih je daleč najpogostejše vnetje zaradi bakterije Streptococcus pneumoniae, sledita okužba z ...
bakterioak: meningokokoa (Neisseria meningitidis), Haemophilus influenzae eta Streptococcus pneumoniae dira garrantzitsuenak, ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes. birus. Sintoma(k). buruko ...
Streptococcus *Impetigo. *Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection. *Streptococcal intertrigo. *Cutaneous Streptococcus iniae ... Klebsiella pneumoniae *Rhinoscleroma, Pneumonia. *Klebsiella granulomatis *Granuloma inguinale. *Klebsiella oxytoca. * ...
B95.3) Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... B95.) Streptococcus and staphylococcus as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters *(B95.0) Streptococcus, group A, ... B96.0) Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ... B96.1) Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) as the cause of diseases classified to other chapters ...
For example, Klebsiella pneumoniae and coxsackievirus B have been strongly correlated with ankylosing spondylitis and diabetes ... which follows infection with Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci. Although rheumatic fever has been attributed to molecular ...
"Structure of MurF from Streptococcus pneumoniae co-crystallized with a small molecule inhibitor exhibits interdomain closure". ...
Streptococcus microaerophile, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Eikenella corrodens.[6][8] ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae: umeetan ematen diren endokarditis kasuen %3-7ren eragilea. *Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... Streptococcus viridans: endokarditis azpiakutuaren eragilea da zenbait kasutan. Hala ere, gaur egun osasun sistema garatua ...
J13) Pljučnica, ki jo povzroča Streptococcus pneumoniae. *(J14) Pljučnica, ki jo povzroča Haemophilus influenzae ...
Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). People with pneumococcal disease can ... Pneumococcal Disease (Streptococcus pneumoniae). *Zika Travel Information. ...
... penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP)[33], Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistant (SPPR)[34] or drug- ... It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci.[7][11] ... pneumoniae.[31] Optochin sensitivity in a culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae ... S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae BY DR HASAN ASKARI BDS MS PHD FDS DDS MJDS MFDS MD -PRESIDENT OF INTERNATIONAL DENTAL RESEARCH UNIT ... Streptococcus pneumoniae * 1. Streptococcus pneumoniae BY DR HASAN ASKARI BDS MS PHD FDS DDS MJDS MFDS MD -PRESIDENT OF ... Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) by Freelance clinica... 23515 views * Streptococcus pneumoniae by Yashwant Kumar 9553 ... PNEUMOCOCCI • Bronchopneumonia • Caused by staphylococci streptococci, H influenzae proteus and pseudomonas. • Occurs infants , ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae secretes hydrogen peroxide leading to DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cells Prashant Rai, Marcus ... Chromosome segregation drives division site selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae Renske van Raaphorst, Morten Kjos, and Jan- ... Improving vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae using synthetic glycans Paulina Kaplonek, Naeem Khan, Katrin Reppe, ... analogs with pan-group quorum-sensing inhibition activity in Streptococcus pneumoniae Yifang Yang, Jingjun Lin, Anthony ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae are lancet-shaped, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria with over 90 known serotypes. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae are lancet-shaped, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria with 100 known serotypes. Most S. ... There are 100 known serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, the bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease. ... pneumoniae serotypes can cause disease, but only a minority of serotypes produce the majority of pneumococcal infections. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:1951-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:1045-9.CrossRefPubMed ... Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome among children in North America. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30: ... Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated HUS is well described from different parts of the world [3, 4, 5]. ...
... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/streptococcus-pneumoniae-drug-resistant-invasive-disease/) * Streptococcus pneumoniae, invasive ... Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Invasive Disease (Child, ,5 Years) (Streptococcus pneumoniae) , 2000 Case Definition (https://wwwn. ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-disease-non-drug-resistant-child/) ... cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-disease-child/case-definition/2000/) ...
Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Invasive Disease (Child, ,5 Years) (Streptococcus pneumoniae). 2000 Case Definition ... Streptococcus pneumoniae causes many clinical syndromes, depending on the site of infection (e.g., acute otitis media, ... A clinically compatible case in a child less than 5 years of age caused by laboratory-confirmed culture of S. pneumoniae from a ... Isolation of S. pneumoniae from a normally sterile site (e.g., blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or, less commonly, joint, pleural, ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... streptococcus pneumoniae in Medicine Expand. Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pneu·mo·ni·ae (nōō-mōnē-ē, nyōō-). n. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology.. Isturiz R1, Sings HL1, Hilton B1, Arguedas A2, Reinert RR3, ... Streptococcus pneumoniae causes mucosal and invasive diseases with high morbidity and mortality. Introduction of the 7-valent ... Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology. Expert review of vaccines 2017;16(10):1007-27. [Expert Rev ... letter to the editor on Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology. Expert review of vaccines 2017;16(10): ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae News and Research. RSS Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Pneumococcus, is a very common bacterial infection ... Streptococcus pneumoniae likely is not a term immediately recognizable by most individuals, even if they have had unpleasant ... S. pneumoniae uses hosts immune defenses to spread infection, study reveals The bacteria that cause most cases of pneumonia ... Good bacteria can help inhibit growth of S. pneumoniae A new study from the Forsyth Institute is helping to shed more light on ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae News and Research. RSS Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Pneumococcus, is a very common bacterial infection ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen and is known to be associated with increased risk of fatal heart ... Researchers explore new ways to treat, prevent Streptococcus pneumoniae Scientists from Massachusetts Eye and Ear/Harvard ... These properties are predicted to allow the bacterium -- Streptococcus pneumoniae -- to specifically stick to the surface of ...
What is an invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection?. Streptococcus pneumoniae are bacteria that are commonly found in the ... What can be done to prevent the spread of S. pneumoniae?. Vaccines can help to prevent invasive S. pneumoniae infections. ... How can I learn more about S. pneumoniae?. *If you have concerns about S. pneumoniae infection, contact your healthcare ... Who gets S. pneumoniae infections?. Many people carry S. pneumoniae without becoming ill. Unvaccinated children, the elderly, ...
It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci. Streptococcus pneumoniae played a ... penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP), Streptococcus pneumoniae penicillin resistant (SPPR) or drug-resistant ... Streptococcus pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly, and of ...
Emergence of vancomycin tolerance in Streptococcus pneumoniae.. Novak R1, Henriques B, Charpentier E, Normark S, Tuomanen E. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant ... Here we show that loss of function of the VncS histidine kinase of a two-component sensor-regulator system in S. pneumoniae ... We conclude that broad antibiotic tolerance of S. pneumoniae has emerged in the community by a molecular mechanism that ...
LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 78 recorded cases of Streptococcus spp. with 4 deaths up to 1976; 5th most common laboratory- ... Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pneumoniae. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae: Molecular Biology and Mechanisms of Disease, ed Liebert MA (Larchmont, New York), pp 81-114. ... Each year, Streptococcus pneumoniae infections cause millions of deaths worldwide. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) based ... 1985) Structural studies of the capsular polysaccharide from Streptococcus pneumoniae type 5. Carbohydr Res 140:101-110. ... Semisynthetic glycoconjugate vaccine candidate against Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 5. Marilda P. Lisboa, Naeem Khan, ...
S pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and otitis media ... Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred ... encoded search term (Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae)) and Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae ... Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Updated: Aug 27, 2018 * Author: Claudia Antonieta Nieves Prado, MD; Chief ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: gor, A5N45_09080, ERS020408_00588, ERS022363_01056, GM537_05150, GM541_ ... The structure and activity of the glutathione reductase from Streptococcus pneumoniae.. Sikanyika, M., Aragao, D., McDevitt, C. ... The glutathione reductase (GR) from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized ... The glutathione reductase (GR) from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in children: vaccine implications Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage in children attending 59 Canadian child care centres. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1999; 153(5): ... Background and epidemiology: The spectrum of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants and children ranges from ... Studies suggest that about 28% to 55% of cases of acute otitis media (AOM) may be attributable to S. pneumoniae.1 The risk of ...
Validation of Factor 6d Antiserum for Serotyping Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 6C Michael R. Jacobs, Ron Dagan, Saralee ... Direct Serogrouping of Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains in Clinical Samples by Use of a Latex Agglutination Test Juan Carlos ... Association of Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae with Age in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Matthias Imöhl, Ralf René ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC ® 700677™ Designation: Slovakia 14-10 TypeStrain=False Application: Respiratory research ... Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein) Chester (ATCC® 700677™) Strain Designations: Slovakia 14-10 [29055] / Type Strain: no / ... Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the pneumococcal molecular ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae Life History Streptococcus pneumoniae is found worldwide. The common hos... ... Information On Streptococcus Pneumoniae Essay. 1114 words - 5 pages Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive and fast- ... Multidrug Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae Essay. 1698 words - 7 pages Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is Gram-positive ... Find Another Essay On Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus suis Meningitis Essay. 714 words - 3 pages a serious blood ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC ® 700674™ Designation: S. Africa 19A-7 TypeStrain=False Application: Respiratory research ... Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein) Chester (ATCC® 700674™) Strain Designations: S. Africa 19A-7 [17619] / Type Strain: no / ... Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the pneumococcal molecular ... Three predominant clones identified within penicillin-resistant South African isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microb. ...
Improved Differentiation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Other S. mitis Group Streptococci by MALDI Biotyper Using an Improved ... Streptococcus pneumoniae expressing serotype 3 has a high virulence and a high case fatality ratio. Most studies of serotype 3 ... Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 3 in Mexico (1994 to 2017): Decrease of the Unusual Clonal Complex 4909 Lineage following ...
Carriage rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the nasopharynx of children Secondary O... ... STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP ... Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: Prevalence, Mechanisms, and Clinical Implications.. Streptococcus pneumoniae ... Nasopharyngeal Streptococcus Pneumoniae Carriage. 2014-07-23 21:29:32 , BioPortfolio. Home » Topics » Pneumonia » Research » ...
DNA transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied using donor molecules labelled either at the 3 or at the 5 end, on one ... Polarity of DNA entry in transformation of Streptococcus pneumoniae Mol Gen Genet. 1988 Aug;213(2-3):444-8. doi: 10.1007/ ... DNA transport in Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied using donor molecules labelled either at the 3 or at the 5 end, on one ...
We find that influenza viral titers increase when Streptococcus pneumoniae is present and that the bacteria establish and grow ... pneumoniae infection enhances viral release from infected cells. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of ... influenza coinfection and the differences in pathogenesis of influenza and S. pneumoniae strains. ...
Antigenic Variation in Streptococcus pneumoniae PspC Promotes Immune Escape in the Presence of Variant-Specific Immunity M. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, being the major cause of milder ... Streptococcus pneumoniae Modulates Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Dispersion and the Transition from Colonization to Invasive ... In this study, we demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae can modulate the pathogenic potential of Staphylococcus aureus in a ...
  • Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). (cdc.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae , or pneumococcus , is a Gram-positive , alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions) , facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae , or Pneumococcus, is a very common bacterial infection in both industrialized and developing countries. (news-medical.net)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pneumococcus, is the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis. (nih.gov)
  • Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. (medscape.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common cause of respiratory tract and invasive infection. (asm.org)
  • 90 treptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) clonal structurally and serologically unique types, is the pri- complex (CC) 271 consists of broadly distributed, mary pneumococcal virulence factor ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae , diplococcus pneumoniae , ose thjesht pneumococcus janë baktere diplokoke gram-pozitive të rradhitura në çifte ose në vargje të shkurtra, ku qelizat e tyre kanë formë lancete. (wikipedia.org)
  • False-colour scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), a cause of pneumonia in humans. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Introduction Global Markets Direct's, 'Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2012', provides an overview of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections therapeutic pipeline. (bionity.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), an encapsulated aerobic gram-positive diplococcus, is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonias in adults. (visualdx.com)
  • The Gram-positive extracellular bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most common pathogen in adults and, despite antibiotic therapy, it has the highest mortality of all meningitis-causing agents: 4-16% in children and up to 60% in adults ( 2 - 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections - Pipeline Review, H1 2013', provides an overview of the indication's therapeutic pipeline. (sbwire.com)
  • This report provides information on the therapeutic development for Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections, complete with latest updates, and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (sbwire.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections. (sbwire.com)
  • Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections - Pipeline Review, Half Year is built using data and information sourced from Global Markets Direct's proprietary databases, Company/University websites, SEC filings, investor presentations and featured press releases from company/university sites and industry-specific third party sources, put together by Global Markets Direct's team. (sbwire.com)
  • A snapshot of the global therapeutic scenario for Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections. (sbwire.com)
  • A review of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections products under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (sbwire.com)
  • Coverage of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections pipeline on the basis of route of administration and molecule type. (sbwire.com)
  • Identify and understand important and diverse types of therapeutics under development for Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections. (sbwire.com)
  • Devise corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Streptococcus Pneumoniae (Pneumococcus) Infections pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics. (sbwire.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) has a high mortality and morbidity, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is Gram-positive coccus shaped pathogenic bacteria which causes many types of pneumococcal infections in addition to pneumonia. (fineartamerica.com)
  • There are 100 known serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae , the bacteria that cause pneumococcal disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae are lancet-shaped, gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria with 100 known serotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Most S. pneumoniae serotypes can cause disease, but only a minority of serotypes produce the majority of pneumococcal infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Some components of the S. pneumoniae glycoconjugate vaccine Prevnar13 that contains CPS antigens from 13 serotypes undergo modifications or degradation during isolation and conjugation, resulting in production problems and lower efficacy. (pnas.org)
  • At least 90 serotypes based on S. pneumoniae capsular antigens have been identified, and 23 of them account for at least 85% to 90% of the serotypes that cause invasive infections in adults and children. (cmaj.ca)
  • There are over 90 serotypes of S. pneumoniae which causes great difficulty when trying to develop a vaccine for this bacterium. (brightkite.com)
  • To determine the proportion of hospitalized pneumonia cases in children aged 60 months or less associated with vaccine-preventable Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 1. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Italy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 91 serotypes of S. pneumoniae have been identified based on the difference in composition of the polysaccharide capsule [18] . (kenyon.edu)
  • As an alternative to β-lactam antibiotics, vaccines have been created that target cell surface polysaccharide, which aim to develop immunity against the virulent serotypes of S. pneumoniae . (kenyon.edu)
  • The polysaccharide vaccine provides immunity against 23 S. pneumoniae serotypes (Table 3. (kenyon.edu)
  • The distribution of MgrA, R1rA and PPI2 varied between clinical S. pneumoniae isolates emphasizing the likelihood of a different repertoire of virulence genes and regulators amongst different serotypes and strains of this important human pathogen. (bl.uk)
  • Serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae blood culture isolates from adults in Franklin County, Ohio. (alere.com)
  • Routine use of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), available since 2000, has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) attributable to serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae contained in the vaccine. (aappublications.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology. (nih.gov)
  • letter to the editor on Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A: worldwide epidemiology. (nih.gov)
  • We illustrate how stable, synthetic oligosaccharide analogs of labile CPS induce a specific protective immune response against native CPS using S. pneumoniae serotype 5 (ST-5), a problematic CPS component of Prevnar13. (pnas.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae expressing serotype 3 has a high virulence and a high case fatality ratio. (asm.org)
  • Current pneumococcal vaccines target the polysaccharide capsule because immunity after pneumococcal disease is directed against the capsular serotype of the S. pneumoniae bacteria involved [22] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Influence of different culture media on Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 1 cultivations to produce capsular polysaccharide. (usp.br)
  • Two of the regulators, MgrA and R1rA, were essential for nasopharyngeal carriage and production of pneumonia in mice by serotype 4 S. Pneumoniae. (bl.uk)
  • The PPI2 genes rlrA and rrgA were shown to be required for adhesion of serotype 4 S. pneumoniae to human epithelial cells and PPI2 gene expression was affected by the gaseous composition of the growth environment in an MgrA dependent manner. (bl.uk)
  • Based on results from transposon sequencing (Tn-seq), we refined the list of essential genes in S. pneumoniae serotype 2 strain D39. (rug.nl)
  • [2] As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia in the late 19th century, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. pneumoniae is the main cause of community acquired pneumonia and meningitis in children and the elderly, [5] and of septicemia in those infected with HIV . (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae causes many clinical syndromes, depending on the site of infection (e.g., acute otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, or meningitis). (cdc.gov)
  • S. pneumoniae can infect the lungs (pneumonia) or ears (otitis media), but it is considered "invasive" when it is found in the blood, spinal fluid (e.g., meningitis), or other site that normally does not have bacteria present. (virginia.gov)
  • S. pneumoniae is the leading cause of pneumonia in all ages. (brightkite.com)
  • The proposed study aims to provide current information, etiology and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), risk factors for for CAP in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Ha. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, being the major cause of milder respiratory tract infections such as otitis and sinusitis and of severe infections such as community-acquired pneumonia, with or without septicemia, and meningitis. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae can modulate the pathogenic potential of Staphylococcus aureus in a model of secondary bacterial pneumonia. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, acute otitis media, and other infections (1). (cdc.gov)
  • False-colour transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumonococcus), associated with pneumonia in humans. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Altough S. pneumoniae is part of the normal respiratory flora, invasion commonly results in pneumonia as well as meningitis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia and may be the most important agent in community-acquired pneumonia of unknown etiology. (alere.com)
  • Is Streptococcus pneumoniae the leading cause of pneumonia of unknown etiology? (alere.com)
  • Mice developed sepsis or pneumonia when infected with 10 7 or 10 8 cfu, and after infection with 10 4 bacteria, S. pneumoniae are able to cross the blood-brain barrier Footnote 5 . (canada.ca)
  • A letter to the editor is presented about combination antibiotic therapy for community-acquired invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia. (ebscohost.com)
  • Usefulness of the Streptococcus pneumoniae Urinary Antigen Test in the Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia. (ebscohost.com)
  • Presents a letter to the editor on the usefulness of the streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen test in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. (ebscohost.com)
  • Three predominant clones identified within penicillin-resistant South African isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (atcc.org)
  • Two hundred and sixteen clinically significant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from 138 adult patients attending clinics in Nairobi, Kenya over a 2 year period were characterized by antibiotic sensitivity testing and serotyping. (nih.gov)
  • 7 the spread of resistant S. pneumoniae strains, because vaccinated people do not spread the bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae are bacteria that are commonly found in the nose and throat of children and adults. (virginia.gov)
  • Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. (bioportfolio.com)
  • S. pneumoniae infection stimulates polymorphonuclear leukocytes (granulocytes) to produce an oxidative burst that is potentially lethal to the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple extra- and intracellular innate immune receptors have been identified that recognize Streptococcus pneumoniae , but the relative contributions of intra- versus extracellular bacteria to the inflammatory response were unknown. (asm.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance can be overcome by developing vaccines that target virulence factors on the surface of S. pneumoniae thereby disabling the bacteria [9] . (kenyon.edu)
  • The factors that determine the virulence of S. pneumoniae are very complex but a key aspect of the organism's disease causing potential is the ability of the bacteria to regulate virulence factor expression and activity. (bl.uk)
  • S. pneumoniae colonizes in the mucosal surfaces of the nasopharynx and upper respiratory airway, and symptoms of inflammation appear as the bacteria migrate into the sterile parts of the airway Footnote 4 . (canada.ca)
  • Antibiotics over the years have become less and less effective against Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, which are adept at developing drug resistance. (unr.edu)
  • What is an invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection? (virginia.gov)
  • What are the symptoms of S. pneumoniae infection? (virginia.gov)
  • What is the treatment for S. pneumoniae infection? (virginia.gov)
  • Preventive treatment (e.g., antibiotics) is not generally needed for exposure to someone with an infection caused by S. pneumoniae . (virginia.gov)
  • No. Individuals who have had a S. pneumoniae infection can get it again. (virginia.gov)
  • If you have concerns about S. pneumoniae infection, contact your healthcare provider. (virginia.gov)
  • The spectrum of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants and children ranges from focal respiratory tract infection to invasive diseases such as meningitis and bacteremia. (cmaj.ca)
  • Acquisition and Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae is Facilitated During Rhinovirus Infection in Families with Children. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We report that host physiological signals related to viral infection cease to elicit a dispersal response from S. aureus while in a dual-species setting with S. pneumoniae , in direct contrast to results of previous studies with each. (asm.org)
  • Here, we developed a novel triple-challenge model of allergic airway disease, primary influenza infection, and secondary Streptococcus pneumoniae. (asm.org)
  • For this system, invasive pneumococcal infection refers only to meningitis and bacteremia identified by isolation of S. pneumoniae from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • For clinical aspects of the disease, see Streptococcus pneumoniae infection . (wikidoc.org)
  • These virulence factors contribute to some of the clinical manifestations during infection with S. pneumoniae . (wikidoc.org)
  • An intracellular-survival assay of S. pneumoniae in OECs showed a significant number of bacterial CFU recovered after 3 h of infection. (nih.gov)
  • OECs are susceptible to S. pneumoniae infection, which can suppress their cytotoxic mechanisms in order to survive. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, neutrophils are believed to play an important role in controlling infection caused by the major human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae . (jimmunol.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae ( Sp ) is a commensal bacterium that normally resides on the upper airway epithelium without causing infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Global Markets Direct's, 'Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection - Pipeline Review, H2 2015', provides an overview of the Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection's therapeutic pipeline. (marketresearch.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (marketresearch.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Streptococcus Pneumoniae Infection and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (marketresearch.com)
  • S pneumoniae infection is an important cause of bacterial co-infection in patients with influenza and can increase the morbidity and mortality in these patients. (canada.ca)
  • Transmission is common, but infection is infrequent as healthy individuals carry S. pneumoniae in the nasopharyngeal region without any presence of infection Footnote 6 . (canada.ca)
  • The 7 valences in the conjugated vaccine account for about 87% of S. pneumoniae isolates identified in Canadian children aged 6 to 23 months who had invasive disease, and about 65% of the isolates identified in Canadian children less than 6 months who had invasive disease. (cmaj.ca)
  • BETHESDA, Md. -- A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advisory panel has voted to recommend approval of an updated version of the Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine Prevnar. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae type 22f capsular polysaccharide antigen is a vaccine that contains highly purified capsular polysaccharides from the invasive pneumococcal type 22f of Streptococcus pneumoniae . (drugbank.ca)
  • Genome-wide screens have discovered a large set of essential genes in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae However, the functions of many essential genes are still unknown, hampering vaccine development and drug discovery. (rug.nl)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen and is known to be associated with increased risk of fatal heart complications including heart failure and heart attacks. (news-medical.net)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a strictly fermentative human pathogen that relies on carbohydrate metabolism to generate energy for growth. (frontiersin.org)
  • S. pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that affects mainly children. (usp.br)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen in all age groups worldwide that causes a variety of diseases, ranging from life threatening septicaemia and meningitis to less severe sinusitis and otitis media. (bl.uk)
  • Glycoconjugate vaccines based on isolated capsular polysaccharide (CPS) save millions of lives annually by preventing invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae . (pnas.org)
  • Clinical signs and symptoms and physical examination findings alone cannot distinguish S pneumoniae disease from infections caused by other pathogens. (medscape.com)
  • S pneumoniae can cause a wide variety of clinical symptoms owing to its ability to cause disease by either direct extension from the nasopharynx into surrounding anatomic structures or vascular invasion with hematogenous spread. (medscape.com)
  • Although the incidence of invasive meningeal and/or lung disease are not uncommon, Streptococcus pn. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A species of Streptococcus that is pathogenic in fish and may also cause disease in humans who routinely handle infected fish. (bioportfolio.com)
  • S. pneumoniae is a component of the commensal nasopharyngeal microflora of humans, but from this reservoir, it can progress to localized or invasive disease with a frequency that translates into massive global morbidity and mortality. (asm.org)
  • Editorial Note: The spread of DRSP strains may increase the public health impact of S. pneumoniae infections because of increased morbidity and reductions in the effectiveness of antimicrobial treatment for pneumococcal disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the most significant causes of bacterial disease in humans. (asm.org)
  • Statewide active surveillance for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal) disease began in 2002, expanded from the metropolitan area, where active surveillance was ongoing since 1995. (mn.us)
  • Burden of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in children younger than 5 years: global estimates. (medscape.com)
  • As a result during progression from colonization to disease S. pneumoniae has to cope with a pronounced shift in carbohydrate nature and availability. (frontiersin.org)
  • Invasive disease (defined by the isolation of S. pneumoniae from normally sterile sites such as blood, CSF) occurs worldwide at a rate of about 15 per 100,000 persons per year, but a 10 fold higher incidence has been noted in African Americans, Native Americans, and Australian Aborigines. (visualdx.com)
  • Although neonatal sepsis due to the peripartum transmission of S. pneumoniae is rare, this case highlights the concern that increasing efforts to prevent group B streptococcus neonatal disease may lead to an increase in neonatal infections due to resistant organisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mother was admitted with anticipated vaginal delivery, and at 24 h after the rupture of her membranes, she was given 2 g of intravenous ampicillin with plans to continue this at a dose of 1 g every 4 h for the prevention of group B streptococcus early onset disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pneumococcal disease, defined as infections caused by the bacterium streptococcus pneumoniae , has long been a source of morbidity and mortality, particularly in infants and the elderly. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • What's missing from today's disease-fighting toolbox are other solutions to fighting Streptococcus pneumoniae . (unr.edu)
  • A confirmed case of invasive DRSP is defined as either meningitis or bacteremia in which S. pneumoniae cultured from CSF or blood is identified as nonsusceptible (using National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards {NCCLS} methods and breakpoints) to antimicrobial drugs currently approved for treating pneumococcal infections. (cdc.gov)
  • A probable case of invasive DRSP is defined as either meningitis or bacteremia in which S. pneumoniae cultured from CSF or blood is identified as nonsusceptible by oxacillin screening (i.e., zone size less than or equal to 19 mm) and no further antimicrobial susceptibility testing has been performed. (cdc.gov)
  • S. pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of bacterial meningitis in adults and young adults, along with Neisseria meningitidis , and is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in adults in the USA. (wikidoc.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major agent of severe infections in humans, including meningitis. (nih.gov)
  • The pathology associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis results largely from activation of immune-associated pathways. (jimmunol.org)
  • We systematically investigated the production of IFN subtypes, as well as their influence on pathology, in a mouse model of S. pneumoniae meningitis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Together, these data suggest that inflammasome-dependent IFN-γ contributes via multiple pathways to pathology during S. pneumoniae meningitis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Overall, 44 S. pneumoniae strains collected from 32 paediatric CF patients from January 2010 to May 2012 in a large Italian CF Centre were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Etest, serotyped by the Quellung reaction and genotyped by a combination of different molecular typing methods, including pbp gene restriction profiling, pspA restriction profiling and sequencing, PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Emergence of optochin resistance among S. pneumoniae strains colonizing healthy children in Abidjan. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor is presented, which focuses on a study related to the optochin resistance among Streptococcus pneumoniae strains colonizing healthy children in Abidjan. (ebscohost.com)
  • The DAPI counterstaining shows the bacterial DNA surrounded by intense labeling of the pneumococcal capsule by the anti-pneumococcal antiserum and Cy3-tagged secondary antibody (arrows in a , b ). ( b ) Orthogonal plane image cut at the maximum nucleus diameter of a shows details of internalized S. pneumoniae (thick arrows). (nih.gov)
  • Results of research by chemical biologist Yftah Tal-Gan and his team may lead to medical advances to aid the treatment or prevention of deadly bacterial diseases like Streptococcus pneumoniae in the future. (unr.edu)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive coccus. (brightkite.com)
  • Here we report the 2,038,615-bp genomic sequence of the gram-positive bacterium S. pneumoniae R6. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a pathogenic, gram-positive, α-hemolytic, anaerobic bacterium [20] . (kenyon.edu)
  • In contrast to other Gram-positive organisms, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase did not affect killing of S. pneumoniae . (jimmunol.org)
  • Nomenclature of major antimicrobial-resistant clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae defined by the pneumococcal molecular epidemiology network. (atcc.org)
  • However, much remains unknown on its clinical importance and epidemiology, mainly due to the lack of specific markers to distinguish it from S. pneumoniae. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important human pathogens but is closely related to Streptococcus mitis , with which humans live in harmony. (asm.org)
  • The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems that regulate the production of bacteriocins and the entry into the competent state, a requirement for natural transformation. (mdpi.com)
  • National surveillance for drug-resistant S. pneumoniae (DRSP) is limited to testing invasive isolates from sentinel hospitals in 13 states. (cdc.gov)
  • Multi-drug resistant S. pneumoniae is emerging. (canada.ca)
  • A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "The prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Atlanta," by J. Hofmann, M. S. Cetron and M. M. Farley, et al. (ebscohost.com)
  • A reply by Jo Hofmann, Martin S. Cetron, Robert F. Breiman and Monica M. Farley to letters to the editor about their article "The prevalence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in Atlanta," in the Aug. 24, 1995 issue is presented. (ebscohost.com)
  • Which medications in the drug class Vaccines are used in the treatment of Pneumococcal Infections (Streptococcus pneumoniae)? (medscape.com)
  • This antibody is reactive with the S. pneumoniae common C-polysaccharide (backbone epitope). (thermofisher.com)
  • S. pneumoniae is protected from phagocytosis by its polysaccharide capsule which is also a prominent virulence factor. (thermofisher.com)
  • Vaccines can help to prevent invasive S. pneumoniae infections. (virginia.gov)
  • Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We evaluated the relationship between initial antibiotic therapy and clinical outcomes in 5005 patients with microbiologically confirmed infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Antimicrobial Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae: Prevalence, Mechanisms, and Clinical Implications. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Laboratory and clinical evidence suggests synergy between rhinoviruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To determine the extent of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of S. pneumoniae and the prevalence of penicillin resistance among pneumococcal isolates from July 1992 through June 1993, in August 1993 the Connecticut Department of Public Health and Addiction Services (DPHAS) surveyed all 44 hospitals with clinical microbiology laboratories in Connecticut. (cdc.gov)
  • Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in India: Effects of new clinical laboratory standards institute breakpoint and implications. (ebscohost.com)
  • A letter to the editor is presented which discusses the effects of penicillin breakpoint recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and its implications to penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in India. (ebscohost.com)
  • Clinical Significance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Resistance Reporting Remains Confusing. (ebscohost.com)
  • S pneumoniae capsular antigens stimulate active immune response, resulting in production of endogenously produced antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae attacks compromised or undeveloped immune systems, making the elderly and children especially vulnerable. (unr.edu)
  • The organism was termed Diplococcus pneumoniae from 1920 [10] because of its characteristic appearance in Gram-stained sputum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Although S. pneumoniae was once considered to be routinely susceptible to penicillin, since the mid-1980s the incidence of resistance of this organism to penicillin and other antimicrobial agents has been increasing in the United States (1-4). (cdc.gov)
  • S. pneumoniae expresses different virulence factors on its cell surface and inside the organism. (wikidoc.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae likely is not a term immediately recognizable by most individuals, even if they have had unpleasant run-ins with the common bacterium. (news-medical.net)
  • The glutathione reductase (GR) from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to its reduced form (GSH) in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. (rcsb.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterium that is most often associated with mild illness, such as ear and sinus infections. (wisconsin.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae ( Sp ) is a commensal bacterium that is part of the upper airway microbiota. (frontiersin.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae causes mucosal and invasive diseases with high morbidity and mortality. (nih.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae infections continue to remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. (diva-portal.org)
  • If S. pneumoniae is allowed to persist in the lungs it can then invade the blood, which causes bacteremia. (brightkite.com)
  • We present a recent case of S. pneumoniae bacteremia acquired on the first day of life in a neonate born at 30 weeks of gestation to a mother without prenatal care who had prolonged rupture of the membranes and received intravenous ampicillin prior to delivery. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • S. pneumoniae has developed increased resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. (bioportfolio.com)
  • summarized evidence that induction of competence in S. pneumoniae is associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress and increased expression of the RecA protein, a key component of the recombinational repair machinery for removing DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae has become a paradigm for understanding the evolution of resistance mechanisms, the simplest of which, by far, is the production of β-lactamases. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • S. pneumoniae has developed antibiotic resistance to traditional β-Lactam antibiotics such as Penicillin (and its derivatives). (kenyon.edu)
  • Due to the increasing rate of antibiotic resistance it is important to study newer ways to inhibit S. pneumoniae growth. (kenyon.edu)
  • The emergence and evolution of S. pneumoniae resistance are subjects of great concern. (elsevier.es)
  • Penicillin resistance rates in S. pneumoniae have remained stable in Argentina in the last years. (elsevier.es)
  • MDR infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS) and Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) are considered global threats to human health due to increased spread of antibiotic resistance and limited treatment options. (dissertations.se)
  • The big issue today is that Strep pneumoniae builds up resistance to drugs, making them stronger and rendering the antimicrobials ineffective. (unr.edu)
  • All S pneumoniae isolates, regardless of the isolation site, should be tested for susceptibility to penicillin and cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. (medscape.com)
  • Apigenin could directly interact with pneumolysin to decrease the pathogenicity of S. pneumoniae. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • There are more than 85 antigenic types of S. pneumoniae, which are determined by capsule antigens. (thermofisher.com)
  • Factors associated with 30-day mortality in respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The genome of S. pneumoniae is a closed, circular DNA structure that contains between 2.0 and 2.1 million base pairs depending on the strain . (wikipedia.org)
  • S. pneumoniae resides asymptomatically in the nasopharynx of healthy carriers. (wikidoc.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae, also named pneumococci, is often part of the normal flora in the nasopharynx of healthy children. (dissertations.se)
  • Lacks SA, Greenberg B (1973) Competence for deoxyribonucleic acid uptake and deoxyribonuclease action external to cells in the genetic transformation of Diplococcus pneumoniae . (springer.com)
  • Lacks SA, Greenberg B (1976) Single-strand breakage on binding of DNA to cells in the genetic transformation of Diplococcus pneumoniae . (springer.com)
  • Lacks SA, Neuberger M (1975) Membrane location of a deoxyribonuclease implicated in the genetic transformation of Diplococcus pneumoniae . (springer.com)
  • Lacks SA, Greenberg B, Neuberger M (1974) Role of a nuclease in the genetic transformation of Diplococcus pneumoniae . (springer.com)
  • Lacks SA, Greenberg B, Neuberger M (1975) Identification of a deoxyribonuclease implicated in genetic transformation of Diplococcus pneumoniae . (springer.com)
  • Porter RD, Guild WR (1969) Number of transformable units per cell in Diplococcus pneumoniae . (springer.com)
  • 1405 words - 6 pages diclofenac was found to be protective against necrotizing fasciitis in rabbits caused by Group A Streptococcus. (brightkite.com)
  • The aim of this project was to characterise a neuraminidase from Streptococcus pneumoniae by relating its amino acid sequence to the enzymatic activity of the protein, leading to the production of mutated neuraminidases that could be tested as protective immunogens. (bl.uk)
  • Studies suggest that about 28% to 55% of cases of acute otitis media (AOM) may be attributable to S. pneumoniae . (cmaj.ca)
  • S. pneumoniae is also associated with diseases in other parts of the respiratory tract including the paranasal sinuses, which is better known as sinusitis, and the middle ear can become infected, which is known as otitis media. (brightkite.com)
  • GEN-004 is a combination of 3 conserved proteins from Streptococcus pneumoniae. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci , some of which are also alpha-hemolytic , using an optochin test, as S. pneumoniae is optochin-sensitive. (wikipedia.org)