Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Exotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Reflex, Oculocardiac: Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Spina Bifida Cystica: A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5)Duane Retraction Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Acupressure: A type of massage in which finger pressure on specific body sites is used to promote healing, relieve fatigue, etc. Although the anatomical locations are the same as the ACUPUNCTURE POINTS used in ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY (hence acu-), no needle or other acupuncture technique is employed in acupressure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed). Shiatsu is a modern outgrowth that focuses more on prevention than healing.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Orbital Fractures: Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Telescopes: Instruments used to observe distant objects.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

Family study of inherited syndrome with multiple congenital deformities: symphalangism, carpal and tarsal fusion, brachydactyly, craniosynostosis, strabismus, hip osteochondritis. (1/819)

A syndrome of brachydactyly (absence of some middle or distal phalanges), aplastic or hypoplastic nails, symphalangism (ankylois of proximal interphalangeal joints), synostosis of some carpal and tarsal bones, craniosynostosis, and dysplastic hip joints is reported in five members of an Italian family. It may represent a previously undescribed autosomal dominant trait.  (+info)

Risk factors for strabismus in children born before 32 weeks' gestation. (2/819)

AIM: To investigate risk factors associated with strabismus in children born prematurely. METHODS: Prospective study of all children born before 32 weeks' gestation between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1991 in a geographically defined population of approximately 3 million in the Northern Region of the United Kingdom. All children were examined aged 2 years by the same ophthalmologist and paediatrician. RESULTS: 558 children (98.6% of study group) were examined. Logistic regression showed an increased risk of strabismus in children with cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity (p=0.02), refractive error (p=0.003), family history of strabismus (p<0.0001), and poor neurodevelopmental outcome (p<0.0001), in particular impaired locomotor skills (p=0.008) and hand-eye coordination (p=0. 001). Gestational age and regressed acute ROP were not independent risk factors for strabismus (p=0.92 and 0.85 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified factors which are independently related to strabismus (although not necessarily causative) and others which are related only indirectly. This may contribute both to the management of children born prematurely and to future studies of the aetiology of strabismus.  (+info)

A deficit in strabismic amblyopia for global shape detection. (3/819)

Using a task which relied upon the detection of sinusoidal deformations from circularity, we show that strabismic amblyopes exhibit deficits which are not critically dependent on either the scale of deformation or the spatial frequency characteristics of the stimulus (circular D4) itself. We show that this loss is not due to the restricted passband of the amblyopic eye. Furthermore, in a pedestal distortion experiment, we show that the suprathreshold form of this loss is consistent with an elevated level of 'intrinsic noise' rather than a loss in 'sampling efficiency'.  (+info)

Orientation-based texture segmentation in strabismic amblyopia. (4/819)

Texture segmentation of 'target' Gabors from an array of 'background' Gabors was measured in terms of the difference in orientation between the two regions, as well as the difference in orientation within each region. Segmentation was shown to occur on the basis of local orientation differences at the boundary between the target and background regions (Nothdurft, H.C. (1992). Feature analysis and the role of similarity in preattentive vision. Perception and Psychophysics, 52, 355-375.). We obtained similar results for both the amblyopic and non-amblyopic eye of three strabismic amblyopes, and showed also that the effects of texture undersampling and positional jitter were similar for the two eyes. This pattern of results is consistent with intact mechanisms of texture perception in amblyopic cortex, and suggests also that any amblyopic deficits in first-order cortical units (undersampling and/or positional uncertainty) do not limit higher-order texture segmentation processes. Therefore, first- and second-order processes involved in perceptual grouping of oriented elements (that appear to be abnormal in amblyopic cortex; Kovacs, I., Polat, U., Norcia, A.M. (1996). Breakdown of binding mechanisms in amblyopia. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Abstracts; Mussap, A.J., Levi, D.M. (1995). Amblyopic deficits in perception of second-order orientation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Supplement), 36, S634; Mussap, A.J., Levi, D.M. (1998). Amblyopic deficits in perceptual grouping. Vision Research, submitted) do not contribute to texture perception based on orientation contrast.  (+info)

Position jitter and undersampling in pattern perception. (5/819)

The present paper addresses whether topographical jitter or undersampling might limit pattern perception in foveal, peripheral and strabismic amblyopic vision. In the first experiment, we measured contrast thresholds for detecting and identifying the orientation (up, down, left, right) of E-like patterns comprised of Gabor samples. We found that detection and identification thresholds were both degraded in peripheral and amblyopic vision; however, the orientation identification/detection threshold ratio was approximately the same in foveal, peripheral and amblyopic vision. This result is somewhat surprising, because we anticipated that a high degree of uncalibrated topographical jitter in peripheral and amblyopic vision would have affected orientation identification to a greater extent than detection. In the second experiment, we investigated the tolerance of human and model observers to perturbation of the positions of the samples defining the pattern when its contrast was suprathreshold, by measuring a 'jitter threshold' (the amount of jitter required to reduce performance from near perfect to 62.5% correct). The results and modeling of our jitter experiments suggest that pattern identification is highly robust to positional jitter. The positional tolerance of foveal, peripheral and amblyopic vision is equal to about half the separation of the features and the close similarity between the three visual systems argues against extreme topographical jitter. The effects of jitter on human performance are consistent with the predictions of a 'template' model. In the third experiment we determined what fraction of the 17 Gabor samples are needed to reliably identify the orientation of the E-patterns by measuring a 'sample threshold' (the proportion of samples required for 62.5% correct performance). In foveal vision, human observers are highly efficient requiring only about half the samples for reliable pattern identification. Relative to an ideal observer model, humans perform this task with 85% efficiency. In contrast, in both peripheral vision and strabismic amblyopia more samples are required. The increased number of features required in peripheral vision and strabismic amblyopia suggests that in these visual systems, the stimulus is underrepresented at the stage of feature integration.  (+info)

Assessment of cortical dysfunction in human strabismic amblyopia using magnetoencephalography (MEG). (6/819)

The aim of this study was to use the technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine the effects of strabismic amblyopia on the processing of spatial information within the occipital cortex of humans. We recorded evoked magnetic responses to the onset of a chromatic (red/green) sinusoidal grating of periodicity 0.5-4.0 c deg-1 using a 19-channel SQUID-based neuromagnetometer. Evoked responses were recorded monocularly on six amblyopes and six normally-sighted controls, the stimuli being positioned near the fovea in the lower right visual field of each observer. For comparison, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the detection of chromatic gratings was measured for one amblyope and one control using a two alternate forced-choice psychophysical procedure. We chose red/green sinusoids as our stimuli because they evoke strong magnetic responses from the occipital cortex in adult humans (Fylan, Holliday, Singh, Anderson & Harding. (1997). Neuroimage, 6, 47-57). Magnetic field strength was plotted as a function of stimulus spatial frequency for each eye of each subject. Interocular differences were only evident within the amblyopic group: for stimuli of 1-2 c deg-1, the evoked responses had significantly longer latencies and reduced amplitudes through the amblyopic eye (P < 0.05). Importantly, the extent of the deficit was uncorrelated with either Snellen acuity or contrast sensitivity. Localization of the evoked responses was performed using a single equivalent current dipole model. Source localizations, for both normal and amblyopic subjects, were consistent with neural activity at the occipital pole near the V1/V2 border. We conclude that MEG is sensitive to the deficit in cortical processing associated with human amblyopia, and can be used to make quantitative neurophysiological measurements. The nature of the cortical deficit is discussed.  (+info)

The puzzle of autism: an ophthalmologic contribution. (7/819)

PURPOSE: A previous study of 86 thalidomide-affected subjects with ophthalmic manifestations revealed the unexpected finding of autism in 4 of the 5 severely retarded individuals. The subjects had anomalies associated with an early gestational effect of thalidomide, including facial nerve palsy and incomitant strabismus. Because autism has been observed in a few cases of Mobius sequence (Mobius syndrome), a condition characterized by involvement of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves, the similarity to early thalidomide embryopathy suggested a relation between cranial nerve involvement and autism. The present study was undertaken to further evaluate the association of autism with patients manifesting findings of Mobius syndrome. METHODS: A prospective study of 25 Swedish patients with Mobius sequence was conducted. The patients had a complete multidisciplinary evaluation, including ophthalmologic and psychiatric examinations and standard testing for autism. Findings associated with autism were compared with the ocular and systemic anomalies of the 4 thalidomide-affected subjects. RESULTS: In the Mobius group 6 patients had autism, achieving the criteria for autism according to all the diagnostic manuals that were used. One patient showed autistic-like conditions meeting fewer numbers of the criteria. A few were too young to be meeting evaluated. Incomitant strabismus ranging from primary abduction defects alone to a horizontal gaze paresis pattern was noted in these patients, in addition to characteristic findings of seventh nerve paresis. Aberrant lacrimation was observed in many cases, especially often associated with autism. CONCLUSION: The common group of anomalies noted in both cases of thalidomide embryopathy and Mobius sequence suggests that brain-stem damage probably early in embryogenesis can sometimes be associated with autism.  (+info)

The therapy of amblyopia: an analysis of the results of amblyopia therapy utilizing the pooled data of published studies. (8/819)

CONTEXT: Although the treatment of amblyopia with occlusion has changed little over the past 3 centuries, there is little agreement about which regimes are most effective and for what reasons. OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of occlusion therapy in patients with anisometropic, strabismic, and strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia employing the raw data from 961 patients reported in 23 studies published between 1965 and 1994. DESIGN: Analysis of the published literature on amblyopia therapy results during the above interval, utilizing primary data obtained from the authors of these articles or tables published in the articles detailing individual patient outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: 961 amblyopic patients, participants in 23 studies, undergoing patching therapy for amblyopia from 1965 to 1994 with anisometropia, strabismus, or anisometropia-strabismus. MAIN OUTCOMES: In the pooled data set, success of occlusion therapy was defined as visual acuity of 20/40 at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Success by the 20/40 criteria was achieved in 512 of 689 (74.3%) patients. By category, 312 of 402 (77.6%) were successful in strabismic amblyopia, 44 of 75 (58.7%) in strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia, and 72 of 108 (66.7%) in anisometropic amblyopia. Success was not related to the duration of occlusion therapy, type of occlusion used, accompanying refractive error, patient's sex, or eye. Univariate analyses showed that success was related to the age at which therapy was initiated; the type of amblyopia; the depth of visual loss before treatment for the anisometropic patients and the strabismic patients, but not for the anisometropic-strabismic patients; and the difference in spherical equivalents between eyes, for the anisometropic patients. Logistic/linear regression revealed that 3 were independent predictors of a successful outcome of amblyopia therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that appear most closely related to a successful outcome are age, type of amblyopia, and depth of visual loss before treatment. These may be related to factors, as yet undetermined in the pathogenesis of amblyopia. With present emphasis on the value of screening and prevention and the development of new screening tools, such a look at the results of amblyopia therapy in a large population seems indicated.  (+info)

  • Existing reports provide very little data on the true incidence and demographics of strabismus in adults," says Brian G. Mohney, M.D. , with the Department of Ophthalmology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. Dr. Mohney led a team that used Rochester Epidemiology Project data to study the incidence of new-onset strabismus and its types in a geographically defined adult population diagnosed over a 20-year period. (
  • botulism diabetes graves disorder guillain-barré syndrome damage to the eye shellfish poisoning stroke worrying brain injury imaginative and prescient loss from any eye sickness or harm a own family history of strabismus is a risk element. (
  • In the case of complex strabismus, such as accommodative estropia, which is typical of children with strong inward strabismus, can be optimally treated with customized multifocal lens for strabismus, an area in which Arza has special expertise. (
  • The present study aimed to compare the effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on PONV incidence in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery. (
  • Conclusion : Dexmedetomidine (0.5 ug/kg) reduced OCR and PONV without lengthening extubation time or recovery time in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery. (
  • Despite numerous efforts to decrease the incidence of PONV, it remains a significant challenge in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery. (
  • In order to address these knowledge gaps, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of two different doses of dexmedetomidine on the incidence of PONV in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery. (
  • Health insurance usually covers strabismus, or lazy eye treatment, which is considered a therapeutic and not a cosmetic procedure, notes Cost Helper. (
  • Diagnosis of strabismus at an early age by an ophthalmologist and optometrist who specializes in strabismus can be critical in the success of strabismus treatment and in the prevention of a lazy eye. (
  • The study included 12 patients undergoing horizontal strabismus surgery, of whom 5 underwent bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions and 7 underwent bilateral lateral rectus muscle recessions. (
  • Thirty years ago, Gobin and Bierlaagh developed the simultaneous horizontal and cyclovertical strabismus surgery that became a recognized, albeit much debated method, but no manual on the subject was available until now. (
  • The work is based on an analysis of more than 6500 cases.Govin, Marc H. is the author of 'Simultaneous Horizontal and Cyclovertical Strabismus Surgery' with ISBN 9780792322467 and ISBN 0792322460. (
  • Prism under cover test in alternate fixation horizontal strabismus. (
  • To evaluate the applicability of the prism under cover test (PUCT) to quantify manifest deviation in horizontal strabismus with alternate fixation when simultaneous prism and cover test (SPCT) is not feasible. (
  • Children aged 4-11 years, with alternate fixation horizontal strabismus and alternate prism and cover test (APCT) distance deviation (DD) up to 25 PD were eligible. (
  • In general, strabismus (or tropia) is defined by frequency (intermittent or constant), laterality (right, left, or alternating), and direction (horizontal or vertical). (
  • Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not align in the same direction. (
  • Other strabismus conditions include hypertrophia, where the eyes turn upward, and hypotropia, where the eyes turn downward. (
  • A person can look like they have strabismus because of an off-center light reflex and still have straight eyes. (
  • Sometimes called "crossed-eyes" or "walleye," strabismus often begins when a child is very young and is usually the result of a problem with neuromuscular, including brain, control of eye movement, or less often, the actual eye muscle. (
  • I've always associated strabismus with crossed eyes, but your description of your condition prompted me to look up the definition. (
  • Strabismus is when the eyes do not move together to look at the same thing. (
  • Animals that have lateral position of the eyes and individuals who have constant strabismus (eye turn) lack two-eyed depth perception or stereopsis. (
  • Strabismus is a word for eyes that are not straight or do not line up with each other. (
  • When Strabismus is Present, Will the Eyes Always Look Misaligned? (
  • An extra fold of skin near the inner eye, a broad, flat nose or eyes that are unusually close together may also produce the effect of false (or pseudo) strabismus. (
  • Strabismus, or misaligned eyes, can cause the eyes to deviate in many directions - eyes can either be crossed in, drift out, or one may be higher than the other. (
  • In the exam, the presence of strabismus is determined by obtaining proper patient history, evaluating the visual ability of each eye and both eyes together (visual acuity), testing eye-teaming skills and coordination, determination of refractive error, and complete health evaluation. (
  • A significant part of Dr. Sherman's practice is treating adults with misaligned eyes (strabismus). (
  • Crossed eyes, or strabismus, is a condition in which both eyes do not look at the same place at the same time. (