The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.
The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.
Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Corneal and conjunctival dryness due to deficient tear production, predominantly in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Filamentary keratitis or erosion of the conjunctival and corneal epithelium may be caused by these disorders. Sensation of the presence of a foreign body in the eye and burning of the eyes may occur.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Implants used in arthroscopic surgery and other orthopedic procedures to attach soft tissue to bone. One end of a suture is tied to soft tissue and the other end to the implant. The anchors are made of a variety of materials including titanium, stainless steel, or absorbable polymers.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.
Sterile solutions that are intended for instillation into the eye. It does not include solutions for cleaning eyeglasses or CONTACT LENS SOLUTIONS.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
The mucous membrane that covers the posterior surface of the eyelids and the anterior pericorneal surface of the eyeball.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Perforations through the whole thickness of the retina including the macula as the result of inflammation, trauma, degeneration, etc. The concept includes retinal breaks, tears, dialyses, and holes.
Fixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The lateral extension of the spine of the SCAPULA and the highest point of the SHOULDER.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Fibrocartilage that makes up the triangular fibrocartilage complex which is found in the WRIST JOINT.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.
An incision of the posterior vaginal wall and a portion of the pudenda which enlarges the vaginal introitus to facilitate delivery and prevent lacerations.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.
Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Separation of the inner layers of the retina (neural retina) from the pigment epithelium. Retinal detachment occurs more commonly in men than in women, in eyes with degenerative myopia, in aging and in aphakia. It may occur after an uncomplicated cataract extraction, but it is seen more often if vitreous humor has been lost during surgery. (Dorland, 27th ed; Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p310-12).
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Diseases of plants.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
12) [Ivan Gundulić: Tears of the Prodigal Son; Dubravka; To the Ferdinand the Great of Tuscany, edited by J. Ravlić, Zagreb, ... Körbler, Zagreb, 31938., str. 261. - 318. (Stari pisci hrvatski, knj. IX) [Ivan Gundulić: Dubravka, in: works by Dživo Fran ... The play was directed by Petar Selem who adjusted it to the war-torn Croatia and the world in which there was fear of terrorism ... Ivan Gundulić: Dubravka; Tears of the Prodigal Son, Albert Haller, Zagreb, 1944.] Ivan Gundulić: Suze sina razmetnoga; Dubravka ...
Kristof, Nicholas (28 August 2019). "Opinion , Straining Through the Tear Gas". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived ... His prologue, called "City of Tears", describes how police had unleashed in excess of 16,000 canisters of tear gas during the ... It begins: "Tear gas rounds describe a graceful arc as they drop down out of the blue sky, trailing feathery tails of smoke ... Lennon Walls led to conflicts between pro-democracy and pro-Beijing citizens, some of whom attempted to tear messages off the ...
The strain tears Freddy apart. Alice's friends' souls are released and leave Freddy as a hollow husk. Months later, Dan and ...
Kristof, Nicholas (28 August 2019). "Opinion , Straining Through the Tear Gas". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived ...
"Neuer tears muscle, Hummels suffers thigh strain". fcbayern.com. Retrieved 20 August 2019. "Robert Lewandowski hits brace as ... On 14 April 2019, Neuer sustained a torn muscle fibres in his left calf in a Bundesliga match against Fortuna Düsseldorf. Due ...
MCL strains and tears are also fairly common in American football. The center and the guards are the most common victims of ... Grade 1 is a minor sprain, grade 2 in a major sprain or a minor tear, and grade 3 is a major tear. Based on the grade of the ... For higher grade tears of the MCL with ongoing instability, the MCL can be sutured or replaced. Other non-surgical approaches ... The future of non-surgical care for a non-healing MCL injury with laxity (partial ligament tear) is likely bioengineering.[ ...
"Salvador Perez placed on DL with intercostal strain". MLB. Retrieved August 6, 2017. "Salvador Perez suffers grade 2 MCL tear ... On March 1, an MRI revealed that there was a partial tear of the UCL in his right elbow. On March 6, it was revealed that Perez ... On March 28, 2018, Pérez suffered a grade 2 MCL tear while carrying a suitcase up a flight of stairs. It was deemed to be a non ... While catching a bullpen session before a spring training game in 2012, Pérez tore the meniscus in his left knee. He did not ...
The United States flag was torn from the ambassador's residence and trampled. Aware that public hostility was getting out of ... Relations between the two governments were severely strained. United States authorities erected a fence on the border of the ...
The United States flag was torn from the ambassador's residence and trampled, and the U.S. embassy was attacked. Stones were ... Relations between the two governments were severely strained. United States authorities erected a fence on the border of the ... thrown against the troops, who were dispersed by tear gas. Three American troops were injured, whilst two student protesters ...
"For 8 Years, a Strained Relationship With the Military". The New York Times. December 28, 2000. Retrieved March 18, 2011. Adams ... James (May 29, 1994). "Dead Hero's Father Tears into Clinton". London Sunday Times. Retrieved March 18, 2011. "Cargo Ship ...
The same night, further tests from MRIs revealed that Eaton had a torn ACL, as well as a torn meniscus and a sprained ankle. He ... The next day, on April 29, Eaton was diagnosed with a left knee strain, placing him on the 10-day disabled list. ... "Adam Eaton lands on DL with left knee strain". MLB. Retrieved April 29, 2017. Collier, Jamal. "Eaton sets sights on '17 return ... Robert Anderson discovering and removing a small tear in the cartilage of the ankle that was causing discomfort. Following the ...
Strain localisation, slab tearing and trench retreat". Tectonophysics. 597-598: 1-33. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2012.06.011. Kopf, A ... During the period a major tear developed between the main part of the HSZ and the Western Cyprus zone, forming a slab window in ... The boundary between the two is interpreted to be a slab tear. There is evidence that more than 1500 km of Neotethyan oceanic ... with a developing slab tear further to the north in its deeper parts. The HSZ slab is divided into two main segments, the ...
DeJesús lost his chance to make the opening day roster in 2012 when he suffered a torn oblique muscle in his side during a ... Peltz, Jim (March 18, 2012). "Dodgers infielder Ivan DeJesus strains abdominal muscle". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved June 8, ... has torn muscle in side, MRI reveals". Los Angeles Times. March 20, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012. ...
"Direct measurement of hoop strains in the intact and torn human medial meniscus". Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol, Avon). 11 (5 ... Certain meniscal tears are repairable with sutures, predominantly those that are freshly torn and involve healthy tissue. The ... It is now known that a knee joint without healthy menisci is at significantly increased risk of developing wear and tear ... Peña, E; Calvo, B; Martínez, MA; Palanca, D; Doblaré, M (Jun 2005). "Finite element analysis of the effect of meniscal tears ...
Tears and areas of impingement can be found using this method. A diagnostic ultrasound can also be used to diagnose FHL ... Common injuries associated with the FHL tendon are tenosynovitis, tendinopathies, and muscle strains. Because the FHL muscle is ... If surgery is indicated, tears in the FHL will be repaired, and debris will be removed from the area. It is worth noting that ...
Sutcliffe made it known that she felt very hurt by the storyline, since she believed it tore apart the foundation of the ... In retaliation, Owen spanks her across the legs as punishment; putting a strain on his relationship with Faye's mother Anna. In ... Sian stormed out of the ceremony and later left Weatherfield in tears. In 2012, Faye Windass kills Owen Armstrong's fish with ...
Penny claims that she didn't know if Callie even knew who he was, to which Callie says, "He was my friend." Torn by the ... Inside, Jo and Stephanie try to mend their strained friendship. Initially, Jo apologizes for not believing her when she told ... tears, suspense, and surprises. She notes Alex Karev's concern for Meredith saying, "His unwavering concern for Meredith was ...
Strained stomach muscle; did not play 12/12/94: Kevin Johnson: Strained groin; did not play 12/12/94: Aaron Swinson: Knee ... Torn ACL; placed on injured list for rest of season 02/17/95: Danny Ainge: League suspension (punched Chris Dudley on February ... 10/08/94: Richard Dumas: League suspension (failed drug test); reinstated March 13 11/03/94: Charles Barkley: Strained stomach ... playoff run due to a torn ACL. For point guard Kevin Johnson, the injuries that had allowed him to start in just 35 of 47 games ...
If her torn uniform revealed pouting young breasts, she was OK-probably someone's kid sister. If she had eager, straining ...
Strain subsequently localizes until fracture occurs. Fracture strain is not an engineering strain since distribution of the ... One main failure mode is caused by tearing of the material. This is typical for sheet-forming applications. A neck may appear ... Fracture strain is nevertheless a rough indicator of the formability of a material. Typical values of the fracture strain are: ... The major surface strain has a minimum value when plane strain deformation occurs, which means that the corresponding minor ...
Minor tears of the anterior cruciate ligament may heal over time, but a torn ACL requires surgery. After surgery, recovery is ... Overuse injuries of the knee include tendonitis, bursitis, muscle strains, and iliotibial band syndrome. These injuries often ... Small meniscus tears are treated conservatively but most large tears require surgery. Knee fractures are rare but do occur, ... A completely torn tendon requires surgery but a partially torn tendon can be treated with leg immobilization followed by ...
By this time, the political fabric of the province was starting to tear. The governor of Virginia reported that "Maryland is ... Measures like these might make the assembly easier to manage, but they tended to strain relations between Calvert and his ... Relations between the governing council and the assembly grew increasingly strained. Underlying much of the rancour was the ...
I didn't tear something in my knee, but I strained it. Knees are very sensitive, I've learned. It's crazy, because I've been ... Respers France, Lisa (June 2, 2010). "'Glee' tears the roof off the mutha - The Marquee Blog - CNN.com Blogs". CNN. Retrieved ...
Smith, M., Panchal, H., Ruberte, R., & Sekiya, J. (2011). Effect of acetabular labrum tears on hip stability and labral strain ... Most labrum tears are thought to be from gradual tear due to repetitive microtrauma. Incidents of labrum tears increase with ... Labrum tears in athletes can occur from a single event or recurring trauma. Running can cause labrum tears due to the labrum ... Strain vs. Time graph for the three stages of creep. Strain slowly rises up and almost becomes constant from a constant stress ...
by Daniel Strain Feb 10, 2012 "On the tear resistance of skin". Nature Communications. by W. Yang et al. Oct 22, 2014 "A return ...
On April 22, 2016, Pinder was placed on the 15-day disabled list due to a right elbow strain. The next day on April 23, an MRI ... "Pinder has partial tear in UCL of right elbow". North Jersey News. Retrieved April 23, 2016. Rush, Douglas. "Pinder to undergo ... "Pinder placed on 15-day DL with elbow strain, Goody called up". River Ave Blues. Retrieved April 22, 2016. Iseman, Chris. " ... revealed that there was a partially torn UCL in the right elbow. After seeking a second opinion with Dr. James Andrews, Pinder ...
On June 9, De León was put on the minor league disabled list with a mild lat strain. On August 14, De León was placed on the ... De León was diagnosed with a torn ulnar collateral ligament on March 7, 2018. One week later, Dr. James Andrews successfully ... Chastain, Bill (March 7, 2018). "Rays' De Leon diagnosed with torn UCL". MLB.com. Retrieved March 7, 2018. "Jose De Leon ... "Jose De Leon Diagnosed With Mild Lat Strain , BaseballAmerica.com". Baseball America. June 9, 2017. Retrieved August 17, 2017. ...
... strained hamstring; returned to active roster February 16 April 11: Brandon Roy - right knee meniscus tear, arthroscopic knee ... surgery to repair right shoulder muscle tear; returned to active roster January 25 November 14: Travis Outlaw - broken left ...
Parts of the rigging were snapped under the strain. A large mass of ice slammed into the stern, tearing the sternpost away from ... As the ice moved against her stern, the aft part of the ship was lifted up and the damaged sternpost and the rudder were torn ... The ship's structure groaned and wracked under the strain. Carpenter Harry McNish noted that the solid oak beams supporting the ...
The greater the stress the more the UCL is stretched causing strain. During the overhead throwing motion, valgus stress on the ... The repetitive stress placed on the ulna causes micro tears in the ligament resulting in the loss of structural integrity over ... This causes tremendous valgus stress and tensile strain on the UCL. Injuries to the ulnar collateral ligament are believed to ... Rather, they are more often due to small chronic tears that accumulate over time. The ulnar collateral ligament (UCL, also ...
Many cadres ate the livers of their victims and tore unborn foetuses from their mothers for use as kun krak talismans.[291] The ... relations between the Khmer Rouge and its Vietnamese Marxist allies were becoming strained and some violent clashes had broken ... Relations between the Khmer Rouge and the North Vietnamese remained strained. After the latter temporarily reduced the flow of ...
Virus strain samples isolated from both outbreaks were named "Ebola virus" after the Ebola River, near the first-identified ... tears, breast milk, urine and semen.[4][41] The WHO states that only people who are very sick are able to spread Ebola disease ... Recovered gorilla carcasses have contained multiple Ebola virus strains, suggesting multiple introductions of the virus. Bodies ... researchers concluded it was another strain of Ebola, or a new filovirus of Asian origin, which they named Reston ebolavirus ( ...
On May 17, 2007, Crain was placed on the 15-day disabled list with a torn rotator cuff and labrum. He missed the rest of the ... On July 3, Crain was placed on the disabled list with a right shoulder strain. In 38 games with Chicago, Crain went 2-3 with 19 ... who was placed on the 60-day disabled list on May 29 with an acute tear of the ulnar collateral ligament in his throwing arm. ...
... a gentle palpation between the eye and the nasal cavity may be used to clear the tear duct. If the tear duct is not cleared by ... Bacitracin eye ointment four times per day (Because of resistant strains topical penicillin therapy is not reliable. However in ... If it is determined that the cause is due to a blocked tear duct, ... a blocked tear duct may be another non-infectious cause of neonatal conjunctivitis. ...
Kristen and Iben's marriage becomes further strained and Mr. Schwann dies (off-screen). (The actor playing Mr. Schwann, Arthur ... and holes and tears in the picture. In 2017 it was restored to 1080p High-definition television prior to the series' sixth ...
... frequent use of artificial tears while awake is recommended, along with ointment and a patch or taping the eye closed when ... this is more common after infection by certain Borrelia strains in people with certain genetic and immunologic characteristics. ... The second rash typically is due to infection by a different Borrelia strain.[180] ... "OTC Drops: Telling the Tears Apart". Review of Ophtalmology. Jobson Medical Information LLC. Archived from the original on 17 ...
... unobtrusive strain, which the eye almost expected to find among the dark clothes of the civilians".[51] Under the occupation, ... but an autonomous force which will refuse to allow itself to be torn into shreds between American optimism and Russian ...
The ATFL tears most easily when the foot is in plantarflexion and inversion.[33] ... Dislocations, sprains and strains. *Emergency medical procedures. Hidden categories: *Articles needing additional references ... Ankle Sprains primarily occur as a result of tearing the ATFL (anterior talofibular ligament) in the Talocrural Joint. ...
... and 50,000 tear-gas grenades, in violation of a UN embargo.[55] Several other Ivory Coast officers were released because they ... and the relationship between various ethnic groups became strained, which resulted in two civil wars in the following decades. ...
Edward I's frequent military campaigns put a great financial strain on the nation.[161] There were several ways through which ... the King erupted in anger and supposedly tore out handfuls of his son's hair.[132] Some of his contemporaries considered Edward ...
... the UK and the US has found that the heavy strain on the body also leads to a high rate of injury.[21][22][23][24] ... tear-gas-filled chamber), PT, and the basic essentials on Navy life. Recruits also attend many classes throughout boot camp on ...
The strength and density of the bone is directly influenced by local strain. Due to the high strain on muscles during eccentric ... Tearing an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee causes serious damage that can last several years and often requires ... "Eccentric actions place a stretch on the sarcomeres to the point where the myofilaments may experience strain, otherwise known ... Older individuals are less vulnerable to injury from eccentric exercise, primarily because of the reduced strain on muscle- ...
Repetitive strain injury or other strain injury. *Other injuries from external physical causes, such as radiation poisoning, ... Wound, an injury in which skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a ...
Behavior, color, and anatomy can be quite different from one subspecies or even strain to another.[citation needed] ... The worker dies after the sting becomes lodged and is subsequently torn loose from the bee's abdomen. The honey bee's venom, ... However, these strains do not overwinter well, so are not often found in the colder, more northern parts of North America. The ... In Search of the Best Strains of Bees. Hebden Bridge, W. Yorks: Northern Bee Books, 1983. ...
It can also result from soft-tissue abnormalities, such as a torn medial patellofemoral ligament, or a weakened vastus medialis ... In this condition, the patella repetitively subluxates and places strain on the medial restraints and excessive stress/tension ...
Inside a PCCP line, the CFRP liner acts as a barrier that controls the level of strain experienced by the steel cylinder in the ... is used for the production of sturdy but lightweight tools and parts due to its high strength and tear length.[32] ... CFRP liner designs are based on strain compatibility between the liner and host pipe.[22] ... strain to failure. Although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present ...
They included the 1957 Asian Flu (type A, H2N2 strain) and the 1968 Hong Kong Flu (type A, H3N2 strain), but even these smaller ... in infants) No tears when crying.. Virology. Types of virus. Structure of the influenza virion. The hemagglutinin (HA) and ... As influenza is caused by a variety of species and strains of viruses, in any given year some strains can die out while others ... This strain is a reassortment of several strains of H1N1 that are usually found separately, in humans, birds, and pigs.[245] ...
When this occurs the muscle fibers are torn. Most commonly, a strain causes microscopic tears within the muscle, but ... An abdominal muscle strain, also called a pulled abdominal muscle, is an injury to one of the muscles of the abdominal wall. A ... The hematoma may be caused by either rupture of the epigastric artery or by a muscular tear. Causes of this include ... muscle strain occurs when the muscle is stretched too far. ...
Stjepan Antoljak, Pregled hrvatske povijesti, Split, 1993, str. 43. *^ Evans, Arthur (2007). Through Bosnia and the Herzegovina ... "What great joy and what a great abundance there was of pious tears when, to the praise and honor of God and of the most Holy ...
"Gaza rockets strain Israel-Hamas truce". Christian Science Monitor.. *^ "Hamas may consider new truce with Israel". Al Arabiya ... who responded with tear gas and rubber bullets. Hundreds of mourners attended the funeral of the Palestinian man killed in ... sparking clashes with Israeli forces who fired rubber bullets and tear gas. About 40 Palestinians were injured.[216] In the ...
The letter to Michael Stoop had no blood on it, but it was later proven that the paper it was written on had been torn from a ... two weeks after a strained family Christmas in 1972, Lucan moved into a small property in Eaton Row.[31] ... but the relationship between the police and Lucan's social circle was strained; some officers complained that an "Eton mafia" ...
Muslim Albanians became torn between loyalties to the Ottoman state and the emerging Albanian nationalist movement.[14] Islam, ... Albanians as a Muslim nation and as Muslim fundamentalists which has placed the secular part of Albanian identity under strain. ...
OSCN− has also been identified as an antimicrobial agent in milk, saliva, tears, and mucus. OSCN− is considered as safe product ... OSCN, which is not an antibiotic, has proved efficacy on superbugs including MRSA reference strains, BCC, Mucoid PA Schema of ...
... one strain of the biological agent Tularemia has the symbol SR (lethal Schu strain), while another strain has JT (incapacitant ... When the Tear Agent CS is formulated in a solvent it is signified by CSX. When agents are thickened with the addition of a ... polymer a T is usually added to the beginning of the symbol (e.g., thickened soman is TGD). The tear agent Mace, or Agent CN, ... 452 strain). Military symbols for agents change from time to time for administrative reasons as well. To preserve secrecy, ...
The paralysis can be partial or complete; the damage to each nerve can range from bruising to tearing. The most commonly ... Other pains that Erb's palsy sufferers might endure include strained muscle, stiffness, circulatory problems and cramp. ...
Once thought to be caused by lactic acid build-up, a more recent theory is that it is caused by tiny tears in the muscle fibers ... The mechanical energy output of a cyclic contraction can depend upon many factors, including activation timing, muscle strain ... be measured in vivo using tendon strain (if a prominent tendon is present), or be measured directly using more invasive methods ...
The choice of antibiotic varies based on the strain or suspected strain of bacteria causing the infection. Fluoroquinolones, ... Episcleritis - an inflammatory condition that produces a similar appearance to conjunctivitis, but without discharge or tearing ... The affected eye may have increased tears or be "stuck shut" in the morning.[1] Swelling of the white part of the eye may also ... due to tearing and mucoid discharge. Mild photophobia is common. However, if any of these symptoms is prominent, considering ...
Its skin is loose enough not to tear while tunneling in tight burrows to chase prey. The dachshund has a deep chest provides ... which place greater strain on the vertebrae. About 20-25% of dachshunds will develop IVDD.[41] ...
While looking for Sally in the ruins of the North Star factory, he strains his leg too much and cause him to have a limp for ... Although he has feelings for Sally, they almost always argue, Sally torn between her admiration for his strength and compassion ...
This is all possible until you feel and unusual tug on the strings leaving you with a sprain, strain, or a tear. Surgeons try ... Scientists can now look all the way down to the atoms our tendons are made up of and discover the reason for these strains, ... "The fibrils are about five times stronger and can strain about five times farther than a tendon," Steven Eppell, a professor of ... sprains, and tears. Using a combination of nanoscience and biomedical and civil engineering scientists uncovered single threads ...
Whats the difference between a strain and a sprain and how are each treated? Learn more about these common injuries from the ... A strain is also a stretch or tear, but it happens in a muscle or a tendon. Tendons link muscles to the bones. ... How Do Strains Happen?. Athletes in contact sports, like football, hockey, and boxing, have the biggest chance of strains. Even ... The gold standard of care for sprains and strains is known as "RICE" therapy. It stands for:. * Rest: Dont put weight on the ...
Dear DrSugar, I think I strained my hamstring sprinting at the end of a run. I ... Strained Muscle Treating Muscle Strains, Pulls, and Tears. DrSugar: Dealing With a Strained Muscle? December 15, 2010 by ... According to the Mayo Clinic, an acute strain occurs when a muscle becomes strained or pulled (or possibly even torn), when it ... I think I strained my hamstring sprinting at the end of a run. I dont think I pulled or tore it - there was no bruising. I ...
Calf strain or tear is caused by overstretching or tearing of either of the 2 calf muscles. It usually starts with sudden pain ... Calf strain or tear. What is it?. A calf strain, commonly called a pulled muscle, is caused by overstretching or tearing of ... A calf strain usually starts with sudden pain in the back of the lower leg. A pop, snap or tearing sensation may be felt. ... Calf strain occurs during activities that involve pushing off on the toes, such as running or jumping, or sports that require ...
... strains and tears are different types of injuries, and its important to know how they differ, a sports massage therapist says. ... "An acute strain is an instantaneous stretch or tear of the muscle or tendon, whereas, a chronic strain stems from repetitive ... A strain is the overstretching or tearing of a muscle or a tendon, which connects the muscles to the bones. It can occur from a ... home/health & living center/ prevention & wellness a-z list/ how to tell if you have a sprain, strain or tear article ...
Muscle strains and tears happen. An injury like this doesnt have to force you to the sideline, regardless of what conventional ... When a muscle belly is torn (the term "muscle strain" is actually a small muscle tear), the fibers of the muscle tissue ... But for normal everyday muscle injuries - strained hamstrings or calves from running, strained/torn pecs, biceps, lats, ... I have successfully used the Starr Protocol to rehab a badly torn right pec (3 years ago), a torn lat, a torn bicep muscle ...
shoulder pain/strain....keep going????. Training Forum. 10. Jun 24, 2009. re-strained shoulder: how long to be ready to lift. ... Does anyone think this could be a tear; or just a strain? If I take some time off not working out my chest; would I be able to ... Today I worked out my chest, I used a neutral grip bar close grip on the flat bench(I felt a little strain but not too bad); ... I plan on taking at least a 2 week break from chest exercises because of this nagging strain I get when I press.. ...
Learn about tears or strains in the hamstring, including causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment from the ... What is a hamstring tear or strain?. A hamstring tear or strain, also called a pulled hamstring, is an injury to one of the ... Symptoms of a hamstring tear or strain. The immediate symptom of a hamstring tear or strain is a sudden, sharp pain in the back ... Risk factors for a hamstring tear or strain. Risk factors of a hamstring tear or strain are similar to the causes. People who ...
"Sprains and strains are among the most common injuries people get," Haverkos says, adding, "Knees, ankles and wrists are ... Warm-up exercises, such as stretching or light jogging, before an activity reduce the chance of muscle strain or other injury. ... "Different sports may have wear and tear on different muscle groups," Murray explains. "If you cross-train, that gives muscles ...
... Hi All,. I first posted on the health board but thought I might get more responses here.. I ... Re: strained/torn tendon in wrist. Our old dog had exactly the same thing happen to her wrist. It never healed properly. Our ...
Wade Miley Diagnosed With Slight Groin Tear, Boone Logan With Triceps Strain. By Jeff Todd , March 24, 2018. at 3:27pm CDT. ... Rotation candidate Wade Miley has been diagnosed with a slight groin tear, while reliever Boone Logan has a mild triceps strain ... The southpaw seemed likely to make the Brewers rotation before suffering a torn groin thats expected to keep him out two to ... Cheated on my girl and she practically tore it right off. That taught me. ...
... strains and tears of the knee, contact the world-class orthopedists at The Christ Hospital Health Network. ... Knee sprain, strain and tear symptoms. Signs and symptoms of a knee sprain, strain or tear may include:. *. A popping sound at ... Knee sprain, strain and tear diagnosis. Diagnosis of sprains, strain and tears of the knee typically begins with a thorough ... A knee tear can be a torn meniscus or a torn ligament, both of which help stabilize the knee joint. The tear may be partial or ...
1.Helps groin strains and sprains2.Helps provide support and relief during occupational and sporting injuries3.Heat therapeutic ... pulls tears aches stiffness injury recovery Neoprene Hernia Pulled Groin for Men Women by MALLCROWN at Get Cheap Health ... MALLCROWN Groin Strain Thigh Compression Wrap for Injury,sprains, pain, ... Groin Support, MALLCROWN Groin Strain Thigh Compression Wrap for Injury,sprains, pain, pulls tears aches stiffness injury ...
PhysioAdvisor offers detailed physiotherapy information on a calf strain including: symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, ... Also known as Calf Tear, Torn Calf Muscle, Strained Calf Muscle, Pulled Calf, Gastrocnemius Strain, Gastrocnemius Tear, Torn ... Calf strains range from grade 1 to grade 3 and are classified as follows:. *Grade 1 Tear: a small number of fibres are torn ... This is known as a calf strain.. Tears to the calf muscle can range from a small partial tear whereby there is minimal pain and ...
... and strain, you ask? Discover the shocking truth about the muscles in your lower back. ... What the heck is the difference between a lumbar muscle tear, pull, ... and a strained muscle. It seems like a muscle tear would be much more severe than a muscle strain, right? A "tear" just sounds ... Back Muscle Strain vs. Pull vs. Tear - Whats the Difference?. When it comes to muscle damage, youve probably heard of a torn ...
Strains & Ligament Tears. For Further Information, Get In Touch With New Victoria Hospital Today! ... Strains, Sprains & Ligament Tears Strains, Sprains & Ligament Tears. A sprain is an injury to a ligament either stretching or ... Grade 1 (mild) - over-stretching / micro-tears of ligaments. Grade 2 (moderate) - partial ligament tears and mild joint ... A wrist strain or sprain will cause pain, tenderness, and swelling around the wrist after a fall. It will be red, tender and ...
Rotator cuff tears are tears of one or more of the four tendons of the rotator cuffmuscles. A rotator cuff injury can include ... Is tearing of ligament fibers called a sprain or strain?. The tearing of a ligament, the fibrous tissue connecting bone to bone ... A strain is the medical term meaning overstrectched muscle or tendon. If the strain leads to tearing, its a sprain. ... A muscle or tendon will tear when injured, this is called a strain, or more commonly, a pulled muscle. A tendon can be just ...
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Learn home treatments for tendon strains and tears to speed healing and prevent atrophy. ... Rotator cuff tendon strains can very in severity from a slight pull to a complete tear or rupture. ... Like any tendon strain, a rotator cuff strain can be classified depending on the severity of the strain. Strains can vary from ... Grade 2 - Moderate Strain. A Grade II strain is an actual partial tear in the muscle or the tendon. It would feel like a ...
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HAMSTRING STRAIN/TEARadmin2018-02-26T03:35:44+00:00 Hamstring strains are immobilizing and will impact your ability to perform ...
Sprains and strains. A sprain is when you stretch or tear a ligament. An arm sprain can happen when you start to fall and brace ... Rotator cuff tear. Lifting a heavy object or performing repetitive motions can lead to a torn tendon in your shoulders rotator ... From a simple strain to a heart problem, here are a few possible causes:. Heart attack. A blood clot or rupture in a coronary ... A strain is when you twist or pull a tendon or muscle. It can happen when you lift something the wrong way or overstress your ...
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MCL injuries, strains and tears are treated by Dr Blake Obrock in Amarillo (79106), Panhandle (79068) and West Texas. ... MCL Injury - Strains and Tears. An injury to the MCL may occur as a result of direct impact to the knee. An MCL injury can ... Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears. MCL Anatomy Medial collateral ligament (MCL) is one of four major ligaments of the knee that ... Surgical reconstruction is rarely recommended for MCL tears, but may be necessary in patients whose injury fails to heal ...
When people refer to torn cartilage in the knee, theyre often talking about a tear ... Excess body weight that strains the entire knee. * Aging, which thins and weakens knee cartilage over time ... People who have torn their meniscus often report a "popping" sound in the knee joint when the tear occurred. Other common ... November 2017 - When people refer to torn cartilage in the knee, theyre often talking about a tear in the meniscus, the wedge ...
Hip Labral Tears. Hip Labral Tears. Tears in the soft tissue of your hip can be difficult to detect. Our orthopedic and sports ... Hip Strains. Hip Strains. Whether sports or work caused your hip strain, our orthopedic doctors and sports medicine specialists ... If youve torn or stretched one of the ligaments in your knee, our sports medicine and orthopedic doctors will develop a ...
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Rotator cuff strain is a tear to one of the rotator cuff muscles in the shoulder. We explain the symptoms, causes, treatment ... What is a rotator cuff strain?. A rotator cuff strain is simply a tear of one of the four rotator cuff muscles found in the ... A rotator cuff strain is a tear to any of the four rotator cuff muscles in the shoulder. It is common in throwing and racket ... Rotator cuff strain treatment. Treatment for a rotator cuff tear consists of reducing the initial pain and inflammation, ...
  • A muscle sprain is a stretching or tearing of ligaments (tough bands of tissue that connect one bone to another in a joint) - think ankle sprain. (popsugar.com)
  • A sprain is the overstretching or tearing of ligaments, which are the tissues that connect bones to each other and stabilize them. (medicinenet.com)
  • A tear is the ripping of tissue in ligaments, muscles or tendons. (medicinenet.com)
  • Ligaments are slightly elastic, but you can overstretch them through sudden or extreme movements, and you can even tear them. (braceability.com)
  • The severity will depend on the extent of injury to a single ligament (whether the tear is partial or complete) and the number of ligaments involved. (newvictoria.co.uk)
  • A sprained wrist typically occurs after a fall on an outstretched hand stretches or tears the ligaments of the wrist. (newvictoria.co.uk)
  • When an athlete falls on the hand, the muscles, tendons and ligaments in the wrist take to majority of the impact and can be stretched and torn. (newvictoria.co.uk)
  • More severe wrist sprain injuries, including complete tears of the ligaments and fractures of the bone may need different treatment and rehab than a simple sprained wrist. (newvictoria.co.uk)
  • A knee sprain occurs when the knee ligaments are twisted or turned beyond its normal range, causing the ligaments to tear. (hinsdale-orthopaedics.com)
  • Ligaments may be damaged when they are stretched beyond their normal capacity and may even tear, partially or fully. (hubpages.com)
  • A sprain is where one or more of your ligaments is stretched, twisted or torn. (hse.ie)
  • Traumatic injuries are also a possibility, from sprained ankles to torn ligaments and even concussions. (kidshealth.org)
  • Most people with mild sprains and strains can treat these injuries at home by following "RICE" therapy (see below). (webmd.com)
  • Some injuries, like Achilles tendon tears, may cause only mild pain at first, but are actually more severe. (webmd.com)
  • FRIDAY, March 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Sprains , strains and tears are different types of injuries, and it's important to know how they differ, a sports massage therapist says. (medicinenet.com)
  • Sprains and strains are among the most common injuries people get," Haverkos says, adding, "Knees, ankles and wrists are commonly injured joints. (myria.com)
  • Sprain and strain of the knee are fairly common injuries. (thechristhospital.com)
  • Aids in the recovery and rehabilitation of pulled groin, quad or hamstring, hip flexor injury, hip bursitis, labral tear, sciatic nerve pain, SI joint pain, and other injuries that cause pain and discomfort in the groin area. (getcheaphealthinsurance.net)
  • Supporting the muscles and tendons around the groin, quad and hamstring, the neoprene Vive groin brace provides relief from aches, pains and muscle stiffness due to strains and other injuries. (getcheaphealthinsurance.net)
  • Meniscal tears are one of the most common knee injuries in the United States. (prweb.com)
  • Arthroscopic examination of the knee may be performed to rule out any associated injuries including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament PCL) tears. (drblakeobrock.com)
  • In recent years, advances in the medical knowledge of hip injuries have highlighted the problem of a torn Acetabular Labrum. (physioroom.com)
  • This introduction will also describe the most common types of sports injuries, and give you a deeper understanding of what is meant by sprains, strains and fractures, and also how you can classify them depending on the patient presentation. (hubpages.com)
  • Women face a risk of suffering a range of injuries in the workplace, including carpal tunnel syndrome, sprains and strains, cuts and punctures, force trauma, and occupational illnesses and diseases. (womensconference.org)
  • It can also be associated with other ligament injuries such as PCL and less commonly acl tears. (healthtap.com)
  • Surgery is not usually the first line of treatment for chronic injuries such as you described: degenerative (chronic) PHMMT, and patellar tendinosis (vs partial inferio pole tear). (healthtap.com)
  • Specialists at GW Hospital provide advanced treatments for complex knee conditions such as osteoarthritis, tendonitis, bursitis, ligament injuries (torn ACL), and knee effusion. (gwhospital.com)
  • This is normally caused by meniscal tears, cartilage injuries, or arthitis. (gwhospital.com)
  • A new treatment for acute strains is the use of platelet rich plasma (PRP) injections which have been shown to accelerate recovery from non-surgical muscular injuries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment of Hamstring Injuries or Strain/Tears is directed towards healing the damaged hamstring muscle fibres, reducing spasm, and ultimately restoring normal muscle function to both the hamstring muscles, as well as any other muscle groups that have become involved while trying to compensate for the original hamstring injury. (drbobjones.com)
  • tears), and back injuries. (kidshealth.org)
  • The most common injuries are "any type of sprain or strain of the ankle, knee, elbow or shoulders," said Dr. Clifton Page, primary care sports medicine physician at UHealth - University of Miami Health System. (miamiherald.com)
  • Tears and strains are also common injuries on the basketball court, soccer field or track, regardless of age. (wakemed.org)
  • Duke Sports Injury and Orthopaedic Urgent Care at Heritage is dedicated to providing fast treatment for sprains, strains, fractures and other orthopedic injuries. (dukehealth.org)
  • Injuries like sprains, strains, broken bones, ligament and cartilage tears require fast medical attention. (dukehealth.org)
  • However, for some severe tears, such as those of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee, surgery may be needed. (medicinenet.com)
  • The most common type of sprain or tear of the knee is in the anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL. (thechristhospital.com)
  • Depending on how bad the sprain or strain is, the pain may be mild, moderate, or severe. (webmd.com)
  • The worse the sprain or strain, the harder it is to use the affected area. (webmd.com)
  • Although the degree of pain and swelling are usually the best indicators of how severe a sprain or strain is, this is not always the case. (webmd.com)
  • Immediate treatment for an injury, such as a sprain or strain of the hand or wrist, includes the RICE formula - rest, ice, compression, and elevation. (newvictoria.co.uk)
  • It can be difficult to distinguish between a sprain or strain and a fracture, and a specialist's evaluation will be important to determine the appropriate treatment. (newvictoria.co.uk)
  • Is tearing of ligament fibers called a sprain or strain? (answers.com)
  • A calf strain, commonly called a 'pulled' muscle, is caused by overstretching or tearing of either of the 2 calf muscles - the soleus and the gastrocnemius. (mydr.com.au)
  • A strain is the overstretching or tearing of a muscle or a tendon, which connects the muscles to the bones. (medicinenet.com)
  • A hamstring tear or strain, also called a pulled hamstring, is an injury to one of the back muscles in the back of the thigh. (mercy.com)
  • A calf strain is an injury characterized by tearing of one or more of the calf muscles and typically causes pain in the back of the lower leg. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • A rotator cuff strain is a tear to any of the four rotator cuff muscles in the shoulder. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • A rotator cuff strain is simply a tear of one of the four rotator cuff muscles found in the shoulder. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • Calf strain or tear is caused by overstretching or tearing of either of the 2 calf muscles. (mydr.com.au)
  • A calf muscle strain is a partial or complete tear of the small fibers of the muscles. (denverhealth.org)
  • A strain is similar to a sprain, but rather than ligamentous injury, there is damage seen in the muscle or tendon (connects muscles to bone). (hubpages.com)
  • Medical providers refer to torn muscles as muscle strains. (reference.com)
  • According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, those who warm up with light stretching and walking or jogging before exerting themselves are less likely to tear their muscles. (reference.com)
  • All the muscles of the rotator cuff, including the subscapularis, can tear from overuse, trauma, or age-related conditions. (healthline.com)
  • This happens when impingement of other rotator cuff muscles puts pressure on the subscapularis and causes them to tear. (healthline.com)
  • But at other times, such as when warming muscles up before exercise or to soothe repetitive tendon strain, heat is the way to go. (besthealthmag.ca)
  • Recovery for torn muscles also varies depending on which muscle is damaged, and the care the tear receives following the injury. (ehow.co.uk)
  • For more serious third-degree tears of muscles like biceps and hamstrings, complete recovery can take up to 6 months after surgery. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Factors that can increase your likelihood of a strain or severe tear include tightness in any of your muscles, imbalance of the muscle, poor muscular conditioning and overall weakness, lack of proper warm-up, and muscle fatigue caused by exercise or poor conditioning. (ehow.co.uk)
  • When this happens, you've probably strained the calf muscles -- overstretched a cold or stiff muscle, resulting in a partial or complete tear between the muscle and the Achilles tendon. (livestrong.com)
  • Chronic strains typically result from repetitive movement of the muscles and tendons over a long period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Torn muscles are also known as muscle strains. (trails.com)
  • Torn muscles are commonly referred to as "pulled muscles. (trails.com)
  • Thankfully, most people fully recover from torn muscles. (trails.com)
  • Acetaminophen or ibuprofen work well for torn muscles. (trails.com)
  • Causes of calf pain can include muscle cramp, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and referred pain from the lumbar spine, however, by far the most common cause of pain in the lower leg is a strain to the musculo-tendinous complex of the Gastrocneimus and/or Soleus (the two main calf muscles). (sportsandspinalphysio.co.uk)
  • Scientists can now look all the way down to the atoms our tendons are made up of and discover the reason for these strains, sprains, and tears. (redorbit.com)
  • WebMD describes the symptoms of a muscle strain like this: swelling, bruising or redness, pain in the affected area at rest, pain in the affected muscle when it is used, weakness of the muscle or tendons, and possible inability to use the muscle at all. (popsugar.com)
  • I had literally torn my pec down the middle of the "muscle belly " (basically, the meat of the muscle, between the tendons). (artofmanliness.com)
  • Muscle tear can happen partly or to all tendons. (woundcaresociety.org)
  • Feeling weak on the torn muscle or affected tendons. (woundcaresociety.org)
  • A torn muscle is a tear in the muscle fibres of the tendons. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Major injury to these tendons may result in tear of these tendons and the condition is called a rotator cuff tear. (fondren.com)
  • Tendons can also be strained. (hse.ie)
  • A knee sprain occurs when a ligament-the tough, fibrous tissue that connects bones together in your joints-that tears or is stretched too far. (thechristhospital.com)
  • A knee strain occurs when a tendon-a fibrous cord of tissue that connects muscle to bone-is injured or damaged. (thechristhospital.com)
  • A knee tear can be a torn meniscus or a torn ligament, both of which help stabilize the knee joint. (thechristhospital.com)
  • Diagnosis of sprains, strain and tears of the knee typically begins with a thorough examination and medical history. (thechristhospital.com)
  • November 2017 - When people refer to torn cartilage in the knee, they're often talking about a tear in the meniscus, the wedge of cartilage cushioning the space between the thighbone and shinbone. (prweb.com)
  • Additionally, the fact that each knee joint contains two menisci only increases the odds that one will be torn or otherwise injured, Dr. Plancher notes. (prweb.com)
  • Athlete or not, your meniscus can be torn during activities that rotate or place pressure on the knee joint, Dr. Plancher says. (prweb.com)
  • But even performing a seemingly benign activity, such as twisting the knee while rising from a chair, can cause a meniscal tear in someone predisposed to the problem. (prweb.com)
  • People who have torn their meniscus often report a "popping" sound in the knee joint when the tear occurred. (prweb.com)
  • Other common symptoms of a meniscal tear include pain, stiffness or swelling in the knee that gradually worsens over days. (prweb.com)
  • Surgical reconstruction is rarely recommended for MCL tears, but may be necessary in patients whose injury fails to heal properly with residual knee instability. (drblakeobrock.com)
  • Treatment for torn meniscus and partial torn lateral collateral ligament in left knee diagnosed by MRI scan? (healthtap.com)
  • Treatment for radial & longitudinal tears of the posterior horn medial meniscus, severe knee osteoarthrits moderate joint effusion, diffuse synovitis? (healthtap.com)
  • Does interosseous ligament of knee tear treatable? (healthtap.com)
  • A meniscal tear can occur when you twist or over-flex your knee, or quickly stop and change direction. (gwhospital.com)
  • Direct contact to the knee or changing direction rapidly while running can cause a knee ligament to stretch or tear. (gwhospital.com)
  • Meniscus tear in knee--is it painful? (healthtap.com)
  • While an ACL injury - tearing of a knee ligament - is more common in athletes paying contact sports, it can plague weekend warriors. (miamiherald.com)
  • According to WebMD, the physician will perform a history and physical exam to determine the extent of the injury (in which determining if a tear is present and if so, the severity of the tear). (popsugar.com)
  • Typically, the worse a tear, the more inflammation and pain a person will experience, and the longer it will take for the injury to heal," Mufich said. (medicinenet.com)
  • Grade 3 - severe injury where the muscle is completely torn or a lump of muscle tissue is torn, and can take months to heal. (mercy.com)
  • Tom Haudricort of the Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel tweets that while the Brewers are calling Boone's injury a triceps strain, there's "some concern" that it's in the area of last season's lat tear. (mlbtraderumors.com)
  • This type of injury occurs when the ACL is stretched too far or tears. (thechristhospital.com)
  • You need all of them to move properly, and they are all very prone to over-stretching, twisting, and tearing, which causes damage and injury. (braceability.com)
  • A sprain is an injury to a ligament either stretching or tearing. (newvictoria.co.uk)
  • The tearing of a ligament, the fibrous tissue connecting bone to bone, is called a sprain.Related Information:A strain is an injury to a muscle or a tendon (the tendon connects muscle to bone). (answers.com)
  • An injury to a muscle or a tendon is called a strain. (answers.com)
  • A strain is an injury to a muscle involving tearing of muscle fibers. (answers.com)
  • A strained rotator cuff tendon is a common and painful injury . (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • A strained tendon can also result from an old injury that has not healed properly. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • It is very important to heal a strained tendon properly to decrease the chance of further injury or chronic problems from developing. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • Re-injury of a strained tendon occurs more easily than the initial injury and there is usually more inflammation around a re-injured tendon than there was during the first injury. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • A 'Grade III' tear causes a very sharp pain within the rotator cuff at the time of the injury. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • Not all meniscal tears can be avoided, but athletes in particular can use several strategies to lower their odds of this potentially devastating injury, Dr. Plancher says. (prweb.com)
  • It can be a result of a herniated disk due to trauma or a wear-and-tear injury. (healthline.com)
  • An MCL injury can result in a minor stretch (sprain) or a partial or complete tear of the ligament. (drblakeobrock.com)
  • Other symptoms of a subscapularis tear are unique to this injury. (healthline.com)
  • In young people, an injury is the most common cause of a subscapularis tear. (healthline.com)
  • If the tear goes through the full thickness of the muscle, you have significant disability from the injury, or the tear doesn't get better after three to six months of conservative treatment, your doctor will probably recommend surgery. (healthline.com)
  • Muscle strains range in severity from a mild tear to a more severe injury requiring surgery. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The recovery time for muscle tears varies based on the injury. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The greater the number of fibres that are torn, the more severe the diagnosis of the injury. (ehow.co.uk)
  • For first and second degree tears and sprains, expect recovery to take from 2 to 6 weeks if the muscle is treated quickly after the injury. (ehow.co.uk)
  • If you've torn a muscle in your lower body and the injury is severe, you'll be advised to use crutches or a splint to protect the area from additional damage. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The term SLAP (superior -labrum anterior-posterior) lesion or SLAP tear refers to an injury of the superior labrum of the shoulder. (fondren.com)
  • A strain is an acute or chronic soft tissue injury that occurs to a muscle, tendon, or both. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strain can range from mildly annoying to very painful, depending on the extent of injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • A strain can occur as a result of improper body mechanics with any activity (e.g., contact sports, lifting heavy objects) that can induce mechanical trauma or injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute strains are more closely associated with recent mechanical trauma or injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • A repetitive strain injury ( RSI ) is an injury to part of the musculoskeletal or nervous system which is caused by repetitive use, vibrations, compression or long periods in a fixed position. (wikipedia.org)
  • Repetitive strain injury (RSI) and associative trauma orders are umbrella terms used to refer to several discrete conditions that can be associated with repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression, sustained or awkward positions, or repetitive eccentric contractions . (wikipedia.org)
  • The meniscus can tear as a result of injury or secondary degenerative changes that occur over time. (healthtap.com)
  • Some meniscal tears occur with acute injury and some as degenerative changes (over time). (healthtap.com)
  • While you should ice the area in the first 24 hours following the injury, you can begin using heat to treat your torn muscle after that time period. (trails.com)
  • This "cramping" sensation is often due to recurrent minor calf tears which can be linked back to old scar tissue from a previous (and more severe) calf tear - this scar tissue is common in patients that did not undergo adequate rehabilitation following their initial calf injury. (sportsandspinalphysio.co.uk)
  • In this phase, you will learn ways to prevent further injury and strain to the back, and how to start a fitness program to help further increase strength and endurance. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Rock Climbing Forums: Climbing Information: Injury Treatment and Prevention: Torn Tendon? (rockclimbing.com)
  • If you or your child have a sports injury, sprain, strain or bone fracture, visit our urgent care walk-in clinic at Heritage for fast treatment. (dukehealth.org)
  • People use the words "sprain" and "strain" almost interchangeably, to describe everything from a twisted ankle to a pulled hamstring. (webmd.com)
  • Grade I is stretching of the ligament or a very mild tear, with little or no instability at the joint. (webmd.com)
  • It can take a few weeks for symptoms of a mild-to-moderate strain to ease, he explained. (medicinenet.com)
  • Mild to moderate strains can often be treated at home with rest, ice, compression and elevation in combination with anti-inflammatory medications. (mercy.com)
  • Mild to moderate (grade 1 or 2) tears or strains can heal within three to eight weeks with diligent home therapy. (mercy.com)
  • Rotation candidate Wade Miley has been diagnosed with a slight groin tear, while reliever Boone Logan has a mild triceps strain. (mlbtraderumors.com)
  • Whether it's a mild strain or a full-blown torn ACL, our nationally recognized physicians put together an individualized care plan that gets you on the road to good health and wellbeing as quickly as possible. (thechristhospital.com)
  • A torn rotator cuff can range from mild to severe. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • The healing time for a torn muscle varies from two weeks for a mild tear to two months or more for a severe tear, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. (reference.com)
  • A first degree strain is mild and damages a few muscle fibres. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Grade I is a mild tear of only a few muscle fibres, generally speaking this will take 2-4 weeks to recover from. (sportsandspinalphysio.co.uk)
  • Acute strains can occur commonly after lifting heavy items or lifting items improperly, running/jumping/throwing, or after slipping and falling. (popsugar.com)
  • Basketball, football, soccer and skiing are sports commonly linked to ACL sprains and tears. (thechristhospital.com)
  • The majority of calf strains are grade 2 tears and most commonly affect the gastrocnemius muscle (particularly the inner aspect i.e. medial head). (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • Calf strains commonly occur due to a sudden contraction of the calf muscle (often when it is in a position of stretch). (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • Calf strains are also commonly seen in running sports such as football and athletics. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • For many individuals, the cause of your back discomfort is a result of a pulled or strained muscle in your back, more commonly your lower back region. (braceability.com)
  • A muscle or tendon will tear when injured, this is called a strain, or more commonly, a pulled muscle. (answers.com)
  • Although not considered part of the rotator cuff, another commonly strained tendon in the shoulder area is the long bicipital tendon. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • Strains most commonly occur in the foot, leg, or back. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains commonly result in a partial or complete tear of a tendon or muscle, or they can be severe in the form of a complete tendon rupture. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first-line treatment for a muscular strain in the acute phase include five steps commonly known as P.R.I.C.E. Protection: Apply soft padding to minimize impact with objects. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the strain is severe, protection may be a cast or brace that would be placed by a physician. (popsugar.com)
  • Occasionally, with a severe tear, it may feel like you have been shot in the back of the leg. (mydr.com.au)
  • A torn ligament is considered a severe sprain that will cause pain , inflammation, bruising and result in ankle instability, often making it difficult and painful to walk. (medicinenet.com)
  • Patients with a severe calf strain may also walk with a limp or be unable to weight bear on the affected leg. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • According to the Cleveland Clinic, symptoms of a torn biceps muscle include severe pain at the elbow or shoulder, bruising on the upper arm, weakness in th. (reference.com)
  • Severe tears are accompanied by lack of muscle function in the affected area. (ehow.co.uk)
  • This force can cause bruising, tearing or severe muscle spasms. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Examination reveals tenderness localised to the site of the tear and if severe, a palpable defect or gap may be felt. (sportsandspinalphysio.co.uk)
  • For the most severe tears, our orthopaedic providers have expertise in the most advanced minimally invasive surgical techniques. (wakemed.org)
  • Kansas City Royals left-hander Jason Vargas has a torn ulnar ligament in his elbow and will need season-ending surgery. (latimes.com)
  • The distinction should be made between a chronic and acute muscle strain. (popsugar.com)
  • According to the Mayo Clinic, an acute strain occurs when a muscle becomes strained or pulled (or possibly even torn), when it stretches abnormally far or suddenly. (popsugar.com)
  • An acute strain is an instantaneous stretch or tear of the muscle or tendon, whereas, a chronic strain stems from repetitive motions over time that place stress on the muscle or tendon," Mufich said. (medicinenet.com)
  • A 'Grade 1' strain feels more like a discomfort within the rotator cuff as opposed to acute pain. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • Occasionally they occur due to gradual wear and tear associated with overuse. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • Rotator cuff tears occur most frequently in men, ages 40-50, who do manual overhead work. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • According to Boston Children's Hospital, more than a half-million meniscal tears occur nationally every year, with young athletes increasingly affected because children are participating in organized sports at earlier ages. (prweb.com)
  • Three common types of labral tears occur in shoulder joints, indicates Johns Hopkins Medicine. (reference.com)
  • Within the fitness industry calf tears often occur in typical personal training activities such as shuttle runs (requiring rapid acceleration and change of direction), split jumping (where one leg is thrust backwards on landing), incline running and sprinting. (sportsandspinalphysio.co.uk)
  • Tears to the calf muscle can range from a small partial tear whereby there is minimal pain and minimal loss of function, to a complete rupture which may require surgical reconstruction. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • A 'Grade II' strain is an actual partial tear in the muscle or the tendon. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • Chronic partial tear of anterior talofibular ligament need cirgury? (healthtap.com)
  • Bruising is typically seen - and can be quite extensive - as the highly vascularized torn muscle fibres bleed. (drbobjones.com)
  • Your physician can also determine your activity restrictions and help facilitate rehabilitation exercises (if required), based on the severity of your strain. (popsugar.com)
  • With larger tears, recovery may take four to eight weeks or longer depending on the severity. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • Like any tendon strain, a rotator cuff strain can be classified depending on the severity of the strain. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • Muscle strains are diagnosed based on severity. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Second-degree tears can take longer to heal based on severity. (ehow.co.uk)
  • A chronic strain results from prolonged, repetitive movement of a muscle, either from a job or during sports. (popsugar.com)
  • A rotator cuff strain left untreated can easily become a chronic problem that disrupts the use of your shoulder for everyday movements, such as putting on clothes or reaching for the remote control. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • A tear on tissue, in a muscle facia or in a tendon, is called a tear or a rupture of the relevant tissue. (answers.com)
  • With a grade 1 strain there is some stretching or minor tearing of the tendon and/or surrounding tissue. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • You do not need to be a professional athlete to suffer from any strain, whether it is a muscle pull, muscle tear, or even damage tissue . (woundcaresociety.org)
  • Every tear however cannot be repaired, and the tear pattern, location of tear, quality of tissue, and expectations of the patient need to be considered. (healthtap.com)
  • Muscle tears are classified by the amount of tissue torn. (sportsandspinalphysio.co.uk)
  • Rotator Cuff Strain Treatments - What You Can Do! (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • If you have a rotator cuff strain, rest is recommended, however, some careful shoulder movement is required to prevent the joint from freezing and losing range of motion. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • What is a rotator cuff strain? (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • OBJECTIVE With the use of surgical findings as the reference standard, the purpose of this study was to describe the sonographic findings of partial-thickness and complete tears of the quadriceps tendon and to determine whether sonography can potentially aid diagnosis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Diagnosis and management of quadriceps strains and contusions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • See chart A.) Musculoskeletal disorders In 2015, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), such as sprains or strains resulting from overexertion in lifting, accounted for 31 percent (356,910 cases) of the total cases for all workers. (bls.gov)
  • Strains can vary from a small discomfort with over stretching the muscle to a full rupture. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • A third degree strain is a complete rupture of the muscle and may require surgery. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Workers in certain fields are at risk of repetitive strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complete tearing away of a muscle or ligament from attachment to a bone is called what? (answers.com)
  • Treatment of a complete rotator cuff tendon tear usually requires surgery to rejoin the tendon back to the muscle or bone where it has become severed. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • If the muscle tear is in a very serious stage, like a broken bone, a fractured bone, a sprain, or a complete muscle tear, get your medical provider for all the help you need. (woundcaresociety.org)
  • The labrum can tear completely from the shoulder bone, which. (reference.com)
  • These can be signs of a broken or fractured bone, a sprain, or a complete muscle tear. (wikipedia.org)
  • A rotator cuff typically tears at the tendon close to where it meets the bone, and cannot heal on its own. (healthtap.com)
  • The medical quandary, though, has been determining for mature patients when the physical demands of running - the wear and tear on bone and joints - outweigh the enormous anti-aging benefits. (slideshare.net)
  • The signs of most sprains or strains are very similar: pain and inflammation , and sometimes bruising, at the injured area. (webmd.com)
  • A calf strain usually starts with sudden pain in the back of the lower leg. (mydr.com.au)
  • shoulder pain/strain. (anabolicminds.com)
  • The immediate symptom of a hamstring tear or strain is a sudden, sharp pain in the back of the upper leg. (mercy.com)
  • a small number of fibres are torn resulting in some pain, but allowing full function. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • In minor strains, pain may be minimal allowing continued activity. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • A wrist strain or sprain will cause pain, tenderness, and swelling around the wrist after a fall. (newvictoria.co.uk)
  • It would feel like a sharp pain within the rotator cuff, perhaps even accompanied by a tearing sound. (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • That's why a meniscal tear can not only knock you off the field, but cause pain and difficulty in daily living. (prweb.com)
  • Treatment for a rotator cuff tear consists of reducing the initial pain and inflammation, allowing the tissues to heel followed by a full rehabilitation program consisting of mobility, stretching, strengthening and functional shoulder exercises. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • The pain when you try to move your body part where the muscle is torn. (woundcaresociety.org)
  • The most common symptom of a subscapularis tear is shoulder pain, especially in the front of the shoulder. (healthline.com)
  • If pain is localized at the bottom of your calf, work the soleus -- your lower calf muscle -- once you've recovered from a strain. (livestrong.com)
  • Typical signs and symptoms of a strain include pain, functional loss of the involved structure, muscle weakness, contusion, and localized inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many meniscus tears may be minimal in terms of pain, and so a quadriceps and hamstring strengthening program which avoids impact may be beneficial. (healthtap.com)
  • However, if the tear is associated with significant pain, swelling or instability, arthroscopic meniscectomy should be considered, especially in the absence of arthritic change. (healthtap.com)
  • There are a significant number of people who do not have the sharp, stabbing pain associated with the typical calf strain - but report more of an intermittent cramping sensation during exercise. (sportsandspinalphysio.co.uk)
  • Once the calf strain is diagnosed and other problems excluded, initial management will aim to reduce pain and swelling. (sportsandspinalphysio.co.uk)
  • Soleus strains although less common (due to the fact that the muscle only crosses one joint i.e. the ankle) are also sometimes seen in clinical practise. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • In the last 28 years, Dr. Plancher has treated numerous young athletes and suggests early intervention if it is a non-healing type of meniscus tear. (prweb.com)
  • Acl and meniscus tear reconstruction cost? (healthtap.com)
  • Shoulder/RC strain or a tear? (anabolicminds.com)
  • Mind you I cant really go normal or wide grip on bench press as of right now(only close grip) but since the past 2-3 months or so my shoulder feels strained when I do chest flies on the machine, incline hammer strength bench, or even dumbell flies(incline and flat). (anabolicminds.com)
  • A strain can be a result of overuse or a blow to the shoulder . (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • If you have a grade 2 strain, strength in the shoulder is noticeably reduced . (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • It is sometimes accompanied by a feeling that you have torn something in the shoulder. (sportsinjuryclinic.net)
  • Shoulder impingement can also cause a subscapularis tear. (healthline.com)
  • If you can't hold your palm on your shoulder or have a lot of trouble holding it on, you might have a tear in your upper subscapularis. (healthline.com)
  • Most surgery for a subscapularis tear is done arthroscopically, which means your doctor inserts a camera into your shoulder through a small slit and uses the camera to guide the surgery. (healthline.com)
  • Physical therapy and rehabilitation - although most hamstring tears will heal on their own, they need special exercises and therapy to return to full function. (mercy.com)
  • How long does it take a torn muscle to heal? (ehow.co.uk)
  • Available over-the-counter, anti-inflammatory medication will prevent swelling, helping your torn muscle to heal more quickly. (trails.com)
  • A muscle strain is a stretching or tearing of a muscle or tendon and often occurs in the lower back and in the hamstring muscle in the back of your thigh. (popsugar.com)
  • Calf strain occurs during activities that involve pushing off on the toes, such as running or jumping, or sports that require explosive muscle contractions, such as tennis, squash or football. (mydr.com.au)
  • A grade 2 strain occurs when a tendon or muscle is partially torn but still intact . (aidmyrotatorcuff.com)
  • Is there any clue to what to do and not to do when muscle tear occurs? (woundcaresociety.org)
  • Hamstring tears or strains are typically caused by stretching the soft tissues and muscle beyond their limits. (mercy.com)
  • A muscle strain is where muscle tissues or fibres are stretched or torn. (hse.ie)
  • I plan on taking at least a 2 week break from chest exercises because of this nagging strain I get when I press. (anabolicminds.com)
  • What Exercises and Stretches Are Recommended for a Supraspinator Tendon Tear? (reference.com)
  • What exercises help or hinder a torn meniscus? (healthtap.com)
  • A sprain is a stretch or tear in a ligament. (webmd.com)
  • A strain is also a stretch or tear, but it happens in a muscle or a tendon. (webmd.com)
  • A sprain is when you stretch or tear a ligament. (healthline.com)
  • and avoiding movements during sports that up the odds of a meniscal tear, including hard stops and exaggerated twists. (prweb.com)
  • Arthroscopy to debride a degenerative meniscal tear due to persistent mechanical symptoms may be needed later. (healthtap.com)
  • Lateral collateral ligament strains are relatively uncommon. (healthtap.com)
  • a significant number of fibres are torn with moderate loss of function. (physioadvisor.com.au)
  • A second degree strain damages more fibres. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The right-hander will seek a second opinion from Dr. James Andrews on Monday to determine a plan of action after an MRI revealed a partially torn flexor-pronator mass in his pitching arm. (mlb.com)
  • If your ACL is only partially torn, then forgoing surgery in favor of rehabilitation through physical therapy is worth considering. (thetimes-tribune.com)
  • If a ligament gets partially torn, it can be functionally lengthened which can make a joint unstable. (healthtap.com)
  • Generally, the muscle or tendon overstretches and partially tears, under more physical stress than it can withstand, often from a sudden increase in duration, intensity, or frequency of an activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partial-thickness bursal surface supraspinatus tendon tear. (healthtap.com)