A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharnyx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation in the upper body and respiratory tract.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
An acute purulent infection of the meninges and subarachnoid space caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, most prevalent in children and adults over the age of 60. This illness may be associated with OTITIS MEDIA; MASTOIDITIS; SINUSITIS; RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; sickle cell disease (ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL); skull fractures; and other disorders. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; HEADACHE; neck stiffness; and somnolence followed by SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits (notably DEAFNESS); and COMA. (From Miller et al., Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p111)
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Bacterial infections of the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space, frequently involving the cerebral cortex, cranial nerves, cerebral blood vessels, spinal cord, and nerve roots.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The ability of bacterial cells to take up exogenous DNA and be genetically transformed by it.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the PALATINE TONSILS but the ADENOIDS (pharyngeal tonsils) and lingual tonsils may also be involved. Tonsillitis usually is caused by bacterial infection. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES. It is characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, such as the heart, blood vessels, and joints (POLYARTHRITIS) and brain, and by the presence of ASCHOFF BODIES in the myocardium and skin.
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Topoisomerase IV binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting 2 parC and 2 parE subunits. Topoisomerase IV is a decatenating enzyme that resolves interlinked daughter chromosomes following DNA replication.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A fulminating bacterial infection of the deep layers of the skin and FASCIA. It can be caused by many different organisms, with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES being the most common.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Skin diseases caused by bacteria.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Bacterial variants, unable to form a complete cell wall, which are formed in cultures by various bacteria; granules (L bodies) appear, unite, and grow into amorphous bodies which multiply and give rise to bacterial cells morphologically indistinguishable from the parent strain.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.
A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Infection with group A streptococci that is characterized by tonsillitis and pharyngitis. An erythematous rash is commonly present.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
ENDOCARDIUM infection that is usually caused by STREPTOCOCCUS. Subacute infective endocarditis evolves over weeks and months with modest toxicity and rare metastatic infection.
An acute infection of the skin caused by species of STREPTOCOCCUS. This disease most frequently affects infants, young children, and the elderly. Characteristics include pink-to-red lesions that spread rapidly and are warm to the touch. The commonest site of involvement is the face.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Any purulent skin disease (Dorland, 27th ed).
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glycosyl groups to an acceptor. Most often another carbohydrate molecule acts as an acceptor, but inorganic phosphate can also act as an acceptor, such as in the case of PHOSPHORYLASES. Some of the enzymes in this group also catalyze hydrolysis, which can be regarded as transfer of a glycosyl group from the donor to water. Subclasses include the HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES; PENTOSYLTRANSFERASES; SIALYLTRANSFERASES; and those transferring other glycosyl groups. EC 2.4.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. II. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release by polysaccharides in response to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis. (1/4020)

The release of lysosomal hydrolases from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been postulated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in periodontal disease. In the present study, lysosomal enzyme release was monitored from rabbit peritoneal exudate PMNs exposed to Streptocccus mutans or Streptococcus sanguis. S. mutans grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth failed to promote significant PMN enzyme release. S. sanguis grown in BHI broth, although more effective than S. mutants, was a weak stimulus for promotion of PMN hydrolase release. Preincubation of washed, viable S. mutans in sucrose or in different-molecular-weight dextrans resulted in the ability of the organisms to provoke PMN release reactions. This effect could bot be demonstrated with boiled or trypsinized S. mutans or with viable S. sanguis. However, when grown in BHI broth supplemented with sucrose, but not with glucose, both S. mutans and S. sanguis triggered discharge of PMN enzymes. The mechanism(s) whereby dextran or sucrose modulates PMN-bacterial interaction may in some manner be related to promotion of microbial adhesiveness or aggregation by dextran and by bacterial synthesis of glucans from sucrose.  (+info)

Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. III. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release response to Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus mutans by immunoglobulins and complement. (2/4020)

In the absence of antiserum, rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) released lysosomal enzymes in response to Actinomyces viscosus (19246) but not to Streptococcus mutans (6715). Antibodies had a marked modulating influence on these reactions. PMN hydrolase release was significantly enhanced to both organisms when specific rabbit antiserum and isolated immunoglobulin G (IgG) were included in the incubations. Immune complex F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against S. mutans agglutinated bacteria. Immune complexes consisting of S. mutans and F(ab')2 fragments of IgG directed against this organism were not effective as bacteria-IgG complexes in stimulating PMN release. The intensity of the release response to bacteria-IgG complexes was also diminished when PMNs were preincubated with isolated Fc fragments derived from IgG. Fresh serum as a source of complement components had no demonstrable effect on PMN release either alone or in conjuction with antiserum in these experiments. These data may be relevant to the mechanisms and consequences of the interaction of PMNs and plaque bacteria in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.  (+info)

Purification and cloning of a streptokinase from Streptococcus uberis. (3/4020)

A bovine plasminogen activator was purified from the culture supernatant of the bovine pathogen Streptococcus uberis NCTC 3858. After the final reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography step a single protein with a molecular mass of 32 kDa was detected in the active fraction. A partial peptide map was established, and degenerate primers were designed and used for amplification of fragments of the gene encoding the activator. Inverse PCR was subsequently used for obtaining the full-length gene. The S. uberis plasminogen activator gene (skc) encodes a protein consisting of 286 amino acids including a signal peptide of 25 amino acids. In an amino acid sequence comparison the cloned activator showed an identity of approximately 26% to the streptokinases isolated from Streptococcus equisimilis and Streptococcus pyogenes. Interestingly, the activator from S. uberis was found to lack the C-terminal domain possessed by the streptokinase from S. equisimilis. This is apparently a general feature of the streptokinases of this species; biochemical and genetic analysis of 10 additional strains of S. uberis revealed that 9 of these were highly similar to strain NCTC 3858. Sequencing of the skc gene from three of these strains indicated that the amino acid sequence of the protein is highly conserved within the species.  (+info)

Surface expression of a protective recombinant pertussis toxin S1 subunit fragment in Streptococcus gordonii. (4/4020)

In this study, the expression of the Bordetella pertussis S1 subunit was tested in Streptococcus gordonii, a commensal oral bacterium which has the potential to be a live oral vaccine vehicle. The DNA fragment encoding the N-terminal 179 amino acids of the S1 subunit was ligated into the middle part of spaP, the surface protein antigen P1 gene originating from Streptococcus mutans. The resulting construct, carried on the Escherichia coli-Streptococcus shuttle vector pDL276, was introduced into S. gordonii DL-1 by natural transformation. One of the transformants (RJMIII) produced a 187-kDa protein (the predicted size of the SpaP-S1 fusion protein) which was recognized by both the anti-pertussis toxin (anti-PT) and anti-SpaP antibodies, suggesting that an in-frame fusion had been made. Results from immunogold-electron microscopic studies and cellular fractionation studies showed that the fusion protein was surface localized and was mainly associated with the cell wall of RJMIII, indicating that SpaP was able to direct the fusion protein to the cell surface. A rabbit antiserum raised against heat-killed S. gordonii RJMIII recognized the native S1 subunit of PT in Western blotting and showed a weak neutralization titer to PT by the Chinese hamster ovary cell-clustering assay. BALB/c mice immunized with the heat-killed S. gordonii RJMIII were protected from the toxic effect of PT in the leukocytosis-promoting and histamine sensitization assays. In conclusion, a fragment of the S1 subunit of PT was successfully surface expressed in S. gordonii; the recombinant S1 fragment was found to be immunogenic and could induce protection against the toxic effect of PT in mice.  (+info)

The influence of a diet rich in wheat fibre on the human faecal flora. (5/4020)

The effect on the faecal flora of adding wheat fibre to a controlled diet in four healthy volunteers for a 3-week period has been observed. No change in the concentration of the bacteria in the bacterial groups counted was found, although there was a slight increase in total output associated with increased faecal weight. The predominant organisms in all subjects were non-sporing anaerobes, but the dominant species in each subject was different and was unaffected by changing the diet. Similarly, the concentration of faecal beta-glucuronidase detected in two subjects was unaltered and the concentration of clostridia able to dehydrogenate the steroid nucleus found in one subject was unaltered. It is suggested that the faecal microflora is not primarily controlled by the presence of undigested food residues in the large bowel.  (+info)

Humoral immunity to commensal oral bacteria in human infants: salivary secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the first two years of life. (6/4020)

Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant's saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity.  (+info)

Biological activity of netilmicin, a broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside antibiotic. (7/4020)

Netilmicin (Sch 20569) is a new broad-spectrum semisynthetic aminoglycoside derived from sisomicin. Netilmicin was compared to gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin in a variety of in vitro test systems as well as in mouse protection tests. Netilmicin was found to be similar in activity to gentamicin against aminoglycoside-susceptible strains in both in vitro and in vivo tests. Netilmicin was also active against many aminoglycoside-resistant strains of gram-negative bacteria, particularly those known to possess adenylating enzymes (ANT 2') or those with a similar resistance pattern. Netilmicin was found to be markedly less toxic than gentamicin in chronic studies in cats, although gentamicin appeared less toxic in acute toxicity tests in mice. The concentrations of netilmicin and gentamicin in serum were compared in dogs after intramuscular dosing, and the pharmacokinetics including peak concentrations in serum were found to be similar.  (+info)

Isolation of an active catalytic core of Streptococcus downei MFe28 GTF-I glucosyltransferase. (8/4020)

Truncated variants of GTF-I from Streptococcus downei MFe28 were purified by means of a histidine tag. Sequential deletions showed that the C-terminal domain was not directly involved in the catalytic process but was required for primer activation. A fully active catalytic core of only 100 kDa was isolated.  (+info)

Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram positive, beta-haemolytic, coccal bacterium belonging to the family Streptococcaceae. It is capable of infecting both humans and animals, but is most frequently encountered as a commensal of the alimentary tract, genital tract, or less commonly, as a part of the skin flora. The clinical manifestations in human disease range from superficial skin-infections and tonsillitis, to severe necrotising fasciitis and bacteraemia. The incidence of invasive disease has been reported to be rising. Several different animal species are susceptible to infection by S.dysgalactiae, but bovine mastitis and infectious arthritis in lambs (joint ill) have been most frequently reported. Streptococcus dysgalactiae is currently divided into the subspecies Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDSD); the former mostly associated with human disease, and the latter almost exclusively encountered in veterinary ...
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causes invasive streptococcal infections, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), as does Lancefield group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). We sequenced the entire genome of SDSE strain
Introduction . Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a β-hemolytic streptococcus that causes severe invasive streptococcal infections, especially in the elderly and people with underlying diseases. SDSE strains are primarily characterized by Lancefield group G or C antigens. Hypothesis/Gap Statement. We have previously reported the prevalence of Lancefield group A SDSE (GA-SDSE) strains in Japan and have analysed the draft genome sequences of these strains. As GA-SDSE is a rare type of SDSE, only one complete genome has been sequenced to date. Aim. The present study is focused on genetic characteristics of GA-SDSE strains. In order to examine molecular characteristics, we also tested growth inhibition of other streptococci by GA-SDSE. Methodology. We determined the complete genome sequences of three GA-SDSE strains by two new generation sequencing systems (short-read and long-read sequencing data). Using the sequences, we also conducted a comparative analysis of GA-SDSE and group C/G
Previous evidence for the presence of an M or M-like protein on group G streptococci has been based on the ability of these strains to survive in human blood. In addition, cross-reactions between group A and group G streptococci have been demonstrated, but they have relied either on whole bacterial cell vaccine-induced polyclonal sera or crude protein extracts of these cells. In this study two monoclonal antibodies prepared against the purified, native group A streptococcal M6 protein demonstrated a high degree of cross-reactivity with group G streptococcal clinical isolates (9 and 19 of 22 strains examined, respectively). Ten of these strains exhibited resistance to phagocytosis when rotated in human blood. In addition, immunoblot analysis of crude mutanolysin extracts of group G streptococci with one of the M6 monoclonal antibodies illustrated a remarkable similarity in the protein pattern of these extracts as compared with those of group A streptococcal M protein. The immunoblots further ...
Most streptococcal species are essentially non-pathogenic and are part of the normal commensal microflora of the mouth, skin, intestine, and upper respiratory tract of humans (and other animals). Streptococcus salivarius is a predominant oral streptococcal species in humans that is thought to play an important role in the maintenance of a healthy oral microbial ecosystem. A notable characteristic of this species is that they commonly produce Bacteriocin-like Inhibitory Substances (BLIS). Streptococcus salivarius strain Pirie resembles strain K12, the prototype BLIS-producing S. salivarius, in that it inhibits all nine standard indicators when tested in a streptococcal bacteriocin fingerprinting scheme. Another similarity to strain K12 is the presence of the class I bacteriocins salivaricin A genes in strain Pirie. However, strain Pirie differs from strain K12 in having a broader spectrum of inhibitory activity against other members of the commensal oral microflora, including most strains of S. ...
AIM: To evaluate Lancefield grouping and caramel smell for presumptive identification of the Streptococcus milleri group, and to find whether Lancefield group, species, or protein profile correlated with virulence or infection site. METHODS: Prospective studies were made of 100 consecutive streptococcal isolates in blood cultures or pus from 100 patients in whom the severity of infection was categorised as serious, moderate, or not significant. The usefulness of Lancefield group and the caramel smell for presumptive identification was examined, and the relation of the S milleri species, Lancefield group, and SDS-PAGE protein analysis to severity of infection and infection site was investigated. Lower respiratory tract and genital tract specimens, strict anaerobes, group D streptococci, and strains identified as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, or Streptococcus agalactiae were excluded. RESULTS: Most streptococci occurring in pure or significant growth density were S milleri ...
Cubicin® is a lipopeptide antibiotic for Gram-positive infections, particularly Staph and MRSA infections and the following infections: Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by susceptible isolates of the following Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, and Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible isolates only). S. aureus are bloodstream infections (bacteremia), including those with right-sided infective endocarditis, caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant isolates ...
Streptococcus equinus is a Gram-positive, nonhemolytic, nonpathogenic, lactic acid bacterium of the genus Streptococcus. It is the principal Streptococcus found in the alimentary canal of a horse, and makes up the majority of the bacterial flora in horse feces. S. equinus is seldom found in humans. S. equinus, which is always abundant in the feces of horses, was first isolated from the air in 1906 by Andrewes and Horder due to the presence of dried horse manure, common in most cities at the time. In 1910, Winslow and Palmer verified the findings of Andrewes and Horder and reported further findings in both cattle and human feces. After the bacterium was discovered in 1906, the term Streptococcus equinus became a convenient wastebasket into which nonhemolytic streptococci that do not ferment lactose and mannitol were categorized. The classification of all streptococci that fail to ferment lactose into one large category has made the classification of S. equinus very difficult. However, as shown ...
The gene sequence for the circular chromosomes of twelves pecies of streptococci have been sequenced: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae 2603 V/R , Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ1066, Streptococcus thermophilus LMG 18311, and Streptococcus pyogenes. The genome of Streptococcus pyogenes is 1,852,442 base pairs long, containing 1,752 predicted protein-coding genes. Researchers have identified more than 40 virulence-associated genes on the S. pyogenes genome, which fits in with its ability to cause a variety of human diseases. Researchers also found numerous genes that encode proteins that aid in molecular mimicry, when the bacterium disguises itself by posing as a cell that is a part of the host. The genome of S. pneumoniae is 2,038,615 base pairs long with 2,043 predicted protein-coding regions. S. pneumoniae has a high capacity for DNA uptake, and consequently its genome contains many genes that are most likely derived from other bacteria. More than 53% ...
The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (replacing HGT) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (additive HGT). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY-SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE ...
Definition : Molecular assay reagents intended to identify group C Streptococcus (e.g., S. equisimilis, S. zooepidemicus, S. dysgalactiae) a species of coccoid bacterium by detecting specific nucleic-acid information of the target bacteria. Group C Streptococcus may cause endocarditis, bacteremia, pneumonia, meningitis, and mild upper respiratory tract infections; S. equisimilis is the most common group C bacterial pathogen in humans, but other group C species such as S. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae may also cause infections.. Entry Terms : Streptococcus dysgalactiae Detection/Identification Reagents , Strepcoccus zooepidemicus Detection/Identification Reagents , Streptococcus equisimilis Detection/Identification Reagents , Streptococcus C Detection/Identification Reagents , Meningococcal Meningitis Diagnostic Reagents , Bacterial Endocarditis Diagnostic Reagents , Reagents, Molecular Assay, Infection, Bacteria, Streptococcus C. UMDC code : 21674 ...
The letter before the laboratory description, e.g. Group A or Group B etc., refers to a molecule or antigen on the bacterial cell wall. It was first discovered in 1933 by Rebecca Lancefield, an American Microbiologist born in 1895, and became known as Lancefield grouping. Lancefield grouping only applies to Beta-haemolytic streptococci. Do not group the alpha or non-haemolytic streptococci; in these bacteria the grouping antigens may lead to a misidentification (and false significance) of the microorganism e.g. a non-haemolytic streptococcus that groups with an A is not S. pyogenes and does not have the same significance as S. pyogenes. If you do this you will end up mismanaging patients! Take my word for it… dont group alpha and non-haemolytic streptococci… just dont do it, its wrong ...
Kikuchi, T.; Desmazeaud, M.; Bergere, J.L., 1973: Proteolytic action of lactic streptococci. I. The action of mesophilic lactic streptococci on N constituents of milk
United States Patent Hajime Okamoto; Susumu Shoin; Saburo Koshimura, all of Kanazawa-shl, Japan [72] Inventors Kanazawa-shi, Japan [32] Priority Mar. 1, 1968 J p [31] 43/ 13043 [54] PROCESS FOR THE CULTIVATION OF HEMOLYTIC STREPTOCOCCI 5 Claims, No Drawings [52] U.S. Cl 195/96, 195/1 14, 424/493 [51] Int. Cl. ....A6lk 21/00, Cl2d 1/20 [50] Field of Search 195/66, 96, 66 B, 1 I4, 30 [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,477,914 ll/l969 Okamoto etal. l95/96 Primary ExaminerAlvin E. Tanenhultz Assistant Examiner Robert M. Elliott AtlomeyBrowdy and Neimark ABSTRACT: A process for the cultivation of hemolytic streptococci by cultivating hemolytic streptococci (e.g., Streptococcus hemolylicus ATCC 21060) in a meat infusion broth or the medium containing an extract containing watersoluble components in a yeast autolysate as a major component of pH 7.0-7.5 containing oxaloacetic acid or salts thereof and, if desired, ribonucleic acid or ribonuclease core at about 37C. for 14-20 hours, in order ...
Lancefield group G Streptococcus canis is a component of the normal urogenital and pharyngeal flora of the cat. It is also frequently implicated in epizootics of severe disease in closed cat colonies and animal shelters. Given the importance of S canis as a feline pathogen and relative lack of published information on characteristics potentially associated with virulence, the authors have compared isolates from healthy and diseased cats in New York and California using fermentation profiles (biotype) and ScM sequences. With few exceptions, isolates associated with disease were biotype 1. Four alleles of scm were identified of which type 1 dominated in diseased cats. Type 4 allelic variants were found only in healthy cats and all but one were biotype 2. Type 2 and 3 alleles showed extensive N-terminal variation suggesting a plasminogen-binding site as found on the type 1 allele was absent. Cat antisera to ScM were opsonobactericidal, and these potentially protective antibodies increased during ...
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(oleh Ardy Prian Nirwana, S.Pd.Bio & Yusianti Silviani, S.Pd.Bio) Streptococcus adalah bakteri spheris Gram positif yang khasnya berpasangan atau membentuk rantai selama pertumbuhannya. Beberapa kelompok streptococcus adalah flora normal manusia. Streptococcus menghasilkan berbagai enzim dan substansi ekstraseluler. Streptococcus merupakan kelompok bakteri yang heterogen, dan tidak ada sistem yang dapat mengklasifikasikannya. Dua puluh spesies, termasuk Streptococcus…
Unscramble streptococci, Unscramble letters streptococci, Point value for streptococci, Word Decoder for streptococci, Word generator using the letters streptococci, Word Solver streptococci, Possible Scrabble words with streptococci, Anagram of streptococci
Unscramble streptococci, Unscramble letters streptococci, Point value for streptococci, Word Decoder for streptococci, Word generator using the letters streptococci, Word Solver streptococci, Possible Scrabble words with streptococci, Anagram of streptococci
Of all bacteria isolated from the mice, heat-killed Streptococcus sp. and heat-killed E. coli bound to immobilized MGL1. The binding was significantly reduced by the addition of 100 mmol/L Gal but not mannose (Figure 4A). The binding was also abrogated by the addition of 5 mmol/L EDTA, indicating that the interaction between the bacteria Dovitinib side effects and MGL1 was calcium-dependent (Figure 4B). To evaluate the interaction of bacteria with MGL1 on cell surfaces, uptake of fluorescent-labeled bacteria by CHO cells transfected with Mgl1 was examined. These cells engulfed Streptococcus sp., but not E. coli or Enterococcus sp. (Figure 4C), suggesting that Streptococcus sp. was one of the candidates of bacteria that interact with MGL1 during the pathogenesis of experimental colitis.. Figure 4 MGL1 binding to intestinal commensal bacteria. A: Commensal bacteria were isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes of DSS-treated mice on day 7. Heat-killed bacterial bodies were applied on microtiter plates ...
Oral bacteria. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of mixed oral bacteria (Streptococcus, round) with some bacilli bacteria (rod-shaped). - Masterfile - Premium Royalty-Free, Code: 679-08425093
The principal source of streptococci in milk is the cows udder. The udder streptococci fall into two broad groups; those of the larger group agree in cultural characters and agglutination affinities with mastitis streptococci; the smaller group is composed of low acid-producing streptococci. The streptococci of the latter group produce clear zones of hemolysis about surface and deep colonies in horse blood agar plates. They attack dextrose, lactose, saccharose, and maltose, but do not ferment raffinose, inulin, mannite, or salicin. Acid production in dextrose by the members of this group is about the same as that produced by human streptococci under the same conditions. The limiting hydrogen ion concentration for these pleomorphic udder streptococci in dextrose serum bouillon is within the limits of the limiting hydrogen ion concentration observed by Avery and Cullen for human streptococci. All the streptococci from the vagina, saliva, skin, and feces have been non-hemolytic. Those from the saliva form
In the Kilians opinion [1] the change of the well-established name Streptococcus cricetus may be a source of confusion. So, with reference to the first Principle of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision), Kilian requested that the original name Streptococcus cricetus be conserved [2]. The Judicial Commission denied this request, and no Opinion will be issued upon this request [3]. Publication: Kilian M. Necessary changes of bacterial names? ASM News 1998; 64:670 ...
The ability of epithelial cells to sense the external environment and communicate this information to the local immune system, thereby initiating appropriate responses, is essential for the maintenance of health and prevention of the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Our studies have shown that an oral probiotic commensal strain of S. salivarius is able to inhibit inflammatory responses in human bronchial epithelial cells by downregulating the NF-κB pathway. This is consistent with an emerging paradigm that indicates the downregulation of epithelial immune responses by commensal bacteria (8, 13, 24, 38, 48). Not only did S. salivarius K12 inhibit baseline synthesis of IL-8, but it also suppressed IL-8 secretion when cells were stimulated with pathogenic P. aeruginosa, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium flagellin, or the immunomodulatory host defense peptide LL-37. Most previous studies have focused on IL-8 and IL-6 responses, but here it was demonstrated that this commensal bacterium ...
The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: [email protected] Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have been successful, but their use has increased infections by nonvaccine serotypes. Oral streptococci often harbor capsular polysaccharide (PS) synthesis loci (cps). Although this has not been observed in nature, if pneumococcus can replace its cps with oral streptococcal cps, it may increase its serotype repertoire. In the current study, we showed that oral Streptococcus strain SK95 and pneumococcal strain D39 both produce structurally identical capsular PS, and their genetic backgrounds influence the amount of capsule production and shielding from nonspecific killing. SK95 is avirulent in a well-established in vivo mouse model. When acapsular pneumococcus was transformed with SK95 cps, the transformant became virulent and killed all mice. Thus, cps from oral Streptococcus strains ...
Summary: Biochemical, menaquinone, fatty acid and DNA analyses were conducted on a number of streptococci of serological group D. The results indicate that S. faecalis, S. faecium, S. casseliflavus and taxa previously designated S. avium, S. durans and S. faecalis var. malodoratus are distinct species. Strains previously labelled S. faecium var. mobilis were shown to be identical with S. casseliflavus. The results also indicate that some group D streptococci recently isolated from chickens constitute a new species.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of New cell surface protein involved in biofilm formation by Streptococcus parasanguinis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Streptococcus salivarius, Gram-positive, coccoid, facultatively anaerobic bacterium. Streptococcus salivarius forms chains of cells which are bound together by the capsular material seen around each cell (shown as surface stipulation in this image). It is the principal commensal bacterium of the oral cavity and a normal inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract in humans. It is the first bacterium that colonizes dental plaque, before being joined by numerous other species of various genera. It creates favourable conditions so other species can begin to colonize. The bacterium colonizes the mouth and upper respiratory tract of humans a few hours after birth, making further exposure to the bacteria harmless. Magnification: x5,335 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0162
Strains from subclinical mastitis, from the genital tract and tonsils of cattle, from tonsils of a goat and a cat and from the crop and the respiratory tract of canaries were found to constitute a new streptococcal species, for which the name Streptococcus pluranimalium sp. nov. is proposed. Sequencing of 16S rRNA showed that Streptococcus thoraltensis and Streptococcus hyovaginalis were its closest known phylogenetic relatives. The new species showed some phenotypic resemblance to the poorly described species Streptococcus acidominimus, but whole-cell protein analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that the new species was only distantly related to the type strain of S ...
Group G hemolytic streptococcal cell walls which have been treated with trypsin are composed of a group-specific polysaccharide moiety and a mucopeptide matrix. The mucopeptide contains N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, alanine, glutamic acid, lysine, and glycine, a composition similar to that of other groups of streptococci. The Group G carbohydrate is composed of rhamnose, N-acetylgalactosamine, and galactose. Serological studies suggest that the monosaccharide of L-rhamnose is a major component of the determinant of antigenic specificity.. ...
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Streptococcus Group B Antibody (HSB11-209.5), MA1-10703, from Invitrogen™. Species Reactivity: Bacteria; Applications: ELISA Shop Streptococcus Group B Mouse anti-Bacteria,
Streptococci are non-motile, microaerophilic, Grampositive spherical bacteria (cocci). They often occur as chains or pairs and are facultative or strict anaerobes. Streptococci give a negative catalase test, while staphylococci are catalase-positive. Because they are unable to synthesize cytochromes, streptococci cannot carry out oxidative phosphorylation. They are able to ferment sugars, but the end product is always lactic acid. Therefore, streptococci are very acid tolerant and count among the lactic acid bacteria order.. There are many natural sources of streptococci, including humans and diverse animals where they often colonize the mucosal surfaces of the mouth, intestinal tract, nasal passages and pharynx. The presence of streptococci in drinking water indicates fecal contamination. Food sources with high risk of contamination include milk and dairy products, eggs, steamed lobster, ground ham, potato salad, custard, rice pudding and shrimp salad. In most streptococcal food poisoning ...
Not much is known about the genome of Streptococcus salivarius other than its genome size is estimated to be 1800kb long. Its genome is yet to be sequenced [6], but it is in progress. But a closely related species of S. salivarius, S. thermophilus has been sequenced. Its genome size has been determined to be 1796kb on a single circular chromosome [7]. S. thermophilus is a lactic acid bacterium used for making milk and yogurt in the dairy industry. It is important to sequence S. thermopilus because it is phylogenetically close to pathogenic streptococci. The genome was sequenced using random shotgun sequencing and followed up by multiplex PCR [7]. S. thermophilus has a 39% G-C content, 6 Ribosomal RNAs, and 67 tRNAs [7]. It is also known that 10% of the genes are not functional due to frameshifts, nonsense mutations, deletions, or pseudogenes. Frameshifts can occur in a genenome when 1 or 2 nucleotides are deleted or inserted next to each other. This would cause a shift in the reading frame, ...
HGT between oral streptococci.The presence of longer branches in ilvC, glcK, and pepO S. salivarius split graphs (see Fig. S2 in the supplemental material) are consistent with the importation of divergent genes from other species (27). This hypothesis is supported by the higher levels of homology of cluster II alleles of ilvC and pepO loci with S. pneumoniae and S. parasanguinis alleles, respectively, than with the other S. salivarius allele clusters. S. pneumoniae and S. parasanguinis are oral streptococci which might come in contact with S. salivarius and S. vestibularis in the buccal cavity. Evaluation of the extent of HGT in ilvC and pepO genes by sequence analysis indicated that exchange of 725- and 1,783-bp internal gene fragments, respectively, took place (Fig. 5a and b). Differences in chromosomal localization and high levels of nucleotide divergence between tkt genes from S. salivarius and S. vestibularis are also consistent with an HGT event. Detailed cluster analysis of these ...
Name: Streptococcus dysgalactiae (ex Diernhofer 1932) Garvie et al. 1983. Category: Species. Proposed as: sp. nov., nom. rev.. Etymology: Gr. pref. dys, bad, hard; Gr. n. gala galaktos, milk; N.L. n. dysgalactia, loss or impairment of milk secretion; N.L. gen. n. dysgalactiae, of dysgalactia Gender: masculine Type strain: ATCC 43078; CCUG 27301; CIP 102914; DSM 20662; LMG 15885; LMG 16023; NCDO 2023; NCFB 2023; NCIMB 702023 See detailed strain information at ...
species of spherical, gram-positive bacteria Streptococci (from phylum Firmicutes) that forms chains and colonizes the mouth and upper respiratory tract of humans just a few hours after birth, making further exposure to the bacteria harmless in most circumstances. It is considered to be a good oral bacteria fighting bad odor and disease-causing species yet, if it gets into bloodstream (what, fortunately, rarely happens), it could be associated with sepsis in people with neutropenia (a deficiency in white blood cells). Streptococcus salivarius secretes a glucosltransferase (Gtf) which forms a glucan from sucrose and it uses sucrose (but not glucose) to build a capsule around itself. This bacteria can ferment the glucose yielding lactic acid. S. salivarius is also known to secrete an enzyme called urease. Urease can catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide ...
Looking for b-hemolytic streptococci? Find out information about b-hemolytic streptococci. any of a group of gram-positive bacteria, genus Streptococcus, some of which cause disease. Streptococci are spherical and divide by fission, but they... Explanation of b-hemolytic streptococci
The proteinase activity of strains of group A streptococci isolated from patients in acute and convalescent phases of illness was found to be remarkably constant. Sulfadiazine therapy of patients did not affect proteinase production by the infecting streptococci.. The ability to produce streptococcal proteinase would appear to be related to the strain and not necessarily to the serological type.. No relationship could be found between the capacity of group A streptococci of different serological types to produce proteinase and the various clinical responses to infection with these microorganisms.. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Group A Streptococcus, Streptococcus Pyogenes.
Species of streptococci are well represented among the bacteria found in the oral cavity, which has been estimated to harbor around 500 different species of bacteria, though there remain many taxa of uncertain status and many microscopically observable microbes that have not yet been isolated in laboratory culture. These oral streptococci seem to be ubiquitous among all the human populations studied. When they have been sought, identical or closely related streptococci have also been found in a wide variety of animal species, so streptococci are clearly part of the normal commensal flora of mammals; this chapter considers the problems that arise when this commensal relationship breaks down and the oral streptococci become opportunistic pathogens. The chapter talks about acquisition of oral streptococci, mechanism of colonization, immunological processes in the mouth, and metabolism of dental plaque. The oral streptococci are normal commensals of the human mouth and as such play a beneficial role in
The streptococci are a diverse group of Gram-positive pathogenic cocci that cause clinical disease in humans and domestic animals. They are traditionally classified on the basis of serological reactions, particularly Lancefield grouping based on cell-wall carbohydrates, and haemolytic activity on blood agar. Six groups can be defined by genetic analysis: pyogenic streptococci, milleri or anginosus group, mitis group, salivarius group, mutans group, and bovis group....
Isolated from blood drawn from an 8-year-old girl who had a history of ventricular septal defect since the neonatal period and was hospitalized for fever of unknown origin in Nagasaki University Hospital, Japan ...
Background Successful commensal bacteria have evolved to maintain colonization in challenging environments. The oral viridans streptococci are pioneer colonizers of dental plaque biofilm. Some of...
Watch Worlds Best Lecture on Heart Failure - 7 DAYS FREE TRIAL Streptococcus: Streptococcus is a is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria and they grow in chains or pairs. Most are oxidase-negative and catalase-negative, and many are facultative anaerobes. CLASSIFICATION: Species of Streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties. Alpha-hemolytic streptococci These cause oxidization of iron ...
Streptococcus is a diverse genus in the Firmicutes phylum and the Bacterial Kingdom. The bacteria under the streptococcus are spherical in shape, or cocci, and Gram-positive. They usually are found to grow in pairs or chains and are oxidase- and catalase-negative. Many species of streptococcus bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning that they usually make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via aerobic respiration in the presence of exygen, but are capable of producing ATP via fermentation if there is no oxygen present. While some species of streptococcus are normally found in the human flora, many species are capable of bringing about various diseases and can be potent. Such diseases range from strep throat (S. pharyngitis) to pneumonia (S. pneumoniae) to even necrotizing human flesh (S. pyogenes). Unfortunately, many of these species has been able to reproduce as antibiotic-resistant strains, which lead to the cause of some epidemics. Two species of this genus, S. agalactiae and S. mutans are ...
Looking for online definition of Streptococcus dysgalactiae in the Medical Dictionary? Streptococcus dysgalactiae explanation free. What is Streptococcus dysgalactiae? Meaning of Streptococcus dysgalactiae medical term. What does Streptococcus dysgalactiae mean?
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (previous name Streptococcus thermophilus ) is a Gram-positive bacterium and a homofermentative facultative anaerobe, of the Streptococcus viridans viridans group.European Bioinformatics Institute: [http://www.ebi.ac.uk/2can/genomes/bacteria/Streptococcus_thermophilus.html Bacteria Genomes - Streptococcus Thermophilus] It tests negative for cytochrome, oxidase, and catalase, and positive for alpha-hemolytic activity. It is not motile and does not form endospores. It is also classified as a lactic acid bacterium. S. thermophilus is found in fermented milk products, and is generally used in the production of yogurt,Synonyms : Streptococcus salivarius thermophilus, Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, NCIMB 8510, NCDO 573, LMG 6896, JCM 17834, DSM 20617, CIP 102303, CCUG 21957, ATCC 19258. Direct sub-taxa of Streptococcus thermophilus: Streptococcus thermophilus 1F8CT, Streptococcus thermophilus ASCC 1275, Streptococcus thermophilus CNCM ...
Beta hemolytic streptococci, particulary group A, are the most frequently isolated pathogens in cases of pharyngoamigdalitis. Other beta hemolytic streptococci also produce this pathology. An increase of positive cultures for group A streptococci was detected during 2004 in relation to previous years. The aim of this study was to determine the isolation rates of beta hemolytic streptococci groups A, C and G during a period of 5 years. Pharyngeal exudates were obtained from children (aged 6 months to 18 years) and adults. Swabs were cultured on Columbia agar plates containing 5% sheep blood. Lancefield grouping was performed using a latex immunoagglutination test. Group A beta hemolytic streptococci were isolated significantly more frequently from pediatric population than from adults. Groups A, C and G beta hemolytic streptococci were isolated significantly more frequently during 2004 than in previous years. Group G beta hemolytic was more prevalent in adult population than in patients less than 18
Esculin hydrolysis was first described by Rochaix in 1924.(8) Swan first introduced the use of Bile Esculin Agar in 1954.(9) In 1970, Facklam and Moody determined that the use of the bile esculin test was a reliable way of identifying group D streptococci from non-group D streptococci.(3) When using BEA in biochemical testing of group D streptococci, they found that all group D streptococci will blacken this medium.(3) Other researchers have used BEA for the presumptive identification of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Serratia spp., among the Enterobacteriaceae. This medium contains esculin, ferric citrate to provide ferric ions, and 4% oxbile to inhibit most other strains of non-group D streptococci. Esculin is hydrolyzed by group D streptococci to form dextrose and esculin. This compound reacts with the ferric ions contained within the medium, turning the medium from its original amber color to a dark brown to black. Thus the tolerance to the presence of bile and the hydrolysis of ...
Looking for online definition of Streptococcus salivarius in the Medical Dictionary? Streptococcus salivarius explanation free. What is Streptococcus salivarius? Meaning of Streptococcus salivarius medical term. What does Streptococcus salivarius mean?
Streptococcus infantarius; Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex; Streptococcus thermophilus; Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus; Dairy fermentation; Lactose metabolism; Africa; Camel; Health risk; Streptococcus virulence ...
Front. Microbiol. 9:614. Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus Sgg (formerly known as S. bovis type I) is the main causative agent of septicemia and infective endocarditis (IE) in elderly and immunocompromised persons. It belongs to the few opportunistic bacteria, which have been strongly associated to colorectal cancer (CRC). A literature survey covering a period of 40 years (1970-2010) revealed that 65% of patients diagnosed with an invasive Sgg infection had a concomitant colorectal neoplasia. Sgg is associated mainly with early adenomas and may thus constitute an early marker for CRC screening. Sgg has been described as a normal inhabitant of the rumen of herbivores and in the digestive tract of birds. It is more rarely detected in human intestinal tract (2.5-15%). Recent molecular analyses indicate possible zoonotic transmission of Sgg. Thanks to the development of a genetic toolbox and to comparative genomics, a number of factors that are important for Sgg pathogenicity have been ...
Objective: To determine the proportion of children with or without pharyngitis in Blantyre with a positive throat swab culture for Streptococcal pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus). To measure the age-stratified (,5, 5+ year olds) prevalence of Group A Streptococcus (GrAS), Group C Streptococcus and Group G Streptococcus detected in the oro-pahrynx of children attending the QECH with or without symptoms of pharyngitis.. Methods: 1000 throat swabs from children presenting to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi were collected.. Results: A total of 22 (2.2%) samples had laboratory confirmation of presence of bacteria: 20 grew GrAS, 1 Group C streptococcus and 1 Group G streptococcus. 82% of the which were greater than 5years. 36.5% of the participants had symptoms of pharyngitis during the time of swab collection and 13(3.6%) of them had laboratory confirmed presence of bacteria with 11 (3%) being GrAS. 4.8% of the participants with the presence of GrAS had Tonsillar erythema, Tonsillar ...
Streptococcus parauberis is a pathogen of cattle and fish, closely related Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus iniae. We report the genomes of seven S. parauberis strains recovered from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay. The availability of these genomes will allow comparative genomic analysis of Chesapeake Bay S. parauberis strains versus S. parauberis cultured from other animal hosts and geographic regions.
Three hundred fifty-two blood culture isolates of viridans group streptococci obtained from 43 U.S. medical centers during 1993 and 1994 were characterized. Included were 48 isolates of Streptococcus milleri, 219 S. mitis isolates, 29 S. salivarius isolates, and 56 S. sanguis isolates. High-level penicillin resistance (MIC, | or = 4.0 micrograms/ml) was noted among 13.4% of the strains; for 42.9% of the strains, penicillin MICs were 0.25 to 2.0 micrograms/ml (i.e., intermediate resistance). In general, amoxicillin was slightly more active than penicillin. The rank order of activity for five cephalosporins versus viridans group streptococci was cefpodoxime = ceftriaxone | cefprozil = cefuroxime | cephalexin. The percentages of isolates resistant (MIC, | or = 2 micrograms/ml) to these agents were 15, 17, 18, 20, and 96, respectively. The rates of resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were 12 to 38%. Resistance to either chloramphenicol or ofloxacin was uncommon (i.e
TY - JOUR. T1 - Epidemiology of Streptococcus uberis intramammary infections in a dairy herd. AU - Jayarao, B. M.. AU - Gillespie, B. E.. AU - Lewis, M. J.. AU - Dowlen, H. H.. AU - Oliver, S. P.. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - From 1987 to 1991, almost 36000 quarter samples of mammary secretion representing 1790 lactations of 510 dairy cows from a research herd were collected for bacteriological examination. The percentage of cows infected with Streptococcus uberis ranged from 12 to 16% of cows/year. S. uberis was isolated from 14.2% of lactations over the 5-year period. The prevalence of S. uberis intramammary infection (IMI) was significantly higher in cows with ≥4 lactations than in cows with 3 or fewer lactations. Regardless of lactation number, the prevalence of S. uberis was highest before parturition, during early lactation and near drying off. The prevalence of S. uberis infected quarters ranged from 1.3 to 2.3% of quarters/year; the prevalence rate for the 5-year period was 2% of ...
Oral streptococci are a heterogeneous group of human commensals, with a potential to cause serious infections. Activation of plasminogen has been shown to increase the virulence of typical human pathogenic streptococci such as S. pneumoniae. One important factor for plasminogen activation is the streptococcal α-enolase. Here we report that plasminogen activation is also common in oral streptococci species involved in clinical infection and that it depends on the action of human plasminogen activators. The ability to activate plasminogen did not require full conservation of the internal plasminogen binding sequence motif FYDKERKVY of α-enolase that was previously described as crucial for increased plasminogen binding, activation and virulence. Instead, experiments with recombinant α-enolase variants indicate that the naturally occurring variations do not impair plasminogen binding. In spite of these variations in the internal plasminogen binding motif oral streptococci showed similar ...
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES. SECTION I - INFECTIOUS AGENT NAME: Streptococcus salivarius SYNONYM OR CROSS REFERENCE: Viridans streptococci CHARACTERISTICS: Gram-positive cocci ~ 2 µm occuring in pairs and short chains; facultative anaerobe; non- or alpha hemolytic on blood agar. SECTION II - HEALTH HAZARD PATHOGENICITY: Organisms colonize upper respiratory tract within first few hours after birth and are normal inhabitant of oral cavity, oropharynx and upper respiratory tract; infrequently pathogenic; Viridans streptococci species cause most dental caries and are the most frequent cause of subacute native valve bacterial endocarditis, typically associated with dental procedures; S. salivarius may cause septicemia in neutropenic patients EPIDEMIOLOGY: World wide; Dental caries common; persons with previously damaged heart valves are susceptible HOST RANGE: Humans INFECTIOUS DOSE: Not known MODE OF TRANSMISSION: Normal inhabitant of upper respiratory tract - trauma (dental ...
Looking for Streptococcus bovis? Find out information about Streptococcus bovis. any of a group of gram-positive bacteria, genus Streptococcus, some of which cause disease. Streptococci are spherical and divide by fission, but they... Explanation of Streptococcus bovis
In this limited patient population, prophylactic antimicrobial therapy should be directed against viridans group streptococci. During the past 2 decades, there has been a significant increase in the percentage of strains of viridans group streptococci resistant to antibiotics recommended in previous AHA guidelines for the prevention of IE. Prabhu et al135 studied susceptibility patterns of viridans group streptococci recovered from patients with IE diagnosed during a period from 1971 to 1986 and compared these susceptibilities with those of viridans group streptococci from patients with IE diagnosed from 1994 to 2002. In that study, none of the strains of viridans group streptococci were penicillin resistant in the early time period compared with 13% of strains that were intermediately or fully penicillin resistant during the later time period. In that study, macrolide resistance increased from 11% to 26% and clindamycin resistance from 0% to 4%.. Among 352 blood culture isolates of viridans ...
In this limited patient population, prophylactic antimicrobial therapy should be directed against viridans group streptococci. During the past 2 decades, there has been a significant increase in the percentage of strains of viridans group streptococci resistant to antibiotics recommended in previous AHA guidelines for the prevention of IE. Prabhu et al135 studied susceptibility patterns of viridans group streptococci recovered from patients with IE diagnosed during a period from 1971 to 1986 and compared these susceptibilities with those of viridans group streptococci from patients with IE diagnosed from 1994 to 2002. In that study, none of the strains of viridans group streptococci were penicillin resistant in the early time period compared with 13% of strains that were intermediately or fully penicillin resistant during the later time period. In that study, macrolide resistance increased from 11% to 26% and clindamycin resistance from 0% to 4%.. Among 352 blood culture isolates of viridans ...
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AMADO, Cristina et al. Streptococcus gallolyticus (ex S. bovis) bacteremia and its relationship with colonic or hepatobiliary disease and endocarditis. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2015, vol.32, n.4, pp.430-434. ISSN 0716-1018. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-10182015000500009.. Background: Bacteremia due to Streptococcus bovis (now S. gallolyticus) has been traditionally associated to colon or hepatobiliar disease and endocarditis but there is no information on this matter in Chile. Aims: To describe clinical features of adult patients suffering bacteremia by S. bovis/S. gallolyticus, identify the source of the bacteremia and the frequency of endocarditis. Methods: Retrospective-descriptive study using laboratory records. Results: Between January 2003 and August 2014, 23 S. bovis/S. gallolyticus bacteremic events were identified among 22 patients. Mean age was 72.7 years (range 46-96). Co-morbidities were frequent (9.1 to 47.6%). The primary source of bacteremia was intestinal in 52.2%; ...
In our research, we determine the effect of low-level laser irradiation with nanoparticles on Streptococcus salivarius. Photodynamic killing of periodontopathogenic bacteria may be an alternative to the systemic application of antibacterial drugs used in the treatment of periodontal diseases. The application of photosensitizing nanoparticles and their excitation by visible light of blue spectra enables effective killing of periodontopathogens. This data combined with the results demonstrates that TiO2, AgTiO2 and S/TiO2 can inhibit the proliferation of Streptococcus salivarius due to its high photocatalytic activity, which irreversibly damages the cell walls and membranes ...
Objectives: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is becoming the method of choice for bacterial identification. However, correct identification by MALDI-TOF of closely related microorganisms such as viridans streptococci is still cumbersome, especially in the identification of S. pneumoniae. By making use of additional spectra peaks for S. pneumoniae and other viridans group streptococci (VGS). We re-identified viridans streptococci that had been identified and characterized by molecular and phenotypic techniques by MALDI-TOF. Methods: VGS isolates (n = 579), 496 S. pneumoniae and 83 non-S. pneumoniae were analysed using MALDI-TOF MS and the sensitivity and specificity of MALDI-TOF MS was assessed. Hereafter, mass spectra analysis was performed. Presumptive identification of proteins represented by discriminatory peaks was performed by molecular weight matching and the corresponding nucleotides sequences against different protein databases. ...
Group A β-hemolytic streptococcus can cause infections of the throat and skin. ... The two most prominent infections of GAS are both non-invasive: strep throat
Streptococcus mutans is the major pathogen of dental caries, and it occasionally causes infective endocarditis. While the pathogenicity of this species is distinct from other human pathogenic streptococci, the species-specific evolution of the genus Streptococcus and its genomic diversity are poorly understood. We have sequenced the complete genome of S. mutans serotype c strain NN2025, and compared it with the genome of UA159. The NN2025 genome is composed of 2,013,587 bp, and the two strains show highly conserved core-genome. However, comparison of the two S. mutans strains showed a large genomic inversion across the replication axis producing an X-shaped symmetrical DNA dot plot. This phenomenon was also observed between other streptococcal species, indicating that streptococcal genetic rearrangements across the replication axis play an important role in Streptococcus genetic shuffling. We further confirmed the genomic diversity among 95 clinical isolates using long-PCR analysis. Genomic diversity in
Different mechanisms of erythromycin resistance predominate in group C and G streptococcus (GCS and GGS, respectively) isolates collected from 1992 to 1995 in Finland. Of the 21 erythromycin-resistant GCS and 32 erythromycin-resistant GGS isolates, 95% had the mefA or mefE drug efflux gene and 94% had the ermTR methylase gene, respectively. ...
Author summary Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death. The recognition that microbial agents can contribute to the development of CRC raises hope for improving CRC diagnosis and treatment by incorporating both microbial and patient characteristics into clinical strategies. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (Sg) has been implicated in CRC for decades. Patients with Sg infections display a much higher risk of having CRC compared to the general population. Despite this, the precise role of Sg in the development of CRC-i.e., whether this organism plays an active role in the development of tumor or its presence is merely a consequence of the tumor environment being favorable for its colonization of the colon-was unknown. Here using in vitro cell cultures and mouse models of CRC, we demonstrate that Sg actively promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, suggesting that it is not an innocent
Nucleics announces a project to sequence the Streptococcus gordonii DL1 genome using the ASIN genome sequencing technology developed by Nucleics. Streptococcus gordonii is an oral pathogen that can cause severe heart valve damage. This project is being performed in collaboration with Professor N A Jacques from Institute of Dental Research in Sydney. Approximately 25% of the genome sequence was completed in a pilot project in December 2000.. The ASIN technology was sold to Takara Biomedicals in March 2000, however, Nucleics retains the right to use the technology internally for non-commercial projects.. ...
The 739-codon rel(Seq) gene of Streptococcus equisimilis H46A is bifunctional, encoding a strong guanosine 3,5-bis(diphosphate) 3-pyrophosphohydrolase (ppGppase) and a weaker ribosome-independent ATP:GTP 3-pyrophosphoryltransferase [(p)ppGpp synthetase]. To analyze the function of this gene, (p)ppGpp accumulation patterns as well as protein and RNA synthesis were compared during amino acid deprivation and glucose exhaustion between the wild type and an insertion mutant carrying a rel(Seq) gene disrupted at codon 216. We found that under normal conditions, both strains contained basal levels of (p)ppGpp. Amino acid deprivation imposed by pseudomonic acid or isoleucine hydroxamate triggered a rel(Seq)-dependent stringent response characterized by rapid (p)ppGpp accumulation at the expense of GTP and abrupt cessation of net RNA accumulation in the wild type but not in the mutant. Tetracycline added to block (p)ppGpp synthesis caused the accumulated (p)ppGpp to degrade rapidly, with a ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
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Bacteriotherapy with Streptococcus salivarius 24SMB and Streptococcus oralis 89a oral spray for children with recurrent streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis.
Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) protein was one of the first cell wall-anchored adhesins identified in Gram-positive bacteria. It mediates attachment of S. mutans to tooth surfaces and has been a focus for immunization studies against dental caries. The AgI/II family polypeptides recognize salivary glycoproteins, and are also involved in biofilm formation, platelet aggregation, tissue invasion and immune modulation. The genes encoding AgI/II family polypeptides are found among Streptococcus species indigenous to the human mouth, as well as in Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae and S. suis. Evidence of functionalities for different regions of the AgI/II proteins has emerged. A sequence motif within the C-terminal portion of Streptococcus gordonii SspB (AgI/II) is bound by Porphyromonas gingivalis, thus promoting oral colonization by this anaerobic pathogen. The significance of other epitopes is now clearer following resolution of regional crystal structures. A new picture emerges of ...
Potassium tellurite media gave the highest detrimental effects on the generation number of all tested faecal streptococci species. This applies to all investigated vehicles. However, drastic tellurite effects became more conspicuous with certain vehicles than with others. This is particularly true with acid and alkaline foods and water, especially with strains like Streptococcus bovis, Str. faecium, and Str. durans. Again, tellurite becomes more influencial with regard to old cells rather than young cells in the logarithmic phase. On the other hand, the use of thallous acetate as a concentration agent secured better results than either the tellurite or azide almost with all tested vehicles. Yet, sodium azide may be regarded as holding an intermediate position between tellurite and thallous acetate in terms of vehicles, Streptococcus species, and age of pollution. A lower number of generation resulted with all tested faecal streptococci species, using liquid media bearing more than one ...
AbstractDairy cows are especially vulnerable to intramammary infection by the bacterial pathogen Streptococcus uberis in the dry period. Use of immunotherapeutic agents at drying off could increase cellular defences in the gland and prevent establishment of new S. uberis infections. This study inves
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius ATCC ® BAA-1024D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from strain DSM 13084 (ATCC BAA-1024) TypeStrain=False Application:
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius ATCC ® 9759D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from B2 (ATCC 9759) TypeStrain=False Application:
Abstract Prophages (viral genomes integrated within a host bacterial genome) are abundant within the bacterial world and are of interest because they often confer various phenotypic traits to their hosts, such as by encoding genes that increase pathogenicity. Satellite prophages are parasites of parasites that rely on the bacterial host and another helper prophage for survival. We analysed |1,300 genomes of 70 different Streptococcus species for evidence of prophages and identified nearly 800 prophages and satellite prophages, the majority of which are reported here for the first time. We show that prophages and satellite prophages were widely distributed among streptococci, were two clearly different entities and each possessed a structured population. There was convincing evidence that cross-species transmission of prophages is not uncommon. Furthermore, Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a leading human pathogen worldwide, but the genetic basis for its pathogenicity and virulence is not yet
Gene network and pathway analysis of bovine mammary tissue challenged with Streptococcus uberis reveals induction of cell proliferation and inhibition of PPARgamma signaling...
It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci.[7][11] ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic ( ... S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin ... Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin-resistant Pneumocci (PRP)[32], penicillin-resistant Streptococcus ...
... is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A Streptococcus (group A strep) infection.[1] The signs and ... Strep throat[edit]. Typical symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis (also known as strep throat):[10] ... The rash of scarlet fever, which is what differentiates this disease from an isolated Group A Strep pharyngitis (or strep ... indicating that the Group A Strep Antigen was detected and therefore confirming that the patient has a Group A Strep ...
Streptococcus *Impetigo. *Cutaneous group B streptococcal infection. *Streptococcal intertrigo. *Cutaneous Streptococcus iniae ...
Viridans streptococci: S. mitis. *S. mutans. *S. oralis. *S. sanguinis. *S. sobrinus ...
Viridans streptococci: S. mitis. *S. mutans. *S. oralis. *S. sanguinis. *S. sobrinus ...
Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Listeria, etc.), due to Bacillus coahuilensis and others. A gene concatenation study found ...
Viridans streptococci: S. mitis. *S. mutans. *S. oralis. *S. sanguinis. *S. sobrinus ...
Viridans streptococci: S. mitis. *S. mutans. *S. oralis. *S. sanguinis. *S. sobrinus ...
Bacteroides and anaerobic streptococci). The exotoxin is commonly found in C. perfringens type A strain and is known as alpha ...
Viridans streptococci: S. mitis. *S. mutans. *S. oralis. *S. sanguinis. *S. sobrinus ...
Streptococcus pyogenes Group B streptococcal infection Streptococcus agalactiae Haemophilus influenzae infection Haemophilus ...
Viridans streptococci: S. mitis. *S. mutans. *S. oralis. *S. sanguinis. *S. sobrinus ...
The first tenet of treatment is to eliminate the streptococcus at a primary, secondary and tertiary level. Strategies involve ... haemolytic Streptococcus[2] and is reported to occur in 20-30% of people with acute rheumatic fever. The disease is usually ... Sydenham's chorea is a result of an autoimmune response that occurs following infection by group A β-hemolytic streptococci[7] ...
Prior to 1984, enterococci were members of the genus Streptococcus; thus, E. faecalis was known as Streptococcus faecalis.[24] ... "Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the Genus Enterococcus nom. rev. as Enterococcus faecalis comb ... Enterococcus faecalis - formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system - is a Gram-positive, commensal ... Amyes SG (May 2007). "Enterococci and streptococci". Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 29 Suppl 3: S43-52. doi:10.1016/S0924-8579(07) ...
Streptococcus agalactiae • Streptococcus faecalis • Streptococcus mutans • Wolinella recta • Xanthomonas campestris • Yersinia ... Thomas EL, Pera KA, Smith KW, Chwang AK (February 1983). "Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by the lactoperoxidase ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal pneumonia. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. ... Guilherme, L.; Ferreira, F. M.; Köhler, K. F.; Postol, E.; Kalil, J. (2013). "A Vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes". ...
Strep throat. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Retropharyngeal abscess. larynx. Croup. Laryngomalacia. Laryngeal cyst. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae. Primary or secondary[edit]. Distinction between primary versus secondary immunodeficiencies are based ...
Strep throat. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Retropharyngeal abscess. larynx. Croup. Laryngomalacia. Laryngeal cyst. ...
... mainly Streptococcus and Staphylococcus) and Actinobacteria (mainly Corynebacterium and Propionibacterium) are associated with ...
Streptococcus bacteria Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome high-energy food Fowl cholera Pasteurella multocida ...
Strep throat. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Retropharyngeal abscess. larynx. Croup. Laryngomalacia. Laryngeal cyst. ...
... strep throat (note: no documented resistance of Group A Streptococcus to penicillin has ever been reported, and penicillin or ... Streptococcus pyogenes: ≤0.004 - 2 μg/ml. Side effects[edit]. Side effects include diarrhea, vaginal infections or inflammation ...
The range lies roughly south of a line from southeastern Nebraska through southern Iowa, Illinois, and Indiana to southwestern Ohio. In the southern states, it is native from central Texas to western Georgia and north to Kentucky.[14][15] Despite rumors to the contrary, the brown recluse spider has not established itself in California or anywhere outside its native range.[16] There are other species of the genus Loxosceles native to the southwestern part of the United States, including California, which may resemble the brown recluse, but interactions between humans and the recluse species in California and the region are rare because those species native ranges lie outside of dense human populations.[16] The number of "false positive" reports based on misidentifications is considerable; in a nationwide study where people submitted spiders that they thought were brown recluses, of 581 from California only 1 was a brown recluse-submitted by a family that moved from Missouri and brought it with ...
The genus Enterococcus includes lactic acid bacteria formerly classified as gamma-hemolytic Group D in the genus streptococcus ... Alpha-hemolytic species, including S. pneumoniae, Streptococcus mitis, S. mutans, and S. salivarius, oxidize the iron in ... Many species of the genus Streptococcus cause hemolysis. Streptococcal bacteria species are classified according to their ... Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus), some parasites (e.g., Plasmodium), some autoimmune disorders (e.g., drug- ...
She earned her PhD in microbiology at the University of Toledo, where she investigated Streptococcus pyogenes. She completed a ... Smith has written books on Ebola virus, Streptococcus pyogenes and S. agalactiae. In late February 2020 the Wall Street Journal ... Smith, Associate Professor Tara C.; Heymann, David (1 August 2007). Ph.D, Edward I. Alcamo (ed.). Streptococcus. New York: ... Ebola's Message (2016), co-edited by Maia Majumder and Nichloas Evans Ebola and Marburg Viruses (2010) Streptococcus (group A ...
Patterson MJ (1996). "Streptococcus". In Baron S; et al. (eds.). Streptococcus. in: Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). ... Later in her career, she focused on group B streptococci. Her research revealed that group B streptococci lacked the M-protein ... In 1928, Lancefield reported that the type-specific antigen of streptococci was a protein. She named this protein the M-protein ... She is also responsible for the serological typing of Group A Streptococci. Lancefield was born at Fort Wadsworth, Staten ...
Streptococci are chains of cocci (e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes). Staphylococci are irregular (grape-like) clusters of cocci (e.g ... Streptococcus spp. resemble a string of beads because division always occurs in the same plane. Some of these strings, for ... Coccus refers to the shape of the bacteria, and can contain multiple genera, such as staphylococci or streptococci. Cocci can ... Those that remain attached can be classified based on cellular arrangement: Diplococci are pairs of cocci (e.g. Streptococcus ...
Streptococcus and Weissella, All ethnic populations have vaginal microflora communities containing lactic acid producing ... Streptococcus spp., and Bacteroides spp., Fusobacterium spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus, Prevotella spp., and Gram- ... the inhibitory agent produced by salivary streptococci". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 88 (1): 81-5. doi:10.1093/infdis/ ...
This fermentation process is exploited by the introduction of bacterial cultures (e.g. Lactobacilli sp., Streptococcus sp., ...
Group B Strep - About GBS in Newborns and Pregnant Women ... homeGroup B Strep Home * About Group B Strepplus icon *Causes ... Signs and symptoms of group B strep disease depend on the patients age and the kind of infection they have… ... Serious health problems can occur from group B strep disease even with prompt diagnosis and care… ... Anyone can get group B strep disease, but some people are at greater risk… ...
Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). People with pneumococcal disease can ... Pneumococcal Disease (Streptococcus pneumoniae). *Zika Travel Information. ...
Horrible disease is strep treat cipro can on the antibiotic before reading the air i was telling my blood how tight i was ... I thought that was the phobia of pills it, strep treat cipro can but now it not got worse. These " do please mount break the ... Tizanidine to strep treat cipro can infection almost have hands/feet can. Different reactions are future sent in the adverse ... These older reasons are can cipro treat strep typically i.. Also, metformin lowest dose when they reviewed my mris and emgs ...
... is a genus of spherical Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes[2] and the lactic acid bacteria ... In 1984, many organisms formerly considered Streptococcus were separated out into the genera Enterococcus and Lactococcus.[3] ... Streptococci are oxidase- and catalase-negative, and many are facultative anaerobes.. ...
It was renamed Streptococcus pneumoniae in 1974 because it was very similar to streptococci.[7][11] ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic ( ... S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci, some of which are also alpha-hemolytic, using an optochin ... Resistant Pneumococci strains are called penicillin-resistant Pneumocci (PRP)[32], penicillin-resistant Streptococcus ...
Streptococcus equi contains Lancefield group C, and Streptococcus canis harbours group G, but unlike S.dysgalactiae, they are ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae is currently divided into the subspecies Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDSE) ... equisimilis (group G and C streptococcus) is higher than that due to Streptococcus pyogenes among Mumbai school children". ... Equi (horse) similis (like) infers similarity to the closely related species, Streptococcus equi. Streptococcus dysgalactiae ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae BY DR HASAN ASKARI BDS MS PHD FDS DDS MJDS MFDS MD -PRESIDENT OF INTERNATIONAL DENTAL RESEARCH UNIT ... Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) by Freelance clinica... 23515 views * Streptococcus pneumoniae by Yashwant Kumar 9553 ... Streptococcus pneumoniae * 1. Streptococcus pneumoniae BY DR HASAN ASKARI BDS MS PHD FDS DDS MJDS MFDS MD -PRESIDENT OF ... PNEUMOCOCCI • Bronchopneumonia • Caused by staphylococci streptococci, H influenzae proteus and pseudomonas. • Occurs infants , ...
... genus Streptococcus, some of which cause disease. Streptococci are spherical and divide by fission, but they remain attached ... streptococcus. Introduction streptococcus strĕp˝təkŏk´əs [key], any of a group of gram-positive bacteria, genus Streptococcus, ... Streptococci are spherical and divide by fission, but they remain attached and so grow in beadlike chains. The incidence and ...
... genus Streptococcus, some of which cause disease. Streptococci are spherical and divide by fission, but they remain attached ... streptococcus (strĕp´təkŏk´əs), any of a group of gram-positive bacteria, ... strep·to·coc·cus / ˌstreptəˈkäkəs/ • n. (pl. streptococci / -ˈkäksī; -sē/ ) a bacterium of a genus (Streptococcus) that ... streptococcus (strĕp´təkŏk´əs), any of a group of gram-positive bacteria, genus Streptococcus, some of which cause disease. ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae secretes hydrogen peroxide leading to DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cells Prashant Rai, Marcus ... Chromosome segregation drives division site selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae Renske van Raaphorst, Morten Kjos, and Jan- ... Improving vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae using synthetic glycans Paulina Kaplonek, Naeem Khan, Katrin Reppe, ... Vaccination can drive an increase in frequencies of antibiotic resistance among nonvaccine serotypes of Streptococcus ...
"streptococcus thermophilus"[MeSH Terms] OR ("streptococcus"[All Fields] AND "thermophilus"[All Fields]) OR "streptococcus ...
Various streptococci are important ecologically as part of the normal microbial flora of animals and humans; some can also ... Streptococci are essential in industrial and dairy processes and as indicators of pollution. ... Among the significant human diseases attributable to streptococci are scarlet fever, rheumatic heart disease, ... The genus Streptococcus , a heterogeneous group of Gram-positive bacteria, has broad significance in medicine and industry. ...
Streptococcus is a bacteria that grows in chains. This bacteria is found in the throat and nasal passages. Midas is an acronym ... Is there a disease fopr streptococcus?. Strep throat is caused by streptococcus. ... Streptococcus is a bacteria that grows in chains. This bacteria is found in the throat and nasal passages. Midas is an acronym ...
Streptococcus viridans bacteria, for example, are found in the throats of more than 90 percent of healthy persons. In this area ... Other articles where Streptococcus viridans is discussed: human disease: Infectious agents: ... Streptococcus viridans bacteria, for example, are found in the throats of more than 90 percent of healthy persons. In this area ... The infectious agent is often Streptococcus viridans, normally a harmless inhabitant of the mouth. The bacteria in the heart ...
Leukotoxic Streptococci are killing a human neutrophil by a process called necrosis. This and other videos are available for ... These Streptococci Kill White Cells. Although a neutrophil can kill this bead-like string of Streptococcus pyogenes, this ...
... is a common cause of sore throat in kids and teens. It usually requires treatment with antibiotics, but improves ... What Is Strep Throat?. Strep throat is an infection caused by a type of bacteria (group A streptococcus). Strep bacteria cause ... Is Strep Throat Contagious?. Strep throat is very contagious. Anybody can get it, but most cases are in school-age kids and ... How Is Strep Throat Diagnosed?. If your child has a sore throat and other strep throat symptoms, call your doctor. The doctor ...
Infectious Mononucleosis, Influenza, Insomnia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Juvenile Arthritis, Kaposis Sarcoma, Laryngitis, Lead Poisoning, Learning Disorders, Leukemia, etc…
Lozenges containing Streptococcus salivarius M18, branded as BLIS M18, for 30 days resulted in significant improvements in ... In a new review of existing studies, researchers in France argue that the bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus, used in making ...
... such as strep throat. Learn more about this condition. ... The streptococcus bacterium is highly contagious and can lead ... Strep throat What are the signs and symptoms of Pediatric Streptococcus?. Signs and symptoms of a streptococcus infection vary ... Streptococcus is a type of bacteria that can lead to a wide variety of other conditions, including strep throat or rheumatic ... What is Pediatric Streptococcus?. Rather than being one specific condition, streptococcus is a group of bacteria that can lead ...
Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus. ›Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus (Orla-Jensen 1919) Farrow and ... Streptococcus salivarius thermophilus. ›Streptococcus thermophilus (Orla-Jensen 1919) Schleifer et al. 1995. ... Streptococcus. Strains i. › A147. › ACA-DC 4. › ATCC 19258 / DSM 20617 / LMG 6896 / NCDO 573 / NCIMB 8510 ,ATCC 19258, DSM ...
Streptococcus Disease, Invasive, Group A (GAS) (Streptococcus pyogenes) , 1995 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/ ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2008;23:1951-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:1045-9.CrossRefPubMed ... Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome among children in North America. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30: ... Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated HUS is well described from different parts of the world [3, 4, 5]. ...
Streptococcus Pneumoniae, Invasive Disease (Child, ,5 Years) (Streptococcus pneumoniae) , 2000 Case Definition (https://wwwn. ... Streptococcus pneumoniae, drug-resistant invasive disease (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/streptococcus-pneumoniae-drug- ... wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-disease-non-drug-resistant-child/) ... cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/streptococcus-pneumoniae-invasive-disease-child/case-definition/2000/) ...
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some women carry in their intestines and vagina. It is not passed ... Note: Strep throat is caused by a different bacterium. If you have had strep throat, or got it while you were pregnant, it does ... Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that some women carry in their intestines and vagina. It is not passed ...
Definition of Streptococcus pyogenes. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Streptococcus pyogenes. Definition: a bacterial species found in the human mouth, throat, and respiratory tract and in ...
Do you have the name of the exact streptococcus? Sometimes they are reported out as Group A Beta strep, Group B Beta Strep ... STREPTOCOCCUS OF KNEE. Judy/Bob Dilworth dilworth at megsinet.net Wed Mar 10 09:34:25 EST 1999 *Previous message: STREPTOCOCCUS ... There is no such thing as a streptococcal fungal infection. Streptococcus is a bacteria, not a fungus. I think what youre ... or by genus and species, e.g. Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, etc. It would help if we could go from there. ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
... (GBS) are Beta-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria that frequently colonize the lower genital tract of ... Patras K, Wang N, Fletcher E, Cavaco C, Jimenez A, Garg M, Fierer J, Sheen T, Rajagopal L, Doran K. Group B Streptococcus CovR ... Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are Beta-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria that frequently colonize the lower genital tract of ... A hemolytic pigment of Group B Streptococcus allows bacterial penetration of human placenta. The Journal of Experimental ...
... , Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Lancefield Group, Alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus, Non-hemolytic Streptococcus. ... Streptococcus sp, streptococcus bacteria, streptococcus, streptococcus organism, STREPTOCOCCI SP., STREPTOCOCCUS, Streptococcus ... Streptococcus English. STREP, Genus Streptococcus (organism), Streptococcus (organism), Streptococcus, Streptococcus Rosenbach ... Streptococcus. Streptococcus Aka: Streptococcus, Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Lancefield Group, Alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus ...
... , Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Lancefield Group, Alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus, Non-hemolytic Streptococcus. ... Streptococcus. search Streptococcus, Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Lancefield Group, Alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus, Non- ... Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (Lancefield Groups) * Group A Streptococcus (Streptococcus Pyogenes). * Group B Streptococcus ( ...
  • However, an increasing incidence of S.dysgalactiae infections has been documented, and in some geographic regions, the rate of invasive infection has even surpassed that of Streptococcus pyogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These immunologic sequelae have previously only been associated with Streptococcus pyogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute Streptococcus pyogenes infections may take the form of pharyngitis, scarlet fever (rash), impetigo, cellulitis, or erysipelas. (nih.gov)
  • Although a neutrophil can kill this bead-like string of Streptococcus pyogenes , this particular strain of bacteria expresses streptolysin-s on its surface which kills the white cell through necrosis, a death in which the cell swells and eventually bursts. (cellsalive.com)
  • Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, etc. (bio.net)
  • Here, we report that Streptococcus pyogenes also hijack lymphatic vessels to escape a local infection site, transiting through sequential lymph nodes and efferent lymphatic vessels to enter the bloodstream. (nature.com)
  • U02921 Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 16S rRNA gene, partial sequence. (atcc.org)
  • Microbiology) any Gram-positive spherical bacterium of the genus Streptococcus, typically occurring in chains and including many pathogenic species, such as S. pyogenes, which causes scarlet fever, sore throat, etc: family Lactobacillaceae . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We report the case of a patient with Streptococcus pyogenes aneurysm who was successfully treated with a homograft implant and discuss microbiological characteristics, diagnostic methods, and treatment options currently available for this serious disease. (hindawi.com)
  • All four blood cultures that were performed were positive for Streptococcus pyogenes, causing the initial diagnosis to be reconsidered. (hindawi.com)
  • Strep throat is an infection of the throat and tonsils caused by a bacteria called group A streptococcus , also known as Streptococcus pyogenes . (webmd.com)
  • Multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus pyogenes representing most known emm types and distinctions among subpopulation genetic structures. (medscape.com)
  • Borek AL, Wilemska J, Izdebski R, Hryniewicz W, Sitkiewicz I. A new rapid and cost-effective method for detection of phages, ICEs and virulence factors encoded by Streptococcus pyogenes. (medscape.com)
  • Streptococcus pyogenes causing toxic-shock-like syndrome and other invasive diseases: clonal diversity and pyrogenic exotoxin expression. (medscape.com)
  • M protein mediated adhesion of M type 24 Streptococcus pyogenes stimulates release of interleukin-6 by HEp-2 tissue culture cells. (medscape.com)
  • Nevertheless, it must be emphasized that no single element of the clinical presentation can reliably confirm or exclude pharyngitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes . (news-medical.net)
  • The original Centor score is comprised of four signs to predict a positive throat culture for Streptococcus pyogenes in adults with acute pharyngitis. (news-medical.net)
  • A team in Texas is developing a vaccine against the so-called 'killer bug' Streptococcus pyogenes - but mainly as a protection against the tiresome sore throats it causes, rather than necrotising fasciitis and the other rare but newsworthy results of infection. (newscientist.com)
  • Z95915 Streptococcus pyogenes sodA gene. (atcc.org)
  • AB002521 Streptococcus pyogenes DNA for 16S rRNA, strain ATCC 12344, NCIB 11841, MAFF 910217. (atcc.org)
  • AF223157 Streptococcus pyogenes strain ATCC 12344 DNA topoisomerase IV subunit C gene, partial cds. (atcc.org)
  • Streptococcus is a genus of spherical Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes [ 2 ] and the lactic acid bacteria group. (princeton.edu)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae , or pneumococcus , is a Gram-positive , alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions) , facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus . (wikipedia.org)
  • streptococcus strĕp˝təkŏk´əs [ key ] , any of a group of gram-positive bacteria, genus Streptococcus, some of which cause disease. (infoplease.com)
  • Enterococci (usually harmless bacteria that inhabit the intestines) and lactococci (bacteria used in starter cultures in the production of fermented dairy products) used to be considered a part of the Streptococcus genus but are now placed in their own genera. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is the type species of the genus Streptococcus. (drugs.com)
  • Sometimes they are reported out as 'Group A Beta strep,' 'Group B Beta Strep' or by genus and species, e.g. (bio.net)
  • Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Streptococcus genus level. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A bacteria that is assigned to the genus Streptococcus that is able to reduce the iron content in hemoglobin in red blood cells, thus producing green-colored colonies on blood agar plates. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A bacteria that is assigned to the genus Streptococcus that is able to facilitate the complete rupturing of red blood cells, thus producing wide, clear, zones around colonies on blood agar plates. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive coccus (plural cocci) or spherical bacteria that belongs to the family Streptococcaceae, within the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria), in the phylum Firmicutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1984, many bacteria formerly grouped in the genus Streptococcus were separated out into the genera Enterococcus and Lactococcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus ferus is a facultatively anaerobic, gram-positive species of the genus Streptococcus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of various round gram-positive bacteria of the genus Streptococcus that occur in pairs or chains and can cause various infections in humans, including strep throat, erysipelas, and scarlet fever. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Streptococcus adalah salah satu genus dari bakteri nonmotil yang mengandung sel gram positif , berbentuk buat, oval dan membentuk rantai pendek, panjang atau berpasangan. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Klasifikasi bakteri dari genus Streptococcus disusun berdasarkan sifat-sifat hemolitik yang dimiliki yaitu Streptococcus hemolitik alpha , hemolitik beta , dan hemolitik gamma . (wikipedia.org)
  • Group A hemolytic streptococci cause over a dozen diseases, including some pneumonias, erysipelas (a generalized body infection), upper respiratory infections, wound infections, and puerperal fever. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Group B streptococci are a common cause of infection in babies, pregnant women, the elderly, and immunologically compromised adults. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Group B streptococci are common in the normal vaginal flora and occasionally cause invasive neonatal infection. (nih.gov)
  • Strep throat is an infection caused by a type of bacteria (group A streptococcus ). (kidshealth.org)
  • The bacteria that cause strep throat tend to hang out in the nose and throat, so normal activities like sneezing, coughing, or shaking hands can easily spread infection from one person to another. (kidshealth.org)
  • Kids whose strep throat isn't treated are more likely to spread the infection when their symptoms are most severe, but can still infect others for up to 3 weeks. (kidshealth.org)
  • Completing all the antibiotics is the best way to prevent other health problems that a strep infection can cause, such as rheumatic fever (which can permanently damage the heart), scarlet fever , blood infections, or kidney disease. (kidshealth.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae , or Pneumococcus, is a very common bacterial infection in both industrialized and developing countries. (news-medical.net)
  • It is caused by infection with bacteria called group A streptococci (pronounced: strep-toe-KAH-kye) bacteria, and it's very common among teens. (kidshealth.org)
  • Ask your doctor before using throat drops or over-the-counter throat sprays because these might make a strep infection feel worse. (kidshealth.org)
  • What is an invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection? (virginia.gov)
  • We identify streptococcal virulence mechanisms important for bacterial lymphatic dissemination and show that metastatic streptococci within infected lymph nodes resist and subvert clearance by phagocytes, enabling replication that can seed intense bloodstream infection. (nature.com)
  • A severe or long-lasting sore throat could be strep throat , which is a bacterial throat infection. (medicinenet.com)
  • Strep throat is caused by streptococcus infection, leading to a feeling of tightness and pain in the throat. (buzzle.com)
  • Strep throat is a common infection of the pharynx which results in soreness of the throat. (buzzle.com)
  • Strep throat is a contagious infection caused by bacteria. (buzzle.com)
  • However, the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia infection is Streptococcus pneumoniae. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • At times, group A streptococcus bacteria can cause mild illness such as strep throat or impetigo (minor skin infection). (bphc.org)
  • Persons ill with group A streptococcus, such as those with strep throat or skin infections are most likely to spread infection. (bphc.org)
  • Most healthy people who come in contact with group A streptococcus may develop a throat or skin infection or have no symptoms at all. (bphc.org)
  • The spectrum of disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants and children ranges from focal respiratory tract infection to invasive diseases such as meningitis and bacteremia. (cmaj.ca)
  • You can get the infection from someone who is sick with strep A bacteria or is a carrier of it. (webmd.com)
  • Strep is a bacterial infection that's spread by coughing, sneezing, person-to-person contact (sharing a cup or holding hands), or from mucus or saliva on shared objects like pencils, crayons, books, and toys . (parents.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumonia is a type of highly contagious respiratory infection. (wisegeek.com)
  • Acquisition and Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae is Facilitated During Rhinovirus Infection in Families with Children. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Passed from mother to child during birth, group B streptococcus is the most common cause of infection in newborns. (eurekalert.org)
  • Group B Streptococcus (GBS), also known as Streptococcus agalactiae , is best known as a cause of postpartum infection and as the most common cause of neonatal sepsis. (medscape.com)
  • WASHINGTON - In a boomerang effect apparently caused by antibiotics, E. coli is rising among premature babies and has overtaken strep as the most common infection in such infants, a study published Thursday suggests. (latimes.com)
  • A common infection in children, strep throat can lead to problems with a child's heart, joints or brain if left untreated. (redorbit.com)
  • But childhood seems to provide a distinct window of opportunity for the disorder to take root through strep infection," she warns. (redorbit.com)
  • Sore throat is typically the first symptom patients report when they have a streptococcus infection. (yahoo.com)
  • An untreated strep infection often results in the complication known as scarlet fever. (yahoo.com)
  • The tonsils of someone who has strep throat are often red, inflamed, and contain white spots of pus, indicating infection. (yahoo.com)
  • The treatment of strep throat consists of antibiotics to fight the underlying bacterial infection. (yahoo.com)
  • May 02, 2021 · Strep throat is a bacterial throat infection. (yahoo.com)
  • Streptococcal pharyngitis, also called strep throat, is a very common, highly contagious infection of the oropharynx (the area including the back of your throat, the back part of your tongue, your tonsils, and the soft palate). (wikihow.com)
  • If you are worried about getting strep throat, follow a few simple steps to prevent the infection and learn more about it so you know how to avoid it. (wikihow.com)
  • However, strep throat is caused by a bacterial infection, so it can cause complications, such as rheumatic fever, if it's not treated with an antibiotic. (wikihow.com)
  • Formation of an abscess behind the throat (retro-pharyngeal abscess) due to untreated or under-treated strep throat infection can lead to severe illness causing pain in throat and neck, difficulty swallowing , and potential respiratory compromise. (medicinenet.com)
  • There is also a condition called Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder associated with group A Streptococcus infection ( PANDAS ). (medicinenet.com)
  • This is a somewhat controversial condition linking group A strep infection in children with possible development and/or exacerbation of obsessive compulsive disorders or tic disorders (Tourette's syndrome) in children. (medicinenet.com)
  • It is thought that if the strep throat infection is untreated or inadequately treated by antibiotics, the bacteria remain in the tonsils and promote a persistent immune response from the body. (medicinenet.com)
  • Strep throat is a bacterial infection that usually causes a sore throat. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A doctor is more likely to order a throat culture following a negative test on children because children are more susceptible to rheumatic fever from an untreated strep infection than adults. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A person should take all prescribed antibiotic treatment and be aware that strep infection can still spread when they first start treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Either penicillin or amoxicillin is generally the first-line treatment for group A Streptococcus infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a person shows no symptoms or signs of infection but tests position for group A Streptococcus , they are a carrier. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If they get a sore throat due to a viral infection, the rapid strep test may come back positive. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What is the treatment for a strep infection in the bloodstream? (reference.com)
  • Home care can help your child feel better while battling strep throat. (kidshealth.org)
  • In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye , [6] meningitis , bacterial pneumonia , endocarditis , erysipelas , and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pneumonia (Streptococcus pneumonia) under a microscope! (giantmicrobes.com)
  • As the ringleader of a gang of more than 80 Pneumococcus bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae is such a common cause of pneumonia that a pneumonia vaccine has been developed to keep it (and 23 other of the worst kinds of Pneumococcus bacteria) at bay. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • One kind of streptococcus causes especially severe infections in humans, including strep throat, scarlet fever, pneumonia, and blood infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus viridans , and various Enterobacteriaceae especially nontyphi Salmonella species are the usual pathogens [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria is the leading cause of pneumonia in all ages. (brightkite.com)
  • [3] Spesies bakteri Streptococcus yang bersifat patogen diantaranya dapat menyebabkan penyakit seperti pneumonia , meningitis , necrotizing fasciitis, erisipelas , radang tenggorokan, dan endokarditis. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is Streptococcus Pneumonia? (wisegeek.com)
  • The symptoms associated with streptococcus pneumonia can become life-threatening if the condition is not diagnosed and treated. (wisegeek.com)
  • Children and the elderly are at an increased risk of developing Streptococcus pneumonia since their immune systems are less capable of fighting off even weak bacteria. (wisegeek.com)
  • The first signs of streptococcus pneumonia may include a worsening cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue. (wisegeek.com)
  • An untreated case streptococcus pneumonia can cause permanent lung damage and possibly induce respiratory failure. (wisegeek.com)
  • A doctor can check for streptococcus pneumonia by evaluating physical symptoms, testing blood samples, and taking imaging scans of the lungs. (wisegeek.com)
  • Most cases of streptococcus pneumonia can be cured with rest and prescription oral antibiotics. (wisegeek.com)
  • Has anyone here been dealing with recurrent Streptococcus pneumonia? (wisegeek.com)
  • Has it protected you from Streptococcus pneumonia? (wisegeek.com)
  • fify-- The bacteria that causes Streptococcus pneumonia and strep throat belong to the same group, but different sub-groups. (wisegeek.com)
  • The pneumonia causing bacteria is alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus and strep throat causing bacteria is beta-hemolytic Streptococcus. (wisegeek.com)
  • So if you're wondering if someone with strep throat can develop Streptococcus pneumonia from it, the answer is no. (wisegeek.com)
  • Is the Streptococcus that causes bacterial pneumonia the same as the bacteria that causes strep throat? (wisegeek.com)
  • The proposed study aims to provide current information, etiology and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), risk factors for for CAP in isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Ha. (bioportfolio.com)
  • To determine the proportion of hospitalized pneumonia cases in children aged 60 months or less associated with vaccine-preventable Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes (4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 1. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Serotypes and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Italy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome, or PANS, is a larger umbrella term that has to do with cases with a trigger other than strep, including infections like walking pneumonia or the flu . (webmd.com)
  • To prevent spreading strep throat to others in your home, keep your child's eating utensils, dishes, and drinking glasses separate and wash them in hot, soapy water after each use. (kidshealth.org)
  • A person should take reasonable precautions, such as washing their hands frequently and coughing or sneezing into their elbow rather than their hand, to help prevent spreading strep throat to others while they are taking antibiotics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Viridans streptococci can cause endocarditis, and Enterococcus is associated with urinary tract and biliary tract infections. (nih.gov)
  • Their bodies might have trouble fighting off the infections or they might be more likely to get strep throat. (massgeneral.org)
  • Streptococcal throat (strep throat) infections are transmitted by large respiratory droplets or by direct contact with patients or carriers. (ucdavis.edu)
  • LABORATORY-ACQUIRED INFECTIONS: 78 recorded cases of Streptococcus spp. (msdsonline.com)
  • Each year, Streptococcus pneumoniae infections cause millions of deaths worldwide. (pnas.org)
  • Pneumococcal infections are caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive, catalase-negative organism commonly referred to as pneumococcus. (medscape.com)
  • Like other infections, strep throat spreads through close contact. (webmd.com)
  • Deutscher M, Lewis M, Zell ER, Taylor TH Jr, Van Beneden C, Schrag S. Incidence and severity of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae, group A Streptococcus, and group B Streptococcus infections among pregnant and postpartum women. (medscape.com)
  • It is caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, a widespread pathogen that can also cause sinusitis , ear infections, and other health complications. (wisegeek.com)
  • Factors associated with 30-day mortality in respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • We evaluated the relationship between initial antibiotic therapy and clinical outcomes in 5005 patients with microbiologically confirmed infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Laboratory and clinical evidence suggests synergy between rhinoviruses and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae infections continue to remain associated with high morbidity and mortality. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Streptococcus bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium causing serious human infections, including endocarditis and bacteremia, and is usually associated with underlying disease. (hindawi.com)
  • The rate of group B streptococcus blood infections in newborn preemies fell by nearly three-quarters during the 1990s, probably because more women in labor now get antibiotics to keep from passing the bacteria on to their babies during delivery, the study said. (latimes.com)
  • During that same period, the rate of E. coli infections doubled, apparently because ampicillin, the antibiotic commonly used to wipe out strep, gave E. coli room to flourish, the researchers said. (latimes.com)
  • E. coli infections rose from 3 per 1,000 births to 7 per 1,000 births, while group B strep infections dropped from 5.9 per 1,000 births to 1.7 per 1,000 births. (latimes.com)
  • While scientists have speculated on a link between OCD and childhood infections like strep for more than two decades, Prof. Daphna Joel and her team of researchers at Tel Aviv University's Department of Psychology have now scientifically demonstrated that strep can lead to brain dysfunction and OCD. (redorbit.com)
  • Strep throat usually needs treatment with antibiotics. (kidshealth.org)
  • Strep throat usually requires a trip to the doctor and treatment with antibiotics. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you have strep throat, your doctor will give you a prescription to take antibiotics for 10 days. (kidshealth.org)
  • Antibiotics help prevent strep throat from spreading to other people. (massgeneral.org)
  • Strep Throat: Should I Take Antibiotics? (medicinenet.com)
  • Group A streptococcus bacteria can be treated with common antibiotics. (bphc.org)
  • If tests are positive for strep throat, the ill person should stay home from work, school or daycare until antibiotics have been taken for at least 24 hours. (bphc.org)
  • If the test is positive, which means strep is there, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics to treat it. (webmd.com)
  • Future studies should further define the mechanisms used by clonal complex 17 strains to survive in the presence of antibiotics to develop strategies to efficiently eradicate the most virulent strains of group B streptococcus from the maternal genitourinary tract. (eurekalert.org)
  • Prof. Joel stresses how important it is for parents who notice signs of strep throat to ensure that their children get treated with the appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion. (redorbit.com)
  • Nov. 10, 2017 -- When Garrett Pohlman was diagnosed with strep throat in 2007, his illness didn't respond to antibiotics . (webmd.com)
  • A doctor can prescribe other antibiotics that are effective against strep if a person is allergic to penicillins. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Treatment for group B strep in infants involves the use of intravenous antibiotics to kill the bacteria, explains Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • so can i fight strep throat without antibiotics? (medhelp.org)
  • Streptococcus dysgalactiae is a gram positive, beta-haemolytic, coccal bacterium belonging to the family Streptococcaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note: Strep throat is caused by a different bacterium. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Streptococcus suis is a bacterium that threatens the health and well-being of pigs. (wur.nl)
  • The glutathione reductase (GR) from Streptococcus pneumoniae is a flavoenzyme that catalyzes the reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) to its reduced form (GSH) in the cytoplasm of this bacterium. (rcsb.org)
  • Group B Streptococcus (GBS/Strep B) is a bacterium, found in the intestine and vagina, carried by about 30 per cent of people without causing harm or symptoms. (nidirect.gov.uk)
  • S. bovis is a Gram-positive bacterium, which is considered as a normal inhabitant of the human gastrointestinal tract but is less frequently present than other Streptococcus species [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • According to Mayo Clinic, strep B, also referred to as group B streptococcus, is a bacterium that is commonly found the intestines and lower genital tracts. (reference.com)
  • The intracellular pH (pHi) optimum for glycolysis in Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt was determined to be 7.0 by use of the ionophore gramicidin for manipulation of pHi. (nih.gov)
  • S. ferus is commensal in wild rats and pigs and demonstrates a relatively weak cariogenic potential compared to other streptococcus species such as S. mutans S. ferus has not had any reported pathogenic instances in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • So when the scary looking dentist says you have tooth decay you can answer with an educated response of oh so you mean I have Streptococcus Mutans in my mouth doctor? (smore.com)
  • Sucrose is then used by Streptococcus mutans to produce a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide that allows them to cohere, forming plaque, this will then build up and eventually lead to the decay. (smore.com)
  • Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDSD) is almost exclusively an animal pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen and is known to be associated with increased risk of fatal heart complications including heart failure and heart attacks. (news-medical.net)
  • The classification was supported if the isolate did not cross-react with species-specific primers for GBS in polymerase chain reaction analysis, and if the API 20 Strep test indicated the presence of Streptococcus porcinus , a swine pathogen with 94% gene sequence similarity. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a ubiquitous human pathogen. (centerwatch.com)
  • the rash is a response to a toxin produced by the bacteria that cause strep throat. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Group A Streptococci bacteria cause strep throat, which people typically associate with fever, alongside a sore throat. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Equi (horse) similis (like) infers similarity to the closely related species, Streptococcus equi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species of Streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • The species is a member of the Viridans streptococci group which are a large mixed-group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. (wikipedia.org)
  • A species of Streptococcus that is pathogenic in fish and may also cause disease in humans who routinely handle infected fish. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Doctors usually prescribe about 10 days of antibiotic medicine to treat strep throat. (kidshealth.org)
  • Sometimes a doctor might choose to treat strep throat with one antibiotic shot, without prescribing any medicine for you to take at home. (kidshealth.org)
  • How do doctors treat strep throat? (massgeneral.org)
  • Horrible disease is strep treat cipro can on the antibiotic before reading the air i was telling my blood how tight i was feeling. (duvalia.com)
  • I am a pricing 29 person antibiotic ciprofloxacin and let me extensively tell you, strep treat cipro can this system is ruining my issue. (duvalia.com)
  • If a kid has strep throat, the doctor will give him or her medicine called an antibiotic (say: an-tye-bye-AH-tik) to kill the strep bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you have strep throat, your doctor will give you an antibiotic , a medicine that kills bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • The most common treatment for strep throat is an antibiotic . (massgeneral.org)
  • Moving to universal screening of pregnant women by vaginal and rectal swabs for group B streptococcus and offering antibiotic prophylaxis to group B streptococcus positive pregnant women must be considered. (eurekalert.org)
  • If a person tests positive for strep throat, the primary treatment is a round of antibiotic treatment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pneumococcal disease is caused by bacteria called Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). (cdc.gov)
  • Beta-hemolytic streptococci are further classified by Lancefield grouping , a serotype classification (that is, describing specific carbohydrates present on the bacterial cell wall). (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae expressing serotype 3 has a high virulence and a high case fatality ratio. (asm.org)
  • In a new review of existing studies, researchers in France argue that the bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus, used in making yogurt and cheese, has building evidence supporting its probiotic status. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Streptococcus thermophilus (Orla-Jensen 1919) Schleifer et al. (uniprot.org)
  • How can the Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria be grown from yogurt to be studied? (madsci.org)
  • Strep bacteria cause almost a third of all sore throats . (kidshealth.org)
  • Symptoms of strep throat include sore throat, fever, red and swollen tonsils, and painful or swollen neck glands. (kidshealth.org)
  • Not all sore throats are strep throats. (kidshealth.org)
  • If your child has a sore throat and other strep throat symptoms, call your doctor. (kidshealth.org)
  • Just about any painful sore throat is caused by strep. (medicinenet.com)
  • Strep throat rash is a symptom of scarlet fever, which is almost always accompanied by a sore throat. (buzzle.com)
  • Sore Throat (Streptococcus) under a microscope! (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Find out what makes Streptococcus bacteria more than just your average sore throat virus. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • A sore throat is the main sign you or your child has strep. (webmd.com)
  • The only sure way to tell strep from viruses that cause a sore throat is with a test. (webmd.com)
  • If the strep test is negative, a virus likely caused the sore throat. (webmd.com)
  • [ 14 ] Strep throat has an incubation period of 2-4 days and is characterized by sudden onset of sore throat, cervical lymphadenopathy, malaise, fever, and headache. (medscape.com)
  • Sore throat, sudden fever (with temperatures greater than 38 °C or 100.4 °F), as well as the exposure to beta-hemolytic group A streptococcus within the previous two weeks are highly suggestive of strep throat. (news-medical.net)
  • The leading symptom of a strep throat is a sore throat . (yahoo.com)
  • People often associate strep throat with a sore throat and fever , but it is possible for a person to have strep throat and not have a fever. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Resistant pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Group A, and Group B Streptococcus have emerged throughout the world. (intechopen.com)
  • Lozenges containing Streptococcus salivarius M18, branded as BLIS M18, for 30 days resulted in significant improvements in multiple measures of periodontal health, says a new study from India. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Streptococcus salivarius subsp. (uniprot.org)
  • If it's positive, your child has strep throat. (kidshealth.org)
  • If your child has strep throat, streptococci bacteria will grow in it. (webmd.com)
  • It can confirm whether your child has strep throat or not. (webmd.com)
  • The bacteria can spread to you when a person with strep throat sneezes, coughs, or blows his or her nose and you're nearby, or if you share the same forks, spoons, or straws. (kidshealth.org)
  • Make sure the person with strep throat covers his or her mouth when sneezing and coughing. (kidshealth.org)
  • Glycoconjugate vaccines based on isolated capsular polysaccharide (CPS) save millions of lives annually by preventing invasive pneumococcal disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae . (pnas.org)
  • Empyema caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. (medscape.com)
  • S. pneumoniae can be differentiated from the viridans streptococci , some of which are also alpha-hemolytic , using an optochin test, as S. pneumoniae is optochin-sensitive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of these two groups are sometimes called hemolytic (red blood cell-destroying) streptococci. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The beta-hemolytic streptococci are often further classified into several lettered groups, called Lancefield groups for R. C. Lancefield, the scientist who originated the scheme in the 1930s. (encyclopedia.com)
  • group B hemolytic streptococci can cause serious problems, such as septicemia and meningitis, especially in newborns. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Group A β-hemolytic streptococci are spread by respiratory secretions and fomites. (nih.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome among children in North America. (springer.com)
  • Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are Beta-hemolytic, gram-positive bacteria that frequently colonize the lower genital tract of healthy women. (seattlechildrens.org)
  • A latex agglutination test used for identification of beta-hemolytic streptococci groups A, B, C, F, G from culture. (fishersci.com)
  • The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal bacteria, that are either α-hemolytic , producing a green coloration on blood agar plates (hence the name "viridans", from Latin vĭrĭdis , green), or nonhemolytic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Table: Medically relevant streptococci (not all are alpha-hemolytic) When alpha-hemolysis (α-hemolysis) is present, the agar under the colony will appear dark and greenish due to the conversion of hemoglobin to green biliverdin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Validation of the GenePOC Strep A C/G Assay for Detecting Group A C and G -hemolytic Streptococcus From Throat Swabs. (centerwatch.com)
  • Streptococci are Gram-positive, nonmotile, nonsporeforming, catalase-negative cocci that occur in pairs or chains. (nih.gov)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive coccus. (brightkite.com)
  • Is Strep Throat Contagious? (kidshealth.org)
  • That's why it's so important to teach kids the importance of hand washing - good hygiene can lessen their chances of getting contagious diseases like strep throat. (kidshealth.org)
  • Strep throat is a contagious disease, which means you catch it from another person. (kidshealth.org)
  • Strep throat is very contagious, and anybody can get it. (kidshealth.org)
  • Here is detailed information about the contagious period, symptoms and treatment methods for strep throat. (buzzle.com)
  • Strep throat is highly contagious and usually affects children and young adults . (yahoo.com)
  • If you know someone sick with strep throat, encourage them to stay home, especially in the first few days when they are still contagious. (wikihow.com)
  • Streptococcus suis ly culled pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • After swine out- schalk M. Streptococcus suis meningi- nam, S. suis is the leading cause of tis, Hawaii. (cdc.gov)
  • Lineage and virulence of Streptococcus 14% (45/317) of S. suis isolations ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, some strains of group A streptococcus are more likely to cause severe disease than others. (bphc.org)
  • Most strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae are relatively weak, and they usually do not cause problems for healthy people. (wisegeek.com)
  • Importantly, the authors note that the continuing increase in disease incidence after the adoption of the guidelines was mainly a result of a rise in the number of cases caused by clonal complex 17 strains of group B streptococcus. (eurekalert.org)
  • Streptococcus is a type of bacteria that can lead to a wide variety of other conditions, including strep throat or rheumatic fever. (childrens.com)
  • For example, untreated strep can cause arthritis (say: ar-THRY-tis), kidney problems, or heart problems from a disease called rheumatic (say: roo-MA-tick) fever. (kidshealth.org)
  • With strep throat come fever, headache, difficulty swallowing and body pain. (buzzle.com)
  • You can also take medications to ease the pain of strep throat and lower fever including over-the-counter medications such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen . (webmd.com)
  • Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a serious complication of strep throat . (medicinenet.com)
  • Can you have strep throat without a fever? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Does strep throat always cause fever? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A fever is one of several symptoms that a doctor looks for when diagnosing strep throat. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Adults with strep throat may experience a complication that affects the tonsils--lymph nodes located on the. (yahoo.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae are bacteria that are commonly found in the nose and throat of children and adults. (virginia.gov)
  • Here is some information about strep throat in adults, its causes, symptoms, and treatment. (buzzle.com)
  • What does strep throat look like in adults? (yahoo.com)
  • What are the indications of strep throat in adults? (yahoo.com)
  • How does strep throat affect adults? (yahoo.com)
  • Dec 22, 2017 · Strep throat is a painful condition that can affect children and some adults in the winter and spring months. (yahoo.com)
  • Strep B is typically not harmful to adults but can cause illness in infants and individuals with diabetes, liver disease or other chronic conditions. (reference.com)
  • They also help prevent complications (other medical problems) caused by strep throat and help your child feel better faster. (massgeneral.org)
  • A carrier is less likely to spread bacteria to others and very unlikely to develop complications from untreated strep. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Group A streptococci have a hyaluronic acid capsule. (nih.gov)
  • Antibody to M protein gives type-specific immunity to group A streptococci. (nih.gov)
  • How are group A streptococci spread? (bphc.org)
  • Kaplan EL, Chhatwal GS, Rohde M. Reduced ability of penicillin to eradicate ingested group A streptococci from epithelial cells: clinical and pathogenetic implications. (medscape.com)
  • Laboratory Service confirmed that there had been 15 cases of necrotising fasciitis linked with group A streptococci so far this year. (newscientist.com)
  • These images are a random sampling from a Bing search on the term "Streptococcus. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Streptococcus dysgalactiae was long believed to be non-pathogenic to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the signs and symptoms of Pediatric Streptococcus? (childrens.com)
  • There are common signs of strep throat, but strep bacteria can also cause some very strange symptoms that affect other parts of the body, says Joy Ziegler, MD, a pediatrician in Wakefield, Rhode Island. (parents.com)
  • Which physical findings suggest streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat)? (medscape.com)