A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).
A species of ACTINOMYCES found in the oral cavity of man and hamsters. It has been isolated from actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs and has been identified as a causative agent of animal diseases.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to CATABOLISM of less preferred source(s).
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. II. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release by polysaccharides in response to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. (1/1717)

The release of lysosomal hydrolases from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been postulated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in periodontal disease. In the present study, lysosomal enzyme release was monitored from rabbit peritoneal exudate PMNs exposed to Streptocccus mutans or Streptococcus sanguis. S. mutans grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth failed to promote significant PMN enzyme release. S. sanguis grown in BHI broth, although more effective than S. mutants, was a weak stimulus for promotion of PMN hydrolase release. Preincubation of washed, viable S. mutans in sucrose or in different-molecular-weight dextrans resulted in the ability of the organisms to provoke PMN release reactions. This effect could bot be demonstrated with boiled or trypsinized S. mutans or with viable S. sanguis. However, when grown in BHI broth supplemented with sucrose, but not with glucose, both S. mutans and S. sanguis triggered discharge of PMN enzymes. The mechanism(s) whereby dextran or sucrose modulates PMN-bacterial interaction may in some manner be related to promotion of microbial adhesiveness or aggregation by dextran and by bacterial synthesis of glucans from sucrose.  (+info)

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (2/1717)

In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.  (+info)

Virulence of a spaP mutant of Streptococcus mutans in a gnotobiotic rat model. (3/1717)

Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiologic agent of dental caries in humans, possesses a variety of virulence traits that enable it to establish itself in the oral cavity and initiate disease. A 185-kDa cell surface-localized protein known variously as antigen I/II, antigen B, PAc, and P1 has been postulated to be a virulence factor in S. mutans. We showed previously that P1 expression is necessary for in vitro adherence of S. mutans to salivary agglutinin-coated hydroxyapatite as well as for fluid-phase aggregation. Since adherence of the organism is a necessary first step toward colonization of the tooth surface, we sought to determine what effect deletion of the gene for P1, spaP, has on the colonization and subsequent cariogenicity of this organism in vivo. Germ-free Fischer rats fed a diet containing 5% sucrose were infected with either S. mutans NG8 or an NG8-derived spaP mutant strain, PC3370, which had been constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. At 1-week intervals for 6 weeks after infection, total organisms recovered from mandibles were enumerated. At week 6, caries lesions also were scored. A significantly lower number of enamel and dentinal carious lesions was observed for the mutant-infected rats, although there was no difference between parent and mutant in the number of organisms recovered from teeth through 6 weeks postinfection. Coinfection of animals with both parent and mutant strains resulted in an increasing predominance of the mutant strain being recovered over time, suggesting that P1 is not a necessary prerequisite for colonization. These data do, however, suggest a role for P1 in the virulence of S. mutans, as reflected by a decrease in the cariogenicity of bacteria lacking this surface protein.  (+info)

The specific genes for lantibiotic mutacin II biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans T8 are clustered and can be transferred en bloc. (4/1717)

Mutacin II is a ribosomally synthesized peptide lantibiotic produced by group II Streptococcus mutans. DNA sequencing has revealed that the mutacin II biosynthetic gene cluster consists of seven specific open reading frames: a regulator (mutR), the prepromutacin structural gene (mutA), a modifying protein (mutM), an ABC transporter (mutT), and an immunity cluster (mutFEG). Transformations of a non-mutacin-producing strain, S. mutans UA159, and a mutacin I-producing strain, S. mutans UA140, with chromosomal DNA from S. mutans T8 with an aphIII marker inserted upstream of the mutacin II structural gene yielded transformants producing mutacin II and mutacins I and II, respectively.  (+info)

Purification and properties of bacteriolytic enzymes from Bacillus licheniformis YS-1005 against Streptococcus mutans. (5/1717)

To find a novel lytic enzyme against cariogenic Streptococci, strains showing strong lytic activity have been screened from soil using Streptococcus mutans. A strain identified as Bacillus licheniformis secreted two kinds of lytic enzymes, which were purified by methanol precipitation, CM-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The molecular weights of these two enzymes, L27 and L45, were 27,000 and 45,000, respectively. Optimum pH and temperature of both enzymes for lytic activity were pH 8 and 37 degrees C. L27 and L45 digest the peptide linkage between L-Ala and D-Glu in peptidoglycan of Streptococcus mutans. The lytic activity was highly specific for Streptococcus mutans, suggesting their potential use as a dental care product.  (+info)

Streptococcus mutans ffh, a gene encoding a homologue of the 54 kDa subunit of the signal recognition particle, is involved in resistance to acid stress. (6/1717)

The ability of Streptococcus mutans, a bacterial pathogen associated with dental caries, to tolerate rapid drops in plaque pH (acidurance), is considered an important virulence factor. To study this trait, Tn917 mutants of S. mutans strain JH1005 which display acid sensitivity have been isolated and partially characterized. In this paper, the characterization of one of these mutants, AS17, is reported. Preliminary sequence analysis revealed that the transposon insertion in AS17 occurred in the intergenic region of a two-gene locus which has been named sat for secretion and acid tolerance. This locus displays a high degree of homology to the ylxM-ffh operon of Bacillus subtilis. The sat+ locus was cloned by complementation of a conditional Escherichia coli ffh mutant with an S. mutans genomic library. Sequencing of the complementing clone identified the intact ylxM and ffh genes as well as a partial ORF with homology to the proUlopuAC gene of B. subtilis which encodes the binding protein of the ProU/OpuA osmoregulated glycine betaine transport system. RNA dot blot experiments indicated steady-state levels of ffh mRNA in the mutant that were approximately eightfold lower compared to parental levels. This suggests a partial polar effect of the sat-1::Tn917 mutation on ffh expression. Upon acid shock (pH 5), wild-type ffh mRNA levels were found to increase approximately four- to eightfold compared to unstressed (pH 7.5) levels. Mutant levels remained unaltered under the same conditions. Experiments designed to investigate the origins of the acid-sensitivity of the mutant revealed a lack of an acid-adaptive/tolerance response. Assays of proton-extruding ATPase (H+/ATPase) specific activity measured with purified membranes derived from acid-shocked AS17 showed twofold lower levels compared to the parent strain. Also, AS17 was found to be unable to ferment sorbitol although it was able to grow in glucose and a variety of other sugar substrates. These findings suggest that Ffh may be involved in the maintenance of a functional membrane protein composition during adaptation of S. mutans to changing environmental conditions.  (+info)

Lipoteichoic acid acts as an antagonist and an agonist of lipopolysaccharide on human gingival fibroblasts and monocytes in a CD14-dependent manner. (7/1717)

CD14 has been implicated as a receptor of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and other bacterial components as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Since the structures of LTAs from various gram-positive bacteria are heterogeneous, we analyzed the effects of LTAs on the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by high- and low-CD14-expressing (CD14(high) and CD14(low)) human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). While Bacillus subtilis LTA had an IL-8-inducing effect on CD14(high) HGF which was considerably weaker than that of LPS, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans LTAs had practically no effect on the cells. B. subtilis LTA had only a weak effect on CD14(low) HGF, as did LPS. S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs at a 1,000-fold excess each completely inhibited the IL-8-inducing activities of both LPS and a synthetic lipid A on CD14(high) HGF. The effect of LPS was also inhibited by the presence of an LPS antagonist, synthetic lipid A precursor IVA (LA-14-PP), with a 100-fold higher potency than S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs and by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody (MAb). S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs, LA-14-PP, and anti-CD14 MAb had no significant effect on phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated IL-8 secretion by HGF. These LTAs also inhibited the IL-8-inducing activity of B. subtilis LTA on CD14(high) HGF, as did LA-14-PP and anti-CD14 MAb. The antagonistic and agonistic functions of LTAs were also observed with human monocytes. Binding of fluorolabeled LPS to human monocytes was inhibited by S. sanguis LTA, although the inhibition was 100 times weaker than that of LPS itself, and anti-CD14 MAb inhibited fluorolabeled LPS and S. sanguis LTA binding. Binding of LTAs to CD14 was also observed with nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that LTAs act as antagonists or agonists via a CD14-dependent mechanism, probably due to the heterogeneous structure of LTAs, and that an antagonistic LTA might be a useful agent for suppressing the periodontal disease caused by gram-negative bacteria.  (+info)

Humoral immunity to commensal oral bacteria in human infants: salivary secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the first two years of life. (8/1717)

Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant's saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity.  (+info)

Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Lactobacillales; Streptococcaceae; Streptococcus; Streptococcus mutans; Streptococcus mutans serotype c (strain ATCC 700610 / UA159 ...
1. Ajdic D, McShan WM, McLaughlin RE, Savic G, Chang J, Carson MB. 2002. Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99:14434-14439. 2. Banas JA, Vickerman MM. 2003. Glucan-binding proteins of the oral streptococci. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine. 14:89-99. 3. Costerton JW, Steward PS, Greenberg EP. 1999. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 284:1318-1322. 4. Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL. 2012. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis. PloS one. 7:e47722. 5. Hajishengallis G, Koga and T, Russell MW. 1994. Affinity and Specificity of the Interactions between Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Salivary Components. J. Dent Res. 73:1943-1502. 6. Hossain MS, Biswas I. 2011. Mutacins from Streptococcus mutans UA159 are active against multiple streptococcal species. Applied and environmental ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol against Streptococcus mutans biofilms. AU - Rukayadi, Y.. AU - Hwang, J. K.. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Aims: We determined the effect of xanthorrhizol (XTZ) purified from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on the Streptococcus mutans biofilms in vitro. Methods and Results: The biofilms of S. mutans at different phases of growth were exposed to XTZ at different concentrations (5, 10 and 50 μmol l-1) and for different time exposures (1, 10, 30 and 60 min). The results demonstrated that the activity of XTZ in removing S. mutans biofilm was dependent on the concentration, exposure time and the phase growth of biofilm. A concentration of 5 μmol l-1 of XTZ completely inhibited biofilm formation by S. mutans at adherent phases of growth, whereas 50 μmol l -1 of XTZ removed 76% of biofilm at q1plateau accumulated phase when exposed to S. mutans biofilm for 60 min. Conclusions: Xanthorrhizol isolated from an edible plant (C. xanthorrhiza ...
SUMMARY: Fourteen strains of Streptococcus mutans serotype c were examined for their cell-surface protein antigens in terms of hydrophobicity, M r and immunochemical specificities. Thirteen strains were hydrophobic, while strain GS-5 was markedly hydrophilic as compared to the other strains tested. Cell-surface protein antigens were then analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western immunoblotting. A protein antigen of M r 190000 (PAc) was found in cell extracts and culture supernatants of all the hydrophobic strains. Neither culture supernatant nor cell extract of strain GS-5 contained PAc. Strain GS-5, however, produced extracellularly a large amount of a protein of M r 155000 (PAGS-5) which reacted with rabbit anti-PAc serum. Immunodiffusion analysis showed that PAGS-5 lacked a part of the antigenic moieties in the PAc molecule. SDS-PAGE and radioimmunoassay showed a small amount of PAGS-5 on the cell surface of strain GS-5. These findings suggest that
This in vitro study evaluated the influence of chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA) when blended within dentin bonding systems (DBSs) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation. One commercially available 0.2% wt CDA-containing DBS (Peak Universal Bond) and five experimental 0.2% wt CDA-containing DBS formulations (experimental Adper Scotchbond 1XT plus experimental resins, R2, R3, R4, R5) were assessed vs their no-CDA containing counterparts. Twenty-eight DBSs disks were prepared for each group (6.4 mm×1.0 mm) and cured for 80 s at 800 mW/cm2 in a nitrogen atmosphere. A modified Drip-Flow Reactor was used to grow S. mutans biofilms on specimen surfaces for 24 h and adherent, viable biomass was evaluated using a tetrazolium salt assay (MTT). Two specimens from each of the tested materials were processed with LIVE/DEAD stain and observed using laser confocal microscopy (CLSM) while two disks from each group were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MTT assay, CLSM and SEM ...
Streptococcus mutans is the most significant pathogenic bacterium implicated in the formation of dental caries and, both directly and indirectly, has been associated with severe conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease. Polymers able to selectively bind S. mutans and/or inhibit its adhesion to oral tissue in a non-lethal manner would offer possibilities for addressing pathogenicity without selecting for populations resistant against bactericidal agents. In the present work two libraries of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA)-based polymers were synthesized with various proportions of either N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium cationic- or sulfobetaine zwitterionic groups. These copolymers where initially tested as potential macromolecular ligands for S. mutans NCTC 10449, whilst Escherichia coli MG1655 was used as Gram-negative control bacteria. pDMAEMA-derived materials with high proportions of zwitterionic repeating units were found to be selective ...
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To evaluate the ability of the broad-spectrum lantibiotic, lacticin 3147, to prevent Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and disrupt existing biofilms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations of purified lacticin 3147 were determined using a microdilution method. Lacticin 3147 effectively inhibited planktonic Strep. mutans, with MIC of 1.9-3.8 μmol l(-1). Time-kill kinetic studies confirmed that lacticin 3147 exhibited bactericidal activity against Strep. mutans at 38 μmol l(-1) (or 10× MIC). The effect of lacticin 3147 on biofilm formation and reduction was also determined. Exposure to 6.3-μmol l(-1) lacticin 3147 (2× MIC) resulted in substantial reductions in Strep. mutans biofilm formation while lacticin 3147 was less effective against 1-day-old biofilms. Culture-based analyses revealed that lacticin 3147 (50 μmol l(-1)) significantly inhibited Streptococcus spp. present in human saliva (P < 0.05) with an approximate 4-log reduction in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phylogenetic Analysis of Glucosyltransferases and Implications for the Coevolution of Mutans Streptococci with Their Mammalian Hosts. AU - Argimón, Silvia. AU - Alekseyenko, Alexander V.. AU - DeSalle, Rob. AU - Caufield, Page W.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/2/14. Y1 - 2013/2/14. N2 - Glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) catalyze the synthesis of glucans from sucrose and are produced by several species of lactic-acid bacteria. The oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans produces large amounts of glucans through the action of three Gtfs. GtfD produces water-soluble glucan (WSG), GtfB synthesizes water-insoluble glucans (WIG) and GtfC produces mainly WIG but also WSG. These enzymes, especially those synthesizing WIG, are of particular interest because of their role in the formation of dental plaque, an environment where S. mutans can thrive and produce lactic acid, promoting the formation of dental caries. We sequenced the gtfB, gtfC and gtfD ...
The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency and expression of biosynthesis genes in 47 Streptococcus mutans isolates with different mutacin-producing phenotypes. Detection of the frequency and expression of genes encoding mutacin types I, II, III and IV were carried out by PCR and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively, using primers specific for each type of biosynthesis gene. In addition, a further eight genes encoding putative bacteriocins, designated bsm 283, bsm 299, bsm 423, bsm 1889c, bsm 1892c, bsm 1896, bsm 1906c and bsm 1914, were also screened. There was a high phenotypic diversity; some Streptococcus mutans isolates presented broad antimicrobial spectra against other Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates, including bacteria resistant to common antibiotics, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. The expression frequency of the bsm gene was higher than that of the previously characterized mutacins (I-IV). There
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of glucan-binding protein A to firm and stable biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. AU - Matsumi, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Takashima, Y.. AU - Yanagida, K.. AU - Morikawa, Y.. AU - Matsumoto-Nakano, M.. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Glucan-binding proteins (Gbps) of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, mediate the binding of glucans synthesized from sucrose by the action of glucosyltransferases (GTFs) encoded by gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD. Several stress proteins, including DnaK and GroEL encoded by dnaK and groEL, are related to environmental stress tolerance. The contribution of Gbp expression to biofilm formation was analyzed by focusing on the expression levels of genes encoding GTFs and stress proteins. Biofilm-forming assays were performed using GbpA-, GbpB-, and GbpC-deficient mutant strains and the parental strain MT8148. The expression levels of gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, dnaK, and groEL were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the principal causative agent of human tooth decay, an oral disease that affects the majority of the worlds population. Although the complete S. mutans genome is known, approximately 700 proteins are still annotated as hypothetical proteins, as no threedimensional structure or homology with known proteins exists for them. Thus, the significant portion of genomic sequences coding for unknown-function proteins makes the knowledge of pathogenicity and survival mechanisms of S. mutans still incomplete. Plasmids are found in virtually every species of Streptococcus, and some of these mediate resistance to antibiotics and pathogenesis. However, there are strains of S. mutans that contain plasmids, such as LM7 and UA140, to which no function has been assigned yet. In this work, we describe an in silico study of the structure and function of all the S. mutans proteins encoded by pLM7 and pUA140 plasmids to gain insight into their biological function. ...
Biological action on cariogenic bacteria. The analysis of results shows that a different propolis sample does not have the same inhibitory activity on bacterial growth, but all of them inhibited the mutans streptococci growth. Also, we can see that this activity has a direct relation with the concentration of polyphenols, as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method (Table 2). The EEP P001 and P008 from central Chile showed the lowest antimicrobial activity (MIC 6.67 and 8.22, respectively). Similarly, highlighting the propolis P019 and P020, from southern Chile showed the highest antimicrobial activity (MIC 1.94 and 0.90, respectively). When comparing the MIC for S. mutans and S. sobrinus according to the sample origin we observed for both of them that MIC was lowest with southern propolis (p = 0.011 and p = 0.007, respectively). In addition, the statistical analyses showed that propolis from southern Chile (P013 to P020) have the highest polyphenols contents when compared with other regions of ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) consist of highly conserved direct repeats interspersed with variable spacer sequences. They can protect bacteria against invasion by foreign DNA elements. The genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans strain UA159 contains two CRISPR loci, designated CRISPR1 and CRISPR2. The aims of this study were to analyse the organization of CRISPR in further S. mutans strains and to investigate the importance of CRISPR in acquired immunity to M102-like phages. The sequences of CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 arrays were determined for 29 S. mutans strains from different persons. More than half of the CRISPR1 spacers and about 35 % of the CRISPR2 spacers showed sequence similarity with the genome sequence of M102, a virulent siphophage specific for S. mutans. Although only a few spacers matched the phage sequence completely, most of the mismatches had no effect on the amino acid sequences of the phage-encoded proteins. The results suggest that S. mutans ...
Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood. We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in
The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed ...
The oral cavity contains many different microbial species growing in a biofilm. Dental caries is the localised destruction of the tooth by organic acids produced from the bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates. The mutans streptococci, in particular Streptococcus mutans, have been proposed as the main etiological agents of dental caries and high levels of mutans streptococci in the plaque is correlated with a higher risk for dental caries. A range of broad-spectrum antimicrobials are used to inhibit plaque formation. However, current research is focussed on more targeted approaches. The protein zoocin A has high activity against Streptococcus mutans, while the monoglyceride lauricidin is active against gram-positive bacteria. Both are therefore potential antimicrobials for anti-caries therapy. The aims of this study were to produce zoocin A at sufficient concentrations to use as an antimicrobial in a biofilm model and to develop a simple biofilm model for use studying the effects of ...
Imbalances within the dental biofilm trigger dental caries, currently considered a dysbiosis and the most prevalent noncommunicable disease. There is still a gap in knowledge about the dynamics of enamel colonization by bacteria from the dental biofilm in caries. The aim, therefore, was to test whether the sequence of enamel colonization by a typically commensal and a cariogenic species modifies biofilms cariogenicity. Dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on saliva-coated enamel slabs were inoculated in different sequences: S. mutans followed by S. sanguinis (Sm-Ss), S. sanguinis followed by S. mutans (Ss-Sm), S. mutans and S. sanguinis inoculated at the same time (Sm=Ss), and the single-species controls S. mutans followed by S. mutans (Sm-Sm) and S. sanguinis followed by S. sanguinis (Ss-Ss). Biofilms were exposed to 10% sucrose 3 times per day for 5 days, and the slabs/biofilms were retrieved to assess demineralization, viable cells, biomass, proteins, ...
A 0.8-kb HindIII-BamHI internal fragment of the Streptococcus mutans wall-associated protein A gene (wapA) was ligated to the 5.1-kb HindIII-BamHI fragment of the chimeric Streptococcus-Escherichia coli plasmid pVA891 (Emr Cmr). The resulting construct was used to transform S. mutans GS-5, and erythromycin-resistant mutants were isolated and analyzed. Directed mutagenesis of the wapA gene by plasmid insertion through homologous recombination was demonstrated by Southern blot hybridization with the wapA and pVA891 probes. Stable mutants were obtained, and the alteration of the wapA gene by insertional inactivation was associated with a significant decrease in S. mutans sucrose-dependent aggregation and binding to smooth surfaces. Thus, WapA may play an important role in the colonization of the tooth surface by S. mutans and in the buildup of dental plaque. These findings provided an explanation for previous studies which indicated that WapA was effective in the prevention of dental caries in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clustered genes for galactose metabolism from Streptococcus mutans cloned in Escherichia coli. AU - Smorawinska, M.. AU - Hsu, J. C.. AU - Hansen, J. B.. AU - Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E. K.. AU - Abiko, Y.. AU - Curtiss, R.. PY - 1983/7/21. Y1 - 1983/7/21. N2 - DNA cloned into Escherichia coli from a serotype c strain of S. mutans allowed a galKTE mutant to utilize galactose for growth. However, the DNA does not appear to encode enzymes of the Leloir pathway used by E. coli, but rather appeears to encode enzymes of the tagatose phosphate pathway.. AB - DNA cloned into Escherichia coli from a serotype c strain of S. mutans allowed a galKTE mutant to utilize galactose for growth. However, the DNA does not appear to encode enzymes of the Leloir pathway used by E. coli, but rather appeears to encode enzymes of the tagatose phosphate pathway.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020679927&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Biochemical Test of Streptococcus mutans Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus mutans) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Positive (+ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Cellobiose Positive (+ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) … Read moreBiochemical Test of Streptococcus mutans. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bioactive low-shrinkage-stress nanocomposite suppresses S. mutans biofilm and preserves tooth dentin hardness. AU - Bhadila, Ghalia. AU - Filemban, Hanan. AU - Wang, Xiaohong. AU - Melo, Mary Ann S.. AU - Arola, Dwayne D.. AU - Tay, Franklin R.. AU - Oates, Thomas W.. AU - Weir, Michael D.. AU - Sun, Jirun. AU - Xu, Hockin H.K.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Drs. Nancy J. Lin, Hong Chen and Wen Zou for discussions and assistance. This work was supported by the University of Maryland School of Dentistry bridging fund (HX), and University of Maryland Baltimore seed grant (HX). There are no conflicts of interest.. PY - 2020/9/15. Y1 - 2020/9/15. N2 - Recurrent dental caries is one of the main reasons for resin composite restoration failures. This study aimed to: (1) develop a bioactive, low-shrinkage-stress, antibacterial and remineralizing composite and evaluate the sustainability of its antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilms; and (2) evaluate ...
Author(s): Tang, Xiaoyu; Kudo, Yuta; Baker, Jonathon L; LaBonte, Sandra; Jordan, Peter A; McKinnie, Shaun MK; Guo, Jian; Huan, Tao; Moore, Bradley S; Edlund, Anna | Abstract: Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of dental plaque and a major etiologic agent of dental caries (tooth decay). In this study, we elucidated the biosynthetic pathway encoded by muc, a hybrid polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC), present in a number of globally distributed S. mutans strains. The natural products synthesized by muc included three N-acyl tetramic acid compounds (reutericyclin and two novel analogues) and an unacylated tetramic acid (mutanocyclin). Furthermore, the enzyme encoded by mucF was identified as a novel class of membrane-associated aminoacylases and was responsible for the deacylation of reutericyclin to mutanocyclin. A large number of hypothetical proteins across a broad diversity of bacteria were homologous to MucF, suggesting that this
The intracellular pH (pHi) optimum for glycolysis in Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt was determined to be 7.0 by use of the ionophore gramicidin for manipulation of pHi. Glycolytic activity decreased to zero as the pHi was lowered from 7.0 to 5.0. In contrast, glycolysis had an extracellular pH (pHo) …
Biofilms and Disease== Bacteria make biofilms, which contain a heterogeneous mixture of microorganisms attached to a surface [[#References,[12]]]. Biofilms offer bacteria protection from hostile environments [[#References,[3]]], promote efficient food storage and nutrient acquisition mechanisms, and encourage synergistic relationships for community benefit. Biofilms are involved in a variety of infectious diseases, causing persistent problems such as cystic fibrosis pneumonia, otitis media, urinary tract infections, and dental plaque formation [[#References,[12]]]. ===Dental Plaque and Disease=== Dental plaque is a biofilm of diverse bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances. It builds up over time and leads to dental caries and periodontal diseases such as gingivitis, a gum inflammation. As many as 400 species of bacteria have been associated with dental plaques, the most common being Streptococcus and Lactobacillus, which are associated with acid formation leading to tooth decay ...
The oral cavity is a complex environment harboring diverse microbial species that often co-exist within biofilms formed on oral surfaces. Within a biofilm, inter-species interactions can be synergistic in that the presence of one organism generates a niche for another enhancing colonization. Among these species are the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans and the bacterial species Streptococcus mutans, the etiologic agents of oral candidiasis and dental caries, respectively. Recent studies have reported enhanced prevalence of C. albicans in children with caries indicating potential clinical implications for this fungal-bacterial interaction. In this study, we aimed to specifically elucidate the role of C. albicans-derived polysaccharide biofilm matrix components in augmenting S. mutans colonization and mixed biofilm formation. Comparative evaluations of single and mixed species biofilms demonstrated significantly enhanced S. mutans retention in mixed biofilms with C. albicans. Further, S.
Objetive: The aim of this study was to analyze possible horizontal transmission patterns of S. mutans among 6-7-yr-old schoolchildren from the same class, identifying genotypes and their diversity and relationship with caries disease status. Study Design: Caries indexes and saliva mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts were recorded in 42 schoolchildren. Mutans streptococci colonies were identified by means of biochemical tests and all S. mutans strains were genotyped by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. A child was considered free of S. mutans when it could not be isolated in 3 samples at 1-week intervals. Results: S. mutans was isolated in 30 schoolchildren: 20 having one genotype and 10 two genotypes. Higher mutans streptococci and caries index values were found in those with two genotypes. Five genotypes were isolated in more than 1 schoolchild and one of these was isolated in 3 schoolchildren. Our results suggest that horizontal transmission may take place. Conclusion: ...
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Streptococcus mutans is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay. It is part of the streptococci (plural, non-italic lowercase), an informal general name for all species in the genus Streptococcus.The microbe was first described by J Kilian Clarke in 1924. This bacterium, along with the closely related species Streptococcus sobrinus, can cohabit the mouth: Both contribute to oral disease, and the expense of differentiating them in laboratory testing is often not clinically necessary. Therefore, for clinical purposes they are often considered together as a group, called the mutans streptococci (plural, non-italic due to it being an informal group name). This grouping of similar bacteria with similar tropism can also be seen in the viridans streptococci, another group of Streptococcus species. S. mutans is naturally present in the human oral microbiota, along with at least 25 other ...
Streptococcus mutans strain K8 was shown to produce a newly identified type AII lantibiotic, mutacin K8. The mutacin K8-encoding muk locus consists of 13 ORFs, three of which (mukA1, A2 and A3) have close homology to scnA, the structural gene encoding the Streptococcus pyogenes lantibiotic SA-FF22, …
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether salivary mutans streptococci (MS) counts in Chinese children had any value in the prediction of new caries in the permanent dentition in the age interval of 6.5-8.5 years. METHODS: Four hundred and thirty-three 6-7-year-old children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Salivary MS counts were obtained at baseline with the spatula method. Dentin and enamel caries was recorded at baseline and at the follow-up, 2 years later. Spearmans correlation coefficients were computed. Past caries experience variables at baseline were entered into a multiple regression model with caries increment of the permanent dentition as dependent variable. MS counts were subsequently entered into the model to assess the additional caries predictive value. RESULTS: Spearmans correlation coefficient for MS counts and caries experience of the primary dentition at baseline was 0.48 and for MS counts and caries increment in the permanent dentition 0.12. In the ...
SummaryStreptococcus mutans, a primary bacterium associated with dental caries, has four known clinical serotypes (c, e, f, andk). Some serotypes, presence of multiple serotypes and strains with collagen ‐binding proteins (CBP, Cnm and Cbm) have been linked with systemic disease. Evaluation ofS. mutans serotype distribution and caries association is needed in the United States. The purpose of th...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of pH on the bactericidal action of NaF and/or iodine on Streptococcus mutans. AU - Caufield, P. W.. AU - Wannemuehler, Y.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=17644430616&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=17644430616&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:17644430616. VL - 61. SP - No. 1073. JO - Journal of Dental Research. JF - Journal of Dental Research. SN - 0022-0345. IS - Abs.. ER - ...
A method was developed to facilitate the estimation of Streptococcus mutans levels in saliva. Saliva-contaminated wodden spatulas were pressed directly against an elevated agar plate containing a selective medium. The results were compared with the number of S. mutans per 1 ml of paraffin-stimulated saliva. It was shown that the spatula method gave a good estimation of the level of S. mutans infection. The incubation was also made in expired air instead of 95% N2-5% CO2. The outgrowth was in good agreement with that after conventional incubation. The method is useful in epidemiological studies or in selecting persons at a high caries risk, and when ordinary saliva sampling cannot be done, for example in small children. Compared with conventional saliva sampling, this method requires less time and material at sampling as well as at the laboratory. ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Oral bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans is a coccoid shaped, Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria that is part of the normal bacteria flora of the mouth. It metabolizes sucrose to lactic acid and is a leading cause of tooth enamel decay. The acidic environment created in the mouth by this process is what causes the highly mineralized tooth enamel to decay. S. mutans is one of a few specialized organisms equipped with receptors for adhesion to the surface of teeth. Sucrose is utilized by S. mutans to produce a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide (glucan) that allows them to adhere to each other forming plaque. Other sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose) can be digested by S. mutans to produce lactic acid. It is the combination of plaque and acid that leads to dental decay. Magnification: x4,400 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2177
TY - JOUR. T1 - The oligopeptide (opp) gene cluster of Streptococcus mutans. T2 - Identification, prevalence, and characterization. AU - Nepomuceno, R. S.L.. AU - Tavares, M. B.. AU - Lemos, J. A.. AU - Griswold, A. R.. AU - Ribeiro, J. L.. AU - Balan, A.. AU - Guimarães, K. S.. AU - Cai, S.. AU - Burne, R. A.. AU - Ferreira, L. C.S.. AU - Ferreira, R. C.C.. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Introduction: The Opp system is an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter formed by membrane-associated proteins required for the uptake of oligopeptides in bacteria. In gram-positive bacteria, the Opp system, and particularly the oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA), has been shown to be involved in different aspects of cell physiology, including intercellular communication and binding to host proteins. Methods: In the present study we began to investigate the Opp system of Streptococcus mutans, the main etiological agent of dental caries. Results: Five opp genes (oppABCDF) organized in a single operon were ...
Escano, Jerome; Stauffer, Byron; Brennan, Jacob; Bullock, Monica; Smith, Leif (2015). Biosynthesis and Transport of the Lantibiotic Mutacin 1140 Produced by Streptococcus mutans. Journal of Bacteriology. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /183340. ...
Many people know streptococcus mutans is the true culprit in the development of tooth decay and cavities. Learn more about streptococcus mutans, here.
Mestecky J., Czerkinsky C., Brown T.A., Prince S.J., Michalek S.M., Russell M. W., Jackson S., Schöller M. and McGhee J.R. (1986): Human immune responses to Streptococcus mutans. In: Molecular microbiology and immunobiology of Streptococcus mutans (Eds. Hamada S., Michalek S.M., Kiyono H., Menaker L. and McGhee J.R.). Elsevier Science Publishers. Amsterdam, New-York, Oxford.Google Scholar ...
Objective: Streptococcus mutans is the leading cause of dental caries worldwide and a causative agent of infectious endocarditis. Collagen binding protein, Cnm, is expressed by about 10% of S.mutans clinical strains. Here, we investigate the role of Cnm in adherence, invasion, and persistence of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC) in vitro. Methods: Adherence and Antibiotic Protection Assay: Human cells were infected with wildtype strains of S.mutans and their corresponding cnm mutants: OMZ175, OM50E, LM7, NCTC11060. S.mutans UA159, a natural cnm negative strain, was used as a negative control. For adherence, human cells were infected at MOI 100 and incubated for 30 min at 4oC. For invasion, human cells were infected at MOI 100 for 2 hours, washed, antibiotic treated for 3 hours to kill extracellular bacteria. Cells were lysed, serially diluted and plated on BHI, and CFUs determined. Quantitative PCR: Antibiotic protection assay with strain OMZ175 was completed, except cells were ...
Streptococcus mutans 6715 ribosomes disrupted in a Braun homogenizer were isolated in sodium dodecyl sulfate by differential centrifugation. This preparation contained 80% RNA and 20% protein, and carbohydrate was not detected by phenol-sulfuric acid and methyl pentose assays. The sedimentation coefficient of the ribosomes was 70S. After dialysis in 0.01 M phosphate buffer containing 10(-4) M MgCl2, the ribosomes dissociated into 54S and 32S particles. Leukocytes from rabbits immunized intramuscularly with the ribosomal preparation showed transformation and migration indices of 13.0 and 0.71, which were significantly different (P less than 0.05) from the respective indices of 0.9 and 0.98 in nonimmunized animals. Hyperimmune serum from these rabbits agglutinated representative Formalin-killed strains of all seven serotypes of S. mutans, inhibited adherence of live S. mutans 6715 to glass, and agglutinated S. mutans 6715 ribosomes adsorbed upon erythrocytes. These findings suggested that animals ...
Streptococcus mutans is a principal etiologic agent in the development of dental caries due to its exceptional aciduric and acidogenic properties, and i..
LINOSSIER, Alfredo C; VALENZUELA, Carlos Y; SOLER, Eduardo R y CONTRERAS, Estela M. Colonization of the oral cavity by group mutans streptococci according to age assesed by a semi-quantitative method in saliva. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2011, vol.28, n.3, pp.230-237. ISSN 0716-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182011000300006.. Objective: To evaluate the colonization of group mutans streptococci according to age, measuring the amount of bacteria in saliva with a semi-quantitative method in a population attended in public and private dental centers of the Metropolitan Region, Santiago, Chile. Patients and Methods: Saliva samples were obtained from 14,649 patients aged 5 to 40 years, in one public and 5 private dental centers. Bacteria concentration was estimated by the comparison with a standard counting-chart. The concentration of group mutans streptococci in saliva was test by a 3-way ANOVA. Results: Bacterial concentration of Streptococcus mutans related with the age of patients was ...
Production and Characterization of Streptokinase Enzyme by Using Streptococcus mutans Strain in Liquid State Fermentation through Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) Substrate Abstract.
The biological process of the nitrogen cycle is a complex interplay among many microorganisms catalyzing different reactions, where nitrogen is found in various oxidation states ranging from +5 in nitrate to -3 in ammonia. The core nitrogen cycle involves four reduction pathways and two oxidation pathways. Nitrogen fixation [MD:M00175] is the process of reducing atmospheric molecular nitrogen to ammonia, a biologically useful reduced form incorporated into amino acids and other vital compounds. The ability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the nitrogenase enzyme complex is present in restricted prokaryotes (diazotrophs). The other reduction pathways are assimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00531] and dissimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00530] both for conversion to ammonia, and denitrification [MD:M00529]. Denitrification is a respiration in which nitrate or nitrite is reduced as a terminal electron acceptor under low oxygen or anoxic conditions, producing gaseous nitrogen compounds (N2, NO and ...
Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) protein was one of the first cell wall-anchored adhesins identified in Gram-positive bacteria. It mediates attachment of S. mutans to tooth surfaces and has been a focus for immunization studies against dental caries. The AgI/II family polypeptides recognize salivary glycoproteins, and are also involved in biofilm formation, platelet aggregation, tissue invasion and immune modulation. The genes encoding AgI/II family polypeptides are found among Streptococcus species indigenous to the human mouth, as well as in Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae and S. suis. Evidence of functionalities for different regions of the AgI/II proteins has emerged. A sequence motif within the C-terminal portion of Streptococcus gordonii SspB (AgI/II) is bound by Porphyromonas gingivalis, thus promoting oral colonization by this anaerobic pathogen. The significance of other epitopes is now clearer following resolution of regional crystal structures. A new picture emerges of ...
Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited
Introduction: Increased resistance of oral pathogens to conventional antimicrobial agents has led to the use of alternative methods to overcome microbial resistance. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on Streptococcus mutans. Materials & Methods: In this in vitro study, a diode laser emitting a wavelength of 810nm was used in association with EmunDo as a photosensitizing agent. Suspensions of Streptococcus mutans were prepared and divided into six groups by treatment: 1) EmunDo, 2) diode laser irradiation (100mW, 90 seconds), 3) diode laser irradiation (300mW, 30 seconds); 4) EmunDo+diode laser irradiation (100mW, 90seconds), 5) EmunDo+diode laser irradiation (300mW, 30 seconds), 6) control (no treatment). Immediately and 24 hours after photodynamic therapy, the bacterial suspensions were cultured. After incubation at 37°C, viable microorganisms of Streptococcus mutans were counted and the results were reported in ...
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been successfully used to image biofilms because of its high resolution and magnification. However, conventional SEM requires dehydration and metal coating of biological samples before observation, and because biofilms consist mainly of water, sample dehydration may influence the biofilm structure. When coated with an ionic liquid, which is a kind of salt that exists in the liquid state at room temperature, biological samples for SEM observation do not require dehydration or metal coating because ionic liquids do not evaporate under vacuum conditions and are electrically conductive. This study investigates the ability of ionic liquids to allow SEM observation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms compared with conventional coating methods. Two hydrophilic and two hydrophobic ionic liquids, all of which are electronic conductors, are used. Compared with samples prepared by the conventional method, the ionic-liquid-treated samples do not exhibit a fibrous extracellular
S. mutans UA159 and its derivative mutant strain luxS- [54] were incubated in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI, Difco Labs, Detroit, USA) at 37°C in 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v), with the addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in the case of the luxS- strain. Cultures of S. mutans were diluted 1:50, inoculated into fresh BHI media and grown in polystyrene tubes for 24 h (37°C, 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v)) for planktonic culture generation. The biofilm of luxS- was grown in BHI with addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in 20-mm diameter, 15-mm deep sterile polystyrene multidishes (NUNCLON-143982, Roskilde, Denmark), as described previously [14].. As biofilm thickness plays a crucial role in mature biofilm development, we generated biofilms of wild-type bacteria under controlled nutrition flow and controlled biofilm depth conditions, by using the constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) [55]. The rotating turntable in the CDFF contained 15 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pans, rotated under PTFE scraper bars that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic characterization of a Streptococcus mutans LraI family operon and role in virulence. AU - Kitten, Todd. AU - Munro, Cindy L.. AU - Michalek, Suzanne M.. AU - Macrina, Francis L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Proteins belonging to the LraI (for lipoprotein receptor antigen) family function as adhesins in several streptococci, as a virulence factor for endocarditis in at least one of these species, and potentially as metal transporters in many bacteria. We have identified and characterized the chromosomal locus containing the LraI family gene (designated sloC) from Streptococcus mutans, an agent of dental caries and endocarditis in humans. Northern blot analysis indicated that sloC is cotranscribed with three other genes. As with other LraI operons, the sloA and slob genes apparently encode components of an ATP-binding cassette transport system. The product of the fourth gene, sloR, has homology to the ...
The development of a biofilm is part of the life cycle for many bacteria. The biofilm that forms on the surface of the tooth is commonly known as dental plaque and there are roughly 700 bacterial species detected amongst oral flora. The primary etiological agent for dental caries is the bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. In the presence of simple dietary sugars, this bacterium metabolizes sucrose into lactic acid, which results in the demineralization of the tooth surface. Extended exposure of lactic acid leads to dental caries.; In the oral cavity, there is a subpopulation of lysed bacteria where the DNA is released for uptake by the remaining cell populations. This flux of exogenous DNA is believed to be important for horizontal gene transfer in naturally competent bacteria such as S. mutans. Competence is defined as a physiological state where the bacterium is able to bind, transport and incorporate free DNA into its genome. Based on the Streptococcus pneumoniae competence model, there are at ...
The development of a biofilm is part of the life cycle for many bacteria. The biofilm that forms on the surface of the tooth is commonly known as dental plaque and there are roughly 700 bacterial species detected amongst oral flora. The primary etiological agent for dental caries is the bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. In the presence of simple dietary sugars, this bacterium metabolizes sucrose into lactic acid, which results in the demineralization of the tooth surface. Extended exposure of lactic acid leads to dental caries.; In the oral cavity, there is a subpopulation of lysed bacteria where the DNA is released for uptake by the remaining cell populations. This flux of exogenous DNA is believed to be important for horizontal gene transfer in naturally competent bacteria such as S. mutans. Competence is defined as a physiological state where the bacterium is able to bind, transport and incorporate free DNA into its genome. Based on the Streptococcus pneumoniae competence model, there are at ...
The effect of a slow-releasing dosage (SRD) coating of chlorhexidine on the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and on plaque index scores in patients with removable partial dentures (RPD) was tested. The SRD proved to be effective in maintaining a low level of S. mutans counts after mechanical cleaning, as compared to a baseline established during the control period. Plaque index scores were lower following the treatment and correlated with the microbiological results. Our findings indicate that a single application of sustained-release chlorhexidine to removable partial dentures effectively maintains S. mutans levels as well as reducing the plaque score for a minimum period of 1 week.
|i|Objective|/i|. To reduce secondary caries, glass ionomer luting cements are often used for cementing of indirect restorations. This is because of their well-known antimicrobial potential through the release of fluoride ions. The aim of this |i|in vitro|/i| study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of five dental luting cements which were based on glass ionomer cement technology. |i|Methods|/i|. Five different glass ionomer based luting cements were tested for their antimicrobial effects on |i|Streptococcus mutans|/i| in two different experimental setups: (i) determination of colony-forming units (CFUs) in a plate-counting assay; (ii) live/dead staining (LDS) and fluorescence microscopy. All experiments were conducted with or without prior treatment of the materials using sterilized human saliva. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated for adherent and planktonic bacteria. Bovine enamel slabs (BES) were used as negative control. BES covered with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) served as positive
The runner-up individual prize went to a where to meet european singles student from cork for his new method for identifying super massive stars. This box set contains one multi-part plastic space marine commander, including: nine different weapon options, three variant heads and additional parts to further customise your model. According to khrushchev, the soviet unions motives were aimed at allowing cuba to live peacefully and develop as its people desire. While handling purists will probably want to stick with the base suspension, all z4 models are electronically influenced with the z4s addition of driving dynamics control. Effect of specific antisera where to meet catholic singles in la on adherence properties of the oral bacterium streptococcus mutans. The lite version is great for beginners and includes all the where to meet interracial singles in las vegas painting features of the full version. It is a part of microsoft sharepoint family of where to meet iranian singles in la ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of titanium surfaces air-abraded with particles of Bioglass® 45S5 and three-ZnO and SrO doped compositions on the viability, adhesion and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. A statistically significant decrease in the viability of S. mutans was observed for all titanium discs air-particle abraded with the BAGs (p < 0.001). Also, a significant effect on diminishing biofilm formation on the titanium discs was seen for all BAGs (p < 0.01). No differences were noticed in S. mutans adhesion on titanium surfaces treated with different glasses (p = 0.964). Static SBF immersion experiments showed that after 2 and 48 h the BAG doped with 4 mol% ZnO demonstrated the highest Zn2+ ion concentration released into SBF (0.2 mg L−1). 45S5 BAG demonstrated the highest statistically significant increase in the pH throughout the 120 min of static immersion (p < 0.001). In conclusion, we showed that titanium alloy discs abraded with particles of the ...
Dental researchers in the US have discovered that cranberries hold important clues for preventing cavities. A team led by oral biologist Hyun Koo, at the University of Rochester Medical Center has discovered that the same traits that make cranberry juice a powerful weapon against bladder infections also hold promise for protecting teeth against cavities. Koo found that cranberry juice makes it difficult for the bacteria Streptococcus mutans to cling to tooth surfaces. Scientists believe that one of the main ways that cranberries prevent urinary tract infections is by inhibiting the adherence of pathogens on the surface of the bladder. Perhaps the same is true in the mouth, where bacteria use adhesion molecules to hold onto teeth, Koo said. Koos team also found evidence that cranberry juice disrupts the formation of glucan, the building block of plaque. Streptococcus mutans uses enzymes known as glucosyltransferases to build dental plaque piece by piece. Koos team found that cranberry juice ...
Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. It can metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates and produce large amounts of organic acids that cause enamel demineralization. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays an important role in carbohydrates uptake of S. mutans. The ptxA and ptxB genes in S. mutans encode putative enzyme IIA and enzyme IIB of the L-ascorbate-specific PTS. The aim of this study was to analyze the function of these proteins and understand the transcriptional regulatory mechanism. ptxA −, ptxB −, as well as ptxA − , ptxB − double-deletion mutants all had more extended lag phase and lower growth yield than wild-type strain UA159 when grown in the medium using L-ascorbate as the sole carbon source. Acid production and acid
Fixed orthodontic appliances might be associated with intraoral adverse effects on enamel, due to plaque accumulation and their colonization by oral microbes. At the same time, the demand for esthetic alternatives to orthodontic treatment, like thermoplastic aligners, is growing. However, thermoplastic aligners may behave differently intraorally than fixed appliances in terms of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Therefore, the aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess the salivary prevalence of the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus sanguinis among adolescents treated orthodontically with thermoplastic aligners or fixed appliances. Thirty adolescent patients (17 girls/13 boys; mean age 13.8 years old) were assigned to treatment with either (i) self-ligating fixed appliances with nickel-titanium archwires or (ii) aligners constructed from clear transparent polyethylenterephthalat-glycol copolyester (PET-G) thermoplastic sheets.
Nonnenmann, Jamie D., The Effect of Dextranase on Dextran Production by Streptococcus Mutans 6715 S-19 Glucosyltransferase (1978). Masters Theses. 2954 ...
THE EFFECT OF CURCUMA XANTHORRHIZA ETHANOL EXTRACT ON THE VIABILITY OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND AGGREGATIBACTER ACTINOMYCETEMCOMITANS (DENTAL BIOFILM RESEARCH: IN VITRO STUDY)
Smith, D.J.; Taubman, M.A.; Ebersole, J.L., 1979: Preparation of glucosyl transferase ec 2.4.1.5 from streptococcus mutans by evolution from water insoluble poly saccharide with a dissociating solvent
Our laboratory has been extensively involved in establishing the role S. mutans fimbriae play in adherence to and colonization of the tooth surface by this bacterium and testing if antibodies against S. mutans fimbria components reduce the adherence of S. mutans to the tooth surface, thereby inhibiting the development of primary dental caries (6,23, 24). Caries-free (CF) adult individuals have higher levels of salivary IgA antibodies to fimbria-enriched preparation ofS. mutans than do caries-active (CA) individuals (7). These results suggest that CF subjects may be protected immunologically from dental caries in part by salivary IgA antibody against S. mutans fimbrial antigens. Perrone et al. (23) demonstrated, with immunoblot analyses and ELISA techniques with antibody to fimbria-enriched preparations, GTF, and P1 antigen, that the levels of fimbria components, GTF, and P1 antigen were higher in fimbria-enriched preparations fromS. mutans isolates from CA subjects than in preparations from CF ...
Two-component signal transduction systems that respond to the presence of inducer peptide pheromones are known to regulate a variety of processes: bacteriocin production, competence for transformation, biofilm formation, and virulence (30). The results presented here and those from previous studies (14, 15) show that S. mutans uses one and the same TCSTS to control at least three of these at first sight unrelated processes. Mutants in comA, comC, and comDE are competence deficient (14), form biofilms that are different from those formed by wild-type strains (15), and do not produce bacteriocins (this study; 32, 36).. Unlike competence, which exhibits an optimum during a short interval of the exponential phase (data not shown) (19, 23), expression of nlmAB′-lacZ was lowest in this period but reached a maximum in the stationary phase. Since both activities are controlled by the same regulatory system, the question arises as to how this differential regulation is established. The key to the ...
Oral bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of mixed oral bacteria (Streptococcus, round) with some bacilli bacteria (rod-shaped). - Masterfile - Premium Royalty-Free, Code: 679-08425093
We originally identified AtlA as a predicted surface protein that was required for maturation of biofilms (10). Disruption of atlA also resulted in resistance to autolysis and excessive chaining of cells (10, 69), and Shibata et al. (66) determined that the protein had peptidoglycan hydrolase activity in zymograms. Our present study reveals that AtlA is also required for biogenesis of a normal cell surface and full expression of genetic competence by S. mutans. Thus, AtlA appears to play a central role connecting cell wall remodeling, biofilm formation, genetic competence, and autolysis. These networks have often been shown to overlap with the stress regulon, but the AtlA protein does not appear to be required for acid tolerance, since no obvious differences were observed in the growth rate of the atlA mutant in acidified BHI broth (pH 6.4 or 5.4) (data not shown). However, it is possible that AtlA may be involved in other stress responses, because autolysin-mediated cell wall turnover is known ...
Characterization of the Streptococcus Mutans Gene for Aspartate B-semialdehyde Dehydrogenase : Identification of Sequences Involved in Gene Expression and Their Use in Vector Construction, 1986) (Ph.D Thesis, University of Alabama at Birmingham ...
The removal of tenacious dental plaque is of paramount importance; however, early diagnosis can be a challenging task in dental clinics due to the limitations of current approaches, specifically X-ray-based techniques. We have approached this problem by integrating antibacterial properties and X-ray contrast enhancement in a single probe specific to colonies of Streptococcus
My question (which you avoided) was that you appear to be promoting a (potential) vaccine that will eliminate (potentially) the need to brush, floss and regulate diet. FYI, I floss, brush and regulate my diet. I have a large number of silver fillings from the olden days before sealants. One filling disintegrated and took the side of the tooth with it, and Im now the proud owner of a crown, which is a poor color match and doesnt line up with the upper tooth that well either. My dentist of course would like to put in more of those thousand dollar babies. I would like the fillings removed and replaced with something else that isnt slowly leeching heavy metal poisoning into my system. The reason that hasnt started of course is the likelihood that the removal of the fillings will break the teeth apart (whether by accident or not) and Ill end up with crowns anyway, or something worse than ugly metal fillings. Thanks for your response and Ill hope to chat about teeth with you more in the ...
Dr. Banass broad research interest is the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of bacteria. Much of his work has focused on the microbiology of dental caries. His lab has extensively studied how the glucan-binding proteins (GBPs) synthesized by Streptococcus mutans contribute to the development of the plaque biofilm and ultimately dental caries. Since glucan -- a polymer of glucose derived from the metabolism of sucrose -- is a primary virulence factor that propels the change in microbial ecology that leads to a cariogenic plaque, it has been proposed that proteins that have the property of binding glucan play accessory roles in this process. It is now clear that the GBPs share in structurally supporting the biofilm, each doing so in a unique manner. These studies also revealed that the relative coverage of bacteria at the substratum surface of the biofilm was correlated with the risk of caries development. Dr. Banass lab is also collaborating with College of Dentistry colleagues to ...
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AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURIFICATION OF PROTEINS USING IMMOBILIZED CELLS. Bo Mattiasson and Matts Ramstorp. Enzyme Engineering, Plenum Publ. Corp. (H. H. Weetall and G. P. Royer, eds), vol 5 (1980), 401 - 403. AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY USING IMMOBILIZED BACTERIAL CELLS WITH RECEPTORS FOR HUMAN SERUM PROTEINS Bo Mattiasson, Matts Ramstorp, Kristina Widebäck and Göran Kronvall. Journal of Applied Biochemistry, 2 (1980), 321 - 335. AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHIC PURIFICATION OF LENTIL LECTIN USING IMMOBILIZED YEAST CELLS Matts Ramstorp and Bo Mattiasson. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology,7 (1980) 67 - 70. ISOLATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION FO A SUBSTANCE FROM CARROTS, DAUCUS CAROTA, WITH ABILITY TO AGGLUTINATE CELLS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS Matts Ramstorp, Peter Carlsson, Douglas Bratthall and Bo Mattiasson. Caries Research, 16 (1980) 423 - 427. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A SUBSTANCE FROM CARROTS, DAUCUS CAROTA, WITH ABILITY TO AGGLUTINATE CELLS OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS. Peter Carlsson, ...
by Juliet MD , Jan 20, 2016 , Gynecology, Life Tools, Videos. Its something that most people dont even consider: how much your pregnancy can affect your teeth. And, how much your dental health impacts your entire life. Unfortunately, this is a topic that few obstetricians remember to address with their patients. Yet, dental ...
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Streptococcus is a diverse genus in the Firmicutes phylum and the Bacterial Kingdom. The bacteria under the streptococcus are spherical in shape, or cocci, and Gram-positive. They usually are found to grow in pairs or chains and are oxidase- and catalase-negative. Many species of streptococcus bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning that they usually make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via aerobic respiration in the presence of exygen, but are capable of producing ATP via fermentation if there is no oxygen present. While some species of streptococcus are normally found in the human flora, many species are capable of bringing about various diseases and can be potent. Such diseases range from strep throat (S. pharyngitis) to pneumonia (S. pneumoniae) to even necrotizing human flesh (S. pyogenes). Unfortunately, many of these species has been able to reproduce as antibiotic-resistant strains, which lead to the cause of some epidemics. Two species of this genus, S. agalactiae and S. mutans are ...
Video articles in JoVE about 3 flanking region include Generation of Marked and Markerless Mutants in Model Cyanobacterial Species, Generation of a Gene-disrupted Streptococcus mutans Strain Without Gene Cloning, Generating CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Monoallelic Deletions to Study Enhancer Function in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Genetic Engineering of an Unconventional Yeast for Renewable Biofuel and Biochemical Production, Assessment of DNA Contamination in RNA Samples Based on Ribosomal DNA, Peptide Scanning-assisted Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody-recognized Linear B-cell Epitope, Generation of Enterobacter sp. YSU Auxotrophs Using Transposon Mutagenesis, The Production of C. elegans Transgenes via Recombineering with the galK Selectable Marker, Linear Amplification Mediated PCR - Localization of Genetic Elements and Characterization of Unknown Flanking DNA, Lateral Diffusion and Exocytosis of Membrane Proteins in Cultured Neurons Assessed using Fluorescence Recovery and
The immunoglobulins including IgG, IgM, IgA, and secretory IgA (SIgA) form the specific defense system in saliva against bacteria. SIgA is the most abundant immunologic component in saliva, mainly produced by plasma cells located in minor mucous glands. SIgA is non-detectable in neonates but become readily detectable 1 week after birth. It can neutralize pathogenic viruses, toxins, and enzymes produced by bacteria. SIgA can prevent bacteria forming colonies or attaching or penetrating host tissues, kill them directly, or activate complements or provide synergism with innate defense mechanisms. Its also able to aggregate or clump bacteria, promoting oral clearance. SIgA against streptococcus mutans can be detected in children at the age of 3 years old, and the quantity increases with the length of exposure. Other immunologic components occur in less quantity in saliva. IgG is the only detectable Ig in saliva of neonates and is mainly maternal origin. The concentration of IgG decreases to ...
The pH levels in dental biofilms are highly variable and frequently shift from above pH 7.0 in the resting pH state to as low as pH 3.0 during the ingestion of dietary carbohydrates by the host. Thus, pH exerts a significant ecological pressure on S. mutans, and its ability to tolerate and grow in low pH environments is crucial to its survival and eventual dominance in dental plaque, leading to caries (27). Considerable evidence has shown that S. mutans has evolved a number of sophisticated mechanisms to survive these pH changes including induction of an ATR in which exposure of S. mutans cells to a mild or moderately acidic pH (5.0-6.0) results in enhanced survival of a significant proportion of the cell population in a lower pH of 3.0-3.5 (28). This ATR involves a number of de novo proteins that appear to be important for adaptation to an acidic environment (29). Although many of the molecular mechanisms of the ATR in S. mutans remain unclear, this signal pH that results in synthesis of ...
A study in Alabama has found a possibly link between the bacteria in tooth decay and systemic diseases. Streptococcus mutans is frequently associated with tooth decay - it plays a role in utilizing sugar in the mouth, turning it into acid. S. mutans also releases other chemicals than allow other bacteria to adhere to the tooth surface.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new in vitro model to study the relationship of gap size and secondary caries. AU - Totiam, P.. AU - González-Cabezas, C.. AU - Fontana, M. R.. AU - Zero, Domenick. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - Objectives: To investigate the relationship of gap size and secondary caries in a newly developed secondary caries microbial model that permits adjustment of the gap between the tooth and a restoration. Methods: Tooth-resin-matrix composite specimens were mounted on gap-model stages with a gap size of 50 or 500 μm in experiment 1, and 0, 25, 250, or 1,000 μm in experiment 2. They were attached to plastic Petri plates, gas-sterilized and then incubated in a microbial caries model (with Streptococcus mutans TH16 in 1% sucrose tryptic soy broth for 1 h, 4 times/day, and with a buffer solution for the rest of the day). After 8 days of incubation, tooth specimens were sectioned and stained overnight with a rhodamine B solution. Digital images taken under a confocal microscope were ...
Scardovia wiggsiae is not a new masterpiece of JRR Tolkien. Neither a new indie rock band in my town. Scardovia wiggsiae is a bacteria, specifically found in severe carious lesion in children. This bacteria is considered as a culprit in ECC! What is ECC? Lets find out then. This article was written in English, but I translated it to Indonesian so it will be convenience for you to read (especially who understand Indonesian). The actual article was published at Wednesday, 18 May 2911 12:17 Pada penelitian sebelumnya, peneliti mengidentifikasi Streptococcus mutans sebagai agen penyebab utama Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Sekarang peneliti menyatakan bahwa Scardovia wiggsiae, spesies bakteri baru yang berhubungan dengan gigi, juga merupakan agen utama dalam patogenesis penyakit ini. Artikel yang menjelaskan penelitian ini disorot dalam Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi agen bakteri yang harusnya dipertimbangkan dalam usaha mencegah pembentukan ...
species of spherical, gram-positive bacteria Streptococci (from phylum Firmicutes) that forms chains and colonizes the mouth and upper respiratory tract of humans just a few hours after birth, making further exposure to the bacteria harmless in most circumstances. It is considered to be a good oral bacteria fighting bad odor and disease-causing species yet, if it gets into bloodstream (what, fortunately, rarely happens), it could be associated with sepsis in people with neutropenia (a deficiency in white blood cells). Streptococcus salivarius secretes a glucosltransferase (Gtf) which forms a glucan from sucrose and it uses sucrose (but not glucose) to build a capsule around itself. This bacteria can ferment the glucose yielding lactic acid. S. salivarius is also known to secrete an enzyme called urease. Urease can catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Streptococcus salivarius, Gram-positive, coccoid, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Streptococcus salivarius forms chains of cells which are bound together by the capsular material seen around each cell (shown as surface stipulation in this image). It is the principal commensal bacterium of the oral cavity and a normal inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract in humans. It is the first bacterium that colonizes dental plaque, before being joined by numerous other species of various genera. It creates favourable conditions so other species can begin to colonize. The bacterium colonizes the mouth and upper respiratory tract of humans a few hours after birth, making further exposure to the bacteria harmless. Magnification: x5,335 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0162
Since the first discovery of PTS in E. coli [37], special efforts have been made to study the characteristics and functions of various PTS proteins in both gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms, including S. mutans, the most common pathogen in dental caries. The presence of PTS involved in high-efficiency transport and phosphorylation of numerous carbohydrates largely accounts for the high cariogenicity of S. mutans. Apart from the two general proteins, EI and HPr, many genes coding for different carbohydrate-specific EII complexes of the PTS have been isolated and identified, such as the scrA gene for sucrose [38], the mtlA gene for mannitol [10], the lacFE genes for lactose [39], the manLMN genes for mannose [40], and others. In the present study, two genes, ptxA and ptxB, that were identified and presumed to be involved in anaerobic utilization of L-ascorbate, were analyzed.. Similar to E. coli and some other enteric bacteria, S. mutans could grow in defined medium supplemented with ...

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"Streptococcus mutans and the mutans streptococci. In: The Oral Environment, online tutorial". Archived from the original on ... Nicolas GG, Lavoie MC (January 2011). "[Streptococcus mutans and oral streptococci in dental plaque]". Canadian Journal of ... mutans and also found in the oral cavity, has been shown to cause Infective Endocarditis. Streptococcus mutans has been ... mutans. Another candidate is a peptide called C16G2, synthesised at UCLA. It is believed that Streptococcus mutans acquired the ...
... optimum for glycolysis in Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt was determined to be 7.0 by use of the ionophore gramicidin for ... pH regulation by Streptococcus mutans J Dent Res. 1992 May;71(5):1159-65. doi: 10.1177/00220345920710050601. ... The intracellular pH (pHi) optimum for glycolysis in Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt was determined to be 7.0 by use of the ... At a pHo of 5.0, glycolyzing cells of S. mutans maintained a delta pH of 1.37 +/- 0.09 units. The maintenance of this delta pH ...
Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. Ajdić D, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2002 Oct ... Streptococcus mutans UA159 (strain: UA159) Lineage. Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Lactobacillales; Streptococcaceae; ... NP_720575.1 fructose-bisphosphate aldolase [Streptococcus mutans UA159]. See identical proteins and their annotated locations ... fbaA fructose-bisphosphate aldolase [ Streptococcus mutans UA159 ] Gene ID: 1029679, updated on 30-Jul-2016 ...
Kinder mit frühzeitiger oraler Infektion durch Streptococcus mutansentwickeln in höherem Maß Karies als nicht oder später ... Therefore the risk of an oral infection with mutans streptococci in children could be diminished by avoiding the contact to the ... Background. The children with early oral infection of mutans streptococci are developing caries to a higher degree compared to ... Infection. With regard to the assumption that the mothers mainly infect their children with mutans streptococci, so the spoons ...
The mutans streptococci (MS) are infectious agents most strongly associated with dental caries. Earlier studies demonstrated ...
Genus: Streptococcus Species: Streptococcus mutans Strain: Streptococcus mutans UA159 - References[edit]. *NCBI link: ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Streptococcus_mutans&oldid=5239084" ... Streptococcus mutans. For more multimedia, look at Streptococcus mutans on Wikimedia Commons. ...
Streptococcus Mutans - Tooth Decay by chelsey mier , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating ... upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b8/Streptococcus_mutans_01.jpg/240px-Streptococcus_mutans_01.jpg&w=240&h=175&ei= ... microbiologyfall2010.wikispaces.com/file/view/Streptococcus-mutans.jpg/185899615/Streptococcus-mutans.jpg&w=270&h=289&ei= ... Sucrose is then used by Streptococcus mutans to produce a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide that allows them ...
... probiotic bacteria have decreased the counts of salivary mutans streptococci (MS). We compared the effects of probiotic ... Oral Health Clinical Isolate Mutans Streptococcus Probiotic Lactobacillus Unattached Cell These keywords were added by machine ... Lang C, Böttner M, Holz C, Veen M, Ryser M, Reindl A, Pompejus M, Tanzer JM (2010) Specific lactobacillus/mutans streptococcus ... In clinical studies, probiotic bacteria have decreased the counts of salivary mutans streptococci (MS). We compared the effects ...
Role of sucrose in the fitness of Streptococcus mutans.. Kreth J1, Zhu L, Merritt J, Shi W, Qi F. ... Streptococcus mutans, considered to be the primary pathogen causing dental caries, is able to utilize sucrose as a nutrient ... S. mutans was able to establish microcolonies with increasing sucrose concentration in the presence of other streptococcal ... The numbers of surviving S. mutans of both wild-type and an isogenic Gtf-negative mutant after antimicrobial treatment were ...
Streptococcus mutans. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: deoB, SMU_1233. EC: 5.4.2.7. ... Crystal structure of phosphopentomutase from streptococcus mutans. Fedorov, A.A., Bonanno, J., Fedorov, E.V., Burley, S.K., ... Find proteins for Q8DTU0 (Streptococcus mutans serotype c (strain ATCC 700610 / UA159)) ...
Streptococcus mutans UA159. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: aldR, SMU_1308. Find proteins for Q8DTM5 (Streptococcus mutans serotype ... Crystal structure of AldR from streptococcus mutans. Fan, X.X., Wang, K.T., Su, X.D.. To be published. ...
We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of,i, S. mutans,/i,, and more,i, S. mutans,/i, cells attracted more,i, C. ... Since,i, S. mutans,/i, and,i, C. albicans ,/i,are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic ... In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between,i, S. mutans,/i, and,i, C. albicans,/i, is ... i,Streptococcus mutans,/i, and,i, Candida albicans,/i, are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic ...
The production of mutacins (bacteriocins) by S. mutans is considered to be an important factor in the colonization and ... establishment of S. mutans in the dental biofilm. Two types of mutacins have been character … ... Streptococcus mutans is generally recognized as a causative agent of human dental caries. ... The mutacins of Streptococcus mutans: regulation and ecology Mol Oral Microbiol. 2012 Apr;27(2):57-69. doi: 10.1111/j.2041- ...
Streptococcus mutans,/i, in two different experimental setups: (i) determination of colony-forming units (CFUs) in a plate- ... Antimicrobial Effects of Dental Luting Glass Ionomer Cements on Streptococcus mutans,. The Scientific World Journal,. vol. ... Antimicrobial Effects of Dental Luting Glass Ionomer Cements on Streptococcus mutans. Sina Klai. ,1 Markus Altenburger. ,1 ... Determination of the Log Growth Phase of Streptococcus mutans To ensure that log phase bacteria were used, a growth curve was ...
Polymers able to selectively bind S. mutans and/or inhibit its adhesion to oral tissue in a non-lethal manner would offer ... A key initial stage of S. mutans pathogenesis involves a lectin-mediated adhesion to the tooth surface, thus the range of ... Results with these polymers indicated that preferential binding to either S. mutans or E. coli can be obtained by modulating ... pDMAEMA-derived materials with high proportions of zwitterionic repeating units were found to be selective for S. mutans, in ...
S. mutans Description. As a part of the Streptococcaceae family and Streptococcus genus, S. mutans is a Gram-positive cocci ... Competition and coexistence between Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in the dental biofilm. J Bacteriol. 187: ... Multiple related Streptococcus strains such as S. gordonni, S. mitis, and S. mutans have been associated with dental caries [12 ... Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis. PloS one. 7:e47722 ...
Nitrogen metabolism - Streptococcus mutans UA159 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway entry , Download KGML , Show ...
Since Streptococcus mutans is more prevalent than Streptococcus sobrinus most of the isolates will solely be S. mutans. Mutans ... Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are two microorganisms that reside in the mouth of a human. S. mutans is ... 1] S. mutans are mesophilic and grow at temperatures between 18-40 degrees Celsius. Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic ... These types of media suppress the growth of most microorganisms but allows the growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus ...
Many people know streptococcus mutans is the true culprit in the development of tooth decay and cavities. Learn more about ... What is Streptococcus Mutans?. Many types of bacteria, both good and bad, are always present in your mouth. Streptococcus ... Streptococcus mutans ("S.mutans") is a type of bacteria found on most tooth surfaces, and hard to reach areas like pits and ... Streptococcus mutans is an innate bacteria found in the mouth and can cause cavities. Brush your teeth twice a day, and floss ...
The maternal consumption of xylitol-chewing gum is associated with a lower rate of Streptococcus mutans colonization in ... The maternal consumption of xylitol-chewing gum is associated with a lower rate of Streptococcus mutans colonization in ... An important caries prevention strategy for children includes measures to interfere with transmission of mutans streptococci ( ...
Genus: Streptococcus. Species: Streptococcus mutans. Strain: Streptococcus mutans UA159 -. References. *NCBI link: ... Streptococcus mutans. Clarke 1924 Streptococcus mutans is a gram-positive bacteria that lives in the mouth. This bacteria grows ... Streptococcus mutans. Clarke 1924. Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacterium commonly found in ... and streptococci, including S. mutans. The growth and metabolism of these pioneer species changes local environmental ...
... streptococcus mutans include An Analytical Tool-box for Comprehensive Biochemical, Structural and Transcriptome Evaluation of ... Purification of a High Molecular Mass Protein in Streptococcus mutans, Daily Phototherapy with Red Light to Regulate Candida ... Generation of a Gene-disrupted Streptococcus mutans Strain Without Gene Cloning, Development of an Insert Co-culture System ... Oral Biofilms Mediated by Mutans Streptococci, Assessing the Viability of a Synthetic Bacterial Consortium on the In Vitro ...
Streptococcus mutans dextranase hydrolyzes the internal α-1,6-linkages of dextran and belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 66 ... Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of dextranase from Streptococcus mutans.. [Nobuhiro Suzuki, Young Min ... An N- and C-terminal deletion mutant of S. mutans dextranase was crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The ...
More From BioPortfolio on "Antimicrobial Effect of Different Pastes on Streptococcus Mutans in Children". *Related Companies* ... Antimicrobial Effect of Different Pastes on Streptococcus Mutans in Children. 2018-05-21 18:19:10 , BioPortfolio ... Home » Citations » Antimicrobial Effect of Different Pastes on Streptococcus Mutans in Children ...
Genome-Wide Characterization of the SloR Metalloregulome in Streptococcus mutans. Kevin P. ORourke, Jeremy D. Shaw, Mitchell W ... Genome-Wide Characterization of the SloR Metalloregulome in Streptococcus mutans. Kevin P. ORourke, Jeremy D. Shaw, Mitchell W ... Expression of Streptococcus mutans fimA is iron-responsive and regulated by a DtxR homologue. Microbiology 147 : 1599-1610. ... Streptococcus mutans is a known colonizer of the tooth surface and primary etiologic agent of dental caries in humans (2), ...
The F1Fo-ATPase is the major enzyme that is responsible for the maintenance of ΔpH in mutans streptococci (7, 29). In S. mutans ... Influence of BrpA on Critical Virulence Attributes of Streptococcus mutans. Zezhang T. Wen, Henry V. Baker, Robert A. Burne ... Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation: utilization of a gtfB promoter-green fluorescent protein (PgtfB::gfp) construct to ... Multiple Streptococcus mutans genes are involved in biofilm formation. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68:6283-6291. ...
Streptococcus mutans bacteria, computer illustration. These are Gram-positive, non-motile, spherical bacteria (cocci) which ... Streptococcus mutans bacteria, computer illustration. These are Gram-positive, non-motile, spherical bacteria (cocci) which ... Streptococcus mutans is found in the mouth cavity. It is one of the principal bacteria causing plaque formation on teeth, and a ...
PLOS Pathogens publishes Open Access research and commentary that significantly advance the understanding of pathogens and how they interact with host organisms. Get Started ...
The main objective of Drinking Coffee in Space: The Impact of Microgravity on Streptococcus mutans on Susceptibility to Coffee ... Drinking Coffee in Space: The Impact of Microgravity on Streptococcus mutans on Susceptibility to Coffee (SmCoffee) is a ... Drinking Coffee in Space: The Impact of Microgravity on Streptococcus mutans on Susceptibility to Coffee (SmCoffee) - 01.10.19 ... Drinking Coffee in Space: The Impact of Microgravity on Streptococcus mutans on Susceptibility to Coffee (SmCoffee) ...
... mutans, and hopes to provide clues to regulatory pathways across the genus Streptococcus as a potential tool to efficiently ... Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S. mutans, the primary etiological agent of dental caries. This review ... The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems ... The human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans have both evolved complex quorum sensing (QS) systems ...
  • Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • The completely sequenced genome of S. mutans UA159 offers many insights into the role of gene expression in virulence and disease pathogenesis in dental plaques [17] . (kenyon.edu)
  • S.mutans UA159, a natural cnm negative strain, was used as a negative control. (umich.edu)
  • Wildtype S.mutans strains expressing cnm were more successful at invading CASMC by ~2 logs than the cnm mutants and UA159. (umich.edu)
  • Specimens were then exposed to Streptococcus mutans (biofilm-forming strain of this organism (UA159-BS480)) and bacterial adhesion was quantified using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CLSM) after period of 1, 4, 7, 11, 13, and 15 days. (umich.edu)
  • As a proof of principle, we used Streptococcus mutans reference strain UA159 to create markerless in-frame deletions of 3 separate bacteriocin genes as well as triple mutants containing all 3 deletions. (asm.org)
  • We have examined biofilm formation by S. mutans UA159, and derivative strains carrying mutations affecting the localization or expression of P1, in the presence of fluid-phase or adsorbed saliva or salivary agglutinin preparations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • S. mutans UA159 biofilms were grown for 72 h on 10 mm-length glass slides pre-conditioned with porcine gastric mucin. (soton.ac.uk)
  • With the aim of revealing the role of environmental adhesion forces in emergent biofilm properties, genes in Streptococcus mutans UA159 and a quorum-sensing-deficient mutant were identified that become expressed after adhesion to substratum surfaces. (asm.org)
  • brpA gene expression in thin (34 to 48 μm) 5-h S. mutans UA159 biofilms was most sensitive to adhesion forces, while expression of gbpB and comDE expressions was weakly sensitive. (asm.org)
  • Biofilms modeling supragingival plaque consisted of Actinomyces naeslundii OMZ 745, Candida albicans OMZ 110, Fusobacterium nucleatum KP-F2, Streptococcus oralis SK 248, Veillonella dispar ATCC 17748T and one of the S. mutans strains UA159, OMZ 966, OMZ 937 or OMZ 977. (uzh.ch)
  • The biofilm inhibitory effect was investigated using Streptococcus mutans UA159 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. (niom.no)
  • The genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans strain UA159 contains two CRISPR loci, designated CRISPR1 and CRISPR2. (uzh.ch)
  • These PAMs are different from those previously reported for the CRISPR-Cas system of the model strain S. mutans UA159. (asm.org)
  • It is believed that Streptococcus mutans acquired the gene that enables it to produce biofilms through horizontal gene transfer with other lactic acid bacterial species, such as Lactobacillus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viable S. mutans cells could be detected in the biofilms and culture media only when the experiments were performed with the L. reuteri strains. (springer.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a common bacterial species residing in the oral cavity, especially in multispecies biofilms on the surfaces of teeth. (hindawi.com)
  • The capacity of S. mutans to form biofilms contributes to its cariogenicity. (hindawi.com)
  • EPS is the prime building block of dental biofilms and can promote S. mutans colonization on tooth surfaces, as well as attracting other microorganisms to form dental plaque. (hindawi.com)
  • Since acid production contributes to cycles of low pH in biofilms, S. mutans must be highly acid tolerant. (kenyon.edu)
  • Streptococcus mutans , the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, has developed multiple mechanisms to colonize and form biofilms on the tooth surface. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus mutans , the primary etiological agent of human dental caries, exists almost exclusively in biofilms on tooth surfaces. (asm.org)
  • Consistent with our observation that the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms was severely impaired by oxygen exposure, transcription of the gtfB gene, which encodes one of the primary enzymes involved in the production of water-insoluble, adhesive glucan exopolysaccharides, was down-regulated in cells growing aerobically. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is becoming generally accepted that the ability of S. mutans to adapt to comparatively hostile environments is a primary mechanism by which this organism emerges as a dominant member of cariogenic dental biofilms ( 11 , 17 , 40 , 41 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We have recently demonstrated that the ability of S. mutans to form biofilms, an essential virulence attribute of this organism, was dramatically reduced when cells were cultivated in the presence of oxygen ( 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Isolation and characterization of genes defective in biofilm formation may contribute to understanding how S. mutans responds to environmental signals in the oral cavity, especially in oral biofilms. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive bacterial species that resides within multispecies oral biofilms formed on human tooth surfaces. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus mutans , a primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, is particularly effective at forming biofilms on the hard tissues of the human oral cavity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Adherence of S. mutans to dental surfaces is the first step in the formation of biofilms by this organism and is mediated by sucrose-dependent and sucrose-independent mechanisms ( 8 , 16 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Further, S. mutans single species biofilms were enhanced upon exogenous supplementation with purified matrix material derived from C. albicans biofilms. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similarly, growth in C. albicans cell-free spent biofilm culture media enhanced S. mutans single species biofilm formation, however, the observed increase in S. mutans biofilms was significantly affected upon enzymatic digestion of polysaccharides in spent media, identifying C. albicans secreted polysaccharides as a key factor in mediating mixed biofilm formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The enhanced S. mutans biofilms mediated by the various C. albicans effectors was also demonstrated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Collectively, the findings from this study strongly indicate that the secretion of polysacharides from C. albicans in the oral environment may impact the development of S. mutans biofilms, ultimately increasing dental caries and, therefore, Candida oral colonization should be considered as a factor in evaluating the risk of caries. (frontiersin.org)
  • S. mutans biofilms were exposed to either a water microspray or an air-only microburst. (soton.ac.uk)
  • In the quorum-sensing-deficient S. mutans , adhesion-force-controlled gene expression was absent in both 5- and 24-h biofilms. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the influence of glucosyltransferase-gene-negative (gtf-) Streptococcus mutans strains unable to synthesize water-insoluble or soluble glucan on the structure and macromolecular diffusion properties of in vitro grown mixed oral biofilms. (uzh.ch)
  • The diffusion coefficient of 70-kDa dextran in biofilms containing the gtfC- S. mutans was 16-fold higher than in biofilms with the wild-type strain indicating a strong macromolecular sieving effect of GTF C-generated glucans. (uzh.ch)
  • In this study, DNA-microarray analysis was used to identify differentially expressed genes associated with the thickness of S. mutans biofilms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only 10 S. mutans genes showed differential expression in both 400- vs. 100-microns and 200- vs. 100-microns biofilms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings reveal genes associated with the thickness of biofilms of S. mutans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The obtained compound was added to S. mutans biofilms to determine the MBIC and MBEC values. (springermedizin.de)
  • We therefore screened a library of secondary metabolites from myxobacteria for their ability to damage biofilms of S. mutans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we show that carolacton, a secondary metabolite isolated from Sorangium cellulosum , has high antibacterial activity against biofilms of S. mutans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This grouping of similar bacteria with similar tropism can also be seen in the viridans streptococci, another group of Streptococcus species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral streptococci have both harmless and harmful bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. mutans produces dextran via the enzyme dextransucrase (a hexosyltransferase) using sucrose as a substrate in the following reaction: n sucrose → (glucose)n + n fructose Sucrose is the only sugar that bacteria can use to form this sticky polysaccharide. (wikipedia.org)
  • As many as 400 species of bacteria have been associated with dental plaques, the most common being Streptococcus and Lactobacillus , which are associated with acid formation leading to tooth decay [12] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Streptococcus mutans are gram-positive cocci shaped bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • When S. mutans is detected in the furrows of the tongue it is concluded that the vertical transmission route for the bacteria from mother to child arises shortly after birth. (kenyon.edu)
  • When the mother's salivary S. mutans levels exceed 105 Colony Forming Units they are nine times more likely to pass bacteria on to their children. (kenyon.edu)
  • Streptococcus mutans ("S.mutans") is a type of bacteria found on most tooth surfaces, and hard to reach areas like pits and fissures - the grooves found in your premolars and molars. (colgate.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a bacteria that naturally forms in your mouth and can build up on the surfaces of teeth at any age - from infancy before baby teeth erupt and even in adults who have had their permanent teeth for decades. (colgate.com)
  • When you eat sugary foods, the streptococcus bacteria break down the sugar and use it to produce acids that attack tooth enamel. (colgate.com)
  • Although this bacteria is naturally present in the mouth, there are some things you can start doing to reduce S.mutans and prevent cavities. (colgate.com)
  • Most adults and children have had cavities before, but understanding how the S.mutans bacteria works can help you protect your child's teeth and your own. (colgate.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is an innate bacteria found in the mouth and can cause cavities. (colgate.com)
  • There are an estimated 600 different species of bacteria present in the human oral cavity ( 31 ), with S. mutans cited as the most cariogenic, owing to its acidogenicity (the ability to produce acid) and aciduricity (the ability to withstand acid) ( 13 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • On Earth, coffee is known to kill or diminish the growth of S. mutans , a bacteria commonly found in the human mouth, and so may support better dental hygiene. (nasa.gov)
  • This student-developed investigation grows S. mutans aboard the space station and exposes it to coffee to determine the effect on the bacteria in microgravity. (nasa.gov)
  • Drinking Coffee in Space: The Impact of Microgravity on Streptococcus mutans on Susceptibility to Coffee (SmCoffee) is a student investigation that studies the effect of cavity-causing bacteria on teeth in a space environment. (nasa.gov)
  • S. mutans is a coccoid shaped, Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria that is part of the normal bacteria flora of the mouth. (sciencephoto.com)
  • To evaluate the colonization of group mutans streptococci according to age, measuring the amount of bacteria in saliva with a semi-quantitative method in a population attended in public and private dental centers of the Metropolitan Region, Santiago, Chile. (scielo.cl)
  • Viridans streptococci are a heterogeneous group of gram-positive bacteria that are commensal habitants of the human oral cavity. (asm.org)
  • Of the hundreds of different types of bacteria living in your mouth, only a handful are thought to cause gum disease, but only Strep Mutans is implicated as the main cause of dental decay. (dentist.net)
  • The pH level has a damaging effect on the enamel and further promotes the growth of acid producing bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans ," says Nicklas Strömberg, professor and Head at the Department of Cariology at Umeå University and Västerbotten County Council, and last author of the article. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Several of the normal sera did not have antibody activity to S. mutans antigens, indicating that these HRA do not cross-react with these bacteria. (jimmunol.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus . (scielo.br)
  • We have approached this problem by integrating antibacterial properties and X-ray contrast enhancement in a single probe specific to colonies of Streptococcus mutans as the most predominant and carious oral bacteria. (americanelements.com)
  • Results: Specific amplification of DNA extracted from strains of 13 Streptocooccus mutans and 23 oral permanent bacteria. (cnki.net)
  • The most cariogenic bacteria, mutans streptococci, are common inhabitants of a dental biofilm community. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Strep mutans also produce a sticky polysaccharide called dextran that adheres bacteria to the teeth which causes further decay. (gettyimages.es)
  • Finally, S. mutans utilized the reutericyclin produced by muc to impair the growth of neighboring oral commensal bacteria. (escholarship.org)
  • Japanese researchers have discovered that wild grape pomace - the pulp, seeds and skin of the grape left after juicing - inhibits the bacteria known for causing dental caries, Streptococcus mutans. (realnatural.org)
  • Streptococci make up a large part of oral bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial strains used included four S. mutans strains (reference strains NCTC 10449 and Ingbritt and clinical isolates 2366 and 195) and probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. plantarum 299v, and L. reuteri strains PTA 5289 and SD2112. (springer.com)
  • Mattos-Graner RO, Smith DJ, King WF, Mayer MPA (2000) Water-insoluble glucan synthesis by mutans streptococcal strains correlates with caries incidence in 12- to 30-month-old children. (springer.com)
  • The non-lantibiotics are much more prevalent among strains of S. mutans and play a significant role in both community-level and population-level interactions in the dental biofilm. (nih.gov)
  • As more S. mutans strains are sequenced, it is anticipated that additional mutacins with novel functions will be discovered, which may yield further insights into the ecological role of mutacins within the oral biofilm. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple related Streptococcus strains such as S. gordonni , S. mitis , and S. mutans have been associated with dental caries [12] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Collagen binding protein, Cnm, is expressed by about 10% of S.mutans clinical strains. (umich.edu)
  • Human cells were infected with wildtype strains of S.mutans and their corresponding cnm mutants: OMZ175, OM50E, LM7, NCTC11060. (umich.edu)
  • All S.mutans strains were able to adhere to CASMC. (umich.edu)
  • Glucosyltransferase gene polymorphism among Streptococcus mutans strains. (asm.org)
  • Genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases were detected among Streptococcus mutans serotype c strains by Southern blot analysis with DNA probes located within the gtfB gene (H. Aoki, T. Shiroza, M. Hayakawa, S. Sato, and H. K. Kuramitsu, Infect. (asm.org)
  • Our results suggested that genetic polymorphisms existing in S. mutans serotype c strains may reflect a complexity in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases, which are produced ubiquitously in members of the S. mutans group. (asm.org)
  • Using a panel of 5 separate wild-type S. mutans strains, we further demonstrated that the procedure is nearly 100% efficient at generating clones with the desired markerless mutation, which is a considerable improvement in yield compared to existing approaches. (asm.org)
  • Purpose:To examine selected putative virulent prop-erties of mutans streptococci in two groups with dif-ferent caries activity and to examine co-culture hy-bridization of the strains in vitro. (scirp.org)
  • Li, M. , Lai, G. and Wang, J. (2011) The prevalence of virulent clonal strains of mutans streptococci in vivo and co-culture succession of the strains in vitro-Virulence potential of mutans streptococci. (scirp.org)
  • Mattos-Graner, R.O., Smith, D.J., King, W.F. and Mayer, M.P. (2000) Water-insoluble glucan synthesis by mutans streptococcal strains correlates with caries incidence in 12 to 30-month-old children. (scirp.org)
  • Analysis of S. mutans gtfA mutants revealed that the mutant strains were specifically impaired in the ability to use melibiose as a sole carbon source. (unl.edu)
  • S. mutans gafA mutant strains synthesized less α-galactosidase activity inducible by raffinose than wild-type strains. (unl.edu)
  • Streptokinase is an extracellular protein Trans-located by many strains of beta-hemolytic Streptococci. (omicsonline.org)
  • CHX had a greater inhibitory action on S. mutans while S. sanguis was more sensitive to F. Growth conditions affected the sensitivity of both strains to the two inhibitors and, in general, cells grown glucose-limited were the most sensitive. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The aims of this study were to analyse the organization of CRISPR in further S. mutans strains and to investigate the importance of CRISPR in acquired immunity to M102-like phages. (uzh.ch)
  • The sequences of CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 arrays were determined for 29 S. mutans strains from different persons. (uzh.ch)
  • In comparisons of the cas genes of P42S to those of other strains of S. mutans , cas1 , cas2 , and csn2 appear to be highly conserved within the species. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we elucidated the biosynthetic pathway encoded by muc , a hybrid polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC), present in a number of globally distributed S. mutans strains. (escholarship.org)
  • Others isolated several mutants of S. mutans that made less lactic acid than the wild type strains and lower caries activity in test animals. (archive.org)
  • The muk locus may be widely distributed in S. mutans , since 9 (35 %) of 26 strains tested contained at least part of the locus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A symbiotic relationship with S.mutans and Candida Albicans leads to increased glucan production and increased biofilm formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, our results demonstrated that four commonly used probiotics interfered with S. mutans biofilm formation in vitro, and that the antimicrobial activity against S. mutans was pH-dependent. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that the loss of BrpA can dramatically influence the transcriptome and significantly affects the regulation of acid and oxidative stress tolerance and biofilm formation in S. mutans , which are key virulence attributes of the organism. (asm.org)
  • Recent studies have revealed that several genetic regulatory networks in S. mutans are required for bacterial adherence, biofilm accumulation, and growth under the conditions encountered during biofilm formation. (asm.org)
  • The cell-density-dependent Com system, which is known to regulate genetic competence in S. mutans and other naturally competent streptococci, plays a significant role in biofilm formation and acid tolerance ( 20 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Recently, we showed that exposure of Streptococcus mutans to oxygen strongly inhibits biofilm formation and alters cell surface biogenesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since the roles of sucrose and glucosyltransferases in S. mutans biofilm formation have been well documented, we focused our attention on sucrose-independent factors. (asm.org)
  • We have initially identified several mutants that appear to be defective in biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces by an insertional inactivation mutagenesis strategy applied to S. mutans . (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that competence genes as well as the sgp and dgk genes may play important roles in S. mutans biofilm formation. (asm.org)
  • Previous studies have indicated the role of sucrose and glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) in S. mutans biofilm formation ( 6 , 21 , 23 , 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Fluid-phase salivary agglutinin and, to a lesser extent, immobilized agglutinin inhibited biofilm development by S. mutans in the absence of sucrose, and whole saliva was more effective at decreasing biofilm formation than salivary agglutinin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results disclose a potent ability of salivary constituents to moderate biofilm formation by S. mutans through P1-dependent and P1-independent pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we aimed to specifically elucidate the role of C. albicans -derived polysaccharide biofilm matrix components in augmenting S. mutans colonization and mixed biofilm formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biofilm studies showed that denture base material containing methacrylated chitosan (20 wt%) reduced both biofilm formation of S. mutans and Candida albicans compared to LMW chitosan and control. (niom.no)
  • Methacrylated chitosan incorporated in a PMMA-based denture resin reduced biofilm formation of S. mutans and Candida albicans. (niom.no)
  • In this experiment the effects of fulvic acid were analyzed on early Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. (iupui.edu)
  • For the experiment, early S. mutans biofilm formation was treated with different concentrations of fulvic acid for 24 hours in sterile 96-well flat-bottom microtiter plates. (iupui.edu)
  • Results demonstrated that fulvic acid inhibited the growth of early S. mutans biofilm formation at fulvic acid concentrations greater than 5% (vol. (iupui.edu)
  • Upon completion of these various studies, fulvic acid was shown to inhibit early S. mutans biofilm formation and may show signs of oral health improvement if applied for human use. (iupui.edu)
  • Zurück zum Zitat Yoshida A, Kuramitsu H. Multiple Streptococcus mutans genes are involved in biofilm formation. (springermedizin.de)
  • Our project is aimed at finding new inhibitors of biofilm formation of the Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium S. mutans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this project we aimed at the screening of 31 South African plants randomly collected from Cape region for their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans initially at two concentrations (500 and 100 µg/ml).MIC's and MBC's were determined for the active plant extracts, as well as the qualitative studies of the effect of the active extracts on the biofilm formation. (uwc.ac.za)
  • and L. casei Shirota decreased S. mutans biofilm formation on tooth surface with reduced biofilm acidogenicity and lesion depth in enamel. (nus.edu.sg)
  • L. casei Shirota decreased S. mutans extracellular polysaccharide production, biofilm formation and acidogenicity by suppressing gtfB, gtfC and ldh expression. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Recently, proteins involved in the colonization of teeth by S. mutans have been shown to produce antibodies that inhibit the cariogenic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore the risk of an oral infection with mutans streptococci in children could be diminished by avoiding the contact to the saliva and also by reducing the oral colonization with mutans streptococci of the child minder as well as the number of the germ transmitted. (springer.com)
  • The production of mutacins (bacteriocins) by S. mutans is considered to be an important factor in the colonization and establishment of S. mutans in the dental biofilm. (nih.gov)
  • The maternal consumption of xylitol-chewing gum is associated with a lower rate of Streptococcus mutans colonization in offspring. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • SOLER, Eduardo R y CONTRERAS, Estela M . Colonization of the oral cavity by group mutans streptococci according to age assesed by a semi-quantitative method in saliva . (scielo.cl)
  • The semi-quantitative method was useful to determine the colonization by Streptococcus mutans according to age. (scielo.cl)
  • Importantly, a clinically relevant mouse model of oral co-infection was adapted to demonstrate the C. albicans -mediated enhanced S. mutans colonization in a host. (frontiersin.org)
  • A number of studies with experimental animals and humans have shown that active and passive immunizations with S. mutans , either with whole cells or with different cellular components, inhibit S. mutans colonization and the subsequent formation of dental caries ( 8 , 14 , 18 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Lindquist B, Emilson CG, Wennerholm K. Relationship between mutans streptococci in saliva and their colonization of the tooth surface. (springer.com)
  • Phenotypic variations in milk and saliva glycosylation may explain the inhibitory capacity and possibly affect susceptibility to colonization by S. mutans in childhood. (diva-portal.org)
  • Cariogenic Streptococcus mutans Produces Tetramic Acid Strain-Specific Antibiotics That Impair Commensal Colonization. (escholarship.org)
  • The research question asked by the students is, "Does microgravity alter killing of the cariogenic oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans by coffee at a concentration that is typical for human consumption? (nasa.gov)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Oral bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Researchers at Umeå University in Sweden have made a novel discovery connecting highly variant types of the caries bacterium Streptococcus mutans and their adhesive function to children with rampant caries and increased risk of dental caries. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Carlsson, P., Olsson, B. and Bratthall, D., (1985) The relationship between the bacterium Streptococcus mutans in the saliva and dental caries in children in Mozambique. (scirp.org)
  • The primary cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans has been shown previously to fluoresce within blue light wavelengths. (iupui.edu)
  • or L. casei Shirota on the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to date. (nus.edu.sg)
  • After adherence to the tooth, S. mutans begin to divide and produce microcolonies within the slime layer to construct a biofilm. (kenyon.edu)
  • This study examined in vitro HA interactions with mutans streptococci (MS) and bacterial adherence to small (nanosize) crystal form of HA beads having a protean hexagonal structure. (quintpub.com)
  • Further, treatment with HA decreased the adherence of Streptococci mutans to roughened enamel surfaces by one-third. (quintpub.com)
  • The purified FBP, as well as anti-FBP immunoglobulin G, inhibited the adherence of S. mutans to immobilized Fn and endothelial cells (ECV304) in a dose-dependent manner. (asm.org)
  • These results demonstrated that FBP-130 mediated the adherence of S. mutans specifically to Fn and endothelial cells in vitro. (asm.org)
  • Interactions between salivary agglutinin and the adhesin P1 of Streptococcus mutans contribute to bacterial aggregation and mediate sucrose-independent adherence to tooth surfaces. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • S. mutans expresses several surface adhesins that can bind to salivary pellicles formed on the teeth ( 23 ), whereas sucrose-dependent adherence is mediated by glucan binding proteins and water-insoluble glucans produced from sucrose by glucosyltransferase (GTF) enzymes ( 16 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is our belief that fimbriae are important virulence factors for S. mutans and are at least partially responsible for S. mutans sucrose-independent adherence to enamel surfaces. (asm.org)
  • The adherence assays were performed by incubating S. mutans with HA in the presence of each test material for 45 min, followed by centrifugal separation of the HA. (dit.ie)
  • Sweet and Acid WPC80, buttermilk powder and cream powder were found to very effectively inhibit adherence of S. mutans to phosphate-buffered saline coated HA (PBS-HA). (dit.ie)
  • The acidogenicity of S. mutans can be significantly inhibited when the concentration was up to or higher than 1.56 mg mL 1 and the adherence of S. mutans can be significantly inhibited when the concentration was up to or higher than 3.13 mg mL 1 as well. (scialert.net)
  • The extracts inhibited S. mutans adherence to hydroxyapatite treated with saliva, and cell adherence was repressed by 50%, 54% at the concentration of 0.063, 0.125 mg/ml. (dbpia.co.kr)
  • Streptococcus mutans, considered to be the primary pathogen causing dental caries, is able to utilize sucrose as a nutrient source, partially for the production of intracellular storage components and for the production of extracellular glucans via the glucosyltransferases GtfB, GtfC, and GtfD. (nih.gov)
  • Several studies have indicated a high prevalence of S. mutans in dental plaques where the fungal pathogen Candida albicans resides, suggesting that these two species may interact [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A specific pathogen-free rat model was used to compare the cariogenicity of S. mutans UA130 and a panel of mutants with individual or multiple gbp gene deletions. (omicsonline.org)
  • More than 20% of cases of viridans streptococci-induced endocarditis are caused by S. mutans , which is a primary pathogen of dental caries ( 14 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Among these species are the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans and the bacterial species Streptococcus mutans , the etiologic agents of oral candidiasis and dental caries, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Yamashita, Y., Bowen, W.H., Burne, R.A. and Kura- mitsu, H.K., (1993) Role of the Streptococcus mutans gtf genes in caries induction in the specific- pathogen-free rat model. (scirp.org)
  • Using a high-affinity pathogen-selective peptide, the concept of molecularly targeted X-ray imaging of cariogenic pathogen S. mutans was demonstrated. (americanelements.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a major pathogen in human dental caries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The inactivation of RGP synthesis in S. mutans resulted in an approximately fivefold-higher sensitivity to bacitracin relative to that observed for the wild-type strain Xc. (asm.org)
  • Bacitracin sensitivities of S. mutans strain Xc and its derivatives. (asm.org)
  • No such changes were observed when the S. mutans wild-type strain was replaced by a gtfB- or gtfD- mutant. (uzh.ch)
  • Water-insoluble polysaccharide was synthesized by cell-free culture supernatants from S. mutans strain 6715. (eurekamag.com)
  • Here, we describe the CRISPR-Cas type II-A system of S. mutans strain P42S, which was found to display natural adaptation and interference activity in response to phage infection and plasmid transformation. (asm.org)
  • As CRISPR-Cas systems acquiring novel immunities under laboratory conditions are rare, Streptococcus mutans strain P42S provides an alternative model to study the adaptation step, which is still the least understood step in CRISPR-Cas biology. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus mutans strain K8 was shown to produce a newly identified type AII lantibiotic, mutacin K8. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the sequence of the partial mutacin K8 locus from S. mutans strain K8 is EF060238. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • It is part of the "streptococci" (plural, non-italic lowercase), an informal general name for all species in the genus Streptococcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This bacterium, along with the closely related species Streptococcus sobrinus, can cohabit the mouth: Both contribute to oral disease, and the expense of differentiating them in laboratory testing is often not clinically necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. mutans is naturally present in the human oral microbiota, along with at least 25 other species of oral streptococci. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surviving in the oral cavity, S. mutans is the primary causal agent and the pathogenic species responsible for dental caries (tooth decay or cavities) specifically in the initiation and development stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chung J, Ha E-S, Park H-R, Kim S (2004) Isolation and characterization of Lactobacillus species inhibiting the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. (springer.com)
  • We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans , and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. (hindawi.com)
  • Clinical studies have revealed that S. mutans and C. albicans are found together in dental plaques from toddlers with ECC [ 18 , 19 ], suggesting that the interaction between these two species may mediate cariogenic development. (hindawi.com)
  • These systems coordinate natural competence development and mutacin production as a means to acquire transforming DNA either by killing closely related streptococcal species in the vicinity of S. mutans, or through an altruistic suicide mechanism among a subpopulation of competent cells within the S. mutans community. (nih.gov)
  • A polysaccharide-producing species of Streptococcus isolated from human dental plaque. (jove.com)
  • Since crew members consume coffee in space, investigating the effect of coffee and its potential to kill the major cariogenic species S. mutans in microgravity may provide important insight into the utility of coffee in supporting oral health during spaceflight. (nasa.gov)
  • Of the hundreds of bacterial species that colonize and persist in the mouth, Streptococcus mutans is the organism that is most effective at causing dental caries. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • For dental caries, the dominance of acidogenic and aciduric species like Streptococcus mutans , triggered by the abundant intake of fermentable carbohydrates, is associated with a net mineral loss from dental hard tissues and the formation of a caries lesion ( Marsh, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In subjects with caries experience, high levels of S. mutans were associated with a few species and low levels with a panel of saccharolytic species. (diva-portal.org)
  • Present caries was similarly associated with a panel of saccharolytic species in subjects without S. mutans. (diva-portal.org)
  • In particular, high levels of S. mutans were associated with the presence of a few influential species in multivariate modeling, including Scardovia wiggsiae. (diva-portal.org)
  • By contrast, a panel of less avid lactic acid-producing species was influential in patients with undetectable or low S. mutans levels in such modeling. (diva-portal.org)
  • Streptococcus mutans is resistant to bacitracin, which is a peptide antibiotic produced by certain species of Bacillus . (asm.org)
  • Most notable among the microorganisms that reside in the oral cavity are the fungal species Candida albicans and the bacterial species Streptococcus mutans , the causative agents of oral candidiasis and dental caries, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • Note: Growth of some species such as Streptococcus, Arcanobacterium and Trueperella is enhanced by enrichment of the incubation atmosphere with carbon dioxide. (microbiologics.com)
  • Note: 5% carbon dioxide is recommended for the culture of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other streptococcal species of the viridans group. (microbiologics.com)
  • The main objective of this research was the production of streptokinase in liquid state fermentation using CSL substances as substrate from Streptococcus species which was grown on blood agar media. (omicsonline.org)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive bacterial species associated with dental caries, which is the most common oral disease. (asm.org)
  • There are four main species within streptococci: the mutans, salivarius, anginosus, and mitis groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • To prove this, saliva samples of two to five year old children were taken, which revealed a high fidelity in genetic make-up of each host's S. mutans population. (kenyon.edu)
  • Practical method to facilitate estimation of Streptococcus mutans levels in saliva. (asm.org)
  • The results were compared with the number of S. mutans per 1 ml of paraffin-stimulated saliva. (asm.org)
  • Application of HA paste in an individual tray was tried on the tooth surface, and its effects on the colony ratio of MS/total streptococci (TS) in saliva were analyzed by culture technique. (quintpub.com)
  • The objectives of the present study were 1) to characterize the tooth biofilm and saliva microbiota of adolescents with caries disease, with or without detectable S. mutans, from tooth biofilm and saliva samples and 2) to assess taxa clustering in the tooth biofilm and saliva samples and relate this information to caries status. (diva-portal.org)
  • Jensen B, Bratthall D. A new method for the estimation of mutans Streptococci in human saliva. (medigraphic.com)
  • mutans serotypes from two cohorts of African American children in rural Alabama using 3 sample types (saliva, plaque, and individualS. (medworm.com)
  • The concentration of group mutans streptococci in saliva was test by a 3-way ANOVA. (scielo.cl)
  • Whole saliva- and salivary agglutinin-induced aggregation of S. mutans was adversely affected by the loss of P1 and sortase (SrtA) but not by the loss of trigger factor (RopA). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Salivary agglutinin (also known as gp340) is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein in human saliva that mediates the adhesion and aggregation of S. mutans ( 4 , 14 , 18 ) via the cell wall-associated adhesin P1 (a member of the AgI/II family of cell surface proteins), encoded by spaP ( 14 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis on the dental pure titanium surface were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay after soaked in artificial saliva containing different concentrations of sodium fluoride for 24 h. (eurekamag.com)
  • The aim of this study was to explore whether human milk prevents or promotes adhesion of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) using an in vitro model system. (diva-portal.org)
  • S. mutans binding to HA coated with human parotid saliva (s-HA) or human milk was studied, in addition to binding inhibition to s-HA by human milk. (diva-portal.org)
  • Caglar E, Kavaloglu S, Ergeneli S, Sandalli N, Twetman S (2006) Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli levels after ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 by straws or tablets. (springer.com)
  • In this study, one of the active compounds of M. pendans was isolated, and its biological activity against the formation of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 biofilm was tested. (springermedizin.de)
  • Due to the role S. mutans plays in tooth decay, many attempts have been made to create a vaccine for the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • with S. mutans being the major contributor [18] and model organism. (kenyon.edu)
  • S. mutans can utilize more carbohydrates than any other sequenced Gram-positive organism, which gives S. mutans a competitive advantage [1] . (kenyon.edu)
  • To begin to dissect the underlying mechanisms by which oxygen affects known virulence traits of S. mutans , transcription profiling was used to show that roughly 5% of the genes of this organism are differentially expressed in response to aeration. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • P1 interaction with fluid phase salivary agglutinin mediates aggregation of S. mutans ( 4 , 10 , 20 ), whereas adsorption of salivary agglutinin to solid surfaces provides a site for initial adhesion of the organism ( 15 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results suggest that UDP-D-glucose functions not only as an immediate precursor of the serotype-c-specific antigen of S. mutans (as a glucose donor for side-chain formation), but is also important for the organism's viability in environmental conditions of low pH. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • It has been suggested that the cariogenicity (virulence) of S. mutans is due to the ability of the organism to adhere to the tooth surface, then colonize or aggregate by synthesizing water insoluble glucans, and produce lactic acid by catabolizing fermentable carbohydrates to demineralize the enamel of teeth. (archive.org)
  • Immunization of rabbits with Streptococcus mutans antigens results in the production of serum antibodies that bind in vitro to human, rabbit, and monkey cardiac muscle. (jimmunol.org)
  • The optimal parameters of separation and purification of polyphenols from Pericarpium Granati were determined and the antibacterial activities against S. mutans in vitro were investigated. (scialert.net)
  • Human milk does not mediate adhesion of S. mutans to HA in vitro, but affects adhesion in an individually varying fashion. (diva-portal.org)
  • Finally the biological evaluation of the isolated pure compounds was measured against S. mutans and also the cytotoxicity studies in-vitro against normal cells lines was carried out. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Conclusions The present study shows that, when used for one minute, 2% and 1% alexidine, and 0.2% cetrimide, achieve eradication of Streptococcus mutans biofilm in most specimens when applied to a dentin-volumetric model. (ugr.es)
  • Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The aims of this study are (1) to describe issues related to recruitment of mothers participating in a clinical trial of transmission of mutans streptococci (MS) from mother to child in Bauru, Brazil and (2) to perform cross-cultural and temporal comparisons of levels of infection of the MS in mothers of Bauru. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Purpose: To investigate possible association between the transmission of mutans streptococci and sharing the immune system component Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) class II in mother-child pairs. (quintpub.com)
  • The study hypothesis was that in pairs where both mother and child were HLA DR4 positive, transmission of mutans streptococci was more likely. (quintpub.com)
  • Results: No correlation between the presence of HLA DR4 in mother and child and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci was established. (quintpub.com)
  • One purpose of this investigation was therefore to isolate sucrose-independent, biofilm-defective mutants in S. mutans . (asm.org)
  • In the present study, we isolated two bacitracin-sensitive mutants of S. mutans using random mutagenesis of an S. mutans genomic library that was constructed in an integration vector. (asm.org)
  • Names of S. mutans mutants whose rml , rgp , or mbr gene was inactivated are indicated in the parentheses below the respective genes' name. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of CRISPR1 of M102-resistant mutants of S. mutans OMZ 381 showed that some of them had acquired novel spacers, and the sequences of all but one of these matched the phage M102 genome sequence. (uzh.ch)
  • Streptococcus mutans is the main etiological agent of dental caries caused by dental biofilm. (hindawi.com)
  • Interestingly, a similar theme is being revealed in S. mutans , the primary etiological agent of dental caries. (mdpi.com)
  • There are many studies showed that Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as major etiological agent of dental caries. (uwc.ac.za)
  • S. mutans uses the enzyme glucansucrase to convert sucrose into a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide that allows them to cohere, forming plaque. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sucrose is then used by Streptococcus mutans to produce a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide that allows them to cohere, forming plaque, this will then build up and eventually lead to the decay. (smore.com)
  • However, it has been reported that the ability of S. mutans to produce insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) through glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) plays a key role in cariogenic virulence [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Sucrose is utilized by S. mutans to produce a sticky, extracellular, dextran -based polysaccharide that allows them to cohere to each other forming plaque. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Sucrose is the only sugar that S. mutans can use to form this sticky polysaccharide. (thefullwiki.org)
  • These analyses identified 204 S. mutans genes that are preceded by one or more conserved palindromic SloR recognition elements (SREs). (asm.org)
  • From this analysis, we identified a number of S. mutans virulence genes that are subject to transcriptional upregulation by SloR and noted that such "class II"-type regulation is dependent on direct SloR binding to promoter-distal SREs. (asm.org)
  • We conclude that RGP synthesis is related to bacitracin resistance in S. mutans and that the mbr genes modulate resistance to bacitracin via an unknown mechanism that is independent of RGP synthesis. (asm.org)
  • S. mutans is an oral bacterium that contributes to the formation of dental caries forming bacterial biofilm on teeth. (iupui.edu)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a known colonizer of the tooth surface and primary etiologic agent of dental caries in humans ( 2 ), although it can also be associated with systemic infections that culminate in valvular endocarditis ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • S. mutans is also the primary causal agent of dental caries. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of dental plaque and a major etiologic agent of dental caries (tooth decay). (escholarship.org)
  • Its presence in the biofilm promotes higher levels of Streptococcus mutans when looking at early childhood caries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Berkowitz RJ, Turner J, Green P. Maternal levels of Streptococcus mutans and primary oral infection in infants. (springer.com)
  • Antigenic characterization of fimbria preparations from Streptococcus mutans isolates from caries-free and caries-susceptible subjects. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Along with S. sobrinus, S. mutans plays a major role in tooth decay, metabolizing sucrose to lactic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, other sugars-glucose, fructose, lactose-can also be digested by S. mutans, but they produce lactic acid as an end product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased cell density detected by quorum sensing proteins during the log phase of growth further induces S. mutans to produce acid tolerance responses [11] . (kenyon.edu)
  • [3] Streptococcus mutans possesses three virulence factors: water insoluble glycans, acid tolerance, and production of lactic acid. (kenyon.edu)
  • Specifically, S. mutans -induced cariogenesis is the result of lactic acid accumulation at the tooth surface, the product of fermentative metabolism of sugars consumed in the diet. (asm.org)
  • The pathogenic potential of S. mutans is attributable to potent biofilm-forming abilities, a high capacity to produce acids, a high degree of acid tolerance, and the possession of high-affinity systems for the assimilation of many carbohydrate sources ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • Other sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose) can be digested by S. mutans to produce lactic acid. (sciencephoto.com)
  • While the molecular mechanisms underlying the control of carbohydrate acquisition, acid production, and adaptation to low pH by S. mutans have been the focus of a substantial number of studies, the role of oxygen in fundamental aspects of gene regulation and physiologic homeostasis is poorly understood. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Strep Mutans a shortened term for Mutans Streptococci, is an acid-producing bacterium that attacks tooth enamel minerals which in turn causes tooth decay. (dentist.net)
  • When theses products are eaten, strep mutans produce acid which harm the teeth, roots, and gums. (dentist.net)
  • The effect of 0.07 or 0.15 mMchlorhexidine (CHX) and 4.0 or 8.0 mM potassium fluoride (F), added singly and in combinations, on acid production by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis was studied. (soton.ac.uk)
  • McDermid, Ann S. , Marsh, P. D. , Keevil, C. W. and Ellwood, D. C. (1985) Additive inhibitory effects of combinations of fluoride and chlorhexidine on acid production by Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. (soton.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the ethanol extracts of Aconitum koreanum (A. koreanum ) on the growth and acid production of S. mutans. (dbpia.co.kr)
  • The focus of the antimicrobial effects includes the ultrastructure and acid producing properties of S. mutans . (thescipub.com)
  • It was suggested from the results obtained that the crude extract of Piper betle L. leaves may exert anticariogenic activities that are related to decrease in acid production and changes to the ultrastructure of S. mutans . (thescipub.com)
  • After preliminary studies, different concentrations of fulvic acid closer to the estimated minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were applied to the S. mutans to find a more precise MIC of the fulvic acid on the biofilm growth. (iupui.edu)
  • S. mutans metabolizes carbohydrates transiently passing through the mouth into various acids, including lactic acid ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • A second virulence factor characteristic of s. mutans is its ability to produce lactic acid. (archive.org)
  • Some investigators found no significant differences between cariogenic and non-cariogenic streptococci regarding either the amount of lactic acid or other types of fermentation acids produced. (archive.org)
  • mutans serotype distribution and caries association is needed in the United States. (medworm.com)
  • The Streptococcus mutans serotype c gtfA gene encodes a 55-kilodalton sucrose-hydrolyzing enzyme. (unl.edu)
  • Kuramitsu, H.K. (1993) Virulence factors of mutans strepto-cocci: Role of molecular genetics. (scirp.org)
  • DTIC ADA171362: Virulence Factors of Streptococcus mutans. (archive.org)
  • In Taiwan, Streptococcus oralis and Streptococcus sanguis are isolated most frequently from blood cultures in endocarditis, but S. mutans is responsible for the highest incidence of endocarditis in bacteremia-associated pyogenic infections ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Similar characteristics also were observed for another member of the sanguis group, Streptococcus gordonii . (asm.org)
  • Banas JA, Vickerman MM (2003) Glucan-binding proteins of the oral streptococci. (springer.com)
  • S. mutans makes several proteins that have the property of binding glucans. (omicsonline.org)
  • We hypothesized that three of these glucan-binding proteins (Gbps), Gbps A, C and D, contribute to the cariogenicity of S. mutans. (omicsonline.org)
  • 3 H-thymidine]-labeled streptococci were incubated with HA noncoated or coated with salivary components or salivary agglutinin peptide (SRCRP2), a receptor for streptococcal surface proteins. (quintpub.com)
  • Crude extracts of cell wall-associated proteins or extracellular proteins from S. mutans MT8148 specifically bound Fn through a protein with the molecular mass of ca. 130 kDa, as detected by far-Western immunoblotting. (asm.org)
  • The expression or biological activity of S. mutans P1 can be influenced by multiple gene products, including luxS , encoding the synthesis for autoinducer 2 (AI-2) ( 30 ), ropA , encoding a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase ( 7 ), and srtA , encoding the sortase enzyme that covalently couples LPXTG-containing proteins, including P1, to the cell wall ( 13 , 17 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is hypothesized that a mucosal vaccine against a combination of S. mutans surface proteins would protect against dental caries by inducing specific salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies which may reduce bacterial pathogenesis and adhesion to the tooth surface by affecting several adhesins simultaneously. (asm.org)
  • 0.05) higher salivary IgA and serum IgG antibody responses to the mixture of surface proteins and to whole bacterial cells than did the other two groups (B and C). No significant differences were found in the average numbers of recovered S. mutans cells among groups. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, a mixture of S. mutans surface proteins, enriched with fimbria components, appears to be a promising immunogen candidate for a mucosal vaccine against dental caries. (asm.org)
  • We have isolated a mixture of S. mutans surface proteins, which contained fimbria components (fimbria-enriched preparation), as demonstrated by immunostaining and electron microscopy, and have elicited antibodies in rabbits against this preparation ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The results suggest commercial dairy powders, and certain milk proteins, can inhibit adhesion of S. mutans to HA and may have potential to control dental caries. (dit.ie)
  • Differential reactivity of salivary igA and igG against streptococcus mutans proteins in humans with different caries experience. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mutans streptococcal infection induces salivary antibody to virulence proteins and associated functional domains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • As a part of the Streptococcaceae family and Streptococcus genus, S. mutans is a Gram-positive cocci concentrated in fissures and crevices of the oral cavity [12] and it is the main cause of cariogenesis. (kenyon.edu)
  • This review compares the relationship between the bacteriocin and the competence QS pathways in both S. pneumoniae and S. mutans , and hopes to provide clues to regulatory pathways across the genus Streptococcus as a potential tool to efficiently investigate putative competence pathways in nontransformable streptococci. (mdpi.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a principal etiologic agent in the development of dental caries due to its exceptional aciduric and acidogenic properties, and its ability to adhere and accumulate in large numbers on tooth surfaces in the presence of sucrose. (omicsonline.org)
  • The oral health level and the role of Streptococcus mutans and dental plaque accumulation in the development of dental caries are important factors for the analysis and determination of importance as a risk factors, it have been demonstrated in preschool and scholars children, deficient hygiene practices, and for these reasons is important to use microbiological procedures in order to evaluate quantitative and qualitative the dental plaque conditions. (medigraphic.com)
  • Background: Mutans streptococci (MS) are closely related to the development of dental caries and are usually established in the oral cavity during early childhood. (diva-portal.org)
  • Specifically, we noted virulence gene repression in a manganese-containing medium when SloR binds to promoter-proximal sequence palindromes on the S. mutans chromosome. (asm.org)
  • In a previous report, we described the identification of a gene, designated brpA , which encodes a predicted surface-associated protein with high levels of similarity to LytR of Bacillus subtilis and CpsX of Streptococcus agalactiae ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • This study provides novel insights into the complex transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory networks used by S. mutans to modulate virulence gene expression and exopolysaccharide production in response to changes in oxygen availability. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using atomic force microscopy, adhesion forces of initial S. mutans colonizers on four different substrata were determined and related to gene expression. (asm.org)
  • . mutans requires the interaction of the GtfA enzyme, or another gene product under the control of the gtfA promoter, with other gene product(s) involved in melibiose transport or hydrolysis. (unl.edu)
  • A gene encoding glucose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.9) was isolated from Streptococcus mutans. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The mutacin K8-encoding muk locus consists of 13 ORFs, three of which ( mukA1 , A2 and A3 ) have close homology to scnA , the structural gene encoding the Streptococcus pyogenes lantibiotic SA-FF22, and another ( mukA ′) resembles scnA ′, an ORF in the SA-FF22 locus that has no currently assigned function. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Growth competition with oral streptococci and antimicrobial susceptibility in static biofilm models grown without sucrose or with 0.1% or 0.5% sucrose were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • The numbers of surviving S. mutans of both wild-type and an isogenic Gtf-negative mutant after antimicrobial treatment were determined as colony-forming units. (nih.gov)
  • We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. (uva.nl)
  • In this study, the antimicrobial influence of crude aqueous extract of Piper betle L. on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) was investigated. (thescipub.com)
  • The purpose of the present longitudinal study was to determine the effectiveness of 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) in removing mutans streptococci (MS) in a treatment cohort of cariesfree, preschool children. (ovid.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of various dairy powders and milk constituents on the adhesion of a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans to hydroxylapatite (HA), an analogue of tooth enamel. (dit.ie)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fimbriae have been identified on numerous gram-negative microorganisms as long fibrillar structures but have been reported for only a limited number of gram-positive microorganisms, including some oral streptococci, in which they typically appear as a much shorter fuzzy coat ( 4 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • S. mutans is a gram positive, nonmotile, facultative anaerobe thriving in temperatures ranging from 18-40 degrees Celsius. (gettyimages.es)
  • Streptococcus mutans is generally recognized as a causative agent of human dental caries. (nih.gov)
  • Streptococcus mutans is the primary causative agent of human dental caries, a ubiquitous infectious disease for which effective treatment strategies remain elusive. (asm.org)
  • S. mutans is one of a few specialized organisms equipped with receptors that improve adhesion to the surface of teeth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glucans mediate S. mutans attachment to tooth surfaces, and are a part of the extracellular polysaccharides involved in cell-to-cell adhesion [9] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Results: The adhesion assay showed that the binding of streptococci to HA was inhibited by coating with salivary components, whereas coating with SRCRP2 had nearly no influence on binding with or without Ca+. (quintpub.com)
  • Inhibition of Adhesion of Streptococcus Mutans to Hydroxylapatite by C" by Rachel Halpin, Maeve O'Connor et al. (dit.ie)
  • S. mutans is also resistant to many environmental conditions ( 4 ), and its capacity to favor dental caries is likely due to a combination of its adhesion abilities, production of acids, and relative resistance to low pH ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus . (scielo.br)
  • Alaluusua, S., Kleemola-Kujala, E. and Nystr?m, M. (1987) Caries in the primary teeth and salivary Strep- tococcus mutans and lactobacillus levels as indi- cators of caries in permanent teeth. (scirp.org)
  • Dentin samples obtained from bovine incisors were immersed in sterile broth supplemented by Lactobacillus acidophillus 108 colony formation units (CFU) and Streptococcus mutans 108 CFU. (cnki.net)
  • Streptococcus mutans is believed to be the prime etiologic agent of coronal caries in both humans and animals. (archive.org)
  • With regard to the assumption that the mothers mainly infect their children with mutans streptococci, so the spoons, the pacifiers or the nipples from baby bottles licked off first are being possible for the transmission. (springer.com)
  • Of 15 children with mutans streptococci, 12 were HLA DR4 positive. (quintpub.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the biofilm inhibitory effect of methacrylated chitosan covalently incorporated into the PMMA network of denture base resin against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. (niom.no)
  • S. mutans , a primary colonizer, can use both sucrose-independent and sucrose-dependent attachment mechanisms. (kenyon.edu)
  • [2] S. mutans favors hard non-shedding surfaces to establish permanent colonies, which implies that levels of S. mutans are undetected in infants until the primary teeth extravasate;although, recent studies have shown that S. mutans is able to colonize the furrows of the tongue in pre-denate infants. (kenyon.edu)
  • Typically between the ages of one and two, teeth erupt, which allows S. mutans to establish flourishing colonies on teeth, and causes cavities. (kenyon.edu)
  • Learn about streptococcus mutans, and what you can start doing to help protect your teeth. (colgate.com)
  • Analyses of harvested tissue and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated significantly higher S. mutans retention on teeth and tongues of co-infected mice compared to mice infected only with S. mutans . (frontiersin.org)
  • Mohan A, Morse DE, O'Sullivan DM, Tinanoff N. The relationship between bottle usage/content, age, and number of teeth with mutans streptococci colonisation in 6-to 24-month-old children. (springer.com)
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the potency of essential oils derived from Zingiberaceae leaves as antibacterial against Streptococcus mutans and biofilm degradation on teeth. (ijpbs.net)
  • The production of an artificial delta p of 124 mV across the cell membrane of S. mutans did not result in proton movement through the F1Fo-ATPase coupled to ATP synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • A range of studies showed probiotics like Streptococcus oligofermentans and Limosilactobacillus reuteri to inhibit the cariogenic activity and survival of Streptococcus mutans , possibly via the production of substances like H 2 O 2 , reuterin, ammonia and organic acids. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results suggest that A. koreanum may inhibit the caries-inducing properties of S. mutans, and which may be related with strong phenolic compound, glycosides and organic acids. (dbpia.co.kr)
  • Therefore, for clinical purposes they are often considered together as a group, called the mutans streptococci (plural, non-italic due to its being an informal group name). (wikipedia.org)
  • Issues of recruitment and rationale for conducting clinical trials on mutans streptococci suppression in mothers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Yang, D.Q., Liu, T.J. and Li, S. (2006) A study of genetic diversity in lactate dehydrogenase of strepto- coccus mutans from clinical isolates. (scirp.org)
  • Loesche, W.J. (1986) Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. (scirp.org)
  • Strep mutans is a leading cause of dental decay. (gettyimages.es)
  • It is concluded that Gbps contribute to the cariogenicity of S. mutans through a mechanism that may involve alteration of biofilm architecture. (omicsonline.org)
  • Biology, immunology, and cariogenicity of Streptococcus mutans. (asm.org)
  • Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers. (hindawi.com)
  • Salivary mutans streptococci and caries development in the primary and mixed dentition of children. (medigraphic.com)
  • The article Streptococcus mutans adhesin biotypes that match and predict individual caries development describes how up to half of the high-risk children are conditioned by highly virulent types of S. mutans. (fluoridealert.org)
  • To evaluate the effect of xylitol-containing tablets on mutans streptococci colonisation and caries development in preschool children. (springer.com)
  • However, certain so-called high risk children have an increased risk of developing caries, which the results now show is because they carry particular virulent variants of the S. mutans bacterium that may cause caries regardless of life style. (fluoridealert.org)
  • More than half of the CRISPR1 spacers and about 35 % of the CRISPR2 spacers showed sequence similarity with the genome sequence of M102, a virulent siphophage specific for S. mutans. (uzh.ch)
  • Streptococcus mutans and its virulent phages are important members of the human oral microbiota. (asm.org)
  • The aqueous extract of Coriander did not show inhibition activity against S. mutans, while Bitter fennel showed inhibiting growth of S. mutans in case two at concentration 5000g/ml. (medicaljournal-ias.org)
  • Inhibition of S. mutans binding correlated with bacterial binding to s-HA (r = 0.76). (diva-portal.org)
  • The intracellular pH (pHi) optimum for glycolysis in Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt was determined to be 7.0 by use of the ionophore gramicidin for manipulation of pHi. (nih.gov)
  • The optimal temperature and pH for R1 against Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt were 70℃ and 6.6, respectively. (cnki.net)
  • The interaction of viridans streptococci with components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. (asm.org)
  • The characteristics of S. mutans and FBP-130 in binding Fn confirmed that viridans streptococci adopt different strategies in their interaction with ECM. (asm.org)
  • The mechanisms by which S. mutans and other viridans streptococci cause bacteremia and colonize heart valves are still not clear. (asm.org)
  • The children with early oral infection of mutans streptococci are developing caries to a higher degree compared to not or later infected children. (springer.com)
  • It was shown that the spatula method gave a good estimation of the level of S. mutans infection. (asm.org)

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