A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The period following a surgical operation.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Diseases of the fourth cranial (trochlear) nerve or its nucleus in the midbrain. The nerve crosses as it exits the midbrain dorsally and may be injured along its course through the intracranial space, cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure, or orbit. Clinical manifestations include weakness of the superior oblique muscle which causes vertical DIPLOPIA that is maximal when the affected eye is adducted and directed inferiorly. Head tilt may be seen as a compensatory mechanism for diplopia and rotation of the visual axis. Common etiologies include CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
  • Conclusions: Children with high hyperopia and exotropia are likely to have developmental delay or other systemic diseases, amblyopia, and poor stereopsis. (uic.edu)
  • Five of the 15 children with amblyopia had associated strabismus, another five had anisometropic amblyopia, two had both strabismus and anisometropia and three patients had no associate findings. (down-syndrome.org)
  • In reviewing the multitude of reports on ophthalmologic disorders in persons with Down syndrome, it is surprising that the prevalence of amblyopia in persons with Down syndrome has never been investigated, since it is well known that there is an increased prevalence of structural abnormalities, strabismus, refractive errors, and other ophthalmologic disorders in individuals with Down syndrome which potentially could cause amblyopia. (down-syndrome.org)
  • The Brock string is often used in vision therapy for patients with vergence disorders such as Convergence Insufficiency , patients with Amblyopia (also called Lazy Eye ), and for patients with Strabismus . (seevividly.com)
  • Children with strabismus should have a careful examination by an ophthalmologist because untreated strabismus may lead to a lazy eye (amblyopia) or loss of depth perception. (ubcp.org)
  • Strabismus is not the same condition as "lazy eye" ( amblyopia ). (eyerobics.com.au)
  • Problems such as strabismus (eye-turns), dyslexia, imbalance, and amblyopia (lazy eye) are often better addressed with vision therapy exams and treatment plans than with the traditional types of eye tests in a standard eye exam. (ocvt.info)
  • With a variety of games with customizable options, Vivid vision is the most advanced technology in the world developed to treat Amblyopia and Strabismus. (ocvt.info)
  • Vision therapy addresses a wider range of visual deficits and includes rehabilitative therapies that help patients develop or improve a wide variety of visual skills including oculomotor dysfunction, eye coordination disorders, accommodative anomalies, strabismus, and amblyopia. (seevividly.com)
  • Because the VR experience is computer-controlled, the two eyes' images can be manipulated in ways that help a patent use both of their eyes together, which is essential for treating amblyopia, strabismus, stereo depth deficiency, or convergence insufficiency. (seevividly.com)
  • Amblyopia , strabismus (eye turn), or pathology can significantly impact the child's visual skills . (seevividly.com)
  • Children, fortunately, have a highly plastic visual system - amblyopia , strabismus , and other disorders of binocular vision can often be corrected with good success if detected and treated early. (seevividly.com)
  • Intermittent exotropia, a condition in which the eyes turn outward while looking at an object, occurs in about 1% of American children and is less common than esotropia, where the eyes turn inward. (news-medical.net)
  • that esotropia is associated with hyperopia, which is more common among Western populations, while exotropia is linked with myopia, and more prevalent among Asians. (news-medical.net)
  • Interestingly in Asian populations exotropia is more common and occurs at twice the rate of esotropia. (news-medical.net)
  • The two most common types are when one or both eyes turn inwards (esotropia) or when they turn outwards (exotropia). (drconradie.co.za)
  • esotropia , exotropia , hypertropia and Duane's Syndrome . (eyerobics.com.au)
  • Prematurity, hydrocephalus, seizure disorders, developmental delay, intraventricular hemorrhage and a family history of strabismus are among the risk factors for the development of infantile esotropia. (eyes4kids.com)
  • Infantile esotropia is usually treated with strabismus surgery (eye muscle surgery). (eyes4kids.com)
  • A cover test can diagnose several types of binocular vision disorders , including strabismus , convergence insufficiency, and esotropia . (seevividly.com)
  • Postoperative deviations ranged from 14(Delta) of esotropia to 14(Delta) of exotropia, with significant improvement of the abductive motion. (omeka.net)
  • What Is Squint (Strabismus)? (verywellhealth.com)
  • Squint, known medically as strabismus, occurs when instead of moving in tandem, each of the eyes points in a different direction. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Hypertropia is a type of squint (which is also known as strabismus and as heterotropia ). (ivyroses.com)
  • Squint or Strabismus occurs when the extraocular muscles that control movement of eyes fail to exercise proper control over the eye movements resulting in misalignment of eyes. (thehealingtoucheyecentre.com)
  • This treatment is suggested when no underlying cause for squint is found or the Strabismus appears to be a sudden problem. (thehealingtoucheyecentre.com)
  • A squint specialist in Delhi can help, if you or any of your family members or friends is suffering from squint or Strabismus. (thehealingtoucheyecentre.com)
  • Strabismus is the medical term used for squint eyes, or crossed-eyes. (drconradie.co.za)
  • Children with exotropia occasionally squint one eye when exposed to bright sunlight. (ubcp.org)
  • When covering an eye and watching the non-covered eye, the clinician is looking for strabismus (also referred to as squint or tropia). (seevividly.com)
  • The study recommends that children with intermittent exotropia should be followed closely by their ophthalmologists for two reasons: the misalignment of their eyes and the nearly certain development of myopia by the time they leave their teenage years. (news-medical.net)
  • Incomitant strabismus,also referred to as paralytic or complex strabismus, occurs when the misalignment or the angle of deviation varies with gaze direction. (chloetoesboutique.com)
  • Exotropia is a type of strabismus (eye misalignment), where one eye turns, or deviates, outward (away from the nose). (seevividly.com)
  • Comitant misalignment is characteristically found in patients with congenital or early-onset strabismus. (seevividly.com)
  • The single cover test is used to determine if there is a heterotropia, or a tropia, which is a manifest strabismus or misalignment of the eyes that is always present. (carrickinstitute.com)
  • In each step of the test, the clinician may also use a prism lens to measure the amount of misalignment of either the strabismus (tropia) or phoria. (seevividly.com)
  • With intermittent strabismus, the eye does not turn in all the time, so the brain is probably receiving appropriate stimulation for the development of binocular vision . (eyerobics.com.au)
  • If you think you might have strabismus or a convergence disorder, you can find a doctor who can do a full binocular vision exam . (seevividly.com)
  • In addition to the external ocular features there are numerous other ocular manifestations in individuals with Down syndrome including strabismus, nystagmus, keratoconus, cataracts, hyperplasia of the iris, and refractive errors ( Catalano, 1992 ). (down-syndrome.org)
  • Dr. Laby has been trained in Ophthalmology and specializes in Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus as well as Sports Vision. (lipospc.net)
  • Dr. Laby is board certified by the American Board of Ophthalmology, and is a full member of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus as well as the American Academy of Ophthalmology he is also a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine. (lipospc.net)
  • Intermittent exotropia is a subset of exotropia that occurs only once and a while. (seevividly.com)
  • A common condition that often occurs due to weakened eye muscles is strabismus, often identified as cross-eyed. (insightcompleteeyecare.com)
  • Exotropia - Occurs when the eyes turn outward and are often called wall-eyed. (insightcompleteeyecare.com)
  • Strabismus is quite common and occurs in about 4% of children. (ubcp.org)
  • When the eye turn occurs all of the time, it is called constant strabismus. (eyerobics.com.au)
  • It occurs early in life and will almost never occur if the strabismus develops after four years of age. (eyerobics.com.au)
  • Exotropia is a form of strabismus where an eye deviates outward. (seevividly.com)
  • Intermittent exotropia is often associated with convergence insufficiency , a condition where the patient has adequate control of eye position when viewing at a distance, but a high exophoria (outward eye position) at near that may fatigue over time to become an exotropia . (seevividly.com)
  • The distinguishing sign of exotropia is one or either eye wandering outward. (seevividly.com)
  • Exotropia is where one eye looks directly at the object being viewed and the other is misaligned outward away from the nose. (seevividly.com)
  • Here the patient's left eye is turned outward in a condition called exotropia . (seevividly.com)
  • When an eye turns outward, the child has exotropia. (ubcp.org)
  • Convergence Insufficiency, if untreated, can cause an outward eye turn that comes and goes (intermittent exotropia). (eyerobics.com.au)
  • Some children develop a slowly increasing outward drift of the eyes called exotropia. (eyes4kids.com)
  • If you have a tropia, it means that your eyes are misaligned when both eyes are uncovered, and you have strabismus. (seevividly.com)
  • The magnitude of a phoria or tropia (strabismus) is often graded with prism lenses to estimate how much prism is needed to stop the eye from moving during the cover test . (seevividly.com)
  • Exotropia is sometimes called wall-eyed (however this is technically reserved for a rare form of bilateral strabismus called internuclear ophthalmoplegia). (seevividly.com)
  • For those who aren't totally up to speed with our #littlelenses journey, Little had bilateral strabismus surgery* on 9 May at the ripe old age of 16 months. (thelittlelensesblog.com)
  • Brock's approach to treating eye disorders, specifically Strabismus , was instrumental in paving the way to overcoming a long-standing medical consensus that stereopsis could not be acquired in adulthood but only during a critical period early in life before the age of 6. (seevividly.com)
  • The eye exercises are designed to address most eye disorders including strabismus by improving the function of both your eye muscles and at the same time relaxing them. (eyerobics.com.au)
  • Most forms of strabismus, for example, are the same magnitude in all positions of gaze. (seevividly.com)
  • Early detection and treatment is very important in all cases of strabismus. (eyerobics.com.au)
  • Two Cases of Strabismus Surgery in Myotonic Dystrophy. (jkos.org)
  • We report two cases of strabismus on myotonic dystrophy treated with a surgical procedure. (jkos.org)
  • Exotropia associated with convergence insufficiency is more common in older school-aged children as well as adults. (seevividly.com)
  • This final video shows a convergence insufficiency with an intermittent right exotropia, and very strong left exophoria. (drboulet.com)
  • With intermittent strabismus, the eye turn might be only occasionally present, such as during stressful situations or when the person is ill. (eyerobics.com.au)
  • Up to the first 6 months of age, intermittent strabismus is considered a normal stage in development. (eyerobics.com.au)
  • Distinguish between a constant and an intermittent strabismus. (drboulet.com)
  • Strabismus can occur due to muscle dysfunction, farsightedness, problems in the brain, trauma or infections. (chloetoesboutique.com)
  • These are just the most common causes, there are lots of other reasons why strabismus can occur. (drconradie.co.za)
  • Also, Gnad and Rett (1979) observed strabismus to occur at a higher frequency (31%) in 420 patients with Down syndrome. (down-syndrome.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Not only cataract and retinal lesion, but also abnormal ocular movement and strabismus due to weakened extraocular muscles can occur in myotonic dystrophy patients. (jkos.org)
  • Titling can be a sign that your child has strabismus or muscle imbalance. (20x20.com)
  • She manages a wide range of eye conditions that includes cataracts, glaucoma, strabismus and diabetic retinopathy. (drconradie.co.za)
  • If you have strabismus, two different images are sent to the brain leading to a loss of depth perception and visual confusion. (insightcompleteeyecare.com)
  • Concomitant strabismus can be inherited as a complex genetic trait, however, and it is likely that both genes and the environment contribute to its occurrence. (chloetoesboutique.com)
  • These types of strabismus are called comitant or concomitant deviations. (seevividly.com)
  • The sudden appearance of strabismus, especially with double vision, in an older child or adult could indicate a more serious neurologic disorder. (chloetoesboutique.com)
  • In an article published in the March 2010 issue of the American Journal of Ophthalmology , researchers from the Mayo Clinic and Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN, followed 135 patients with intermittent exotropia over a 20-year period and found that slightly more than 90% of these children became nearsighted by the time they reached their 20s. (news-medical.net)
  • Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 26 patients seen by our pediatric ophthalmology service between 1990 and 2009 who had an exotropia and 4.00 or more diopters of hyperopia. (uic.edu)
  • But it is only after Hirscherg corneal reflex test that an ophthalmologist can confirm presence of Strabismus. (thehealingtoucheyecentre.com)
  • Introduction: This study describes the uncommon association of exotropia in children with high hyperopia. (uic.edu)
  • Eight children received partial correction of their hyperopia and only 3 had improvement in their exotropia. (uic.edu)
  • Infantile exotropia is evident shortly after birth and often before 6 months of age. (seevividly.com)
  • CASE SUMMARY: A 49-year-old female with myotonic dystrophy presented with exotropia above 50 prism diopters and limitation of eye movement at nasal and inferior gaze in both eyes. (jkos.org)
  • Milia en plaque is the rarest form of milia that appear on the eyelid, behind the ear, jaw, and cheeks of middle-aged women. (goodsolutions.sg)
  • If the onset of the strabismus was sudden, the doctor may also test for comitancy. (seevividly.com)
  • A patient with a constant exotropia of one eye fixates with the same eye all the time. (seevividly.com)
  • Diplopia specifically is often not reported by children if they have a constant exotropia . (seevividly.com)
  • This type of intermittent exotropia is often associated with complaints of eye strain , headache, and double vision with extended near work. (seevividly.com)
  • If strabismus is developed later in life and you are diagnosed as an adult, double-vision is often developed as the brain has already learned to receive images from both eyes. (insightcompleteeyecare.com)
  • Strabismus needs to be treated as soon as possible, especially in children, as it may result in permanent vision impairment if left untreated. (insightcompleteeyecare.com)
  • Six of 26 patients required strabismus surgery and presented with large poorly-controlled exotropia or no improvement with spectacle correction. (uic.edu)
  • Poor alignment with need for strabismus surgery was associated with an initial large angle, poorly controlled exotropia, and poor response to spectacles. (uic.edu)
  • The treatment for large amounts of exotropia is usually eye muscle surgery. (ubcp.org)
  • After surgery, she had 40 prism diopter residual exotropia. (jkos.org)
  • Three months after surgery, the prism cover-uncover test showed 10 prism diopter residual intermittent exotropia at near distance and 6 prism diopter residual exophoria at far distance. (jkos.org)
  • Has Ellie had surgery to correct the exotropia? (forlittleeyes.com)
  • Strabismus is either caused by problems to the eye muscles themselves, or with the nerves that supply the eye muscles. (drconradie.co.za)
  • Intermittent exotropia that develops before a child is school-aged and can be rather difficult to detect. (seevividly.com)
  • A strabismus is defined as a condition in which the eyes deviate (turn) when looking at a target that you, the patient, regards. (eyerobics.com.au)
  • Patients with moderate or severe exophoria are more likely to develop intermittent exotropia . (seevividly.com)
  • This is an example of strabismus - many patients with strabismus also suppress images from the turned eye so that the person doesn't see double constantly. (seevividly.com)
  • This type of strabismus can happen at any age. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Exotropia, which is a type of muscle problem, is usually characterized by occasional squinting with one eye when exposed to sunlight. (20x20.com)
  • Prism cover-uncover test revealed 40 prism diopter exotropia at near distance and 25 prism diopter exotropia at far distance. (jkos.org)

No images available that match "strabismus exotropia"