Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Motion Pictures as Topic: The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.Music Therapy: The use of music as an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of neurological, mental, or behavioral disorders.United StatesLycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.WalesProduct Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)NewsCommission on Professional and Hospital Activities: The non-profit, non-governmental organization which collects, processes, and distributes data on hospital use. Two programs of the Commission are the Professional Activity Study and the Medical Audit Program.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Firearms: Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.Great BritainRefugees: Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)EnglandPolice: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Accidents, AviationRescue Work: Activities devoted to freeing persons or animals from danger to life or well-being in accidents, fires, bombings, floods, earthquakes, other disasters and life-threatening conditions. While usually performed by team efforts, rescue work is not restricted to organized services.Supreme Court Decisions: Decisions made by the United States Supreme Court.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Social Control, Formal: Control which is exerted by the more stable organizations of society, such as established institutions and the law. They are ordinarily embodied in definite codes, usually written.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Heroin: A narcotic analgesic that may be habit-forming. It is a controlled substance (opium derivative) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Parts 329.1, 1308.11 (1987). Sale is forbidden in the United States by Federal statute. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.RussiaCartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Encephalitis Viruses: A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.Alcohols: Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Public Relations: Relations of an individual, association, organization, hospital, or corporation with the publics which it must take into consideration in carrying out its functions. Publics may include consumers, patients, pressure groups, departments, etc.

Harm reduction: Australia as a case study. (1/995)

This paper explicates the term, "harm reduction"; demonstrates that harm reduction has a long tradition; and uses one country, Australia, as a case study. Harm reduction can be understood as "policies and programs which are designed to reduce the adverse consequences of mood altering substances without necessarily reducing their consumption"; it is consistent with the best traditions of both medicine and public health. Although it is difficult to interpret trends in mortality from alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs to determine whether harm reduction in Australia "worked", the effectiveness of harm-reduction policies and programs in controlling HIV among injecting drug users (IDUs) seems extremely strong and suggests that benefits of harm-reduction programs for other drugs will become apparent in time.  (+info)

Accuracy of five on-site immunoassay drugs-of-abuse testing devices. (2/995)

Many current "on-site" urine drug-testing products claim performance equivalent to laboratory testing. Five commercially available products (PharmScreen, Roche TestCup, Accusign DOA 2, Status DS, and American Bio Medica-Rapid Drug Screen) were challenged with quality-control specimens of known drug metabolite concentrations, 25% above and 25% below the SAMHSA cutoffs, and with known positive and negative donor specimens previously analyzed by immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate discrepancies between claims and performance for all products, particularly with amphetamines. The implications for employer-based drug testing are discussed.  (+info)

Self-intoxication with morphine obtained from an infusion pump. (3/995)

A 36-year-old Caucasian male was found unresponsive by his wife. He had white foam around his mouth and was pronounced dead shortly thereafter. He had a history of back pain and was treated with intrathecal morphine because of his previous addiction to oral opiate medications. Because of crimping of the pump catheter, it was replaced 4 days before his death. Toxicological findings included urine screen positive for amitriptyline, nortriptyline, opiates, hydrocodone metabolites, ibuprofen, acetaminophen, caffeine, nicotine, and metabolite. Drug concentrations were as follows: blood, 0.260 mg/L amitriptyline, 0.160 mg/L nortriptyline, 0.460 mg/L unconjugated morphine, and 0.624 mg/L total morphine; vitreous humor, 0.034 mg/L unconjugated morphine and 0.080 mg/L total morphine; and cerebrospinal fluid, 0.099 mg/L unconjugated morphine and 0.095 mg/L total morphine. Shortly after death, the volume of the residual pump reservoir was only 8 mL instead of the expected 17 mL. Testing by the FDA showed that the pump was functional. The residual content of the pump accounted for only 230 mg instead of the expected 488 mg. The high blood-morphine concentrations did not correlate with the intrathecal infusion dose. The symptoms were consistent with opiate overdose, possibly by injection of morphine withdrawn from the pump reservoir. The cause of death was determined to be fatal morphine self-intoxication, and the manner of death was accidental. This case is intended to alert regulatory agencies, pain management health professionals, pathologists, and toxicologists to the abuse potential of one of the newer analgesic-delivery systems.  (+info)

Methadone dosing, heroin affordability, and the severity of addiction. (4/995)

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to track changes in US heroin prices from 1988 to 1995 and to determine whether changes in the affordability of heroin were associated with changes in the use of heroin by users seeking methadone treatment, as indexed by methadone dose levels. METHODS: Data on the price of heroin were from the Drug Enforcement Administration; data on methadone doses were from surveys conducted in 1988, 1990, and 1995 of 100 methadone maintenance centers. Multivariable models that controlled for time and city effects were used to ascertain whether clinics in cities where heroin was less expensive had patients receiving higher doses of methadone, which would suggest that these patients had relatively higher physiological levels of opiate addiction owing to increased heroin use. RESULTS: The amount of pure heroin contained in a $100 (US) purchase has increased on average 3-fold between 1988 and 1995. The average dose of methadone in clinics was positively associated with the affordability of local heroin (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: When heroin prices fall, heroin addicts require more methadone (a heroin substitute) to stabilize their addiction--evidence that they are consuming more heroin.  (+info)

The measurement of nitrite in adulterated urine samples by high-performance ion chromatography. (5/995)

With the increased availability of nitrite-containing commercial products that are used for the adulteration of urine samples in the workplace, it is necessary for laboratories to be able to detect and confirm the presence of nitrite in these samples. We have developed a method to confirm the presence of nitrite in urine samples. The method uses the IonPac AS 14 analytical column with the Dionex series 45001 Bio LC system equipped with an anion self-generating suppressor and conductivity detector. Using a single-point calibration, the method is linear and accurately quantitates nitrite to 12,000 microg/mL. The limit of detection is 30 microg/mL, and the day-to-day precision of the assay has a coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.3% at 1200 microg/mL and 3.8% at 2700 microg/mL of nitrite.  (+info)

Prevalence of drugs used in cases of alleged sexual assault. (6/995)

In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of reports in the U.S. of the use of drugs, often in conjunction with alcohol, to commit sexual assault. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of drug use in sexual assault cases in which substances are suspected of being involved. Law enforcement agencies, emergency rooms, and rape crisis centers across the U.S. were offered the opportunity to submit urine samples collected from victims of alleged sexual assault, where drug use was suspected, for analysis of alcohol and drugs which may be associated with sexual assault. Each sample was tested by immunoassay for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine), cannabinoids, methaqualone, opiates, phencyclidine and propoxyphene. The positive screen results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). In addition, each sample was tested for flunitrazepam metabolites and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) by GC-MS and for ethanol by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Over a 26-month period, 1179 samples were collected and analyzed from 49 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. The states sending the most samples were California (183), Texas (119), Florida (61), Pennsylvania (61), New York (61), Minnesota (50), Illinois (47), Indiana (44), Michigan (40), Maryland (37), Virginia (32), and Massachusetts (31). Four-hundred sixty eight of the samples were found negative for all the substances tested; 451 were positive for ethanol, 218 for cannabinoids, 97 for benzoylecgonine, 97 for benzodiazepines, 51 for amphetamines, 48 for GHB, 25 for opiates, 17 for propoxyphene, and 12 for barbiturates. There were no samples identified as positive for phencyclidine or methaqualone. In addition, 35% of the drug-positive samples contained multiple drugs. This study indicates that, with respect to alleged sexual assault cases, the prevalence of ethanol is very high, followed by cannabinoids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, amphetamines, and GHB. Although only a couple of substances have been implicated with sexual assault, this study has shown that almost 20 different substances have been associated with this crime. This study also raises the concern of illicit and licit drug use in sexual assault cases and suggests the need to test for a range of drugs in these cases. It also highlights the need to test for GHB, which is not generally tested for in a normal toxicology screen.  (+info)

Nail analysis for drugs of abuse: extraction and determination of cannabis in fingernails by RIA and GC-MS. (7/995)

Fingernail clippings were evaluated as analytical specimens for the detection and quantitation of cannabinoids. Specimens were obtained from consenting adults attending a drug clinic, along with information concerning the drugs which they had used over the previous six months. Methods for the surface decontamination and extraction of the specimens were evaluated. Detergent, water, and methanol washes followed by alkaline hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction were selected for use in the study. Extracts were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to detect and quantitate cannabinoids present in fingernail clippings. Positive RIA results were obtained from specimens from six known cannabis users. The mean cannabinoid concentration in fingernail clippings determined by RIA was 1.03 ng/mg. Using GC-MS, the mean delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol concentration in fingernail clippings from a further 14 known cannabis users was 1.44 ng/mg. Using GC-MS, the average 11-nor-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid concentration in fingernail clippings from three known cannabis users extracted in acidic pH was 19.85 ng/mg. Based on these results, fingernails are potentially useful biological specimens for the detection of past cannabis use in cases of medicolegal interest.  (+info)

Procainamide inhibition of human hepatic degradation of cocaine and cocaethylene in vitro. (8/995)

Procainamide (PA), a cardioactive drug, inhibited the degradation of both cocaine (COC) and cocaethylene (CE) when either was incubated in human liver homogenates for 3 h at 37 degrees C. PA appeared to enhance the formation of CE when COC and ethanol (ETOH) were incubated together in liver homogenate. These observations are clinically significant because cardiotoxicity is common after COC abuse and because PA may be administered to individuals who use COC alone and with ETOH.  (+info)

  • I hoped to determine how much of Philadelphia's retail heroin was adulterated with fentanyl, and what, if any, geographical variations existed in the composition of the city's street dope. (
  • At the peak of Philly homeless drug-user crisis last winter, it wasn't uncommon for three or four drug "sets" (crews of dealers) a day to pepper the streets with new "work" (the term here for what comes inside the small waxine stamp baggies in which retail heroin is sold). (
  • But as I suspected - as drug users got pushed further away from established corners and more freelance drug dealing operations opened to fill the void - the percentage of bags that contained a mixture of heroin and fentanyl declined during my project. (
  • The heroin-fentanyl mix fell from around 80 percent of samples to between 50-60 percent, with the remainder composed of just fentanyl (or one of about a dozen analogs that the test strips detect) and cut-usually with mannitol or lactose, according to lab and drug-seizure results I've been able to access. (
  • Any campaign to distribute fentanyl strips to drug users must engage people who use drugs other than heroin. (
  • Mark Haden, a professor at UBC's school of population and public health, spoke to CKNW after a potentially deadly 'research chemical' W-18 and a new and unknown fentanyl analogue were found in street drugs in Surrey and Victoria. (
  • Exactly one year after I began testing street drugs, the Philadelphia Department of Health announced that it would begin investing in fentanyl test strips, in an effort to give drug users the tools to protect themselves. (
  • In this 4 hour program you will cover the common street drugs including meth, Fentanyl and opioids. (
  • Haden said opioid drug smugglers want a smaller product like W-18 since it's easiest to move. (
  • I had learned that some community outreach workers in California, Massachusetts and New York were successfully using the highly sensitive strips to analyze street drugs for the presence of the powerful synthetic opioid-responsible for nearly doubling the number of overdose fatalities in Philadelphia between 2015 and 2017. (
  • All of these drugs are extremely addictive and they all have side effects that would make a person in their right mind, stop and think twice about taking any of these. (
  • The welfare implications of addictive substances: a longitudinal study of life satisfaction of drug users ," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 86479, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library. (
  • The welfare implications of addictive substances: A longitudinal study of life satisfaction of drug users ," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization , Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 206-221. (
  • The Welfare Implications of Addictive Substances: A Longitudinal Study of Life Satisfaction of Drug Users ," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2017n32, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne. (
  • You want a helpline staffed with an experienced person with a kind voice and dedicated to helping drug abusers and alcoholics. (
  • Furthermore, these comorbidities are associated with a higher risk of drug overdoses in people with HIV who use illicit drugs than in people who use illicit drugs and do not have HIV, due in part to respiratory, hepatic, and neurological impairments associated with HIV infection. (
  • In addition, noninjection illicit drug use may facilitate sexual transmission of HIV. (
  • Illicit drug use has been associated with depression and anxiety, either as part of the withdrawal process or as a consequence of repeated use. (
  • For over a year, in North Philadelphia neighborhoods from Fairhill to Port Richmond, and deep into South Philly (home to the ZIP code with the second highest fatal overdose rates in the city outside Kensington), I regularly asked drugs users on the streets if I could test their samples, and recorded the results. (
  • In July 2017 - as Philadelphia Mayor Jim Kenney and Conrail waged battle over the impending closure of the West Kensington injection drug user site known as "El Campamento," a move that would bring many unintended negative consequences - I set out on what I thought would be a simple mission. (
  • Injection drug use is the second most common mode of HIV transmission in the United States. (
  • Underlying health problems in people who use injection and/or noninjection drugs result in increased morbidity and mortality, either independent of or accentuated by HIV disease. (
  • Cannabis use is notoriously difficult to detect in saliva, with most saliva drug tests looking for the presence of the THC metabolite which has proven to be extremely unreliable. (
  • On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. (
  • NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. (
  • Many people are well aware of the presence of street drugs. (
  • With that said, many people know the consequences of partaking in any form of buying, selling, or using illegal drugs, or using prescription drugs not as intended to be taken as per your physician. (
  • However, not very many people are too familiar with specifics- what are the top 10 most popular street drugs? (
  • 2 Treatment of HIV disease in people who use illicit drugs can be successful, but this group presents special treatment challenges. (
  • 4 Success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in people with HIV who use illicit drugs often depends on clinicians becoming familiar with and managing these comorbid conditions and providing overdose prevention support. (
  • People with HIV who use illicit drugs have less access to HIV care and are less likely to receive ART than other populations. (
  • 5,6 Factors associated with low rates of ART use among people who use illicit drugs include active drug use, younger age, female gender, suboptimal health care, recent incarceration, lack of access to rehabilitation programs, and health care providers' lack of expertise in HIV treatment. (
  • When you call a drug addiction recovery helpline, you can expect to speak with a trained and experienced agent whose goal is to help you get the treatment you deserve. (
  • Each drug page includes a brief overview, street and clinical names, the effects of the drug on the brain and body, statistics and trends, and relevant publications and articles written by NIDA researchers and scientists. (
  • In most cases, a drug addict's behaviors not only impact his or her own life but also interfere with the lives of his or her friends and family. (