A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
"Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).
A species of ACTINOMYCES found in the oral cavity of man and hamsters. It has been isolated from actinomycotic lesions in swine, cats, and dogs and has been identified as a causative agent of animal diseases.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to CATABOLISM of less preferred source(s).
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A resinous substance obtained from beehives that is used traditionally as an antimicrobial. It is a heterogeneous mixture of many substances.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. II. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release by polysaccharides in response to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. (1/1717)

The release of lysosomal hydrolases from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been postulated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in periodontal disease. In the present study, lysosomal enzyme release was monitored from rabbit peritoneal exudate PMNs exposed to Streptocccus mutans or Streptococcus sanguis. S. mutans grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth failed to promote significant PMN enzyme release. S. sanguis grown in BHI broth, although more effective than S. mutants, was a weak stimulus for promotion of PMN hydrolase release. Preincubation of washed, viable S. mutans in sucrose or in different-molecular-weight dextrans resulted in the ability of the organisms to provoke PMN release reactions. This effect could bot be demonstrated with boiled or trypsinized S. mutans or with viable S. sanguis. However, when grown in BHI broth supplemented with sucrose, but not with glucose, both S. mutans and S. sanguis triggered discharge of PMN enzymes. The mechanism(s) whereby dextran or sucrose modulates PMN-bacterial interaction may in some manner be related to promotion of microbial adhesiveness or aggregation by dextran and by bacterial synthesis of glucans from sucrose.  (+info)

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (2/1717)

In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.  (+info)

Virulence of a spaP mutant of Streptococcus mutans in a gnotobiotic rat model. (3/1717)

Streptococcus mutans, the principal etiologic agent of dental caries in humans, possesses a variety of virulence traits that enable it to establish itself in the oral cavity and initiate disease. A 185-kDa cell surface-localized protein known variously as antigen I/II, antigen B, PAc, and P1 has been postulated to be a virulence factor in S. mutans. We showed previously that P1 expression is necessary for in vitro adherence of S. mutans to salivary agglutinin-coated hydroxyapatite as well as for fluid-phase aggregation. Since adherence of the organism is a necessary first step toward colonization of the tooth surface, we sought to determine what effect deletion of the gene for P1, spaP, has on the colonization and subsequent cariogenicity of this organism in vivo. Germ-free Fischer rats fed a diet containing 5% sucrose were infected with either S. mutans NG8 or an NG8-derived spaP mutant strain, PC3370, which had been constructed by allelic exchange mutagenesis. At 1-week intervals for 6 weeks after infection, total organisms recovered from mandibles were enumerated. At week 6, caries lesions also were scored. A significantly lower number of enamel and dentinal carious lesions was observed for the mutant-infected rats, although there was no difference between parent and mutant in the number of organisms recovered from teeth through 6 weeks postinfection. Coinfection of animals with both parent and mutant strains resulted in an increasing predominance of the mutant strain being recovered over time, suggesting that P1 is not a necessary prerequisite for colonization. These data do, however, suggest a role for P1 in the virulence of S. mutans, as reflected by a decrease in the cariogenicity of bacteria lacking this surface protein.  (+info)

The specific genes for lantibiotic mutacin II biosynthesis in Streptococcus mutans T8 are clustered and can be transferred en bloc. (4/1717)

Mutacin II is a ribosomally synthesized peptide lantibiotic produced by group II Streptococcus mutans. DNA sequencing has revealed that the mutacin II biosynthetic gene cluster consists of seven specific open reading frames: a regulator (mutR), the prepromutacin structural gene (mutA), a modifying protein (mutM), an ABC transporter (mutT), and an immunity cluster (mutFEG). Transformations of a non-mutacin-producing strain, S. mutans UA159, and a mutacin I-producing strain, S. mutans UA140, with chromosomal DNA from S. mutans T8 with an aphIII marker inserted upstream of the mutacin II structural gene yielded transformants producing mutacin II and mutacins I and II, respectively.  (+info)

Purification and properties of bacteriolytic enzymes from Bacillus licheniformis YS-1005 against Streptococcus mutans. (5/1717)

To find a novel lytic enzyme against cariogenic Streptococci, strains showing strong lytic activity have been screened from soil using Streptococcus mutans. A strain identified as Bacillus licheniformis secreted two kinds of lytic enzymes, which were purified by methanol precipitation, CM-cellulose chromatography, gel filtration, and hydroxyapatite chromatography. The molecular weights of these two enzymes, L27 and L45, were 27,000 and 45,000, respectively. Optimum pH and temperature of both enzymes for lytic activity were pH 8 and 37 degrees C. L27 and L45 digest the peptide linkage between L-Ala and D-Glu in peptidoglycan of Streptococcus mutans. The lytic activity was highly specific for Streptococcus mutans, suggesting their potential use as a dental care product.  (+info)

Streptococcus mutans ffh, a gene encoding a homologue of the 54 kDa subunit of the signal recognition particle, is involved in resistance to acid stress. (6/1717)

The ability of Streptococcus mutans, a bacterial pathogen associated with dental caries, to tolerate rapid drops in plaque pH (acidurance), is considered an important virulence factor. To study this trait, Tn917 mutants of S. mutans strain JH1005 which display acid sensitivity have been isolated and partially characterized. In this paper, the characterization of one of these mutants, AS17, is reported. Preliminary sequence analysis revealed that the transposon insertion in AS17 occurred in the intergenic region of a two-gene locus which has been named sat for secretion and acid tolerance. This locus displays a high degree of homology to the ylxM-ffh operon of Bacillus subtilis. The sat+ locus was cloned by complementation of a conditional Escherichia coli ffh mutant with an S. mutans genomic library. Sequencing of the complementing clone identified the intact ylxM and ffh genes as well as a partial ORF with homology to the proUlopuAC gene of B. subtilis which encodes the binding protein of the ProU/OpuA osmoregulated glycine betaine transport system. RNA dot blot experiments indicated steady-state levels of ffh mRNA in the mutant that were approximately eightfold lower compared to parental levels. This suggests a partial polar effect of the sat-1::Tn917 mutation on ffh expression. Upon acid shock (pH 5), wild-type ffh mRNA levels were found to increase approximately four- to eightfold compared to unstressed (pH 7.5) levels. Mutant levels remained unaltered under the same conditions. Experiments designed to investigate the origins of the acid-sensitivity of the mutant revealed a lack of an acid-adaptive/tolerance response. Assays of proton-extruding ATPase (H+/ATPase) specific activity measured with purified membranes derived from acid-shocked AS17 showed twofold lower levels compared to the parent strain. Also, AS17 was found to be unable to ferment sorbitol although it was able to grow in glucose and a variety of other sugar substrates. These findings suggest that Ffh may be involved in the maintenance of a functional membrane protein composition during adaptation of S. mutans to changing environmental conditions.  (+info)

Lipoteichoic acid acts as an antagonist and an agonist of lipopolysaccharide on human gingival fibroblasts and monocytes in a CD14-dependent manner. (7/1717)

CD14 has been implicated as a receptor of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and other bacterial components as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Since the structures of LTAs from various gram-positive bacteria are heterogeneous, we analyzed the effects of LTAs on the secretion of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by high- and low-CD14-expressing (CD14(high) and CD14(low)) human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). While Bacillus subtilis LTA had an IL-8-inducing effect on CD14(high) HGF which was considerably weaker than that of LPS, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans LTAs had practically no effect on the cells. B. subtilis LTA had only a weak effect on CD14(low) HGF, as did LPS. S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs at a 1,000-fold excess each completely inhibited the IL-8-inducing activities of both LPS and a synthetic lipid A on CD14(high) HGF. The effect of LPS was also inhibited by the presence of an LPS antagonist, synthetic lipid A precursor IVA (LA-14-PP), with a 100-fold higher potency than S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs and by anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody (MAb). S. sanguis and S. mutans LTAs, LA-14-PP, and anti-CD14 MAb had no significant effect on phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated IL-8 secretion by HGF. These LTAs also inhibited the IL-8-inducing activity of B. subtilis LTA on CD14(high) HGF, as did LA-14-PP and anti-CD14 MAb. The antagonistic and agonistic functions of LTAs were also observed with human monocytes. Binding of fluorolabeled LPS to human monocytes was inhibited by S. sanguis LTA, although the inhibition was 100 times weaker than that of LPS itself, and anti-CD14 MAb inhibited fluorolabeled LPS and S. sanguis LTA binding. Binding of LTAs to CD14 was also observed with nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that LTAs act as antagonists or agonists via a CD14-dependent mechanism, probably due to the heterogeneous structure of LTAs, and that an antagonistic LTA might be a useful agent for suppressing the periodontal disease caused by gram-negative bacteria.  (+info)

Humoral immunity to commensal oral bacteria in human infants: salivary secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the first two years of life. (8/1717)

Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant's saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity.  (+info)

Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Lactobacillales; Streptococcaceae; Streptococcus; Streptococcus mutans; Streptococcus mutans serotype c (strain ATCC 700610 / UA159 ...
1. Ajdic D, McShan WM, McLaughlin RE, Savic G, Chang J, Carson MB. 2002. Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 99:14434-14439. 2. Banas JA, Vickerman MM. 2003. Glucan-binding proteins of the oral streptococci. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine. 14:89-99. 3. Costerton JW, Steward PS, Greenberg EP. 1999. Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science. 284:1318-1322. 4. Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL. 2012. Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis. PloS one. 7:e47722. 5. Hajishengallis G, Koga and T, Russell MW. 1994. Affinity and Specificity of the Interactions between Streptococcus mutans Antigen I/II and Salivary Components. J. Dent Res. 73:1943-1502. 6. Hossain MS, Biswas I. 2011. Mutacins from Streptococcus mutans UA159 are active against multiple streptococcal species. Applied and environmental ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro activity of xanthorrhizol against Streptococcus mutans biofilms. AU - Rukayadi, Y.. AU - Hwang, J. K.. PY - 2006/4. Y1 - 2006/4. N2 - Aims: We determined the effect of xanthorrhizol (XTZ) purified from the rhizome of Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. on the Streptococcus mutans biofilms in vitro. Methods and Results: The biofilms of S. mutans at different phases of growth were exposed to XTZ at different concentrations (5, 10 and 50 μmol l-1) and for different time exposures (1, 10, 30 and 60 min). The results demonstrated that the activity of XTZ in removing S. mutans biofilm was dependent on the concentration, exposure time and the phase growth of biofilm. A concentration of 5 μmol l-1 of XTZ completely inhibited biofilm formation by S. mutans at adherent phases of growth, whereas 50 μmol l -1 of XTZ removed 76% of biofilm at q1plateau accumulated phase when exposed to S. mutans biofilm for 60 min. Conclusions: Xanthorrhizol isolated from an edible plant (C. xanthorrhiza ...
SUMMARY: Fourteen strains of Streptococcus mutans serotype c were examined for their cell-surface protein antigens in terms of hydrophobicity, M r and immunochemical specificities. Thirteen strains were hydrophobic, while strain GS-5 was markedly hydrophilic as compared to the other strains tested. Cell-surface protein antigens were then analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western immunoblotting. A protein antigen of M r 190000 (PAc) was found in cell extracts and culture supernatants of all the hydrophobic strains. Neither culture supernatant nor cell extract of strain GS-5 contained PAc. Strain GS-5, however, produced extracellularly a large amount of a protein of M r 155000 (PAGS-5) which reacted with rabbit anti-PAc serum. Immunodiffusion analysis showed that PAGS-5 lacked a part of the antigenic moieties in the PAc molecule. SDS-PAGE and radioimmunoassay showed a small amount of PAGS-5 on the cell surface of strain GS-5. These findings suggest that
This in vitro study evaluated the influence of chlorhexidine diacetate (CDA) when blended within dentin bonding systems (DBSs) on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm formation. One commercially available 0.2% wt CDA-containing DBS (Peak Universal Bond) and five experimental 0.2% wt CDA-containing DBS formulations (experimental Adper Scotchbond 1XT plus experimental resins, R2, R3, R4, R5) were assessed vs their no-CDA containing counterparts. Twenty-eight DBSs disks were prepared for each group (6.4 mm×1.0 mm) and cured for 80 s at 800 mW/cm2 in a nitrogen atmosphere. A modified Drip-Flow Reactor was used to grow S. mutans biofilms on specimen surfaces for 24 h and adherent, viable biomass was evaluated using a tetrazolium salt assay (MTT). Two specimens from each of the tested materials were processed with LIVE/DEAD stain and observed using laser confocal microscopy (CLSM) while two disks from each group were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MTT assay, CLSM and SEM ...
Streptococcus mutans is the most significant pathogenic bacterium implicated in the formation of dental caries and, both directly and indirectly, has been associated with severe conditions such as multiple sclerosis, cerebrovascular and peripheral artery disease. Polymers able to selectively bind S. mutans and/or inhibit its adhesion to oral tissue in a non-lethal manner would offer possibilities for addressing pathogenicity without selecting for populations resistant against bactericidal agents. In the present work two libraries of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (pDMAEMA)-based polymers were synthesized with various proportions of either N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium cationic- or sulfobetaine zwitterionic groups. These copolymers where initially tested as potential macromolecular ligands for S. mutans NCTC 10449, whilst Escherichia coli MG1655 was used as Gram-negative control bacteria. pDMAEMA-derived materials with high proportions of zwitterionic repeating units were found to be selective ...
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To evaluate the ability of the broad-spectrum lantibiotic, lacticin 3147, to prevent Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and disrupt existing biofilms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations of purified lacticin 3147 were determined using a microdilution method. Lacticin 3147 effectively inhibited planktonic Strep. mutans, with MIC of 1.9-3.8 μmol l(-1). Time-kill kinetic studies confirmed that lacticin 3147 exhibited bactericidal activity against Strep. mutans at 38 μmol l(-1) (or 10× MIC). The effect of lacticin 3147 on biofilm formation and reduction was also determined. Exposure to 6.3-μmol l(-1) lacticin 3147 (2× MIC) resulted in substantial reductions in Strep. mutans biofilm formation while lacticin 3147 was less effective against 1-day-old biofilms. Culture-based analyses revealed that lacticin 3147 (50 μmol l(-1)) significantly inhibited Streptococcus spp. present in human saliva (P < 0.05) with an approximate 4-log reduction in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phylogenetic Analysis of Glucosyltransferases and Implications for the Coevolution of Mutans Streptococci with Their Mammalian Hosts. AU - Argimón, Silvia. AU - Alekseyenko, Alexander V.. AU - DeSalle, Rob. AU - Caufield, Page W.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013/2/14. Y1 - 2013/2/14. N2 - Glucosyltransferases (Gtfs) catalyze the synthesis of glucans from sucrose and are produced by several species of lactic-acid bacteria. The oral bacterium Streptococcus mutans produces large amounts of glucans through the action of three Gtfs. GtfD produces water-soluble glucan (WSG), GtfB synthesizes water-insoluble glucans (WIG) and GtfC produces mainly WIG but also WSG. These enzymes, especially those synthesizing WIG, are of particular interest because of their role in the formation of dental plaque, an environment where S. mutans can thrive and produce lactic acid, promoting the formation of dental caries. We sequenced the gtfB, gtfC and gtfD ...
The aim of this study was to analyse the frequency and expression of biosynthesis genes in 47 Streptococcus mutans isolates with different mutacin-producing phenotypes. Detection of the frequency and expression of genes encoding mutacin types I, II, III and IV were carried out by PCR and semi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively, using primers specific for each type of biosynthesis gene. In addition, a further eight genes encoding putative bacteriocins, designated bsm 283, bsm 299, bsm 423, bsm 1889c, bsm 1892c, bsm 1896, bsm 1906c and bsm 1914, were also screened. There was a high phenotypic diversity; some Streptococcus mutans isolates presented broad antimicrobial spectra against other Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates, including bacteria resistant to common antibiotics, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus pyogenes. The expression frequency of the bsm gene was higher than that of the previously characterized mutacins (I-IV). There
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of glucan-binding protein A to firm and stable biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans. AU - Matsumi, Y.. AU - Fujita, K.. AU - Takashima, Y.. AU - Yanagida, K.. AU - Morikawa, Y.. AU - Matsumoto-Nakano, M.. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Glucan-binding proteins (Gbps) of Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, mediate the binding of glucans synthesized from sucrose by the action of glucosyltransferases (GTFs) encoded by gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD. Several stress proteins, including DnaK and GroEL encoded by dnaK and groEL, are related to environmental stress tolerance. The contribution of Gbp expression to biofilm formation was analyzed by focusing on the expression levels of genes encoding GTFs and stress proteins. Biofilm-forming assays were performed using GbpA-, GbpB-, and GbpC-deficient mutant strains and the parental strain MT8148. The expression levels of gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, dnaK, and groEL were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus mutans is the principal causative agent of human tooth decay, an oral disease that affects the majority of the worlds population. Although the complete S. mutans genome is known, approximately 700 proteins are still annotated as hypothetical proteins, as no threedimensional structure or homology with known proteins exists for them. Thus, the significant portion of genomic sequences coding for unknown-function proteins makes the knowledge of pathogenicity and survival mechanisms of S. mutans still incomplete. Plasmids are found in virtually every species of Streptococcus, and some of these mediate resistance to antibiotics and pathogenesis. However, there are strains of S. mutans that contain plasmids, such as LM7 and UA140, to which no function has been assigned yet. In this work, we describe an in silico study of the structure and function of all the S. mutans proteins encoded by pLM7 and pUA140 plasmids to gain insight into their biological function. ...
Biological action on cariogenic bacteria. The analysis of results shows that a different propolis sample does not have the same inhibitory activity on bacterial growth, but all of them inhibited the mutans streptococci growth. Also, we can see that this activity has a direct relation with the concentration of polyphenols, as determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method (Table 2). The EEP P001 and P008 from central Chile showed the lowest antimicrobial activity (MIC 6.67 and 8.22, respectively). Similarly, highlighting the propolis P019 and P020, from southern Chile showed the highest antimicrobial activity (MIC 1.94 and 0.90, respectively). When comparing the MIC for S. mutans and S. sobrinus according to the sample origin we observed for both of them that MIC was lowest with southern propolis (p = 0.011 and p = 0.007, respectively). In addition, the statistical analyses showed that propolis from southern Chile (P013 to P020) have the highest polyphenols contents when compared with other regions of ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) consist of highly conserved direct repeats interspersed with variable spacer sequences. They can protect bacteria against invasion by foreign DNA elements. The genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans strain UA159 contains two CRISPR loci, designated CRISPR1 and CRISPR2. The aims of this study were to analyse the organization of CRISPR in further S. mutans strains and to investigate the importance of CRISPR in acquired immunity to M102-like phages. The sequences of CRISPR1 and CRISPR2 arrays were determined for 29 S. mutans strains from different persons. More than half of the CRISPR1 spacers and about 35 % of the CRISPR2 spacers showed sequence similarity with the genome sequence of M102, a virulent siphophage specific for S. mutans. Although only a few spacers matched the phage sequence completely, most of the mismatches had no effect on the amino acid sequences of the phage-encoded proteins. The results suggest that S. mutans ...
Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood. We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in
The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited only by roughly 50%. The partial inhibition of protein synthesis is compatible with the observed significant increase in cell mass. The increase in these parameters is linked to the morphological alteration with transition from cocci of the untreated control to elongated cells. Interestingly, these modifications were also observed at sub-MIC concentrations. Finally, membrane and cytosol proteome analysis was conducted under LMM mushroom extract treatment in comparison with untreated S. mutans cells. Significant changes were observed for 31 membrane proteins and 20 of the cytosol fractions. The possible role of the changed proteins is discussed ...
The oral cavity contains many different microbial species growing in a biofilm. Dental caries is the localised destruction of the tooth by organic acids produced from the bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates. The mutans streptococci, in particular Streptococcus mutans, have been proposed as the main etiological agents of dental caries and high levels of mutans streptococci in the plaque is correlated with a higher risk for dental caries. A range of broad-spectrum antimicrobials are used to inhibit plaque formation. However, current research is focussed on more targeted approaches. The protein zoocin A has high activity against Streptococcus mutans, while the monoglyceride lauricidin is active against gram-positive bacteria. Both are therefore potential antimicrobials for anti-caries therapy. The aims of this study were to produce zoocin A at sufficient concentrations to use as an antimicrobial in a biofilm model and to develop a simple biofilm model for use studying the effects of ...
Imbalances within the dental biofilm trigger dental caries, currently considered a dysbiosis and the most prevalent noncommunicable disease. There is still a gap in knowledge about the dynamics of enamel colonization by bacteria from the dental biofilm in caries. The aim, therefore, was to test whether the sequence of enamel colonization by a typically commensal and a cariogenic species modifies biofilms cariogenicity. Dual-species biofilms of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on saliva-coated enamel slabs were inoculated in different sequences: S. mutans followed by S. sanguinis (Sm-Ss), S. sanguinis followed by S. mutans (Ss-Sm), S. mutans and S. sanguinis inoculated at the same time (Sm=Ss), and the single-species controls S. mutans followed by S. mutans (Sm-Sm) and S. sanguinis followed by S. sanguinis (Ss-Ss). Biofilms were exposed to 10% sucrose 3 times per day for 5 days, and the slabs/biofilms were retrieved to assess demineralization, viable cells, biomass, proteins, ...
A 0.8-kb HindIII-BamHI internal fragment of the Streptococcus mutans wall-associated protein A gene (wapA) was ligated to the 5.1-kb HindIII-BamHI fragment of the chimeric Streptococcus-Escherichia coli plasmid pVA891 (Emr Cmr). The resulting construct was used to transform S. mutans GS-5, and erythromycin-resistant mutants were isolated and analyzed. Directed mutagenesis of the wapA gene by plasmid insertion through homologous recombination was demonstrated by Southern blot hybridization with the wapA and pVA891 probes. Stable mutants were obtained, and the alteration of the wapA gene by insertional inactivation was associated with a significant decrease in S. mutans sucrose-dependent aggregation and binding to smooth surfaces. Thus, WapA may play an important role in the colonization of the tooth surface by S. mutans and in the buildup of dental plaque. These findings provided an explanation for previous studies which indicated that WapA was effective in the prevention of dental caries in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clustered genes for galactose metabolism from Streptococcus mutans cloned in Escherichia coli. AU - Smorawinska, M.. AU - Hsu, J. C.. AU - Hansen, J. B.. AU - Jagusztyn-Krynicka, E. K.. AU - Abiko, Y.. AU - Curtiss, R.. PY - 1983/7/21. Y1 - 1983/7/21. N2 - DNA cloned into Escherichia coli from a serotype c strain of S. mutans allowed a galKTE mutant to utilize galactose for growth. However, the DNA does not appear to encode enzymes of the Leloir pathway used by E. coli, but rather appeears to encode enzymes of the tagatose phosphate pathway.. AB - DNA cloned into Escherichia coli from a serotype c strain of S. mutans allowed a galKTE mutant to utilize galactose for growth. However, the DNA does not appear to encode enzymes of the Leloir pathway used by E. coli, but rather appeears to encode enzymes of the tagatose phosphate pathway.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0020679927&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
Biochemical Test of Streptococcus mutans Basic Characteristics Properties (Streptococcus mutans) Capsule Capsulated Catalase Negative (-ve) Gram Staining Positive (+ve) Hemolysis Alfa Hemolysis Motility Non-motile OF (Oxidative-Fermentative) Facultative anaerobes Oxidase Negative (-ve) Shape Cocci Spore Non-sporing Urease Negative (-ve) VP (Voges Proskauer) Positive (+ve) Fermentation of Adonitol Negative (-ve) Arabinose Negative (-ve) Arbutin Positive (+ve) Cellobiose Positive (+ve) Dulcitol Negative (-ve) … Read moreBiochemical Test of Streptococcus mutans. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bioactive low-shrinkage-stress nanocomposite suppresses S. mutans biofilm and preserves tooth dentin hardness. AU - Bhadila, Ghalia. AU - Filemban, Hanan. AU - Wang, Xiaohong. AU - Melo, Mary Ann S.. AU - Arola, Dwayne D.. AU - Tay, Franklin R.. AU - Oates, Thomas W.. AU - Weir, Michael D.. AU - Sun, Jirun. AU - Xu, Hockin H.K.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Drs. Nancy J. Lin, Hong Chen and Wen Zou for discussions and assistance. This work was supported by the University of Maryland School of Dentistry bridging fund (HX), and University of Maryland Baltimore seed grant (HX). There are no conflicts of interest.. PY - 2020/9/15. Y1 - 2020/9/15. N2 - Recurrent dental caries is one of the main reasons for resin composite restoration failures. This study aimed to: (1) develop a bioactive, low-shrinkage-stress, antibacterial and remineralizing composite and evaluate the sustainability of its antibacterial effect against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilms; and (2) evaluate ...
Author(s): Tang, Xiaoyu; Kudo, Yuta; Baker, Jonathon L; LaBonte, Sandra; Jordan, Peter A; McKinnie, Shaun MK; Guo, Jian; Huan, Tao; Moore, Bradley S; Edlund, Anna | Abstract: Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of dental plaque and a major etiologic agent of dental caries (tooth decay). In this study, we elucidated the biosynthetic pathway encoded by muc, a hybrid polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC), present in a number of globally distributed S. mutans strains. The natural products synthesized by muc included three N-acyl tetramic acid compounds (reutericyclin and two novel analogues) and an unacylated tetramic acid (mutanocyclin). Furthermore, the enzyme encoded by mucF was identified as a novel class of membrane-associated aminoacylases and was responsible for the deacylation of reutericyclin to mutanocyclin. A large number of hypothetical proteins across a broad diversity of bacteria were homologous to MucF, suggesting that this
The intracellular pH (pHi) optimum for glycolysis in Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt was determined to be 7.0 by use of the ionophore gramicidin for manipulation of pHi. Glycolytic activity decreased to zero as the pHi was lowered from 7.0 to 5.0. In contrast, glycolysis had an extracellular pH (pHo) …
Biofilms and Disease== Bacteria make biofilms, which contain a heterogeneous mixture of microorganisms attached to a surface [[#References,[12]]]. Biofilms offer bacteria protection from hostile environments [[#References,[3]]], promote efficient food storage and nutrient acquisition mechanisms, and encourage synergistic relationships for community benefit. Biofilms are involved in a variety of infectious diseases, causing persistent problems such as cystic fibrosis pneumonia, otitis media, urinary tract infections, and dental plaque formation [[#References,[12]]]. ===Dental Plaque and Disease=== Dental plaque is a biofilm of diverse bacteria and extracellular polymeric substances. It builds up over time and leads to dental caries and periodontal diseases such as gingivitis, a gum inflammation. As many as 400 species of bacteria have been associated with dental plaques, the most common being Streptococcus and Lactobacillus, which are associated with acid formation leading to tooth decay ...
The oral cavity is a complex environment harboring diverse microbial species that often co-exist within biofilms formed on oral surfaces. Within a biofilm, inter-species interactions can be synergistic in that the presence of one organism generates a niche for another enhancing colonization. Among these species are the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans and the bacterial species Streptococcus mutans, the etiologic agents of oral candidiasis and dental caries, respectively. Recent studies have reported enhanced prevalence of C. albicans in children with caries indicating potential clinical implications for this fungal-bacterial interaction. In this study, we aimed to specifically elucidate the role of C. albicans-derived polysaccharide biofilm matrix components in augmenting S. mutans colonization and mixed biofilm formation. Comparative evaluations of single and mixed species biofilms demonstrated significantly enhanced S. mutans retention in mixed biofilms with C. albicans. Further, S.
Objetive: The aim of this study was to analyze possible horizontal transmission patterns of S. mutans among 6-7-yr-old schoolchildren from the same class, identifying genotypes and their diversity and relationship with caries disease status. Study Design: Caries indexes and saliva mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts were recorded in 42 schoolchildren. Mutans streptococci colonies were identified by means of biochemical tests and all S. mutans strains were genotyped by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction. A child was considered free of S. mutans when it could not be isolated in 3 samples at 1-week intervals. Results: S. mutans was isolated in 30 schoolchildren: 20 having one genotype and 10 two genotypes. Higher mutans streptococci and caries index values were found in those with two genotypes. Five genotypes were isolated in more than 1 schoolchild and one of these was isolated in 3 schoolchildren. Our results suggest that horizontal transmission may take place. Conclusion: ...
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Streptococcus mutans is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive coccus (round bacterium) commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay. It is part of the streptococci (plural, non-italic lowercase), an informal general name for all species in the genus Streptococcus.The microbe was first described by J Kilian Clarke in 1924. This bacterium, along with the closely related species Streptococcus sobrinus, can cohabit the mouth: Both contribute to oral disease, and the expense of differentiating them in laboratory testing is often not clinically necessary. Therefore, for clinical purposes they are often considered together as a group, called the mutans streptococci (plural, non-italic due to it being an informal group name). This grouping of similar bacteria with similar tropism can also be seen in the viridans streptococci, another group of Streptococcus species. S. mutans is naturally present in the human oral microbiota, along with at least 25 other ...
Streptococcus mutans strain K8 was shown to produce a newly identified type AII lantibiotic, mutacin K8. The mutacin K8-encoding muk locus consists of 13 ORFs, three of which (mukA1, A2 and A3) have close homology to scnA, the structural gene encoding the Streptococcus pyogenes lantibiotic SA-FF22, …
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether salivary mutans streptococci (MS) counts in Chinese children had any value in the prediction of new caries in the permanent dentition in the age interval of 6.5-8.5 years. METHODS: Four hundred and thirty-three 6-7-year-old children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Salivary MS counts were obtained at baseline with the spatula method. Dentin and enamel caries was recorded at baseline and at the follow-up, 2 years later. Spearmans correlation coefficients were computed. Past caries experience variables at baseline were entered into a multiple regression model with caries increment of the permanent dentition as dependent variable. MS counts were subsequently entered into the model to assess the additional caries predictive value. RESULTS: Spearmans correlation coefficient for MS counts and caries experience of the primary dentition at baseline was 0.48 and for MS counts and caries increment in the permanent dentition 0.12. In the ...
SummaryStreptococcus mutans, a primary bacterium associated with dental caries, has four known clinical serotypes (c, e, f, andk). Some serotypes, presence of multiple serotypes and strains with collagen ‐binding proteins (CBP, Cnm and Cbm) have been linked with systemic disease. Evaluation ofS. mutans serotype distribution and caries association is needed in the United States. The purpose of th...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of pH on the bactericidal action of NaF and/or iodine on Streptococcus mutans. AU - Caufield, P. W.. AU - Wannemuehler, Y.. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=17644430616&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=17644430616&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:17644430616. VL - 61. SP - No. 1073. JO - Journal of Dental Research. JF - Journal of Dental Research. SN - 0022-0345. IS - Abs.. ER - ...
Adhesion and successful colonization of bacteria onto solid surfaces play a key role in biofilm formation. The initial adhesion and the colonization of bacteria may differ between the various types of surfaces found in oral cavity. Therefore, it is conceivable that diverse biofilms are developed on those various surfaces. The aim of the study was to investigate the molecular modifications occurring during in vitro biofilm development of Streptococcus mutans UA159 on several different dental surfaces. Growth analysis of the immobilized bacterial populations generated on the different surfaces shows that the bacteria constructed a more confluent and thick biofilms on a hydroxyapatite surface compared to the other tested surfaces. Using DNA-microarray technology we identified the differentially expressed genes of S. mutans, reflecting the physiological state of biofilms formed on the different biomaterials tested. Eight selected genes were further analyzed by real time RT-PCR. To further determine the
A method was developed to facilitate the estimation of Streptococcus mutans levels in saliva. Saliva-contaminated wodden spatulas were pressed directly against an elevated agar plate containing a selective medium. The results were compared with the number of S. mutans per 1 ml of paraffin-stimulated saliva. It was shown that the spatula method gave a good estimation of the level of S. mutans infection. The incubation was also made in expired air instead of 95% N2-5% CO2. The outgrowth was in good agreement with that after conventional incubation. The method is useful in epidemiological studies or in selecting persons at a high caries risk, and when ordinary saliva sampling cannot be done, for example in small children. Compared with conventional saliva sampling, this method requires less time and material at sampling as well as at the laboratory. ...
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Oral bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. S. mutans is a coccoid shaped, Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria that is part of the normal bacteria flora of the mouth. It metabolizes sucrose to lactic acid and is a leading cause of tooth enamel decay. The acidic environment created in the mouth by this process is what causes the highly mineralized tooth enamel to decay. S. mutans is one of a few specialized organisms equipped with receptors for adhesion to the surface of teeth. Sucrose is utilized by S. mutans to produce a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide (glucan) that allows them to adhere to each other forming plaque. Other sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose) can be digested by S. mutans to produce lactic acid. It is the combination of plaque and acid that leads to dental decay. Magnification: x4,400 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2177
TY - JOUR. T1 - The oligopeptide (opp) gene cluster of Streptococcus mutans. T2 - Identification, prevalence, and characterization. AU - Nepomuceno, R. S.L.. AU - Tavares, M. B.. AU - Lemos, J. A.. AU - Griswold, A. R.. AU - Ribeiro, J. L.. AU - Balan, A.. AU - Guimarães, K. S.. AU - Cai, S.. AU - Burne, R. A.. AU - Ferreira, L. C.S.. AU - Ferreira, R. C.C.. PY - 2007/8. Y1 - 2007/8. N2 - Introduction: The Opp system is an ATP-binding cassette-type transporter formed by membrane-associated proteins required for the uptake of oligopeptides in bacteria. In gram-positive bacteria, the Opp system, and particularly the oligopeptide-binding protein (OppA), has been shown to be involved in different aspects of cell physiology, including intercellular communication and binding to host proteins. Methods: In the present study we began to investigate the Opp system of Streptococcus mutans, the main etiological agent of dental caries. Results: Five opp genes (oppABCDF) organized in a single operon were ...
Escano, Jerome; Stauffer, Byron; Brennan, Jacob; Bullock, Monica; Smith, Leif (2015). Biosynthesis and Transport of the Lantibiotic Mutacin 1140 Produced by Streptococcus mutans. Journal of Bacteriology. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /183340. ...
Many people know streptococcus mutans is the true culprit in the development of tooth decay and cavities. Learn more about streptococcus mutans, here.
Mestecky J., Czerkinsky C., Brown T.A., Prince S.J., Michalek S.M., Russell M. W., Jackson S., Schöller M. and McGhee J.R. (1986): Human immune responses to Streptococcus mutans. In: Molecular microbiology and immunobiology of Streptococcus mutans (Eds. Hamada S., Michalek S.M., Kiyono H., Menaker L. and McGhee J.R.). Elsevier Science Publishers. Amsterdam, New-York, Oxford.Google Scholar ...
Objective: Streptococcus mutans is the leading cause of dental caries worldwide and a causative agent of infectious endocarditis. Collagen binding protein, Cnm, is expressed by about 10% of S.mutans clinical strains. Here, we investigate the role of Cnm in adherence, invasion, and persistence of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMC) in vitro. Methods: Adherence and Antibiotic Protection Assay: Human cells were infected with wildtype strains of S.mutans and their corresponding cnm mutants: OMZ175, OM50E, LM7, NCTC11060. S.mutans UA159, a natural cnm negative strain, was used as a negative control. For adherence, human cells were infected at MOI 100 and incubated for 30 min at 4oC. For invasion, human cells were infected at MOI 100 for 2 hours, washed, antibiotic treated for 3 hours to kill extracellular bacteria. Cells were lysed, serially diluted and plated on BHI, and CFUs determined. Quantitative PCR: Antibiotic protection assay with strain OMZ175 was completed, except cells were ...
Streptococcus mutans 6715 ribosomes disrupted in a Braun homogenizer were isolated in sodium dodecyl sulfate by differential centrifugation. This preparation contained 80% RNA and 20% protein, and carbohydrate was not detected by phenol-sulfuric acid and methyl pentose assays. The sedimentation coefficient of the ribosomes was 70S. After dialysis in 0.01 M phosphate buffer containing 10(-4) M MgCl2, the ribosomes dissociated into 54S and 32S particles. Leukocytes from rabbits immunized intramuscularly with the ribosomal preparation showed transformation and migration indices of 13.0 and 0.71, which were significantly different (P less than 0.05) from the respective indices of 0.9 and 0.98 in nonimmunized animals. Hyperimmune serum from these rabbits agglutinated representative Formalin-killed strains of all seven serotypes of S. mutans, inhibited adherence of live S. mutans 6715 to glass, and agglutinated S. mutans 6715 ribosomes adsorbed upon erythrocytes. These findings suggested that animals ...
Streptococcus mutans is a principal etiologic agent in the development of dental caries due to its exceptional aciduric and acidogenic properties, and i..
Aim: The aim of this study was investigate the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using curcumin (C) as a photosensitizing agent irradiated with an LED (L) in the blue wavelength as a light source on a standard and clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in a planktonic suspension model. Materials and methods: Suspensions of both strains were divided into 4 groups as follows: absence of C and L (control group: C-L-), with C and without L (C group: C+L-), absence of C with L (L group: C-L+) and presence of C and L (PDT group: C+L+). Three different concentrations of curcumin (0.75 mg/ml, 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml) and three light fluences of studied light source (24, 48 and 72 J cm-2) were tested. Aliquots of each studied group was plated in BHI agar and submitted to colony forming units counting (CFU/ml) and the data transformed into logarithmical scale. Results: A high photoinactivation rate of more than 70% was verified to standard S. mutans strain submitted to PDT whereas the ...
Department of Chemistry, UBC Faculty of Science. Vancouver Campus. 2036 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC Canada V6T 1Z1. Tel: 604.822.3266. Fax: 604.822.2847. ...
LINOSSIER, Alfredo C; VALENZUELA, Carlos Y; SOLER, Eduardo R y CONTRERAS, Estela M. Colonization of the oral cavity by group mutans streptococci according to age assesed by a semi-quantitative method in saliva. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2011, vol.28, n.3, pp.230-237. ISSN 0716-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182011000300006.. Objective: To evaluate the colonization of group mutans streptococci according to age, measuring the amount of bacteria in saliva with a semi-quantitative method in a population attended in public and private dental centers of the Metropolitan Region, Santiago, Chile. Patients and Methods: Saliva samples were obtained from 14,649 patients aged 5 to 40 years, in one public and 5 private dental centers. Bacteria concentration was estimated by the comparison with a standard counting-chart. The concentration of group mutans streptococci in saliva was test by a 3-way ANOVA. Results: Bacterial concentration of Streptococcus mutans related with the age of patients was ...
Production and Characterization of Streptokinase Enzyme by Using Streptococcus mutans Strain in Liquid State Fermentation through Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) Substrate Abstract.
Dental caries is an infectious disease which results from the acidic demineralisation of the tooth enamel and dentine as a consequence of the dental plaque (a microbial biofilm) accumulation. Research showed that several foods contain some components with antibacterial and antiplaque activity. Previous studies indicated antimicrobial and antiplaque activities in a low-molecular-mass (LMM) fraction of extracts from either an edible mushroom (Lentinus edodes) or from Italian red chicory (Cichorium intybus). We have evaluated the antimicrobial mode of action of these fractions on Streptococcus mutans, the etiological agent of human dental caries. The effects on shape, macromolecular syntheses and cell proteome were analysed. The best antimicrobial activity has been displayed by the LMM mushroom extract with a bacteriostatic effect. At the MIC of both extracts DNA synthesis was the main macromolecular synthesis inhibited, RNA synthesis was less inhibited than that of DNA and protein synthesis was inhibited
Introduction: Increased resistance of oral pathogens to conventional antimicrobial agents has led to the use of alternative methods to overcome microbial resistance. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on Streptococcus mutans. Materials & Methods: In this in vitro study, a diode laser emitting a wavelength of 810nm was used in association with EmunDo as a photosensitizing agent. Suspensions of Streptococcus mutans were prepared and divided into six groups by treatment: 1) EmunDo, 2) diode laser irradiation (100mW, 90 seconds), 3) diode laser irradiation (300mW, 30 seconds); 4) EmunDo+diode laser irradiation (100mW, 90seconds), 5) EmunDo+diode laser irradiation (300mW, 30 seconds), 6) control (no treatment). Immediately and 24 hours after photodynamic therapy, the bacterial suspensions were cultured. After incubation at 37°C, viable microorganisms of Streptococcus mutans were counted and the results were reported in ...
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been successfully used to image biofilms because of its high resolution and magnification. However, conventional SEM requires dehydration and metal coating of biological samples before observation, and because biofilms consist mainly of water, sample dehydration may influence the biofilm structure. When coated with an ionic liquid, which is a kind of salt that exists in the liquid state at room temperature, biological samples for SEM observation do not require dehydration or metal coating because ionic liquids do not evaporate under vacuum conditions and are electrically conductive. This study investigates the ability of ionic liquids to allow SEM observation of Streptococcus mutans biofilms compared with conventional coating methods. Two hydrophilic and two hydrophobic ionic liquids, all of which are electronic conductors, are used. Compared with samples prepared by the conventional method, the ionic-liquid-treated samples do not exhibit a fibrous extracellular
S. mutans UA159 and its derivative mutant strain luxS- [54] were incubated in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI, Difco Labs, Detroit, USA) at 37°C in 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v), with the addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in the case of the luxS- strain. Cultures of S. mutans were diluted 1:50, inoculated into fresh BHI media and grown in polystyrene tubes for 24 h (37°C, 95% air/5% CO2 (v/v)) for planktonic culture generation. The biofilm of luxS- was grown in BHI with addition of erythromycin (10 μg/ml) in 20-mm diameter, 15-mm deep sterile polystyrene multidishes (NUNCLON-143982, Roskilde, Denmark), as described previously [14].. As biofilm thickness plays a crucial role in mature biofilm development, we generated biofilms of wild-type bacteria under controlled nutrition flow and controlled biofilm depth conditions, by using the constant depth film fermentor (CDFF) [55]. The rotating turntable in the CDFF contained 15 polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pans, rotated under PTFE scraper bars that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic characterization of a Streptococcus mutans LraI family operon and role in virulence. AU - Kitten, Todd. AU - Munro, Cindy L.. AU - Michalek, Suzanne M.. AU - Macrina, Francis L.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2007 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Proteins belonging to the LraI (for lipoprotein receptor antigen) family function as adhesins in several streptococci, as a virulence factor for endocarditis in at least one of these species, and potentially as metal transporters in many bacteria. We have identified and characterized the chromosomal locus containing the LraI family gene (designated sloC) from Streptococcus mutans, an agent of dental caries and endocarditis in humans. Northern blot analysis indicated that sloC is cotranscribed with three other genes. As with other LraI operons, the sloA and slob genes apparently encode components of an ATP-binding cassette transport system. The product of the fourth gene, sloR, has homology to the ...
The development of a biofilm is part of the life cycle for many bacteria. The biofilm that forms on the surface of the tooth is commonly known as dental plaque and there are roughly 700 bacterial species detected amongst oral flora. The primary etiological agent for dental caries is the bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. In the presence of simple dietary sugars, this bacterium metabolizes sucrose into lactic acid, which results in the demineralization of the tooth surface. Extended exposure of lactic acid leads to dental caries.; In the oral cavity, there is a subpopulation of lysed bacteria where the DNA is released for uptake by the remaining cell populations. This flux of exogenous DNA is believed to be important for horizontal gene transfer in naturally competent bacteria such as S. mutans. Competence is defined as a physiological state where the bacterium is able to bind, transport and incorporate free DNA into its genome. Based on the Streptococcus pneumoniae competence model, there are at ...
The development of a biofilm is part of the life cycle for many bacteria. The biofilm that forms on the surface of the tooth is commonly known as dental plaque and there are roughly 700 bacterial species detected amongst oral flora. The primary etiological agent for dental caries is the bacterium, Streptococcus mutans. In the presence of simple dietary sugars, this bacterium metabolizes sucrose into lactic acid, which results in the demineralization of the tooth surface. Extended exposure of lactic acid leads to dental caries.; In the oral cavity, there is a subpopulation of lysed bacteria where the DNA is released for uptake by the remaining cell populations. This flux of exogenous DNA is believed to be important for horizontal gene transfer in naturally competent bacteria such as S. mutans. Competence is defined as a physiological state where the bacterium is able to bind, transport and incorporate free DNA into its genome. Based on the Streptococcus pneumoniae competence model, there are at ...
The effect of a slow-releasing dosage (SRD) coating of chlorhexidine on the salivary levels of Streptococcus mutans and on plaque index scores in patients with removable partial dentures (RPD) was tested. The SRD proved to be effective in maintaining a low level of S. mutans counts after mechanical cleaning, as compared to a baseline established during the control period. Plaque index scores were lower following the treatment and correlated with the microbiological results. Our findings indicate that a single application of sustained-release chlorhexidine to removable partial dentures effectively maintains S. mutans levels as well as reducing the plaque score for a minimum period of 1 week.
|i|Objective|/i|. To reduce secondary caries, glass ionomer luting cements are often used for cementing of indirect restorations. This is because of their well-known antimicrobial potential through the release of fluoride ions. The aim of this |i|in vitro|/i| study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of five dental luting cements which were based on glass ionomer cement technology. |i|Methods|/i|. Five different glass ionomer based luting cements were tested for their antimicrobial effects on |i|Streptococcus mutans|/i| in two different experimental setups: (i) determination of colony-forming units (CFUs) in a plate-counting assay; (ii) live/dead staining (LDS) and fluorescence microscopy. All experiments were conducted with or without prior treatment of the materials using sterilized human saliva. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated for adherent and planktonic bacteria. Bovine enamel slabs (BES) were used as negative control. BES covered with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) served as positive
The runner-up individual prize went to a where to meet european singles student from cork for his new method for identifying super massive stars. This box set contains one multi-part plastic space marine commander, including: nine different weapon options, three variant heads and additional parts to further customise your model. According to khrushchev, the soviet unions motives were aimed at allowing cuba to live peacefully and develop as its people desire. While handling purists will probably want to stick with the base suspension, all z4 models are electronically influenced with the z4s addition of driving dynamics control. Effect of specific antisera where to meet catholic singles in la on adherence properties of the oral bacterium streptococcus mutans. The lite version is great for beginners and includes all the where to meet interracial singles in las vegas painting features of the full version. It is a part of microsoft sharepoint family of where to meet iranian singles in la ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of titanium surfaces air-abraded with particles of Bioglass® 45S5 and three-ZnO and SrO doped compositions on the viability, adhesion and biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans. A statistically significant decrease in the viability of S. mutans was observed for all titanium discs air-particle abraded with the BAGs (p < 0.001). Also, a significant effect on diminishing biofilm formation on the titanium discs was seen for all BAGs (p < 0.01). No differences were noticed in S. mutans adhesion on titanium surfaces treated with different glasses (p = 0.964). Static SBF immersion experiments showed that after 2 and 48 h the BAG doped with 4 mol% ZnO demonstrated the highest Zn2+ ion concentration released into SBF (0.2 mg L−1). 45S5 BAG demonstrated the highest statistically significant increase in the pH throughout the 120 min of static immersion (p < 0.001). In conclusion, we showed that titanium alloy discs abraded with particles of the ...
Dental researchers in the US have discovered that cranberries hold important clues for preventing cavities. A team led by oral biologist Hyun Koo, at the University of Rochester Medical Center has discovered that the same traits that make cranberry juice a powerful weapon against bladder infections also hold promise for protecting teeth against cavities. Koo found that cranberry juice makes it difficult for the bacteria Streptococcus mutans to cling to tooth surfaces. Scientists believe that one of the main ways that cranberries prevent urinary tract infections is by inhibiting the adherence of pathogens on the surface of the bladder. Perhaps the same is true in the mouth, where bacteria use adhesion molecules to hold onto teeth, Koo said. Koos team also found evidence that cranberry juice disrupts the formation of glucan, the building block of plaque. Streptococcus mutans uses enzymes known as glucosyltransferases to build dental plaque piece by piece. Koos team found that cranberry juice ...
Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of human dental caries. It can metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates and produce large amounts of organic acids that cause enamel demineralization. Phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) plays an important role in carbohydrates uptake of S. mutans. The ptxA and ptxB genes in S. mutans encode putative enzyme IIA and enzyme IIB of the L-ascorbate-specific PTS. The aim of this study was to analyze the function of these proteins and understand the transcriptional regulatory mechanism. ptxA −, ptxB −, as well as ptxA − , ptxB − double-deletion mutants all had more extended lag phase and lower growth yield than wild-type strain UA159 when grown in the medium using L-ascorbate as the sole carbon source. Acid production and acid
Fixed orthodontic appliances might be associated with intraoral adverse effects on enamel, due to plaque accumulation and their colonization by oral microbes. At the same time, the demand for esthetic alternatives to orthodontic treatment, like thermoplastic aligners, is growing. However, thermoplastic aligners may behave differently intraorally than fixed appliances in terms of bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Therefore, the aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess the salivary prevalence of the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus sanguinis among adolescents treated orthodontically with thermoplastic aligners or fixed appliances. Thirty adolescent patients (17 girls/13 boys; mean age 13.8 years old) were assigned to treatment with either (i) self-ligating fixed appliances with nickel-titanium archwires or (ii) aligners constructed from clear transparent polyethylenterephthalat-glycol copolyester (PET-G) thermoplastic sheets.
Nonnenmann, Jamie D., The Effect of Dextranase on Dextran Production by Streptococcus Mutans 6715 S-19 Glucosyltransferase (1978). Masters Theses. 2954 ...
Smith, D.J.; Taubman, M.A.; Ebersole, J.L., 1979: Preparation of glucosyl transferase ec from streptococcus mutans by evolution from water insoluble poly saccharide with a dissociating solvent
Our laboratory has been extensively involved in establishing the role S. mutans fimbriae play in adherence to and colonization of the tooth surface by this bacterium and testing if antibodies against S. mutans fimbria components reduce the adherence of S. mutans to the tooth surface, thereby inhibiting the development of primary dental caries (6,23, 24). Caries-free (CF) adult individuals have higher levels of salivary IgA antibodies to fimbria-enriched preparation ofS. mutans than do caries-active (CA) individuals (7). These results suggest that CF subjects may be protected immunologically from dental caries in part by salivary IgA antibody against S. mutans fimbrial antigens. Perrone et al. (23) demonstrated, with immunoblot analyses and ELISA techniques with antibody to fimbria-enriched preparations, GTF, and P1 antigen, that the levels of fimbria components, GTF, and P1 antigen were higher in fimbria-enriched preparations fromS. mutans isolates from CA subjects than in preparations from CF ...
Two-component signal transduction systems that respond to the presence of inducer peptide pheromones are known to regulate a variety of processes: bacteriocin production, competence for transformation, biofilm formation, and virulence (30). The results presented here and those from previous studies (14, 15) show that S. mutans uses one and the same TCSTS to control at least three of these at first sight unrelated processes. Mutants in comA, comC, and comDE are competence deficient (14), form biofilms that are different from those formed by wild-type strains (15), and do not produce bacteriocins (this study; 32, 36).. Unlike competence, which exhibits an optimum during a short interval of the exponential phase (data not shown) (19, 23), expression of nlmAB′-lacZ was lowest in this period but reached a maximum in the stationary phase. Since both activities are controlled by the same regulatory system, the question arises as to how this differential regulation is established. The key to the ...
Oral bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of mixed oral bacteria (Streptococcus, round) with some bacilli bacteria (rod-shaped). - Masterfile - Premium Royalty-Free, Code: 679-08425093
We originally identified AtlA as a predicted surface protein that was required for maturation of biofilms (10). Disruption of atlA also resulted in resistance to autolysis and excessive chaining of cells (10, 69), and Shibata et al. (66) determined that the protein had peptidoglycan hydrolase activity in zymograms. Our present study reveals that AtlA is also required for biogenesis of a normal cell surface and full expression of genetic competence by S. mutans. Thus, AtlA appears to play a central role connecting cell wall remodeling, biofilm formation, genetic competence, and autolysis. These networks have often been shown to overlap with the stress regulon, but the AtlA protein does not appear to be required for acid tolerance, since no obvious differences were observed in the growth rate of the atlA mutant in acidified BHI broth (pH 6.4 or 5.4) (data not shown). However, it is possible that AtlA may be involved in other stress responses, because autolysin-mediated cell wall turnover is known ...
Characterization of the Streptococcus Mutans Gene for Aspartate B-semialdehyde Dehydrogenase : Identification of Sequences Involved in Gene Expression and Their Use in Vector Construction, 1986) (Ph.D Thesis, University of Alabama at Birmingham ...
The removal of tenacious dental plaque is of paramount importance; however, early diagnosis can be a challenging task in dental clinics due to the limitations of current approaches, specifically X-ray-based techniques. We have approached this problem by integrating antibacterial properties and X-ray contrast enhancement in a single probe specific to colonies of Streptococcus
My question (which you avoided) was that you appear to be promoting a (potential) vaccine that will eliminate (potentially) the need to brush, floss and regulate diet. FYI, I floss, brush and regulate my diet. I have a large number of silver fillings from the olden days before sealants. One filling disintegrated and took the side of the tooth with it, and Im now the proud owner of a crown, which is a poor color match and doesnt line up with the upper tooth that well either. My dentist of course would like to put in more of those thousand dollar babies. I would like the fillings removed and replaced with something else that isnt slowly leeching heavy metal poisoning into my system. The reason that hasnt started of course is the likelihood that the removal of the fillings will break the teeth apart (whether by accident or not) and Ill end up with crowns anyway, or something worse than ugly metal fillings. Thanks for your response and Ill hope to chat about teeth with you more in the ...
Dr. Banass broad research interest is the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of bacteria. Much of his work has focused on the microbiology of dental caries. His lab has extensively studied how the glucan-binding proteins (GBPs) synthesized by Streptococcus mutans contribute to the development of the plaque biofilm and ultimately dental caries. Since glucan -- a polymer of glucose derived from the metabolism of sucrose -- is a primary virulence factor that propels the change in microbial ecology that leads to a cariogenic plaque, it has been proposed that proteins that have the property of binding glucan play accessory roles in this process. It is now clear that the GBPs share in structurally supporting the biofilm, each doing so in a unique manner. These studies also revealed that the relative coverage of bacteria at the substratum surface of the biofilm was correlated with the risk of caries development. Dr. Banass lab is also collaborating with College of Dentistry colleagues to ...
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by Juliet MD , Jan 20, 2016 , Gynecology, Life Tools, Videos. Its something that most people dont even consider: how much your pregnancy can affect your teeth. And, how much your dental health impacts your entire life. Unfortunately, this is a topic that few obstetricians remember to address with their patients. Yet, dental ...
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Streptococcus is a diverse genus in the Firmicutes phylum and the Bacterial Kingdom. The bacteria under the streptococcus are spherical in shape, or cocci, and Gram-positive. They usually are found to grow in pairs or chains and are oxidase- and catalase-negative. Many species of streptococcus bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning that they usually make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via aerobic respiration in the presence of exygen, but are capable of producing ATP via fermentation if there is no oxygen present. While some species of streptococcus are normally found in the human flora, many species are capable of bringing about various diseases and can be potent. Such diseases range from strep throat (S. pharyngitis) to pneumonia (S. pneumoniae) to even necrotizing human flesh (S. pyogenes). Unfortunately, many of these species has been able to reproduce as antibiotic-resistant strains, which lead to the cause of some epidemics. Two species of this genus, S. agalactiae and S. mutans are ...
Video articles in JoVE about 3 flanking region include Generation of Marked and Markerless Mutants in Model Cyanobacterial Species, Generation of a Gene-disrupted Streptococcus mutans Strain Without Gene Cloning, Generating CRISPR/Cas9 Mediated Monoallelic Deletions to Study Enhancer Function in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells, Genetic Engineering of an Unconventional Yeast for Renewable Biofuel and Biochemical Production, Assessment of DNA Contamination in RNA Samples Based on Ribosomal DNA, Peptide Scanning-assisted Identification of a Monoclonal Antibody-recognized Linear B-cell Epitope, Generation of Enterobacter sp. YSU Auxotrophs Using Transposon Mutagenesis, The Production of C. elegans Transgenes via Recombineering with the galK Selectable Marker, Linear Amplification Mediated PCR - Localization of Genetic Elements and Characterization of Unknown Flanking DNA, Lateral Diffusion and Exocytosis of Membrane Proteins in Cultured Neurons Assessed using Fluorescence Recovery and
The immunoglobulins including IgG, IgM, IgA, and secretory IgA (SIgA) form the specific defense system in saliva against bacteria. SIgA is the most abundant immunologic component in saliva, mainly produced by plasma cells located in minor mucous glands. SIgA is non-detectable in neonates but become readily detectable 1 week after birth. It can neutralize pathogenic viruses, toxins, and enzymes produced by bacteria. SIgA can prevent bacteria forming colonies or attaching or penetrating host tissues, kill them directly, or activate complements or provide synergism with innate defense mechanisms. Its also able to aggregate or clump bacteria, promoting oral clearance. SIgA against streptococcus mutans can be detected in children at the age of 3 years old, and the quantity increases with the length of exposure. Other immunologic components occur in less quantity in saliva. IgG is the only detectable Ig in saliva of neonates and is mainly maternal origin. The concentration of IgG decreases to ...
The pH levels in dental biofilms are highly variable and frequently shift from above pH 7.0 in the resting pH state to as low as pH 3.0 during the ingestion of dietary carbohydrates by the host. Thus, pH exerts a significant ecological pressure on S. mutans, and its ability to tolerate and grow in low pH environments is crucial to its survival and eventual dominance in dental plaque, leading to caries (27). Considerable evidence has shown that S. mutans has evolved a number of sophisticated mechanisms to survive these pH changes including induction of an ATR in which exposure of S. mutans cells to a mild or moderately acidic pH (5.0-6.0) results in enhanced survival of a significant proportion of the cell population in a lower pH of 3.0-3.5 (28). This ATR involves a number of de novo proteins that appear to be important for adaptation to an acidic environment (29). Although many of the molecular mechanisms of the ATR in S. mutans remain unclear, this signal pH that results in synthesis of ...
A study in Alabama has found a possibly link between the bacteria in tooth decay and systemic diseases. Streptococcus mutans is frequently associated with tooth decay - it plays a role in utilizing sugar in the mouth, turning it into acid. S. mutans also releases other chemicals than allow other bacteria to adhere to the tooth surface.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A new in vitro model to study the relationship of gap size and secondary caries. AU - Totiam, P.. AU - González-Cabezas, C.. AU - Fontana, M. R.. AU - Zero, Domenick. PY - 2007/11. Y1 - 2007/11. N2 - Objectives: To investigate the relationship of gap size and secondary caries in a newly developed secondary caries microbial model that permits adjustment of the gap between the tooth and a restoration. Methods: Tooth-resin-matrix composite specimens were mounted on gap-model stages with a gap size of 50 or 500 μm in experiment 1, and 0, 25, 250, or 1,000 μm in experiment 2. They were attached to plastic Petri plates, gas-sterilized and then incubated in a microbial caries model (with Streptococcus mutans TH16 in 1% sucrose tryptic soy broth for 1 h, 4 times/day, and with a buffer solution for the rest of the day). After 8 days of incubation, tooth specimens were sectioned and stained overnight with a rhodamine B solution. Digital images taken under a confocal microscope were ...
Scardovia wiggsiae is not a new masterpiece of JRR Tolkien. Neither a new indie rock band in my town. Scardovia wiggsiae is a bacteria, specifically found in severe carious lesion in children. This bacteria is considered as a culprit in ECC! What is ECC? Lets find out then. This article was written in English, but I translated it to Indonesian so it will be convenience for you to read (especially who understand Indonesian). The actual article was published at Wednesday, 18 May 2911 12:17 Pada penelitian sebelumnya, peneliti mengidentifikasi Streptococcus mutans sebagai agen penyebab utama Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Sekarang peneliti menyatakan bahwa Scardovia wiggsiae, spesies bakteri baru yang berhubungan dengan gigi, juga merupakan agen utama dalam patogenesis penyakit ini. Artikel yang menjelaskan penelitian ini disorot dalam Journal of Clinical Microbiology. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi agen bakteri yang harusnya dipertimbangkan dalam usaha mencegah pembentukan ...
species of spherical, gram-positive bacteria Streptococci (from phylum Firmicutes) that forms chains and colonizes the mouth and upper respiratory tract of humans just a few hours after birth, making further exposure to the bacteria harmless in most circumstances. It is considered to be a good oral bacteria fighting bad odor and disease-causing species yet, if it gets into bloodstream (what, fortunately, rarely happens), it could be associated with sepsis in people with neutropenia (a deficiency in white blood cells). Streptococcus salivarius secretes a glucosltransferase (Gtf) which forms a glucan from sucrose and it uses sucrose (but not glucose) to build a capsule around itself. This bacteria can ferment the glucose yielding lactic acid. S. salivarius is also known to secrete an enzyme called urease. Urease can catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Streptococcus salivarius, Gram-positive, coccoid, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Streptococcus salivarius forms chains of cells which are bound together by the capsular material seen around each cell (shown as surface stipulation in this image). It is the principal commensal bacterium of the oral cavity and a normal inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract in humans. It is the first bacterium that colonizes dental plaque, before being joined by numerous other species of various genera. It creates favourable conditions so other species can begin to colonize. The bacterium colonizes the mouth and upper respiratory tract of humans a few hours after birth, making further exposure to the bacteria harmless. Magnification: x5,335 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0162
"Streptococcus mutans". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 18 September 2008. Thomas JG, Nakaishi LA ( ... The very initial colonizers of teeth are considered to be Streptococcus, a genus of bacteria that are usually facultative ... O'Sullivan JM, Jenkinson HF, Cannon RD (January 2000). "Adhesion of Candida albicans to oral streptococci is promoted by ... Candida albicans is known to selectively participate in "dual-species" biofilms with certain species of Streptococcus bacteria ...
The most common bacteria associated with dental cavities are the mutans streptococci, most prominently Streptococcus mutans and ... Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus species among them. Streptococcus mutans are gram-positive bacteria which constitute ... Streptococcus mutans is the leading cause of tooth decay. Low concentration fluoride ions act as bacteriostatic therapeutic ... and Streptococcus mutans. Bacteria collect around the teeth and gums in a sticky, creamy-coloured mass called plaque, which ...
Streptococcus mutans - a major pathological bacterium - synthesises polysaccharides (glucans) from sucrose to adhere to tooth ... Assev, Synnöve; Rölla, Gunnar (15 August 2009). "Further Studies on the Growth Inhibition of Streptococcus Mutans OMZ 176 by ... Forssten, Sofia D.; Björklund, Marika; Ouwehand, Arthur C. (2 March 2010). "Streptococcus mutans, caries, and simulation models ... "Morphological changes in Streptococcus mutans after chewing gum containing xylitol for twelve months". Current Microbiology. 58 ...
Shinada, K; Hashizume, L; Teraoka, K; Kurosaki, N (1999). "Effect of ultrasonic toothbrush on Streptococcus mutans". Japan J. ... "Effect of ultrasonic toothbrush on Streptococcus mutans". Japan J. Conserv. Dent. 42 (2): 410-417. US Patent number US5247716, ...
In Streptococcus mutans and other streptococci, transformation is associated with high cell density and biofilm formation. In ... Aspiras MB, Ellen RP, Cvitkovitch DG (September 2004). "ComX activity of Streptococcus mutans growing in biofilms". FEMS ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, transformation is induced by the DNA damaging agent mitomycin C. These, and other, examples indicate ...
Nicolas, Guillaume G.; Lavoie, Marc C. (January 2011). "[Streptococcus mutans and oral streptococci in dental plaque]". ... Most bacteria cannot use sorbitol for energy, but it can be slowly fermented in the mouth by Streptococcus mutans, a bacterium ...
Her postgraduate research was based on Streptococcus mutans. Verran works on the interactions of microorganisms with surfaces ... In vitro studies on the potentially cariogenic properties of certain carbohydrates when incubated with Streptococcus mutans ( ... Effect of two potential sucrose-substitutes upon adherence and sucrose metabolism of Streptoccus mutans (PhD thesis). ...
Merritt J, Qi F (April 2012). "The mutacins of Streptococcus mutans: regulation and ecology". Molecular Oral Microbiology. 27 ( ... Streptococcus pyogenes has evolved an interwoven complex of gene regulatory mechanisms in the SIP signaling pathway by ... Quorum sensing regulates a menagerie of aspects in Bacillota including the production of ropB-like proteins in Streptococcus ... Similarities in the pH sensitivity of the cell signaling mechanisms were found in pneumococci, S. mutans, and Staphylococcus ...
When the biofilm, containing S. mutans and related oral streptococci, is subjected to acid stress, the competence regulon is ... Biofilm grown S. mutans cells are genetically transformed at a rate 10- to 600-fold higher than S. mutans growing as free- ... Li YH, Lau PC, Lee JH, Ellen RP, Cvitkovitch DG (February 2001). "Natural genetic transformation of Streptococcus mutans ... Senadheera D, Cvitkovitch DG (2008). "Quorum sensing and biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans". Bacterial Signal ...
It is present in the Streptococcus mutans plasmid pUA140. The GEBRO motif instance is located in a region of the plasmid DNA in ... a cryptic plasmid from Streptococcus mutans". Plasmid. 46 (2): 77-85. doi:10.1006/plas.2001.1539. PMID 11591133. (Orphaned ... GEBRO motifs are found in some species of Streptococcus. The GEBRO motif is likely associated with plasmids. ...
Second, in Streptococcus mutans, there is a strong promoter immediately downstream of the transcription terminator that follows ... Cardineau GA, Curtiss R (March 1987). "Nucleotide sequence of the asd gene of Streptococcus mutans. Identification of the ... The asd motif was detected by bioinformatics and an individual asd RNA in Streptococcus pyogenes was detected by microarray and ... "A genome-wide analysis of small regulatory RNAs in the human pathogen group A Streptococcus". PLOS ONE. 4 (11): e7668. Bibcode: ...
... is a bacteriocin produced by Streptococcus mutans. It has activity against a broad spectrum of Gram-positive ...
Ma, Y; Marquis, RE (November 1996). "Irreversible paraben inhibition of glycolysis by Streptococcus mutans GS-5". Letters in ...
"Antibacterial substances from Albizia myriophylla wood against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans". Archives of Pharmacal Research ...
for Strains Previously Described as Streptococcus mutans Serotype h". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 38 (1 ... "Streptococcus downei" at the Encyclopedia of Life LPSN Type strain of Streptococcus downei at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ... Streptococcus downei is a Gram-positive bacterium, with type strain MFe28 (NCTC 11391T). It is thought to be cariogenic. Whiley ... 2005). "First isolation of Streptococcus downei from human dental plaques". FEMS Microbiol Lett. 249 (2): 323-6. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) has been identified as the major etiological agent of human dental caries. The development of ... Trials performed in rats showed an increase in antibody response along with a decrease in the amount of Streptococcus mutans ... Martin A. Taubman; Daniel J. Smith (June 1974). "Effects of Local Immunization with Streptococcus mutans on Induction of ... Hillman, Jeffrey D. (August 2002). "Genetically modified Streptococcus mutans for the prevention of dental caries". Antonie van ...
Yamaguchi, Yasutaka (2008). "Cariogenicity of Three Kinds of Mutans Streptococci from Pig Oral Cavity". Int J Oral-Med Sci. 7 ( ... Streptococcus ferus is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive species of the genus Streptococcus. The species is a member of ... mutans S. ferus has not had any reported pathogenic instances in humans. Streptococcus ferus was originally proposed as a ... "BACTERIOLOGY - CHAPTER TWELVE Streptococci GROUPS A, B, D AND OTHERS". Retrieved 11 April 2012. Vos, P.; Garrity, G.; Jones, D ...
"The antibacterial activity of plant extracts containing polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans". Caries Research. 41 (5): 342 ...
... -a plant flavonoid as potential antiplaque agent against Streptococcus mutans. GR Prabu, A Gnanamani, S Sadulla, ...
Naradasu, D., et al., Microbial current production from Streptococcus mutans correlates with biofilm metabolic activity. ...
Streptococcus mutans is the most important bacterium associated with dental caries. Certain bacteria in the mouth live off the ... The microorganisms that form the biofilm are almost entirely bacteria (mainly streptococcus and anaerobes), with the ...
Xylitol inhibits Streptococcus mutans in the presence of other sugars, with the exception of fructose. Xylitol is a safe ... Milgrom, P.; Ly, K.A.; Roberts, M.C.; Rothen, M.; Mueller, G.; Yamaguchi, D.K. (2006). "Mutans Streptococci Dose Response to ... Xylitol is specific in its inhibition of Streptococcus mutans, bacteria that are significant contributors to tooth decay. ... "Xylitol Inhibition of Acid Production and Growth of Mutans Streptococci in the Presence of Various Dietary Sugars under ...
... over colony formation and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans. A systematic review and meta-analysis done in a study by Arnold et ... "Are self-ligating brackets related to less formation of Streptococcus mutans colonies? A systematic review". Dental Press ...
"Inhibition of Streptococcus Mutans by Oral Commensal Streptococci and Nitrite-Mediated Activity". {{cite journal}}: Cite ... The main pathogenic bacteria the Scoffield Lab explores are Streptococcus mutans, the major cause of pathogenic oral infection ... doi:10.3390/pathogens8040297 Scoffield JA, Duan D, Zhu F, Wu H. A commensal streptococcus hijacks a Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... doi:10.1099/mic.0.000226 Scoffield JA, Wu H. Oral streptococci and nitrite-mediated interference of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ...
In some species (e.g. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus pyogenes), yuaJ is the only THI-regulated gene. Evidence from ...
One study has shown that macelignan may exert antimicrobial and anticariogenic activity against Streptococcus mutans, but this ... Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus mutans. J.Y. Chung, J.H. ...
"Comparing the cariogenic species Streptococcus sobrinus and S. mutans on whole genome level". Journal of Oral Microbiology. 6: ... and Streptococcus sobrinus, but was also effective at inhibiting growth at higher concentrations for other bacterial pathogens ...
The bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis cause dental caries by metabolising sugars. Prehistoric primates ...
Assev S, Rolla G (1984). "Evidence for presence of a xylitol phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus mutans OMZ 176". Acta ...
She has shown that mucins prevent bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus mutans, the bacteria that cause ... "Mucin O-glycans suppress quorum-sensing pathways and genetic transformation in Streptococcus mutans". Nature Microbiology. 6 (5 ...
Does Streptococcus mutans play a prominent role in caries development--and why is the answer important? ... Recovery of S. mutans Smith and Taubman; 1990. Topical. Antibody against GTF; S. mutans to total strep ratios Recolonization ... S. mutans specific IgA; S. mutans to total strep ratios. Ma et al.; 1987. Passive. ... Are the Mutans Streptococci Still Considered Relevant to Understanding the Microbial Etiology of Dental Caries?. ...
... J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent ... strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. Filter sterilized aqueous extract of garlic was prepared and ... mutans isolated from carious teeth. Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6%) isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which ... Chlorhexidine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for MDR and non-MDR S. mutans varied from 2 to 16 microg ml(-1) and from ...
Streptococcus mutans (2). Description and significance. Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive bacterium that lives in the ... S. mutans is considered to be the most cariogenic of all of the oral Streptococci (8). S. mutans was first described by James ... Some virulence factors of S. mutans are found that distinguish S. mutans strains from other oral streptococci isolated from the ... mutans in dental plague and the presence of another bacterim named Streptococcus sanguinis. The study shows that S. mutans ...
An important caries prevention strategy for children includes measures to interfere with transmission of mutans streptococci ( ... Xylitol gum and maternal transmission of mutans streptococci J Dent Res. 2010 Jan;89(1):56-60. doi: 10.1177/0022034509352958. ... An important caries prevention strategy for children includes measures to interfere with transmission of mutans streptococci ( ... Streptococcus mutans / drug effects * Streptococcus mutans / isolation & purification * Sweetening Agents / administration & ...
STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS (UNII: 5C7J33MJJ1) (STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS - UNII:5C7J33MJJ1) STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS. 15 [hp_C] in 1 mL. ... STRE HOMO- enterococcus faecalis, pheumococcinum, streptococcus viridans, streptococcus mutans liquid. Out of scope - Out of ... STRE HOMO- enterococcus faecalis, pheumococcinum, streptococcus viridans, streptococcus mutans liquid. To receive this label ... STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. 15 [hp_X] in 1 mL. STREPTOCOCCUS VIRIDANS GROUP (UNII: NNV2379HKR) (STREPTOCOCCUS VIRIDANS GROUP - ...
... such as Streptococcus mutans, which integrated into a complex dental plaque biofilm on tooth surface. Streptococcus mutans has ... such as Streptococcus mutans, which integrated into a complex dental plaque biofilm on tooth surface. Streptococcus mutans has ... Small Molecule Inhibitors for Streptococcus Mutans Biofilms. Author(s): Qiong Zhang, Lei Cheng, Xuedong Zhou, Jing Zou* and Hui ... Keywords: Oral infectious disease, biofilm, Streptococcus mutans, extracellular polymeric substances, pathogenic microbes, ...
... mutans were made by using, as parents, two serotype c strains that produced unusually large amounts of ethanol, acetic acid, ... Serotype c Streptococcus mutans mutatable to lactate dehydrogenase deficiency S Abhyankar et al. J Dent Res. 1985 Nov. ... Serotype c Streptococcus mutans mutatable to lactate dehydrogenase deficiency S Abhyankar, H J Sandham, K H Chan ... Antimicrobial Effect of a Peptide Containing Novel Oral Spray on Streptococcus mutans. Xiong K, Chen X, Hu H, Hou H, Gao P, Zou ...
Assessment of the effect of probiotic curd consumption on salivary pH and streptococcus mutans counts * R Sudhir ... Salivary pH and salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts were recorded at baseline and after 30 days and statistically compared ... Keywords: Dental caries, probiotic, curd, salivary pH, streptococcus mutans. Nigerian Medical Journal , Vol. 53 , Issue 3 , ... term consumption of probiotic curd containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and normal curd on salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts ...
The biofilm inhibitory effect was investigated using Streptococcus mutans UA159 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. S. mutans was ... Chitosan incorporated in denture base resin reduce biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Rukke H.V, ... Chitosan incorporated in denture base resin reduce biofilm formation of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Håkon Valen ... of methacrylated chitosan covalently incorporated into the PMMA network of denture base resin against Streptococcus mutans and ...
Streptococci and Actinomyces Inhibit Regrowth of Streptococcus-Mutans on Gnotobiotic Pet Molar Teeth after Chlorhexidine ...
We observed that EGCG inhibited in a dose-dependent manner both the planktonic growth and the biofilm formation of S. mutans. ... Significant reduction of S. mutans biofilm formation, DNA content, and EPS production was observed at 2.2-4.4 mg/ml EGCG. ... EGCG, a natural polyphenol, has a significant inhibitory effect on S. mutans dental biofilm formation and EPS production, and ... mutans) plays a major role in the formation of dental caries. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the green tea ...
Streptococcus mutans can adhere to other plaque bacteria, such as Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus, and this ... Streptococcus mutans can adhere to other plaque bacteria, such as Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus, and this ... Streptococcus mutans can adhere to other plaque bacteria, such as Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus, and this ... Streptococcus mutans can adhere to other plaque bacteria, such as Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus, and this ...
... Short- and Long-Term Influence of Fluoride-Containing Prophylactics on the Growth of Streptococcus mutans on Titanium Surface. ...
Streptococcus mutans out-competes Streptococcus gordonii in vivo.. Project description:Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus ... A Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Streptococcus mutans.. Project description:Streptococcus mutans is one of ... Complete genome sequence of the serotype k Streptococcus mutans strain LJ23.. Project description:Streptococcus mutans is the ... Intracellular alpha-amylase of Streptococcus mutans.. Project description:Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene ...
VASCONCELOS, Laurylene César de S. et al. Streptococcus mutans in denture stomatitis patients under antifungal therapy. Rev. ... PURPOSE: To assess the number of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of patients with denture stomatitis before and after antifungal ... RESULTS: The most frequent lesions were type I (43.5%) and II (53.5%). The amount of S. mutans was six times higher in patients ... CONCLUSION: The data suggest that Streptococcus spp collaborates with Candida spp in the etiology and pathogenesis of denture ...
We and others have found that c-di-AMP is not essential in Streptococcus mutans, an important etiological agent of dental ... Bacterial Second Messenger Mediated Virulence Regulation in Streptococcus mutans Wu, Hui Oregon Health and Science University, ... An emerging bacterial second messenger c-di-AMP is not only conserved in cariogenic Streptococcus mutans but also found in ... Bacterial Second Messenger Mediated Virulence Regulation in Streptococcus Mutans. Wu, Hui / University of Alabama Birmingham. ...
A. terreus was found to be effective against all the three strains of S. mutans with zone of growth inhibition ranging between ... by using serial dilution agar plate technique and screened for its antagonistic activity against the three Streptococcus mutans ... Antagonistic Activity of Soil Fungal Metabolite against Streptococcus mutans Strains. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 3(2): April ... Antagonistic Activity of Soil Fungal Metabolite against Streptococcus mutans Strains. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 3(2): April ...
臺大位居世界頂尖大學之列,為永久珍藏及向國際展現本校豐碩的研究成果及學術能量,圖書館整合機構典藏(NTUR)與學術庫(AH)不同功能平台,成為臺大學術典藏NTU scholars。期能整合研究能量、促
Liu, N., Chaudhry, M. T., Xie, Z., Kreth, J., & Merritt, J. (2017). Identification of new degrons in Streptococcus mutans ... Liu, N, Chaudhry, MT, Xie, Z, Kreth, J & Merritt, J 2017, Identification of new degrons in Streptococcus mutans reveals a ... Using the LexA-like regulator HdiR of Streptococcus mutans, we identified two separate N-degrons derived from HdiR that confer ... Using the LexA-like regulator HdiR of Streptococcus mutans, we identified two separate N-degrons derived from HdiR that confer ...
Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries (cavities), but the bacterium also causes endocarditis ... Genetics and Genomics of the yidC paralogs in Streptococcus mutans Palmer, Sara Marie Raser Ohio State University, Columbus, OH ... Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries (cavities), but the bacterium also causes endocarditis ... Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries (cavities), a significant contributor to endocarditis, ...
Effect of Polymer Degree of Conversion on Streptococcus mutans Biofilms. October 5, 2012 ...
Detection of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in extirpated heart valve and atheromatous plaque specimens. Journal of Clinical ... Detection of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in extirpated heart valve and atheromatous plaque specimens. In: Journal of ... Detection of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans in extirpated heart valve and atheromatous plaque specimens. / Nakano, Kazuhiko; ... Streptococcus mutans was frequently detected in the heart valve (69%) and atheromatous plaque (74%) specimens, while other ...
Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of dental plaque and a major etiologic agent of dental caries (tooth decay). In ... N2 - Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of dental plaque and a major etiologic agent of dental caries (tooth decay). ... AB - Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of dental plaque and a major etiologic agent of dental caries (tooth decay). ... abstract = "Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of dental plaque and a major etiologic agent of dental caries (tooth ...
A Streptococcus mutans biofilm was grown for 48 h on the restoration surfaces and subsequently evaluated using scanning ... A Streptococcus mutans biofilm was grown for 48 h on the restoration surfaces and subsequently evaluated using scanning ... against Streptococcus mutans and its ability to reduce biofilm formation on standardized experimental Class I restorations in ... against Streptococcus mutans and its ability to reduce biofilm formation on standardized experimental Class I restorations in ...
Shear stress tolerance of Streptococcus mutans aggregates determined by microfluidic funnel device (μFFD). Authors. Shumi W.; ... Dental caries are initiated by the attachment of Streptococcus mutans aggregates to the surface of teeth. Bacterial adhesion to ... Shear stress tolerance of Streptococcus mutans aggregates determined by microfluidic funnel device (μFFD) ... Herein, we describe a method for determining the effect of shear stress and sucrose on the attachment of S. mutans aggregates ...
Streptococcus mutans Item Number: (470179-170). Ratings: (No Reviews) REVIEWS (0) Each. ...
Streptococcus mutans.. Dental caries -- Immunological aspects.. Notes:. Includes full text of 5 articles previously published ... Studies of naturally-occurring antibodies to mutans streptococci in humans / Elisabeth Camling.. ...
... ... Mikroorganisme yang paling dominan menyebabkan karies gigi antara lain Streptococcus mutans dan Lactobacillus. Salah satu cara ... Disimpulkan bahwa berkumur ekstrak lada putih dapat mengurangi jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans dan Lactobacillus. ...
Inhibitory effects of flavedo, albedo, fruits, and leaves of Citrus unshiu extracts on Streptococcus mutans. Archives of Oral ... Inhibitory effects of flavedo, albedo, fruits, and leaves of Citrus unshiu extracts on Streptococcus mutans. In: Archives of ... Inhibitory effects of flavedo, albedo, fruits, and leaves of Citrus unshiu extracts on Streptococcus mutans. / Nomura, Ryota; ... keywords = "Albedo, Biofilm formation, Citrus unshiu, Dental caries, Streptococcus mutans",. author = "Ryota Nomura and Jumpei ...
  • The objective of this study was to compare the effect of short‑term consumption of probiotic curd containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and normal curd on salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts, as well as salivary pH. (ajol.info)
  • Mikroorganisme yang paling dominan menyebabkan karies gigi antara lain Streptococcus mutans dan Lactobacillus. (umy.ac.id)
  • Disimpulkan bahwa berkumur ekstrak lada putih dapat mengurangi jumlah koloni bakteri Streptococcus mutans dan Lactobacillus. (umy.ac.id)
  • Streptococcus mutans , Lactobacillus ) and a diet rich in fermentable carbohydrates, particularly sugars. (cmaj.ca)
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus mutans. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • an indurated gob of polysaccharides and bacteria-eg, Lactobacillus acidophilus , Streptococcus mutans . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of the most common include Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and acidophilus, and Actinomyces naeslundii. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Several human studies have reported that eating yogurt containing live (viable) probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus thermophilus can significantly reduce risk of tooth cavities and significantly reduce levels of Streptococcus mutans in the mouth. (knowthecause.com)
  • Lactobacillus paracasei SD1 has been shown to have strong inhibitory effects against Mutans streptococci , making it a good choice as an oral probiotic. (orthodonticproductsonline.com)
  • Lara-Carrillo E, Montiel-Bastida NM, Sanchez-Perez L, Alanis-Tavira J. Effect of orthodontic treatment on saliva, plaque and the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. (udea.edu.co)
  • Streptococcus mutans has been shown to be one of the main pathologic organisms in the initiation and development of dental caries because of the following virulence attributes: producing glucosyltransferases, and synthesizing extracellular polysaccharides, which promote bacterial accumulation and biofilm formation, surviving at a low pH environment and rapidly producing organic acids. (eurekaselect.com)
  • As the attachment of the cells to a surface is crucial for Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation, it became an attractive target for researchers to design successful small molecule inhibitors. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Biofilm studies showed that denture base material containing methacrylated chitosan (20 wt%) reduced both biofilm formation of S. mutans and Candida albicans compared to LMW chitosan and control. (niom.no)
  • Methacrylated chitosan incorporated in a PMMA-based denture resin reduced biofilm formation of S. mutans and Candida albicans. (niom.no)
  • We and others have found that c-di-AMP is not essential in Streptococcus mutans, an important etiological agent of dental caries (cavity), but regulates cariogenic biofilm formation, bacterial stress responses, and dynamic polymicrobial interactions that are crucial for S. mutans fitness and virulence. (grantome.com)
  • Influence of MDPB-containing Primer on Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm Formation in Simulated Class I Restorations. (units.it)
  • Purpose: To evaluate the activity of a methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide (MDPB)-containing self-etching primer (Clearfil Protect Bond) against Streptococcus mutans and its ability to reduce biofilm formation on standardized experimental Class I restorations in vitro. (units.it)
  • In addition, Citrus extract was added to the bacterial suspensions of S. mutans MT8148, and inhibitory effects of C. unshiu extracts on MT8148 for antimicrobial activity, bacterial growth, and biofilm formation were analyzed. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on biofilm formation of S. mutans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We observed that EGCG inhibited in a dose-dependent manner both the planktonic growth and the biofilm formation of S. mutans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significant reduction of S. mutans biofilm formation, DNA content, and EPS production was observed at 2.2-4.4 mg/ml EGCG. (biomedcentral.com)
  • EGCG, a natural polyphenol, has a significant inhibitory effect on S. mutans dental biofilm formation and EPS production, and thus might be a potential drug in preventing dental caries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effects of L. reuteri and L. casei on the biofilm formation of major oral pathogens, Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis . (scidentj.com)
  • S. mutans ATCC 25175 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 were cultured in brain-heart infusion broth and used for biofilm formation on 96-well microplate platform. (scidentj.com)
  • inhibit growth, biofilm formation and gene expression of caries-inducing Streptococcus mutans. (nih.gov)
  • [ 8 ] Using a mixed-species plaque model in rats, van der Hoeven and Franken [ 40 ] found that the addition of S. mutans - which attained a plaque representation of 20% -- yielded significantly higher amounts of lactic acid than the mixed-species plaque without S. mutans . (medscape.com)
  • The objective of present investigation was to study in vitro inhibitory activity of garlic extract on multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Streptococcus mutans isolated from human carious teeth. (nih.gov)
  • Three lactate-dehydrogenase-deficient mutants of serotype c S. mutans were made by using, as parents, two serotype c strains that produced unusually large amounts of ethanol, acetic acid, and acetoin, and very little lactic acid, when grown in broth containing a limiting amount of glucose. (nih.gov)
  • Acetoin production by wild-type strains and a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans. (nih.gov)
  • In the present investigation, a soil fungus was isolated by using serial dilution agar plate technique and screened for its antagonistic activity against the three Streptococcus mutans strains following the overlay culture plate technique and agar well diffusion method. (rjptonline.org)
  • A. terreus was found to be effective against all the three strains of S. mutans with zone of growth inhibition ranging between 30 and 37mm. (rjptonline.org)
  • As part of the postdoctoral training of the applicant, an extensive phenotypic characterization was performed on 15 of the sequenced strains, and it was demonstrated that there is substantial diversity in gene content and virulence potential within the species S. mutans. (grantome.com)
  • In this study, we elucidated the biosynthetic pathway encoded by muc, a hybrid polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS/NRPS) biosynthetic gene cluster (BGC), present in a number of globally distributed S. mutans strains. (elsevier.com)
  • Investigations have focused on whether these children harbor more virulent strains of Streptococcus mutans , whether humoral responses differ by racial/ethnic group, and whether varying concentrations of selected salivary innate immunity proteins are associated with different caries outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • Turns out, there are specific strains of bacteria - streptococcus mutans, in particular - that are more common in mouths with cavities. (ufl.edu)
  • The genome of S. mutans UA159 , a serotype c strain, has been completely sequenced and is composed of 2,030,936 base pairs. (kenyon.edu)
  • The biofilm inhibitory effect was investigated using Streptococcus mutans UA159 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. (niom.no)
  • However, this approach has not been reported in studies of S. mutans Here, we therefore developed a cgMLST scheme for S. mutans We surveyed 199 available S. mutans genomes as a means of identifying cgMLST targets, developing a scheme that incorporated 594 targets from the S. mutans UA159 reference genome. (omicsdi.org)
  • 2] "Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans UA159, a cariogenic dental pathogen. (tcdb.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the biofilm inhibitory effect of methacrylated chitosan covalently incorporated into the PMMA network of denture base resin against Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. (niom.no)
  • The data suggest that Streptococcus spp collaborates with Candida spp in the etiology and pathogenesis of denture stomatitis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Candida species has been shown to enhance the adherence of S. mutans to the oral biofilm and carious tooth substance. (jiaphd.org)
  • However, there is a paucity of the literature regarding the association between S. mutans and Candida albicans related to the ECC. (jiaphd.org)
  • High amounts of sugar in the diet can promote growth of Streptococcus mutans and also promote the growth of the yeast (fungus) Candida in the mouth. (knowthecause.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans can adhere to other plaque bacteria, such as Streptococcus sanguis and Actinomyces viscosus, and this adherence is enhanced by saliva. (nyu.edu)
  • Salivary agglutinin, a mucinlike glycoprotein known to mediate the aggregation of many oral streptococci in vitro, was found to mediate the adherence of S. mutans to S. sanguis or A. viscosus. (nyu.edu)
  • Adherence of S. mutans to saliva- or agglutinin-coated S. sanguis and A. viscosus was inhibited by antibodies to the bacterial agglutinin receptor. (nyu.edu)
  • The results suggest that salivary agglutinin can promote adherence of S. mutans to S. sanguis and A. viscosus through interactions with the agglutinin receptor on S. mutans. (nyu.edu)
  • S. mutans and C. albicans counts were determined using Mutans-Sanguis agar and CHROMagar, respectively. (jiaphd.org)
  • Have abused the controlled mutans , Streptococcus sanguis, Porphyromonas. (marketforceanalysis.com)
  • for example, S mutans and Streptococcus sanguis typically adhere to hard surfaces, while Streptococcus salivarius is found primarily on the tongue. (medscape.com)
  • The association of S. mutans in dense biofilms on the teeth suggests that S. mutans may affect other plaque bacteria in the mouth. (kenyon.edu)
  • The present study demonstrated the potential antibiofilm activity of L. casei strain Shirota and L. reuteri ATCC 55730 against S. mutans and P. gingivalis biofilms in vitro . (scidentj.com)
  • EGCG has been shown in previous studies to fight Streptococcus mutans , which forms biofilms that cause caries. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • C-di-AMP is essential in many Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. (grantome.com)
  • An emerging bacterial second messenger c-di-AMP is not only conserved in cariogenic Streptococcus mutans but also found in significant pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. (grantome.com)
  • We compared the clinical features of pediatric KIE cases with those of Streptococcus species IE (StIE) and Staphylococcus aureus IE (SaIE). (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of the study was to identify the influence of dentifrice containing xylitol on S. mutans serotype E (in vitro). (ui.ac.id)
  • Inactivation of the gene coding for c-di-AMP producing enzyme reduced bacterial colonization and virulence in a rat model of dental caries, demonstrating a critical role of c-di-AMP in S. mutans virulence. (grantome.com)
  • While intrapartum antibiotics for Group B streptococcus reduces infant colonization it does not reduce infant mortality. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • With regard to mother-child relationships, microbiological studies have associated the mother's salivary levels of S. mutans to the degree of colonization and/or caries experience in her children 2 2. (scielo.br)
  • In a recent study, beta-glucoside metabolism-encoding genes were expressed in Streptococcus gordonii colonization of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) and impaired heart valves in rabbits (2). (kenyon.edu)
  • However, fixed and removable orthodontic appliances that help correct problems facilitate the colonization of bacteria, such as Mutans streptococci . (orthodonticproductsonline.com)
  • In fact, earlier studies have shown that there is an inverse relationship between the quantity of S. mutans in dental plague and the presence of another bacterim named Streptococcus sanguinis . (kenyon.edu)
  • Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. (omicsdi.org)
  • To assess the number of Streptococcus mutans in saliva of patients with denture stomatitis before and after antifungal therapy. (bvsalud.org)
  • Studies have shown a higher risk of caries because of lower pH of saliva, reduced salivary buffering capacity, sugar added to tobacco by manufacturers and high number of lactobacilli and Streptococcus mutans in the mouths of tobacco users (3,4). (who.int)
  • This study aims to observe the change in the pH of saliva and to assess the efficacy of the herbal rinses-Tulsi and Black myrobalans on S. mutans count while comparing it with Sodium fluoride mouthrinse. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Levels of salivary Mutans streptococci and lactobacilli were measured at the start of the study and once a week for 4 weeks after use of the probiotic concluded. (orthodonticproductsonline.com)
  • Universal screening and antibiotic prophylaxis of all group B streptococcus carriers result in increased antibiotic exposure in our population, which might carry its own risks. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • False-positive detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in chromogenic media (Strep B Carrot Broth) due to presence of Enterococcus faecalis in High Vaginal swabs. (amedeo.com)
  • Group B Streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococci agalactiae is one of the serologically distinct species of genus streptococcus which colonizes genitourinary and lower gastrointestinal tracts of female populations. (researchsquare.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries (cavities), but the bacterium also causes endocarditis and is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke. (grantome.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is the primary etiological agent of dental caries (cavities), a significant contributor to endocarditis, and has recently been associated with atherosclerosis and stroke. (grantome.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is a common constituent of dental plaque and a major etiologic agent of dental caries (tooth decay). (elsevier.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans typically gets the blame for producing most tooth decay. (dentistrytoday.com)
  • Bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans are associated with tooth decay and poor teeth health. (organicfacts.net)
  • In the study, counts of Mutans streptococci - which promote tooth decay - were significantly reduced among those patients who used the probiotic. (orthodonticproductsonline.com)
  • These bacteria can also initiate the breakdown of tooth enamel, but Streptococcus mutans is the only bacteria thus far to be the most efficient and consistent in the breakdown of tooth enamel leading to tooth decay or dental caries. (uwlax.edu)
  • The research, published in the June issue (PDF) of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, explains how a specifically targeted antimicrobial peptide, or STAMP, known as C16G2 works to eradicate only the harmful acid-producing Streptococcus mutans bacteria, the main cause of tooth decay, without disturbing the benign and beneficial bacteria in the mouth. (wordpress.com)
  • For isolation of S. mutans, extracted human carious teeth were cultured in Todd-Hewit broth and Mitis-Salivarius-Bacitracin agar. (nih.gov)
  • Several other oral streptococci including ''S. mitis'', ''S. salivarius'' and ''S. parasanguinis'' are amylase-binding. (kenyon.edu)
  • Molekulare Methoden zum Nachweis des oral-probiotischen Stammes Streptococcus salivarius ssp. (ukaachen.de)
  • AbstractIntroduction Streptococcus salivarius is a dominant oral species and the best suitable candidate for probiotic of the oral cavity. (unesp.br)
  • ResumoIntrodução Streptococcus salivarius é uma espécie dominante na cavidade bucal e tem sido indicada como um ótimo candidato para uso como probiótico. (unesp.br)
  • Conclusão: A seleção de cepas de Streptococcus salivarius com alta atividade inibitória contra Streptococcus pyogenes, bem como aderência a células KB, pode nos levar ao próximo passo, ou seja, o uso das melhores cepas para o estudo de colonização in vivo. (unesp.br)
  • Some of the other species of Streptococcus that S. mutans shares its habitat with include Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sangius, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus fecali , and Streptococcus sorbrinus . (uwlax.edu)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutants of serotype g Streptococcus mutans. (nih.gov)
  • Streptococcus mutans serotype E is a major bacterium causing caries, and widely present in dental plaque. (ui.ac.id)
  • These solutions were examined in S. mutans serotype E test cultures by the diffusion method. (ui.ac.id)
  • Cloning of the gene for cell-surface protein antigen A from Streptococcus sobrinus (serotype d). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Factors related to maternal transmission of mutans streptococci in high-risk children-pilot study. (scielo.br)
  • Development of anti-S. mutans virulence strategy in the proposal is also relevant to devise species-specific anti-virulence strategy targeting significant pathogens such as S. aureus and S. pneumoniae, which should open a new venue to the design of new anti-infectious agents to combat microbial infection and antibiotic resistance. (grantome.com)
  • Estas foram lavadas para lise das células KB e liberação das bactérias para determinação de UFC.Resultado O teste de bacteriocina, mostrou que 133 cepas apresentaram atividade inibitória contra Streptococcus pyogenes. (unesp.br)
  • Serotypes of Streptococcus mutans ( cricetus , rattus , ferus , sobrinus ) are primarily responsible for causing oral disease. (medscape.com)
  • Acidogenic activity and growth of Streptococcus mutans and of suspensions of dental plaque in the presence of glucose and sucrose]. (nih.gov)
  • A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. (omicsdi.org)
  • A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. (omicsdi.org)
  • Determine the mechanisms of regulation of yidC1 and yidC2 in response to growth domain, and to environmental influences that are known to induce membrane stress and to affect persistence and pathogenesis by S. mutans. (grantome.com)
  • Finally, S. mutans utilized the reutericyclin produced by muc to impair the growth of neighboring oral commensal bacteria. (elsevier.com)
  • Dentifrices containing xylitol have been shown to inhibit the growth of these mutans streptococci. (ui.ac.id)
  • Peter Zuber, "Role of actoin dehydrogenase lipoylation in growth of Streptococcus mutans. (ohsu.edu)
  • Disruption of L-rhamnose biosynthesis results in severe growth defects in streptococcus mutans. (rochester.edu)
  • In laboratory research, scientists found that compounds found in propolis helped inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans, an oral bacteria known to contribute to the development of cavities. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is one of the primary pathogens responsible for the development of dental caries. (omicsdi.org)
  • Little is known about the role of c-di-AMP signaling pathways that modulate distinct and conserved virulent properties found in S. mutans and other pathogens. (grantome.com)
  • However, no information is available regarding the involvement of cariogenic pathogens such as Streptococcus mutans. (elsevier.com)
  • The most common IE pathogens in children are gram-positive cocci, especially the α-hemolytic viridans group streptococci (e.g. (cdc.gov)
  • 1 year of age, the viridans group streptococci are the most commonly isolated organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Results: Consumption of probiotic curd resulted in a statistically significant reduction in S. Mutans colony counts (P0.05) in both the groups. (ajol.info)
  • Conclusion: Short‑term consumption of probiotic curds can reduce oral S. Mutans counts. (ajol.info)
  • [ 42 ] reported that tooth surfaces with greater than 5% S. mutans were the most likely to become carious over a period of 10 months. (medscape.com)
  • [ 43 ] reported that S. mutans from carious fissures averaged 7.3% of the total cultivable count. (medscape.com)
  • Disk sensitivity tests and broth dilution methods were used to determine antibiotic sensitivity profile and inhibitory activity of garlic extract on S. mutans isolated from carious teeth. (nih.gov)
  • Of 105 carious teeth tested, 92 (87.6%) isolates of S. mutans were recovered, among which 28 (30.4%) were MDR since they were resistant to four or more antibiotics. (nih.gov)
  • S. mutans was first described by James Kilian Clarke (1886-1950) after he isolated it from a carious lesion, but it was not until 1960s that real interest in this microbe was generated when researchers began studying dental caries (8). (kenyon.edu)
  • S. mutans metabolizes sucrose to produce polysaccharides that help them cohere to one another forming plaque. (uwlax.edu)
  • Streptococcus mutans N66 genome sequencing project. (omicsdi.org)
  • A Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Streptococcus mutans. (omicsdi.org)
  • the inhibitory effects of these extracts on Streptococcus mutans, a major pathogen of dental caries, were investigated. (elsevier.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans was frequently detected in the heart valve (69%) and atheromatous plaque (74%) specimens, while other bacterial species, including those related to periodontitis, were detected with much lower frequencies. (elsevier.com)
  • The bacterial composition in cardiovascular tissues was found to be markedly distinct from that in dental plaque, with only a limited number of species, including S. mutans, in the cardiovascular regions shown to have possibly originated from the oral cavity. (elsevier.com)
  • Semiquantitative assay results revealed that S. mutans was detected in significant quantities in the heart valve (40%) and atheromatous plaque (48%) specimens, whereas the quantities of all other tested bacterial species, including several related to periodontitis, were negligible in the cardiovascular samples. (elsevier.com)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase mutants of Streptococcus mutans: isolation and preliminary characterization. (nih.gov)
  • All isolates, MDR and non-MDR of S. mutans were sensitive to garlic extract with the MIC ranging from 4 to 32 microg ml(-1). (nih.gov)
  • Sixty-eight sequence types (STs) were identified in this cgMLST scheme (cgSTs) in 80 S. mutans isolates from 40 children that were sequenced in this study, compared to 35 STs identified by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). (omicsdi.org)
  • In a recent collaborative effort, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 57 clinical isolates of S. mutans, demonstrating that the pan-, and core-genomes contain approximately 3300 and 1400 genes, respectively. (grantome.com)
  • Determine how deletion of yidC1 or yidC2 affects the transcriptomes of phenotypically and genetically-diverse isolates of S. mutans using RNA-deep sequencing. (grantome.com)
  • 1] "A binding protein-dependent transport system in Streptococcus mutans responsible for multiple sugar metabolism. (tcdb.org)
  • To assess and compare the levels of S. mutans and C. albicans among 3-5-year-old preschool children with and without ECC and to determine the association between them. (jiaphd.org)
  • There was a significant difference between ECC group and non-ECC group for S. mutans ( P = 0.04) and C. albicans ( P = 0.02) levels. (jiaphd.org)
  • There was no significant association between S. mutans and C. albicans in ECC and non-ECC groups. (jiaphd.org)
  • Children with ECC were more likely to have high levels of S. mutans and C. albicans when compared to non-ECC group. (jiaphd.org)
  • Children with ECC presented higher levels of S. mutans and C. albicans compared to children without ECC. (jiaphd.org)
  • High affinity between S. mutans and C. albicans suggests interaction between these diverse species that may mediate cariogenic development. (jiaphd.org)
  • Salivary pH and salivary Streptococcus Mutans counts were recorded at baseline and after 30 days and statistically compared using the Student's t‑test. (ajol.info)
  • Salivary samples were collected and sent to the laboratory at baseline, 1 h postrinsing and after 7th day of rinsing for determining the salivary pH and S. mutans count. (fluoridealert.org)
  • There was a significant increase in the salivary pH and reduction in S. mutans count after rinsing in all the three groups. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Increase in salivary pH was more in the Sodium fluoride mouthrinse when compared to the experimental herbal groups (Group B and Group C). While S. mutans counts reduced more with Tulsi mouthrinse at 1 h postrinsing and after the 7th day of rinsing more reduction was seen in Black myrobalans mouthrinse group. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Furthermore, extracts of Citrus sinensis also showed inhibitory effects on S. mutans, although these effects were weaker than the effects of C. unshiu. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusion: These results suggest that extracts from C. unshiu fruits exhibit inhibitory effects on S. mutans, among which albedo may be especially useful for dental caries prevention due to its neutral pH and abundant polyphenols, in addition to its inhibitory effects. (elsevier.com)
  • They showed statistically significant difference in efficacy against S. mutans , and poor antimicrobial effect against L. acidophilus . (medscimonit.com)
  • The results of the search show the antibacterial properties of natural antimicrobial peptides against Streptococcus mutans . (datadryad.org)
  • In addition, the antimicrobial peptides synthesized by researchers could inhibit bacteria, especially against Streptococcus mutans . (datadryad.org)
  • Note: Streptoccous thermophilus is a relative of Streptococcus mutans but does not cause cavities. (knowthecause.com)
  • She explained that the bacteria streptococcus mutans is the only bacteria that causes cavities, but xylitol is the only sweetener in which that bacteria cannot eat to create the acid which causes cavities. (domino.com)
  • Dental cavities are caused by bacteria - mainly Streptococcus mutans - that eat sugars or carbohydrates in the mouth. (medscape.com)
  • Oral streptococci depend mainly upon the phosphotransferase system (PTS) to transport carbohydrates by means of phosphorylation and translocation through the membrane. (kenyon.edu)
  • In the metabolism of S. mutans , it is able to cleave sucrose (after consuming carbohydrates provided by the animal diet) into glucose plus fructose. (kenyon.edu)
  • One of the virulence factors of S. mutans in cariogenicity is its ability to attach to the tooth surface and form a biofilm (11). (kenyon.edu)
  • Sequencing upstream of the Streptococcus mutans gene for a CcpA gene homolog, regM, revealed an open reading frame, named amy, with homology to genes encoding alpha-amylases. (omicsdi.org)
  • The proposal tests a new hypothesis that links c-di-AMP signaling to VicR-mediated expression of a variety of virulence genes through a distinct c-di-AMP receptor, and documents non-essential nature of c-di-AMP signaling in S. mutans, and explores the translational potential using anti-virulence strategy. (grantome.com)
  • Deletion of either yidC gene results in diminished virulence of S. mutans in a rat caries model, while deletion of both genes is lethal. (grantome.com)
  • A chromosomal deletion in S. mutans spanning the bglP and bglA genes resulted in a strain that was unable to hydrolyse the beta-glucoside aesculin in the presence of glucose. (tamu.edu)
  • Oral streptococci, including S. gordonii , rely on sugars derived mainly from carbohydrates as an energy source. (kenyon.edu)
  • High-carbohydrate diets undermine dental health because these foods' residue in the mouth break down into sugars, which feed the Streptococcus mutans bacteria which are also present. (chatsaudicam.com)
  • Following animals studies of the efficacy of liposomal S. mutans antigen vaccines, Dr. Childers has initiated human FDA Phase I clinical trials studying the safety and immunogenicity of liposomal oral and nasal immunization. (uab.edu)
  • Humans immunized with Streptococcus mutans antigen by mucosal routes. (uab.edu)
  • There are no bacteriophage genomes present in S. mutans (7). (kenyon.edu)
  • For example, a diet rich in dietary carbohydrate such as refined sugar favors bacteria such as Streptococcus mutans , the organism that causes dental caries. (medscape.com)
  • The glucose is polymerized into an extracellular dextran polymer that cements S. mutans to tooth enamel and becomes the matrix of dental plaque. (kenyon.edu)
  • Researchers claim that the practice helps prevent these diseases by reducing the number of Streptococcus mutans, one of the main bacteria in the mouth. (wsmagazine.net)
  • [ 44 ] reported S. mutans as high as 10% of the total blood agar count from molars of children with severe early childhood caries. (medscape.com)
  • Alexander Kendall (Pfeifer lab), "Designing Molecules for S. mutans Biofilm Inhibition. (ohsu.edu)