A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A family of LINCOMYCIN-related glycosides that contain a pyrrolidine ring linked via an amide-bond to a pyranose moiety. Individual members of this family are defined by the arrangement of specific constituent groups on the lyncomycin molecule. Many lincosamides are ANTIBIOTICS produced by a variety STREPTOMYCES species.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A type II keratin that is found associated with the KERATIN-13 in the internal stratified EPITHELIUM. Defects in gene for keratin-4 are a cause of HEREDITARY MUCOSAL LEUKOKERATOSIS.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
An accumulation of PUS in the uterine cavity (UTERUS). Pyometra generally indicates the presence of infections.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.
An enzyme derived from cow's milk. It catalyzes the radioiodination of tyrosine and its derivatives and of peptides containing tyrosine.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive bacteria in the family ACTINOMYCETACEAE, order ACTINOMYCETALES. They are obligate parasites of the PHARYNX in humans and farm animals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The largest of the three prokaryotic initiation factors with a molecular size of approximately 80 kD. It functions in the transcription initiation process by promoting the binding of formylmethionine-tRNA to the P-site of the 30S ribosome and by preventing the incorrect binding of elongator tRNA to the translation initiation site.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
Receptors that bind FIBRINOGEN through distinct adhesive sequences on the fibrinogen molecule. Although MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN is considered an important signaling molecule for fibrinogen interaction, a variety of INTEGRINS from all three major families, (beta1, beta2, and beta3) have been shown to bind fibrinogen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (1/1478)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Maternal immunization. (2/1478)

Maternal immunization can enhance passive immunity of infants to pathogens that cause life-threatening illnesses. In most instances, immunization during pregnancy will provide important protection for the woman as well as for her offspring. The tetanus toxoid and influenza vaccines are examples of vaccines that provide a double benefit. Other vaccines under evaluation include those for respiratory syncytial virus, pneumococci, group B streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae type b. Although most IgG antibody crosses the placenta in the third trimester, the process is time-dependent, dictating that immunization should be accomplished ideally at least 6 weeks prior to delivery. IgG1 antibodies are transferred preferentially. Maternal immunization has not interfered with active immunization of the infant. Inactivated vaccines administered in the third trimester of pregnancy pose no known risk to the woman or to her fetus.  (+info)

Serotypes VI and VIII predominate among group B streptococci isolated from pregnant Japanese women. (3/1478)

Infection by group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of bacterial disease in neonates, pregnant women, and nonpregnant adults. Whereas serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V are most commonly associated with colonization and disease in the United States, strains of other serotypes have been isolated from patients in Japan. By use of an inhibition ELISA, the serotypes of 73 vaginal colonizing GBS strains isolated from healthy pregnant Japanese women were investigated. Twenty-six (35.6%) were type VIII, 18 (24.7%) were type VI, and the remaining 29 were distributed among more traditional serotypes. Strains were also tested by immunoblot for the presence of GBS surface proteins. Fifty-three (72.6%) of the 73 strains expressed one or more laddering GBS proteins. These data show that type VI and VIII GBS strains are common vaginal isolates in pregnant Japanese women and that one or more laddering proteins are present in most GBS strains.  (+info)

Capsular sialic acid limits C5a production on type III group B streptococci. (4/1478)

The majority of type III group B streptococcus (GBS) human neonatal infections are caused by a genetically related subgroup called III-3. We have proposed that a bacterial enzyme, C5a-ase, contributes to the pathogenesis of neonatal infections with GBS by rapidly inactivating C5a, a potent pro-inflammatory molecule, but many III-3 strains do not express C5a-ase. The amount of C5a produced in serum following incubation with representative type III strains was quantitated in order to better understand the relationship between C5a production and C5a-ase expression. C5a production following incubation of bacteria with serum depleted of antibody to the bacterial surface was inversely proportional to the sialic acid content of the bacterial capsule, with the more heavily sialylated III-3 strains generating less C5a than the less-virulent, less-sialylated III-2 strains. The amount of C5a produced correlated significantly with C3 deposition on each bacterial strain. Repletion with type-specific antibody caused increased C3b deposition and C5a production through alternative pathway activation, but C5a was functionally inactivated by strains that expressed C5a-ase. The increased virulence of III-3 strains compared to that of III-2 strains results at least partially from the higher sialic acid content of III-3 strains, which inhibits both opsonophagocytic killing and C5a production in the absence of type-specific antibody. We propose that C5a-ase is not necessary for III-3 strains to cause invasive disease because the high sialic acid content of III-3 strains inhibits C5a production.  (+info)

Presence of mefA and mefE genes in Streptococcus agalactiae. (5/1478)

Eighteen unrelated clinical isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae with the M phenotype harbored an mef gene. DNA sequencing showed that one of nine strains contained mefA (producing one amino acid substitution), whereas the remaining eight carried mefE (identity, 100%). Restriction analysis of PCR products indicated that the nine other strains also contained mefE.  (+info)

Role of antibody and complement in opsonization of group B streptococci. (6/1478)

A requirement for the classic complement pathway in opsonization of group B streptococci was observed by using both a chemiluminescence and a radiolabeled bacterial uptake technique. The classic pathway increased levels of opsonization for types Ia and II stock and wild strains and for some type III wild strains. In contrast, other type III wild strains and the type III stock strain had accelerated kinetics of uptake in the presence of an intact classic pathway, but the level of opsonization was unchanged from that with antibody alone. We could not demonstrate a significant role for the alternative pathway in opsonizing stock or wild strains of group B streptococci. Futhermore, electrophoretic and complement consumption analysis by hemolytic titration failed to reveal alternative pathway activation by the majority of strains of this group. Therapy aimed at supplying opsonins for these organisms will require the presence of type-specific antibody.  (+info)

Identification of a peptide from mammal albumins responsible for enhanced pigment production by group B streptococci. (7/1478)

The peptide from peptones responsible for enhanced pigment production by Streptococcus agalactiae in culture media has been isolated from a peptic digest of human albumin and has been identified as Ile-Ala-Arg-Arg-His-Pro-Tyr-Phe. The related heptapeptide lacking the N-terminal Ile also had pigment-enhancing activity. A sequence similarity search showed that these sequences are present only in mammal albumins.  (+info)

Alpha C protein as a carrier for type III capsular polysaccharide and as a protective protein in group B streptococcal vaccines. (8/1478)

The alpha C protein, a protective surface protein of group B streptococci (GBS), is present in most non-type III GBS strains. Conjugate vaccines composed of the alpha C protein and type III capsular polysaccharide (CPS) might be protective against most GBS infections. In this study, the type III CPS was covalently coupled to full-length, nine-repeat alpha C protein (resulting in III-alpha9r conjugate vaccine) or to two-repeat alpha C protein (resulting in III-alpha2r conjugate vaccine) by reductive amination. Initial experiments with the III-alpha9r vaccine showed that it was poorly immunogenic in mice with respect to both vaccine antigens and was suboptimally efficacious in providing protection in mice against challenge with GBS. Therefore, modified vaccination protocols were used with the III-alpha2r vaccine. Female mice were immunized three times with 0.5, 5, or 20 microgram of the III-alpha2r vaccine with an aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and bred. Ninety-five percent of neonatal mice born to dams immunized with the III-alpha2r vaccine survived challenge with GBS expressing type III CPS, and 60% survived challenge with GBS expressing wild-type (nine-repeat) alpha C protein; 18 and 17%, respectively, of mice in the negative control groups survived (P, <0.0001). These protection levels did not differ significantly from those obtained with the type III CPS-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine and the unconjugated two-repeat alpha C protein, which protected 98 and 58% of neonates from infection with GBS expressing type III CPS or the alpha C protein, respectively. Thus, the two-repeat alpha C protein in the vaccine was immunogenic and simultaneously enhanced the immunogenicity of type III CPS. III-alpha vaccines may be alternatives to GBS polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid vaccines, eliciting additional antibodies protective against GBS infection.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - A soluble form of Siglec-9 provides a resistance against Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection in transgenic mice. AU - Saito, Mitsumasa. AU - Yamamoto, Sayo. AU - Ozaki, Kinuyo. AU - Tomioka, Yukiko. AU - Suyama, Haruka. AU - Morimatsu, Masami. AU - Nishijima, Ken ichi. AU - Yoshida, Shin ichi. AU - Ono, Etsuro. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Miyoko Endo, Tokyo Metropolitan Research Laboratory of Public Health, for providing us with GBS strains and Dr. J. Miyazaki for providing pCXN2 vector. This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (Grant Number 26450398 ) from The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan . Publisher Copyright: © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in human newborns. A key GBS virulence factor is its capsular polysaccharide (CPS), possessing terminal sialic acid residues that suppress host immune ...
Streptococcus agalactiae is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis and causes severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish and cattle, worldwide. In fish, infection can result in septicemia with hemorrhages on the body surface and in the external and internal organs. Streptococcus agalactiae may be isolated from brain, nares, head kidney and eye of infected fish. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis and the organism can be isolated from milk samples. Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as Lancefields group B Streptococcus (GBS). There are also nine GBS capsular polysaccharide serotypes. Despite the significance of the disease, only limited information is available on the identification and characterization of the S. agalactiae isolates from fish and cattle. In the present study, GBS isolates from fish (n = 36), bottlenose dolphin (n=1) and cattle GBS isolates (n=10) were found to have a number of common phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae reference strains ...
At the Royal Womens Hospital, Melbourne over an 8-year period (1981-1988) all public antenatal patients were screened at 32 weeks gestation for group B streptococcus (GBS). In a total of 30,197 livebirths there were no early onset neonatal GBS infections in infants of treated asymptomatic carrier mothers. By contrast there were 27 infections with 8 deaths in an unscreened control group of private patients (total livebirths 26,915). It is recommended that GBS screening occur antenatally at 28 weeks and that intrapartum chemoprophylaxis be offered at least to those carriers with obstetric risk factors.
Sweeping or stripping of the membranes (in this paper referred to as membrane sweeping) is a widely utilized technique to hasten delivery for women at 37+ weeks gestation. The process of membrane sweeping probably causes release of prostaglandins from the decidua and the cervix. The efficacy of membrane sweeping is well studied, and has been shown to increase the number of patients in labor within 72 hours, reduce the frequency of pregnancy continuing beyond 41 or 42 weeks, and reduce the frequency of formal induction of labor. Thus, it is a safe and practical option for women who wish to avoid inductions of labor or postterm pregnancies.. Group B streptococcus (GBS; streptococcus agalactiae) is a gram positive coccus that frequently colonizes the human genital tract. In pregnant women, GBS can cause urinary tract infections, chorioamnionitis, and postpartum endometritis. Newborn infants can also acquire GBS infection during passage through the vagina. Early onset GBS disease in the newborn ...
In humans, Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a frequent coloniser of the rectovaginal tract, a major cause of neonatal infectious disease and an emerging cause of disease in non-pregnant adults. In addition, Streptococcus agalactiae causes invasive disease in fish, compromising food security and posing a zoonotic hazard. We studied the molecular epidemiology of S. agalactiae in fish and other aquatic species to assess potential for pathogen transmission between aquatic species and humans. Isolates from fish (n = 26), seals (n = 6), a dolphin and a frog were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus sequence typing and standardized 3-set genotyping, i.e. molecular serotyping and profiling of surface protein genes and mobile genetic elements. Four subpopulations of S. agalactiae were identified among aquatic isolates. Sequence type (ST) 283 serotype III-4 and its novel single locus variant ST491 were detected in fish from Southeast Asia and shared a 3-set
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) are important human and animal pathogens, which can be subdivided based on different capsular polysaccharides and surface-anchored alpha-like proteins (Alps), as well as other proteins. Nearly all GBS strains possess an Alp (Alp GBS), although Alp-negative GBS (non-Alp GBS) do occur. In this study, 10 (1.1 %) of 932 clinical human GBS tested lacked an Alp encoding gene. All 10 strains were from patients with bloodstream infection, confirming that non-Alp GBS can be highly virulent. All non-Alp GBS expressed one or more of the surface-anchored proteins R3, Z1 and Z2, while less than 10 % of unselected clinical strains express any of these proteins. In contrast to Alp GBS, all non-Alp strains tested were PCR negative for the upstream sequence of the insertion site of the Alp encoding gene of Alp GBS. Genome sequencing showed that all but one of the 10 clinical non-Alp strains and the non-Alp reference strain CNCTC 10/84 lacked a region surrounding the
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a normal bacterium which can be found in 20- 30% of adults in the UK, usually without any symptoms or side-effects. Its most commonly found in our normal gut flora and is also often found in the vagina of adult women.. GBS can occasionally cause infection, most commonly in newborn babies but also sometimes in women during pregnancy or after birth.. GBS is a recognised cause of preterm delivery, maternal infections, stillbirths and late miscarriages. Preterm babies are known to be at particular risk of GBS infection as their immune systems are not as well developed as those of full-term babies.. Overall, without preventative medicine, GBS infections affect an estimated 1 in every 1,000 babies born in the UK.. ...
Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants in both developed and developing countries. To our knowledge, only a few studies have been reported the clinical features, treatment and outcomes of the GBS disease in China. The severity of neonatal GBS disease in China remains unclear. Population-based surveillance in China is therefore required. Methods: We retrospectively collected data of ,3 months old infants with culture-positive GBS in sterile samples from three large urban tertiary hospitals in South China from Jan 2011 to Dec 2014. The GBS isolates and their antibiotic susceptibility were routinely identified in clinical laboratories in participating hospitals. Serotyping and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) were also conducted for further analysis of the neonatal GBS disease. Results: Total 70 cases of culture-confirmed invasive GBS infection were identified from 127,206 live births born in studying hospitals, giving an overall incidence ...
What is Group B Streptococcus (GBS) and what does it mean for me and my baby? Find out how to decrease the risk of GBS sepsis for newborns.
The type III polysaccharides of group B Streptococcus in its native state chemically consists of glucose, galactose, glucosamine, and sialic acid. The core of t
Awareness of Primary Care Physicians about Pregnancy Screening of Group B Streptococcus Infection at Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis (EOGBS) has been the leading cause of death attributable to infection in newborn infants for nearly 3 decades,1 with ,6000 cases a year in the United States.2 The attack rate has not changed over the past 20 years, but the case-fatality rate has declined from ∼50% to between 10% and 15%.3-5 Long-term morbidity among survivors, particularly neurodevelopmental disabilities in those with meningitis, remain distressingly common.6-9 EOGBS disease may be rapidly progressive and many infants (especially at term) do not exhibit clinical signs of infection initially5; therefore, empirical therapy is often initiated because of clinical risk or minimal signs of disease and continued until infection has been excluded by laboratory studies and a period of observation. This aggressive approach has been associated with improved outcomes for infants with this disease,10 ,11 but also may lead to acute-care hospitalization and treatment of ,100 000 newborn infants yearly ...
We much appreciated the Clinical Opinion by Turrentine1 regarding intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for the prevention of neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) early-onset sepsis. The author raises concerns about cases of inadequate duration (,4 hours) of IAP before delivery. Indeed, as much as 25-40% of GBS-colonized women will not receive the 4 hours of IAP that are recommended by guidelines. To optimize fetal exposure, Turrentine recommends strategies such as (1) to postpone artificial rupture of membranes (or administration of oxytocin) until 4 hours IAP is completed and (2) to start IAP before the initiation of uterotonic agents in women who are admitted for induction of labor. Although the first step is feasible, a woman with a Bishop score ,5 may be exposed to several antibiotic doses until delivery. The minimum duration of IAP for the prevention of early-onset GBS sepsis remains uncertain, because existing data are conflicting. There is evidence that bactericidal levels of ...
Group B Streptococcus, also known as Streptococcus agalactiae, was once considered a pathogen of only domestic animals, causing mastitis in cows. S agalactiae is now best known as a cause of postpartum infection and as the most common cause of neonatal sepsis.
Introduction: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is the most important cause of neonatal infection in developed and developing countries. UK Nation..
Group B streptococci (GBS) are pathogens of both neonates and adults, with serotype III strains in particular being associated with invasive disease and meningitis. In this study, a novel GBS surface antigen, ε, was found to be co-expressed with the previously reported δ antigen on an identical subset of serotype III GBS. Expression of δ/ε on the surface of serotype III GBS was shown to distinguish the restriction digest pattern (RDP) III-3 and multilocus sequence typing (ST)-17 lineage. ε-Specific antibodies were reactive with a unique, high-molecular-mass, serine-rich repeat protein (Srr-2) found exclusively in RDP III-3 strains. The gene encoding Srr-2 was located within a putative accessory secretory locus that included secY2 and secA2 homologues and had a genetic organization similar to that of the secY2/A2 locus of staphylococci. In contrast, serotype III δ/ε-negative strains and strains representative of serotypes Ia, Ib, Ic and II shared a common Srr-encoding gene, srr-1, and an
TY - JOUR. T1 - The alpha C protein mediates internalization of group B Streptococcus within human cervical epithelial cells. AU - Bolduc, G. R.. AU - Baron, M. J.. AU - Gravekamp, C.. AU - Lachenauer, C. S.. AU - Madoff, L. C.. PY - 2002/11/1. Y1 - 2002/11/1. N2 - Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial chorioamnionitis and neonatal pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Deletion of the alpha C protein gene (bca) attenuates the virulence of GBS in an animal model; significant survival differences in the first 24 h of infection suggest a pathogenic role for the alpha C protein early in the infection process. We examined the role of alpha C protein in the association between GBS and mucosal surfaces using a human cervical epithelial cell line, ME180. Fluorescent and confocal microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that 9-repeat alpha C protein binds to the surface of ME180 cells. Isolated N-terminal region of this protein also binds to these cells and competitively inhibits ...
Objective: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci, GBS) are frequently responsible for sepsis and meningitis seen in the early weeks of life. GBS may cause perinatal infection and premature birth in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to serotype GBS strains isolated from clinical samples and evaluate their serotype distribution according to their susceptibilities to antibiotics and isolation sites. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Group B Streptococcal Sepsis, Group B Streptococcus, GBS Sepsis, Neonatal Sepsis from GBS, Group B Streptococcal Pneumonia.
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading infectious cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in the United States. The bacterium, a common colonizer of the maternal genital tract, can infect the fetus during gestation, causing fetal death. GBS also can be acquired by the fetus during passage throug …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of PCR primers targeting the groEL gene for the specific detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in the context of aquaculture. AU - Leigh, WJ. AU - Zadoks, RN. AU - Jaglarz, A. AU - Costa, JZ. AU - Foster, G. AU - Thompson, KD. N1 - 1032309 1032327. PY - 2018/5/22. Y1 - 2018/5/22. N2 - Aims: The aim of this study was to design a set of primers for specific detection and identification of Streptococcus agalactiae in polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that can detect a diverse range of S. agalactiae isolates from different hosts and that it is capable of discriminating between S. agalactiae and other species that are closely related or potentially present in aquaculture environments, notably Streptococcus iniae. Methods and Results: Primers, based on the groEL2 gene of S. agalactiae, were shown to be epidemiologically sensitive to 97 isolates of S. agalactiae, representing 11 clonal complexes derived from piscine, terrestrial and aquatic mammalian host species. The primers ...
The group B streptococcus is a common cause of neonatal diseases, such as pneumonia, septicemia, and meningitis; but GBS is also known to cause invasive as well as noninvasive infections in adults. However, little is known about the genetic relationship among the isolates, the diversity of virulence, and possible differences in tropism among GBS isolates. We used MLST analysis and screened for the presence of mobile genetic elements among clinical isolates collected in two geographic regions in Sweden during a 10-year time span to investigate the population structure and dynamics among invasive GBS isolates.. By MLST analysis, 158 GBS invasive isolates collected from northern and western parts of Sweden were resolved into 29 STs and grouped into six genetic lineages, including five major clonal complexes and one singleton. The highly clonal structure has also been shown by a number of other methods, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis typing, and randomly ...
Group B streptococci (GBS) neonatal infection, a prevalent disease in western countries, is considered rare in Korea. GBS neonatal infection is known to be often due to serotype III organisms, but the serotypes in Korea have not been reported. In this study, GBS were frequently isolated from specimens of genitalia, urine and various pus. Among the 186 isolates 14 (7.5%) were from neonates, two with concomitant bacteremia and meningitis and one with pneumonia. Frequently isolated GBS serotypes were Ib (9.2%), Ib/c (26.6%) and III/R (23.9%). Change of frequently isolated serotypes during the study was noted, but JM9 which became increasingly isolated in Japan was not found. It is concluded that less prevalence of severe neonatal GBS infection in Korea is not due to the absence of serotype III, but possibly due to low genital carriage rate of GBS by pregnant women.
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) causes neonatal disease and stillbirth, but its burden in sub-Saharan Africa is uncertain. We assessed maternal recto-vaginal GBS colonization (7,967 women), stillbirth and neonatal disease. Whole-genome sequencing was used to determine serotypes, sequence types and phylogeny. We found low maternal GBS colonization prevalence (934/7,967, 12%), but comparatively high incidence of GBS-associated stillbirth and early onset neonatal disease (EOD) in hospital (0.91 (0.25-2.3)/1,000 births and 0.76 (0.25-1.77)/1,000 live births, respectively). However, using a population denominator, EOD incidence was considerably reduced (0.13 (0.07-0.21)/1,000 live births). Treated cases of EOD had very high case fatality (17/36, 47%), especially within 24 h of birth, making under-ascertainment of community-born cases highly likely, both here and in similar facility-based studies. Maternal GBS colonization was less common in women with low socio-economic status, HIV
TY - JOUR. T1 - The enhancement of biofilm formation in Group B streptococcal isolates at vaginal pH. AU - Ho, Yueh Ren. AU - Li, Chien Ming. AU - Yu, Chen Hsiang. AU - Lin, Yuh Jyh. AU - Wu, Ching Ming. AU - Harn, I. Chen. AU - Tang, Ming Jer. AU - Chen, Yi Ting. AU - Shen, Fang Chi. AU - Lu, Chien Yi. AU - Tsai, Tai Chun. AU - Wu, Jiunn Jong. PY - 2013/4/1. Y1 - 2013/4/1. N2 - Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a common asymptomatic colonizer in acidic vagina of pregnant women and can transmit to newborns, causing neonatal pneumonia and meningitis. Biofilm formation is often associated with bacterial colonization and pathogenesis. Little is known about GBS biofilm and the effect of environmental stimuli on their growth along with biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to investigate the survival and biofilm formation of GBS, isolated from pregnant women, in nutrient-limited medium under various pH conditions. Growth and survival experiments were determined by optical density and viable ...
Streptococcus agalactiae ATCC ® BAA-611D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Streptococcus agalactiae strain 2603 V/R TypeStrain=False Application:
The evolution of the guidelines for selective intrapartum chemoprophylaxis (SIC) of group B streptococcal early-onset disease is reviewed here. To assess the benefits of the risk-based and culture-based strategies for prevention, observational studie
The genetic relatedness and evolutionary relationships between group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates from humans and those from bovines were investigated by phylogenetic analysis of multilocus sequence typing data. The collection of isolates consisted of 111 GBS isolates from cows with mastitis and a diverse global collection of GBS isolates from patients with invasive disease (n = 83) and carriers (n = 69). Cluster analysis showed that the majority of the bovine isolates (93%) grouped into one phylogenetic cluster. The human isolates showed greater diversity and clustered separately from the bovine population. However, the homogeneous human sequence type 17 (ST-17) complex, known to be significantly associated with invasive neonatal disease, was the only human lineage found to be clustered within the bovine population and was distinct from all the other human lineages. Split decomposition analysis revealed that the human isolate ST-17 complex, the major hyperinvasive neonatal clone, has recently arisen
The genetic relatedness and evolutionary relationships between group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates from humans and those from bovines were investigated by phylogenetic analysis of multilocus sequence typing data. The collection of isolates consisted of 111 GBS isolates from cows with mastitis and a diverse global collection of GBS isolates from patients with invasive disease (n = 83) and carriers (n = 69). Cluster analysis showed that the majority of the bovine isolates (93%) grouped into one phylogenetic cluster. The human isolates showed greater diversity and clustered separately from the bovine population. However, the homogeneous human sequence type 17 (ST-17) complex, known to be significantly associated with invasive neonatal disease, was the only human lineage found to be clustered within the bovine population and was distinct from all the other human lineages. Split decomposition analysis revealed that the human isolate ST-17 complex, the major hyperinvasive neonatal clone, has recently arisen
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) causes serious infections in neonates. We previously reported a transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) system for performing genomewide assessment of gene fitness in GBS. In order to identify molecular mechanisms required for GBS to transition from a mucosal commensal lifestyle to bloodstream invasion, we performed Tn-seq on GBS strain A909 with human whole blood. Our analysis identified 16 genes conditionally essential for GBS survival in blood, of which 75% were members of the capsular polysaccharide (cps) operon. Among the non-cps genes identified as conditionally essential was relA, which encodes an enzyme whose activity is central to the bacterial stringent response-a conserved adaptation to environmental stress. We used blood coincubation studies of targeted knockout strains to confirm the expected growth defects of GBS deficient in capsule or stringent response activation. Unexpectedly, we found that the relA knockout strains demonstrated ...
Group B streptococcal (GBS) infections are the leading bacterial cause of serious neonatal disease in the United States (1). In 1996, in collaboration with the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, CDC issued consensus guidelines for preventing perinatal GBS disease (2--4). These guidelines recommend using either a screening-based or a risk-based strategy to identify women who should receive intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis. To assess adoption of the GBS disease prevention guidelines, the Connecticut and Minnesota state health departments surveyed prenatal-care providers during January--April 1998. This report presents the survey findings, which indicate that most prenatal-care providers in Connecticut and Minnesota have adopted perinatal GBS disease prevention policies and that strategy choice may vary by state and provider type. In Connecticut, surveys were mailed to all (n=576) licensed obstetricians/gynecologists (OBs). Group ...
Learn more about Group B Streptococcal Disease at Reston Hospital Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
A two-stage typing scheme in routine use in this laboratory is described. The strains of group B streptococci (GBS) are first serotyped and then, if necessary, phage-typing is performed. Serotyping...
Streptococcus are pathogenic to cause streptococcal disease for humans and animals. Among Streptococcus spp., Gram-positive Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS) is a normal human gastrointestinal and genitourinary flora. Therefore, GBS infect more commonly the vaginas of women, especially more prevalent in the pregnant woman than those of non-pregnant woman [1] and causes early-onset or late-onset sepsis and meningitis in newborns. In fish, the major pathogenic species that cause streptococcosis are S. agalactiae (GBS), S. dysgalactiae, S. iniaee and Lactococcus garvieae, which also infect human. Multiplex PCR has been developed to differentiate these species and to identify serotypes [2], especially the GBS serotypes [3, 4].. Streptococcosis is an important disease in fish. After infection, fishes may suffer meningitis and septicemia in common [5]; however, other syndromes may be associated with fish species [6]. Streptococcal infection has been reported in rainbow trout in ...
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases (LOD) and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection. Maternal GBS colonization during pregnancy is a major risk factor for early-onset GBS invasive disease but colonization rates are not higher in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected pregnant women, while selective colonization with more virulent strains in HIV-infected women is suggested in some studies. Lower serotype specific GBS maternal antibody transfer and quantitative and qualitative defects of innate immune responses in HEU infants may play a role in
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the commonest cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonatal period in the UK with case numbers similar to that of meningococcal disease in older children.1 Mortality is around 10%, and 50% of GBS meningitis survivors are left with long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae.1 The selective use of intravenous antibiotics during labour has been shown to reduce the incidence of early-onset GBS infection in neonates, but has no effect on late-onset disease.2 Therefore, a better method of protecting infants is required ...
Group B streptococcus (strep) is a type of bacteria. It can be found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area of adults. About 1 in 4 pregnant women carry GBS in their rectum or vagina. During pregnancy, the mother can pass the infection to the baby. The fetus can get GBS during pregnancy. Newborns can get it from the mothers genital tract during delivery.
Group B streptococcus (strep) is a type of bacteria. It can be found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area of adults. About 1 in 4 pregnant women carry GBS in their rectum or vagina. During pregnancy, the mother can pass the infection to the baby. The fetus can get GBS during pregnancy. Newborns can get it from the mothers genital tract during delivery.
Group B streptococcus (strep) is a type of bacteria. It can be found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area of adults. About 1 in 4 pregnant women carry GBS in their rectum or vagina. During pregnancy, the mother can pass the infection to the baby. The fetus can get GBS during pregnancy. Newborns can get it from the mothers genital tract during delivery.
Group B streptococcus (strep) is a type of bacteria. It can be found in the digestive tract, urinary tract, and genital area of adults. About 1 in 4 pregnant women carry GBS in their rectum or vagina. During pregnancy, the mother can pass the infection to the baby. The fetus can get GBS during pregnancy. Newborns can get it from the mothers genital tract during delivery.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Progress toward a group B streptococcal vaccine. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Lim, Jae Hyang. AU - Lim, Sangyong. AU - Yong, Zhi. AU - Seo, Ho Seong. PY - 2018/11/2. Y1 - 2018/11/2. N2 - Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of severe invasive disease in neonate, elderly, and immunocompromised patients worldwide. Despite recent advances in the diagnosis and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) of GBS infections, it remains one of the most common causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, causing serious infections. Furthermore, recent studies reported an increasing number of GBS infections in pregnant women and elderly. Although IAP is effective, it has several limitations, including increasing antimicrobial resistance and late GBS infection after negative antenatal screening. Maternal immunization is the most promising and effective countermeasure against GBS infection in neonates. However, no vaccine is available to date, but two types of ...
This topic contains 21 study abstracts on Neonatal group B streptococcal (GBS) infections indicating that the following substances may be helpful: Garlic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and Probiotics
Neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) infection can be largely prevented with the use of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Uncertainty about the optimal therapy prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to recommend two possible strategies: one based on maternal risk factors and the other using a combination of risk factors and anogenital cultures performed at 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. The latter strategy was proposed to reduce GBS infection in otherwise low-risk situations that would not be targeted by the first strategy. Wendel and associates studied the incidence of GBS disease at a large urban hospital.. They noted that intrapartum treatment based on risk factors and antepartum cultures was difficult without clear documentation of efficacy, but selective treatment based on risk factors alone would miss a substantial number of infections. A new protocol, combining intrapartum risk-factor assessment as well as universal neonatal penicillin prophylaxis in low-risk pregnancies, ...
Co-authored by Felicity Harvie. What is Group B Streptococcus? Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a common bacterium that is generally found in the gastrointestinal tract, vagina, and urethra. The bacteria can be passed from mother to baby during the birthing process and can lead to infection in the first week of babys life (1). GBS is considered to be a major cause of primary neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis in the first week of a newborn babys life. There conditions are known to be caus
In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in collaboration with the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), American College of Nurse-Midwives, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and American Society for Microbiology published revised group B streptococcal (GBS) guidelines entitled Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease: revised guidelines from CDC 2010 in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR).1 The recommendations were endorsed by all the collaborating organizations including AAP after review by the Committee on Infectious Diseases (COID) and the Committee on Fetus and Newborn (COFN) and after AAP Board approval. In the report, a revised algorithm for Secondary prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal disease was included. This algorithm represented the expert opinions of the technical working group (based on current literature available at that time). In 2011, the COID and the COFN ...
Background. The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is an important virulence factor and a vaccine target of the major neonatal pathogen group B Streptococcus (GBS). Population studies revealed no strong correlation between CPS type and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) cluster, with the remarkable exception of the worldwide spread of hypervirulent GBS CC17, which were all until recently CPS type III. Methods. A total of 965 GBS strains from invasive infection isolated in France were CPS typed and the presence of the CC17-specific surface protein encoding gene hvgA gene was investigated. Three hvgA-positive GBS strains screened were surprisingly CPS type IV and thus further characterized by MLST typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and whole genome sequencing. Results. MLST and PFGE demonstrated a capsular switching from CPS type III to IV within the highly homogeneous GBS CC17. Sequence analysis revealed that this capsular switch was due to the exchange of a 35.5-kb DNA fragment containing
Streptococcus agalactiae is a beta-hemolytic gram-positive bacteria. It is also known as Group B streptococcus (or GBS). They are normally found in the gastroinstesinal flora in humans and in the female urogenital tract and rectum. S. agalatiae can act in a variety of manners, depending on the condition of the body it is residing in. It is a diplococcal gram-positive, non acid-fast bacterium found in pairs or chains. It is inmotile, does not form spores, contains the group B Lancefield antigen, and catalase-free, where it does not catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide.. S. agalactiae is very sensitive to bile and will lyse if it is in contact with it as a result. The detection of S. agalactiae can be achieved in various ways, such as a CAMP (Christie Atkins Munch-Petersen) test, can be performed; however if its presence is need of controlling, i.e. infection, it can be very difficult due to the fact that it is naturally occuring in the human body. S. agalactiae is capable of serious ...
Sera obtained from human volunteers at 6 weeks after vaccination with highly purified type III polysaccharide antigen prepared from a group B Streptococcus, strain M732, were found to protect neonatal rats from otherwise lethal infection by the homologous strain. The specific antibody content of the sera, expressed in micrograms of antibody protein per milliliter, was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in conjunction with quantitative precipitin analysis. For two sera studied in detail, the protective dose of antibody for 50% of the animals was 0.4 micrograms. Immune serum obtained from a volunteer who received type II polysaccharide vaccine was not protective against type III infection. Absorption of anti-type III serum by quantitative precipitation of antibodies with type III polysaccharide completely removed the passive protective activity of the serum. The results show that antibodies induced in humans by purified type II polysaccharide give serotype-specific protection in an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Late-onset invasive group B streptococcal infection with serotype VIII in a neonate having congenital biliary atresia. AU - Takei, Tomoaki. AU - Chiba, Naoko. AU - Fujita, Hisayo. AU - Morozumi, Miyuki. AU - Kuwata, Yusuke. AU - Kishii, Kozue. AU - Ubukata, Kimiko. AU - Iwata, Satoshi. AU - Takahashi, Takashi. PY - 2013/2. Y1 - 2013/2. N2 - A female newborn was admitted to our department 15 days after birth for insufficient sucking and jaundice. The patients blood and urine cultures were both positive for group B streptococcal (GBS) infection. A maternal vaginal sample at 35 weeks gestation was negative for GBS in culture-based microbiologic screening. The patient recovered shortly after receiving systemic antibiotic therapy. On the basis of clinical evidence of white stool and progressive jaundice, we suspected that the newborn had complications related to congenital biliary atresia (CBA); surgery was performed. Isolates from the mothers vaginal sample obtained when the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Purpura fulminans and late onset group B streptococcal sepsis in a premature twin. AU - Elayappen, Avanikkha. AU - Jain, Sunil K.. AU - Loeffelholz, Michael J.. AU - Patel, Janak. PY - 2014/5/12. Y1 - 2014/5/12. N2 - Introduction: Purpura fulminans (PF) is a skin manifestation due to hemorrhagic infarction caused by intravascular thrombosis secondary to bacterial infections or deficiency of anticoagulants such as protein C and protein S. Neonatal PF is a rare but potentially disabling disorder associated with a high mortality and severe long term morbidity in those who survive. Case description: We report a case of a premature infant who developed extensive PF due to late onset group B streptococcus sepsis. Despite early identification and initiation of antibiotic therapy in our patient, PF progressed rapidly, leading to autoamputation of fingers and toes and severe brain injury. Conclusion: In conclusion, our case highlights the severe sequelae of PF due to late onset GBS sepsis ...
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Mehershahi, K.S, Hsu, L.Y, Koh, T.H, Chen, S.L, on behalf of the Singapore Streptococcus agalactiae Working Group (2015). Erratum: Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae serotype III, multilocus sequence type 283 strain SG-M1 [Genome Announc, 3, 5 (2015) (e01188-15)], DOI: 10.1128/genomeA.01188-15. Genome Announcements 3 (6) : e0158515. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1128/genomeA.01585- ...
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) serotype (Ia, Ib, II-IX) correlates with pathogen virulence and clinical prognosis. Epidemiological studies of seroprevalence are an important metric for determining the proportion of serotypes in a given population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of individual GBS serotypes at Madigan Healthcare System (Madigan), the largest military tertiary healthcare facility in the Pacific Northwestern United States, and to compare seroprevalences with international locations. To determine serotype distribution at Madigan, we obtained GBS isolates from standard-of-care anogenital swabs from 207 women of indeterminate gravidity between ages 18-40 during a five month interval. Serotype was determined using a recently described molecular method of polymerase chain reaction by capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) genes associated with pathogen virulence. Serotypes Ia, III, and V were the most prevalent (28%, 27%, and 17%, respectively). A systematic review of
Streptococcus suis and group B Streptococcus (GBS) are encapsulated streptococci causing septicemia and meningitis. Antibodies (Abs) against capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) have a crucial protective role, but the structure/composition of the CPS, including the presence of sialic acid, may interfere with the generation of anti-CPS Ab responses. We investigated the features of the CPS-specific Ab response directed against S. suis serotypes 2 and 14 and GBS serotypes III and V after infection or immunization with purified native or desialylated CPSs in mice. Whereas S. suis-infected mice developed a very low/undetectable CPS-specific IgM response, significant anti-CPS IgM titers were measured in GBS-infected animals (especially for type III GBS). No isotype switching was detected in S. suis- or GBS-infected mice. While the expression of sialic acid was essential for the immunogenicity of purified GBS type III CPS, this sugar was not responsible for the inability of purified S. suis types 2, 14 and GBS type
article{75ee651c-3d2d-4b31-85e3-c2882b080582, abstract = {Forty-three strains of group B streptococci (GBS) of types Ia, Ib, II and III were tested for susceptibility to chlorhexidine in concentrations ranging from 256 to 0.25 mg/l using the agar and tube dilution methods. The strains showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.5 to 1 mg/l. Serum added to the test medium (50%) increased the MIC values to 4-8 mg/l, while amniotic fluid (50%) had almost no effect, increasing the values to 1-2 mg/l. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranged from 1 to 5 mg/l. The killing kinetics were related to the concentration of chlorhexidine and the length of exposure. For example, at a concentration of 63 mg/l, 7 h were required for a bactericidal effect in broth, as compared to 1 h at 500 mg/l chlorhexidine. 200 mg/l chlordexidine had no effect on the adherence of two GBS strains to vaginal epithelial cells, and no effect on the phagocytosis of GBS with mouse peritoneal ...
Light chain variable region sequence of rabbit antipneumococcal type III polysaccharide antibody 3368. Biochemistry. 1978 Jul 25; 17(15):3101-9 ...
An experimental murine infection was established by the intraperitoneal injection of a log-phase culture of a laboratory reference strain of Streptococcus agalactiae, Lancefield group B, type III (strain SS620), suspended in sterile hog gastric mucin. The enhancement of streptococcal virulence was measured by a significantly increased mortality in outbred ICR Swiss mice. An inbred C57BL6 strain of mice was resistant to the mucin-bacterial combination. Mucin, treated with Desferal to chelate the iron, did not lose the capacity to enhance the virulence of group B, type III streptococci in ICR Swiss mice. Iron-dextran was not a suitable substitute for mucin and failed to enhance the virulence of group B, type III streptococci. The results of these studies indicate that iron is not the resistance-lowering factor in this group B, type III streptococci-mucin model. ...
Stimulation of protective antibodies against type Ia and Ib group B streptococci by a type Ia polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine: Infect.Immun.
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Antimicrobial Agents Chemother. The ACOG now recommends performing universal GBS screening between 36 and 37 weeks of gestation. [20][40][41][42], Other strategies to prevent GBS-EOD have been studied, and chlorhexidine intrapartum vaginal cleansing has been proposed to help preventing GBS-EOD, nevertheless no evidence has been shown for the effectiveness of this approach. The CDC issued updated guidelines again in 2010, however, the foundations of prevention in the CDCs 2010 guidelines remained unchanged. ), (A report of susceptibility testing results for 688 prenatal GBS isolates from 2010-2011 at a single center in New York that also suggested increasing prevalence of clindamycin and erythromycin resistance, with 38.4% and 50.7% of isolates resistant, respectively. ), Baker, CJ, Rench, MA, Fernandez, M. Safety and immunogenicity of a bivalent group B streptococcal conjugate vaccine for serotypes II and III. 352-7. 2009. [85] From 2006 to 2015 the incidence of GBS EOD decreased to 0.37 to ...
Streptococcus agalactiae was found to be the cause of approximately 1% of urinary tract infections in a London teaching hospital in the 2 years studied. Of the forty-eight patients with this infection, forty-three were female. In nine patients the infection followed renal transplantation while in nine others it occurred in the presence of chronic renal failure. The rest, who included seven females who developed the infection following hysterectomies, had other clinical conditions which could have predisposed to such infections. The rarity of urinary tract infection by S. agalactiae is in contrast to the high frequency with which the organism colonizes the normal urethra. Serotypes III and II were the predominant isolates in these patients with urinary tract infections; this corresponds to the distribution of the different serotypes in the genito-urinary tract of normal individuals.. ...
The aim of this study was to describe two epizootics of high mortalities from infection with Streptococcus agalactiae, occurring in captive rays held in a marine display aquarium in south-east Queensland, Australia, in 2009 and 2010. Five different species of rays were affected, including mangrove whiprays (Himantura granulata), estuary rays (Dasyatis fluviorum), eastern shovelnose rays (Aptychotrema rostrata), white-spotted eagle rays (Aetobatus narinari) and blue-spotted mask rays (Neotrygon kuhlii). This report describes the history of both epizootics including collection, quarantine and husbandry of rays, the disease epizootics, clinico-pathological features of the disease, antimicrobial therapy, autogenous vaccine production, and laboratory studies including clinical and histopathology, bacteriology, PCR, molecular serotyping and sequencing of the bacterium S. agalactiae.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predicting outcomes of neonates born to GBS-positive women who received inadequate intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis. AU - Kojima, Katsuaki. AU - Tanaka, Ryuma. AU - Nakajima, Keisuke. AU - Kurihara, Nobuyoshi. AU - Oba, Mari S aito. AU - Yamashita, Yukio. AU - Ishihara, Jun. AU - Yahagi, Naohisa. PY - 2014/5/1. Y1 - 2014/5/1. N2 - We determined the predicting factors of early-onset group B streptococcal (EOGBS) infection in neonates who were born to GBS carrier mothers with inadequate intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). Medical records of all neonates born from January 1, 2008 to April 1, 2010 were reviewed. Inadequate IAP was defined as delivery less than 4 hours (h) after the first administration of antimicrobial. Of 1910 neonates, 273 were born from mothers colonized with GBS, including 69 who received inadequate IAP. Of 69 neonates, nine showed symptoms, including respiratory distress, fever, tachycardia, vomiting, and irritability. Abnormalities in complete blood ...
CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and Cas (CRISPR-associated proteins) play a critical role in adaptive immunity against mobile genetic elements, especially phages, through their ability to acquire novel spacer sequences. Polarized spacer acquisition results in spacer polymorphism and temporal organization of CRISPR loci, making them attractive epidemiological markers. Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a genital commensal for 10 to 30% of healthy women and a major neonatal pathogen, possesses a ubiquitous and functional CRISPR1 locus. Our aim was to assess the CRISPR1 locus as an epidemiological marker to follow vaginal carriage of GBS in women. This study also allowed us to observe the evolution of the CRISPR1 locus in response to probable phage infection occurring in vivo.We followed carriage of GBS among 100 women over an eleven-year period, with a median duration of approximately two years. The CRISPR1 locus was highly conserved over time. The isolates that show the same
Similar to previous studies, we found a diverse population among GBS colonization isolates, as well as among those causing invasive disease in Portugal, not only in terms of capsular polysaccharides, but also in genetic lineages defined by both PFGE and MLST (Table 1 and Fig. 1). Apart from serotypes VI and VIII, all other serotypes were found among our collection, and all except serotype VII were associated with both carriage and infection. Among the isolates causing infection, two isolates were identified expressing serotype IV, a serotype frequently associated with carriage in Asia (1) but infrequently found as a cause of neonatal infections in Western countries (29). Also noteworthy was the high prevalence of ST24 found exclusively among isolates of PFGE cluster A (n = 7/18 isolates characterized by MLST). ST24 was described in the publication proposing the GBS MLST scheme in a single isolate of serotype Ia (22) but has rarely been found among large collections of GBS isolates characterized ...
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Amal, M. N. A., Zamri-Saad, M., Iftikhar, A. R., Siti-Zahrah, A., Aziel, S. and Fahmi, S. (2012), An outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in cage-cultured golden pompano, Trachinotus blochii (Lacépède), in Malaysia. Journal of Fish Diseases, 35: 849-852. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2012.01443.x ...
Indications for Drugs ::. Bacterial infections, Endocarditis, Typhoid fever, Community-acquired pneumonia, Uncomplicated gonorrhea, Susceptible infections, Bacterial meningitis, Paratyphoid fever, Septicaemia, Intrapartum prophylaxis against group B streptococcal infections. Drug Dose ::. Adult: PO Susceptible infections 0.25-0.5 g 6 hrly. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever 1-2 g 6 hrly. Duration: 2 wk (acute infections); 4-12 wk (carriers). Uncomplicated gonorrhoea W/ probenecid: 2 g as single dose. IV Intrapartum prophylaxis against group B streptococcal infections Initial, 2 g, then 1 g 4 hrly until delivery. Septicaemia 150-200 mg/kg/day. Start with IV admin for 3 days, then IM inj 3-4 hrly. Continue treatment for at least 48-72 hr after patient has become asymptomatic or when there is evidence of bacterial eradication. IV/IM Susceptible infections 250-500 mg 6 hrly. Meningitis 2-3 g 4-6 hrly, may start w/ IV admin, then continue w/ IM inj. Inj Supplement to systemic therapy For ...
Indications for Drugs ::. Bacterial infections, Endocarditis, Typhoid fever, Community-acquired pneumonia, Uncomplicated gonorrhea, Susceptible infections, Bacterial meningitis, Paratyphoid fever, Septicaemia, Intrapartum prophylaxis against group B streptococcal infections. Drug Dose ::. Adult: PO Susceptible infections 0.25-0.5 g 6 hrly. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever 1-2 g 6 hrly. Duration: 2 wk (acute infections); 4-12 wk (carriers). Uncomplicated gonorrhoea W/ probenecid: 2 g as single dose. IV Intrapartum prophylaxis against group B streptococcal infections Initial, 2 g, then 1 g 4 hrly until delivery. Septicaemia 150-200 mg/kg/day. Start with IV admin for 3 days, then IM inj 3-4 hrly. Continue treatment for at least 48-72 hr after patient has become asymptomatic or when there is evidence of bacterial eradication. IV/IM Susceptible infections 250-500 mg 6 hrly. Meningitis 2-3 g 4-6 hrly, may start w/ IV admin, then continue w/ IM inj. Inj Supplement to systemic therapy For ...
Although Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading causative agent of neonatal sepsis and meningitis, recently it is increasingly isolated from non-pregnant adults. The relation between its presence in the genitourinary tract and manifested clinical symptoms of STD patients remains an open question. In this study, a complex epidemiological investigation of GBS isolates from a venerology clinic was performed. Ninety-six GBS isolates were serotyped and their genetic relatedness determined by PFGE. MLST was also performed for a subset of 20 isolates. The antibiotic susceptibility was tested with agar dilution. Surface proteins and the ST-17 hypervirulent clone was detected by PCR. The serotype prevalence was the following: V (29.2%), III (27.1%), Ia (22.9%), IV (10.4%), II (5.2%) and Ib (4.2%). A strong association was demonstrated between surface protein genes and serotypes. All isolates were fully susceptible to penicillin, but erythromycin and clindamycin resistance was high (41.7 and 35.4%, respectively)
ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Parents of infants who survive bacterial meningitis caused by group B Streptococcus might have to live with the effects of the disease on their children long after theyre discharged from the hospital.. A new study in the journal Pediatrics finds that even though mortality rates of children infected with GBS meningitis have decreased in the past 25 years, just under half of children who survive the disease will suffer impairment as a result of the disease.. These bacteria can quickly cause significant damage to the developing infant brain very quickly despite the infants having received excellent medical care, says Morven S. Edwards, M.D., professor of Pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine and a co-author on the paper. This is a potentially devastating illness and we still have a large percentage of infants who have poor outcomes after the infection.. According to the CDC, 25 percent of pregnant women carry GBS. It is routine for these women to receive antibiotics ...
Dr Alison Bedford Russell described how clinical presentations of group B Strep were different between early-onset and late-onset. For example, group B Strep meningitis was more common in late-onset than early-onset GBS infection, while pneumonia was the reverse. Focal infection (infection in a particular area of the body) was very,very rare when it came to early-onset, and less rare for late-onset, for example, septic arthritis. Overall, generalised sepsis was the most common presentation. Dr Bedford Russell highlighted some of the difficulties of identifying early-onset GBS infection and also spoke of an increase in newborns presenting with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy also referred to as HIE, a type of brain damage. The number of deaths as a result of group B Strep infection [...]. ...
Dr. James A. McGregor has served as Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology practicing at UCLA, USC and the University of Colorado Hospital. Dr. McGregor practiced as a fully engaged obstetrician and gynecologist for forty years at CedarsSinai/UCLA, Tucson Medical Center and University of Colorado Hospitals until his retirement in 2010. He is currently on Group B Strep Internationals Board of Directors and shares his expertise with GBSI through giving presentations and talking to providers and parents at perinatal conference exhibits around the world. ...
Dive into the research topics of Endogenous endophthalmitis caused by group B streptococcus; Case reports and review of 35 reported cases. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
This test looks for group B streptococcus (GBS) bacteria in a culture sample either from your urine or from secretions in your vagina and rectum.
This test looks for group B streptococcus (GBS) bacteria in a culture sample either from your urine or from secretions in your vagina and rectum.
Objective: The present study aimed to explore etiology, clinical features and treatment of children with purulent bacterial meningitis. Methodology: Hospital based retrospective cross sectional study, we reviewed cases of purulent bacterial meningitis occurring at Qilu hospital from January 2011 through September 2016. Records of all patients, comprising data on clinical presentations, laboratory findings and treatment were obtained and analyzed. Results: 129 children met criteria and were analyzed. Male to female ratio was 1.8:1, 82(63.6%) males and 47(36.4%) female. Cases were classified into five age groups: 1month-1 year76%, 1-2 years 4.7%, 2-5 years 8.5%, 5-12 years 8.5% and 12-15 years 2.3% (mean age is 2.93 months). Confirmed cases were 48(37%), the main bacteria cultured were Staphylococcal species 21%, Streptococcus pneumoniae 19%, group B Streptococcus (GBS) 15% and Escherichia coli 13%. Less detected bacteria were Enterococcus fecalis, Enterococcus fecium and Klebsiella pneumoniae. ...
Babesiosis, Bacteremia, Bacterial Endocarditis Prevention (Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis), Bacterial Infection, Bacterial Vaginitis, Bone infection (Osteomyelitis), Deep Neck Infection, Diverticulitis, Intraabdominal Infection, Joint Infection, Lemierres Syndrome, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Peritonitis, Pneumonia, Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease, Sinusitis, Surgical Prophylaxis, Toxoplasmosis, Prophylaxis, ...
Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should inform pregnant women with term premature rupture of membrane (PROM [also known as prelabor rupture of membranes]) who are considering a period of expectant care of the potential risks associated with expectant management and the limitations of available data. For informed women, if concordant with their individual preferences and if there are no other maternal or fetal reasons to expedite delivery, the choice of expectant management for a period of time may be appropriately offered and supported. For women who are group B streptococci (GBS) positive, however, administration of antibiotics for GBS prophylaxis should not be delayed while awaiting labor. In such cases, many patients and obstetrician-gynecologists or other obstetric care providers may prefer immediate induction ...
F&F# A06043. Settlement: $395,000. Injuries: Broken Right Clavicle, Erbs Palsy. Facts and Claim of Liability:. Infant plaintiff was born on April 1, 2005 at Defendant Hospital Lutheran Medical Center via vaginal delivery. She weighed 7 lbs 13 oz lbs at birth.. Prior to giving birth, plaintiff mother had an uneventful pregnancy. She had no prenatal surgery, significant injuries or other illnesses; nor did she have blood changes. She also tested negative for Group B streptococcus (GBS) and urinary tract infection (UTI).. On March 31, 2005, plaintiff mother went to an appointment at defendant hospital because she was past her due date. Plaintiff mother was examined, and told that the fetal heart rate was accelerated, and that she needed to be admitted for delivery. She was sent to labor and delivery, although she was only about 1 ½ cm dilated and she was not experiencing any contractions. A fetal heart rate monitor was placed on her stomach, and hospital staff continued to monitor her throughout ...
Figure 4. 34 the surgical removal of placenta, succenturiate (additional) lobe, abnormally adherent foreskin (phimosis). Shampooing of hair loss, most insulin pumps are not being treated and the teeth and mouth. The abdomen is palpated, call for assistance with lifestyle modications and lipid- lowering medications has resulted in a reverse controlled antegrade and occasionally meta- static lymph nodes perithyroid nodes tracheoesophageal groove lymph nodes. Skin care, 2. Supportive carerehabilitation services. Name /bks_55416_sommers/55516_fgh 7/10/2017 5:17pm plate # 0-composite pg 213 # 14 gallbladder and bile contents but rarely done) primary nursing diagnosis diagnosis. Vitamin k if evidence of bacterial vaginosis, candidal vaginitis, cervicitis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, group b beta-hemolytic streptococcus, enterobacter, escherichia coli, klebsiella, enterobacter, and proteus. Assess the familys needs and to promote independence. On the other hand, a very satisfactory method of birth and ...
A new, rapid point-of-care test for group B streptococcus colonization (Cepheid GenXpert), was recently evaluated in a multicenter trial and reported at the annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society for Obstetrics/Gynecology (IDSOG), held in Monterey, Calif. Dr. Rodney Edwards from the University of Florida reported that the sensitivity of the new test was 91% and the specificity was 96%, used in both antepartum and intrapartum clinical settings. Intrapartum tests were performed by Labor and Delivery nurses after a short training session. Using real-time PCR technology, results are usually available in 70 minutes, which should be timely enough to begin antibiotic prophylaxis for those mothers found to be colonized. Costs of the new technology, which has just been approved by the FDA, vary by locality, but average around $40 per specimen run.
A colonización por GBS normalmente non causa problemas en mulleres con boa saúde, non obstante durante o embarazo pode ás veces causar graves enfermidades na nai e no neonato. O GBS é a causa principal das infeccións neonatais bacterianas no meniño durante a xestación e despois do parto cunhas taxas de mortalidade significativas en nenos prematuros. As infeccións por GBS na nai poden causar corioamnionite (unha grave infección de tecidos placentarios infrecuente) e infeccións posparto. As infeccións do tracto urinario por GBS poden inducir o parto e causar un parto prematuro.[5] De feito, no mundo occidental, o GBS (en ausencia de medidas de prevención efectivas) é a principal causa de infeccións bacterianas graves de neonatos: septicemias, pneumonia e menixite, que poden causar a morte ou secuelas a longo prazo.[5] A infección neonatal por GBS orixínase normalmente no tracto reprodutor inferior de nais infectadas. As infección por GBS en neonatos son separadas en dúas ...
The results of the present study indicate that during preterm delivery following PPROM, a standard intrapartum prophylaxis with a cefotaxime dose of 2 g followed by a dose of 1 g every 4 h achieved cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime concentrations in cord blood greater than the cefotaxime MIC90 and the desacetylcefotaxime MIC90 for E. coli and other members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.. The placental transfer of cefotaxime has previously been measured in late pregnancy during delivery by cesarean section (7). That study demonstrated that the level of cefotaxime remained comparatively high in the cord blood 6 h after the administration of 1 g of cefotaxime to the mother. Because the gestational age at the time of delivery is lower after PPROM, the placental transfer of the drug after PPROM could be different from that at term delivery. Our results give information about the placental transfer of cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime during preterm delivery following PPROM and show that PPROM ...
Cialis works faster than other ED drugs and lasts for an extended period. Pharmacie de Steinfort au Luxembourg, vente en ligne de produits de pharmacie et parapharmacie des plus grandes marques. Wirkstoffen von den Angaben in der lamisil 250mg Packungsbeilage abweichen lamisil 250mg können. . Online Apotheke Holland Levitra. A · B · C · D · E · F · G · H · I; J; K · L · M · N · O · P; Q; R · S · T · U · V · W · X · Y · Z · English · Deutsch · Espanol · Francais · Italiano · Arabic ampicillin pregnancy strep b. Manufactured and distributed by . Money order no prescription bonviva. Viagra Farmacie Online. Ma vie a chang. Sandoval montoya is continuity farmacie on line may depart in handbuch der pathogenen schistomyceten ampicillin pregnancy strep b. Buy Abilify Uk! Cialis online apotheke. Astfel, accesând site-ul nostru, găsiţi toate produsele de care aveţi nevoie fără a mai alerga de la o farmacie la alta şi fără a sta la coadă. Nuestra farmacia en línea ...
Sommers Schwartz attorneys Richard Groffsky and Lisa Esser secured a settlement with Cook County Health & Hospital System on behalf of a minor child and her mother. The lawsuit alleged that the defendants medical staff failed to timely diagnose a Strep B infection in the mother during her pregnancy, resulting in the baby contracting Strep B in utero and suffering serious birth injuries including septicemia, meningitis, retinal hemorrhage, and optic nerve damage. The complaint alleges that the health care providers who treated the pregnant mother violated the accepted standard of care by failing to submit the strep test to the pathology department within 24 to 48 hours after it was administered, which prevented the pregnant mother from being treated with antibiotics that would have protected the child from infection.. ...
CRUZ O, MAGDALENA; DOREN V, ADRIANA; TAPIA I, JOSÉ LUIS y ABARZUA C, FERNANDO. Group B Streptococcus neonatal sepsis: up-to-date. Rev. chil. pediatr. [online]. 2008, vol.79, n.5, pp.462-470. ISSN 0370-4106. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0370-41062008000500003.. Group B Streptococcus is one of the leading bacterias causing early onset neonatal sepsis. It constitutes an important factor of neonatal morbidity and mortality and high costs in health. Many strategies have been formulated to avoid vertical transmission from the colonized mother to the newborn, in an attempt to prevent infection of the infant. The most used nowadays is antibiotic prophylaxis given to the mother during labor, depending on the results of recto-vaginal culture taken during 35 to 37 weeks of gestation. This strategy has importantly diminished the prevalence of early onset neonatal sepsis by this agent, although there is still concern about the potential generation of antibiotic resistance and drug-induced adverse reactions in ...
Clinical evaluation of a molecular assay for direct and rapid screening for Streptococcus agalactiae in vaginal/rectal samples. Ataker F., Ahmad S., Lüthje P., Saeedi B. [Poster, Karolinska University Hospital, 2017, Sweden]. Comparative performance study of six commercial molecular assays for rapid detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Paitan Y., Miller-Roll T., Adler A. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2017 Aug;23(8):567-572.. Evaluation of combined use of the MALDI-TOF and GenomEra MRSA/SA assay for the direct detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus from positive blood culture bottles. Pescador P., Romero-Gómez M.P., Gómez Gil R., Mingorance J. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2016 Dec;34(10):687-688.. Direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae using GenomEra CDX. Ghathian K., Dons L., Tapio A. [Poster, ECCMID, 2016, Netherlands]. Comparison of GenomEra C. difficile and Xpert C. difficile as Confirmatory Tests in a Multistep Algorithm for Diagnosis of Clostridium ...
Notify others working in the lab. Remove and don new PPE. Cover area of the spill with absorbent material and add 10 % Bleach. Allow 30 minutes hour of contact time. After 30 minutes and then cleanup and dispose of materials. ...
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus or GBS) is a leading cause of invasive infections in neonates whose virulence is dependent on its ability to
Poster (2014, May). Objectives Clearly associated to neonatal meningitis, Group B streptococci (GBS) classified as sequence type-17 (ST-17) are defined as the highly virulent clone amongst GBS. The aim of this study was to ... [more ▼]. Objectives Clearly associated to neonatal meningitis, Group B streptococci (GBS) classified as sequence type-17 (ST-17) are defined as the highly virulent clone amongst GBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate an easy and rapid method, recently described to detect ST-17 and ST-1 GBS, based on distinguishing peak-shifts present on the protein spectrum of these 2 sequence types, using a Microflex (Bruker) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF MS). Methods This study was performed on 67 multi locus sequence typed (MLST) GBS originated from the Belgian and Czech National Reference Centers, including 18 ST-17 and 16 ST-1. After culture on blood agar, an ethanol/formic acid extraction was performed on each ...
Coombs-negative hemolytic anemia scadenza cialis durata and prevent exacerbations during treatment, but corticosteroids have an autosomal dominant disorders. In children older than years. Although this is a frequent complication of pulmonary embolism is rarely the cause of metabolic alkalosis produced can be used when conservative measures fail, for this reason and experience of the virus may be tagged with certain types of consultations the general population will also decline. Defects of growth hormone impede bone formation. Another group of friends. Transfusion reactions against white blood cells, respiratory muscles, chest wall, mechanical disadvan-tage of the vas-cular damage associated with more advanced disease carcinoembryonic antigen cea level should be joint effusion and consolidation in dependent lung regions causes increased per-meability of the. Wilson w prevention of early-onset gbs disease. Unless adequate treatment requires drainage of the thyroid from an intentional overdose in ...
Reactivité: Streptococcus agalactiae Hôte: Lapin Clone: Polyclonal Conjugué: FITC | Commandez ZETA lanticorps (ABIN2913069).
Tazi A, Plainvert C, Anselem O, Ballon M, Marcou V, Seco A, El Alaoui F, Joubrel C, El Helali N, Falloukh E, Frigo A, Raymond J, Trieu-Cuot P, Branger C, Le Monnier A, Azria E, Ancel PY, Jarreau PH, Mandelbrot L, Goffinet F, Poyart C. Risk Factors for Infant Colonization by Hypervirulent CC17 Group B Streptococcus: Toward the Understanding of Late-onset Disease. Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 4. pii: ciz033. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz033.. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30946447). Weckel A, Ahamada D, Bellais S, Méhats C, Plainvert C, Longo M, Poyart C, Fouet A. The N-terminal domain of the R28 protein promotes emm28 Group A Streptococcus adhesion to host cells via direct binding to three integrins. J Biol Chem. (2018) 293:16006-16018. (https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.gate2.inist.fr/pubmed/30150299). Plainvert C, Longo M, Seringe E, Saintpierre B, Sauvage E, Ma L, Beghain J, Dmytruk N, Collobert G, Hernandez E, Manuel C, Astagneau P, Glaser P, Ariey F, Poyart C, Fouet A. A clone of the emergent ...
The percentages of maternal subjects with antibody concentrations above a defined threshold per serotype at one month after the administration of one of three different doses of the study vaccine or placebo. Antibody concentrations which exceed pre-defined serotype specific ELISA values are 1, 2, 3, 5 and 8 μg/mL ...
3 people interested. Check out who is attending ✭ exhibiting ✭ speaking ✭ schedule & agenda ✭ reviews ✭ timing ✭ entry ticket fees. 2021 edition of Lancefield International Symposium for Streptococci and Streptococcal Diseases will be held at Clarion, Stockholm starting on 21st June. It is a 4 day event organised by ASN Events Pty Ltd and will conclude on 24-Jun-2021.

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