Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Esotropia: A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Exotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Diplopia: A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Anisometropia: A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Refractive Errors: Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.Reflex, Oculocardiac: Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Eyeglasses: A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.Nystagmus, Pathologic: Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Retinoscopy: An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.Convergence, Ocular: The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Vision Tests: A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Spina Bifida Cystica: A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5)Duane Retraction Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Accommodation, Ocular: The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Acupressure: A type of massage in which finger pressure on specific body sites is used to promote healing, relieve fatigue, etc. Although the anatomical locations are the same as the ACUPUNCTURE POINTS used in ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY (hence acu-), no needle or other acupuncture technique is employed in acupressure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed). Shiatsu is a modern outgrowth that focuses more on prevention than healing.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Orbital Fractures: Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Ocular Motility Disorders: Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)Otolaryngology: A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.Nystagmus, Optokinetic: Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Sclera: The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Telescopes: Instruments used to observe distant objects.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting: Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.Eye: The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Family study of inherited syndrome with multiple congenital deformities: symphalangism, carpal and tarsal fusion, brachydactyly, craniosynostosis, strabismus, hip osteochondritis. (1/819)A syndrome of brachydactyly (absence of some middle or distal phalanges), aplastic or hypoplastic nails, symphalangism (ankylois of proximal interphalangeal joints), synostosis of some carpal and tarsal bones, craniosynostosis, and dysplastic hip joints is reported in five members of an Italian family. It may represent a previously undescribed autosomal dominant trait. (+info)
Risk factors for strabismus in children born before 32 weeks' gestation. (2/819)AIM: To investigate risk factors associated with strabismus in children born prematurely. METHODS: Prospective study of all children born before 32 weeks' gestation between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1991 in a geographically defined population of approximately 3 million in the Northern Region of the United Kingdom. All children were examined aged 2 years by the same ophthalmologist and paediatrician. RESULTS: 558 children (98.6% of study group) were examined. Logistic regression showed an increased risk of strabismus in children with cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity (p=0.02), refractive error (p=0.003), family history of strabismus (p<0.0001), and poor neurodevelopmental outcome (p<0.0001), in particular impaired locomotor skills (p=0.008) and hand-eye coordination (p=0. 001). Gestational age and regressed acute ROP were not independent risk factors for strabismus (p=0.92 and 0.85 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified factors which are independently related to strabismus (although not necessarily causative) and others which are related only indirectly. This may contribute both to the management of children born prematurely and to future studies of the aetiology of strabismus. (+info)
A deficit in strabismic amblyopia for global shape detection. (3/819)Using a task which relied upon the detection of sinusoidal deformations from circularity, we show that strabismic amblyopes exhibit deficits which are not critically dependent on either the scale of deformation or the spatial frequency characteristics of the stimulus (circular D4) itself. We show that this loss is not due to the restricted passband of the amblyopic eye. Furthermore, in a pedestal distortion experiment, we show that the suprathreshold form of this loss is consistent with an elevated level of 'intrinsic noise' rather than a loss in 'sampling efficiency'. (+info)
Orientation-based texture segmentation in strabismic amblyopia. (4/819)Texture segmentation of 'target' Gabors from an array of 'background' Gabors was measured in terms of the difference in orientation between the two regions, as well as the difference in orientation within each region. Segmentation was shown to occur on the basis of local orientation differences at the boundary between the target and background regions (Nothdurft, H.C. (1992). Feature analysis and the role of similarity in preattentive vision. Perception and Psychophysics, 52, 355-375.). We obtained similar results for both the amblyopic and non-amblyopic eye of three strabismic amblyopes, and showed also that the effects of texture undersampling and positional jitter were similar for the two eyes. This pattern of results is consistent with intact mechanisms of texture perception in amblyopic cortex, and suggests also that any amblyopic deficits in first-order cortical units (undersampling and/or positional uncertainty) do not limit higher-order texture segmentation processes. Therefore, first- and second-order processes involved in perceptual grouping of oriented elements (that appear to be abnormal in amblyopic cortex; Kovacs, I., Polat, U., Norcia, A.M. (1996). Breakdown of binding mechanisms in amblyopia. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Abstracts; Mussap, A.J., Levi, D.M. (1995). Amblyopic deficits in perception of second-order orientation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Supplement), 36, S634; Mussap, A.J., Levi, D.M. (1998). Amblyopic deficits in perceptual grouping. Vision Research, submitted) do not contribute to texture perception based on orientation contrast. (+info)
Position jitter and undersampling in pattern perception. (5/819)The present paper addresses whether topographical jitter or undersampling might limit pattern perception in foveal, peripheral and strabismic amblyopic vision. In the first experiment, we measured contrast thresholds for detecting and identifying the orientation (up, down, left, right) of E-like patterns comprised of Gabor samples. We found that detection and identification thresholds were both degraded in peripheral and amblyopic vision; however, the orientation identification/detection threshold ratio was approximately the same in foveal, peripheral and amblyopic vision. This result is somewhat surprising, because we anticipated that a high degree of uncalibrated topographical jitter in peripheral and amblyopic vision would have affected orientation identification to a greater extent than detection. In the second experiment, we investigated the tolerance of human and model observers to perturbation of the positions of the samples defining the pattern when its contrast was suprathreshold, by measuring a 'jitter threshold' (the amount of jitter required to reduce performance from near perfect to 62.5% correct). The results and modeling of our jitter experiments suggest that pattern identification is highly robust to positional jitter. The positional tolerance of foveal, peripheral and amblyopic vision is equal to about half the separation of the features and the close similarity between the three visual systems argues against extreme topographical jitter. The effects of jitter on human performance are consistent with the predictions of a 'template' model. In the third experiment we determined what fraction of the 17 Gabor samples are needed to reliably identify the orientation of the E-patterns by measuring a 'sample threshold' (the proportion of samples required for 62.5% correct performance). In foveal vision, human observers are highly efficient requiring only about half the samples for reliable pattern identification. Relative to an ideal observer model, humans perform this task with 85% efficiency. In contrast, in both peripheral vision and strabismic amblyopia more samples are required. The increased number of features required in peripheral vision and strabismic amblyopia suggests that in these visual systems, the stimulus is underrepresented at the stage of feature integration. (+info)
Assessment of cortical dysfunction in human strabismic amblyopia using magnetoencephalography (MEG). (6/819)The aim of this study was to use the technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine the effects of strabismic amblyopia on the processing of spatial information within the occipital cortex of humans. We recorded evoked magnetic responses to the onset of a chromatic (red/green) sinusoidal grating of periodicity 0.5-4.0 c deg-1 using a 19-channel SQUID-based neuromagnetometer. Evoked responses were recorded monocularly on six amblyopes and six normally-sighted controls, the stimuli being positioned near the fovea in the lower right visual field of each observer. For comparison, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the detection of chromatic gratings was measured for one amblyope and one control using a two alternate forced-choice psychophysical procedure. We chose red/green sinusoids as our stimuli because they evoke strong magnetic responses from the occipital cortex in adult humans (Fylan, Holliday, Singh, Anderson & Harding. (1997). Neuroimage, 6, 47-57). Magnetic field strength was plotted as a function of stimulus spatial frequency for each eye of each subject. Interocular differences were only evident within the amblyopic group: for stimuli of 1-2 c deg-1, the evoked responses had significantly longer latencies and reduced amplitudes through the amblyopic eye (P < 0.05). Importantly, the extent of the deficit was uncorrelated with either Snellen acuity or contrast sensitivity. Localization of the evoked responses was performed using a single equivalent current dipole model. Source localizations, for both normal and amblyopic subjects, were consistent with neural activity at the occipital pole near the V1/V2 border. We conclude that MEG is sensitive to the deficit in cortical processing associated with human amblyopia, and can be used to make quantitative neurophysiological measurements. The nature of the cortical deficit is discussed. (+info)
The puzzle of autism: an ophthalmologic contribution. (7/819)PURPOSE: A previous study of 86 thalidomide-affected subjects with ophthalmic manifestations revealed the unexpected finding of autism in 4 of the 5 severely retarded individuals. The subjects had anomalies associated with an early gestational effect of thalidomide, including facial nerve palsy and incomitant strabismus. Because autism has been observed in a few cases of Mobius sequence (Mobius syndrome), a condition characterized by involvement of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves, the similarity to early thalidomide embryopathy suggested a relation between cranial nerve involvement and autism. The present study was undertaken to further evaluate the association of autism with patients manifesting findings of Mobius syndrome. METHODS: A prospective study of 25 Swedish patients with Mobius sequence was conducted. The patients had a complete multidisciplinary evaluation, including ophthalmologic and psychiatric examinations and standard testing for autism. Findings associated with autism were compared with the ocular and systemic anomalies of the 4 thalidomide-affected subjects. RESULTS: In the Mobius group 6 patients had autism, achieving the criteria for autism according to all the diagnostic manuals that were used. One patient showed autistic-like conditions meeting fewer numbers of the criteria. A few were too young to be meeting evaluated. Incomitant strabismus ranging from primary abduction defects alone to a horizontal gaze paresis pattern was noted in these patients, in addition to characteristic findings of seventh nerve paresis. Aberrant lacrimation was observed in many cases, especially often associated with autism. CONCLUSION: The common group of anomalies noted in both cases of thalidomide embryopathy and Mobius sequence suggests that brain-stem damage probably early in embryogenesis can sometimes be associated with autism. (+info)
The therapy of amblyopia: an analysis of the results of amblyopia therapy utilizing the pooled data of published studies. (8/819)CONTEXT: Although the treatment of amblyopia with occlusion has changed little over the past 3 centuries, there is little agreement about which regimes are most effective and for what reasons. OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of occlusion therapy in patients with anisometropic, strabismic, and strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia employing the raw data from 961 patients reported in 23 studies published between 1965 and 1994. DESIGN: Analysis of the published literature on amblyopia therapy results during the above interval, utilizing primary data obtained from the authors of these articles or tables published in the articles detailing individual patient outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: 961 amblyopic patients, participants in 23 studies, undergoing patching therapy for amblyopia from 1965 to 1994 with anisometropia, strabismus, or anisometropia-strabismus. MAIN OUTCOMES: In the pooled data set, success of occlusion therapy was defined as visual acuity of 20/40 at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Success by the 20/40 criteria was achieved in 512 of 689 (74.3%) patients. By category, 312 of 402 (77.6%) were successful in strabismic amblyopia, 44 of 75 (58.7%) in strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia, and 72 of 108 (66.7%) in anisometropic amblyopia. Success was not related to the duration of occlusion therapy, type of occlusion used, accompanying refractive error, patient's sex, or eye. Univariate analyses showed that success was related to the age at which therapy was initiated; the type of amblyopia; the depth of visual loss before treatment for the anisometropic patients and the strabismic patients, but not for the anisometropic-strabismic patients; and the difference in spherical equivalents between eyes, for the anisometropic patients. Logistic/linear regression revealed that 3 were independent predictors of a successful outcome of amblyopia therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that appear most closely related to a successful outcome are age, type of amblyopia, and depth of visual loss before treatment. These may be related to factors, as yet undetermined in the pathogenesis of amblyopia. With present emphasis on the value of screening and prevention and the development of new screening tools, such a look at the results of amblyopia therapy in a large population seems indicated. (+info)
Effects of intraoperative sponge mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil on scar formation following strabismus surgery in rabbits
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) on the postoperative adhesions following strabismus surgery in rabbits. METHODS: Twenty-one New Zealand white rabbits were used in this prospective, masked, controlled trial. Both eyes of 20 animals underwent 3-mm recession of the superior rectus muscle (SRM). In group I (10 animals), one eye of each animal received topical application of MMC (0.2 mg/ml) for 5 minutes and the other eye (control eye) was treated with balanced salt solution (BSS) using an intraoperative sponge. In group II (10 animals), a randomly chosen eye of each animal was treated with 5-FU soaked sponges (50 mg/ml) for 5 minutes and the fellow eye (control eye) with BSS. Two eyes of a rabbit were included as unoperated controls. Four weeks after the surgery, conjunctival vascularity and postoperative adhesions between the SRM Tenons capsule (TC) and SRM sclera (scl) were assessed. Additionally, eyes were enucleated and evaluated ...
Intermittent strabismus | Article about intermittent strabismus by The Free Dictionary
Strabismus Global Clinical Trials Review, H1, 2015
List of Tables. Strabismus Therapeutics, Global, Clinical Trials by Region, 2015* 7. Strabismus Therapeutics, Global, Clinical Trials and Average Enrollment by Top Countries, 2015* 8. Strabismus Therapeutics, Global, Clinical Trials In Progress by Top Countries, 2015* 9. Strabismus Therapeutics Clinical Trials, Asia-Pacific, Top Five Countries, 2015* 10. Strabismus Therapeutics Clinical Trials, Europe, Top Five Countries, 2015* 11. Strabismus Therapeutics Clinical Trials, North America, Top Countries, 2015* 12. Strabismus Therapeutics Clinical Trials, Middle East and Africa, Top Countries, 2015* 13. Strabismus Therapeutics Clinical Trials, Central and South America, Top Countries, 2015* 14. Proportion of Strabismus to Ophthalmology Clinical Trials, G7 Countries (%), 2015* 15. Strabismus Therapeutics, G7 Countries, Clinical Trials by Phase, 2015* 16. Strabismus Therapeutics, G7 Countries, Clinical Trials by Trial Status, 2015* 17. Proportion of Strabismus to Ophthalmology Clinical Trials, E7 ...
Effect of dexmedetomidine on prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting in pediatric strabismus surgery: A randomized...
The present study demonstrated that, for pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery under sevoflurane anesthesia, combined use of 0.5 ug/kg DEX reduced the rate of OCR during the operation as well as the incidence of PONV during the 24 hours after surgery. However, it did not reduce the occurrence of POV during the 24 hours after surgery.. As a common surgical operation in children, strabismus surgery carries a high risk of PONV for pediatric patients. There are four risk factors for PONV or POV in pediatric anesthesia: duration of surgery longer than 30 minutes, age≥3 years, previous PONV or a positive family history, and strabismus surgery . The patients recruited in our study (aged 6-10 years old, undergoing strabismus surgery) are considered highly susceptible for PONV. In attempts to reduce the incidence PONV in patients with risk factors, multiple studies have shown that multimodal antiemetic therapies are more beneficial than a single approach [17, 18].. Previous studies ...
The efficacy of strabismus surgery in adults: a review for primary care physicians | Postgraduate Medical Journal
Many adult patients with strabismus are under the misconception that nothing can be done to correct the problem or that treatment is associated with a high degree of risk. Moreover, many optometrists, comprehensive ophthalmologists and primary care physicians are similarly misinformed. In fact, most adult patients with strabismus can be successfully treated, with ∼80% of patients achieving satisfactory alignment with one surgical procedure. In addition, adult strabismus surgery carries a relatively low risk, with serious complications being anecdotal and rare. The majority of adults will experience some improvement in binocular function after strabismus surgery even if the strabismus has been longstanding. Most commonly this takes the form of an expansion of binocular visual fields; however, some patients may also regain stereopsis. Consequently, strabismus surgery in adults is not merely cosmetic in most cases. There are many psychological and interpersonal benefits to adult strabismus ...
Efficacy and Safety of GSK1358820 (Botulinum Toxin Type A) in Patients With Strabismus - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The strabismus angle in the primary position was measured using the APCT. The strabismus angle was evaluated as the mean value of the distant-view strabismus angle (measured at a distance of 5 m) and the near-view strabismus angle (measured at a distance of 33 cm). Every participants evaluation was performed in the same affected eye (left or right) throughout the study period. The values were summarized for observed cases for percent change from Baseline in the strabismus angle in the primary position at Weeks 1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, and 48 (before reinjection of the second treatment period if applicable) after the final injection of the FTP (after randomization in non-treatment groups; up to a maximum of 52 weeks of the FTP). Percent change from Baseline in the strabismus angle was calculated as: (absolute angle [strabismus angle at Baseline minus the strabismus angle after the final injection] divided by the absolute strabismus angle at Baseline) multiplied ...
What is strabismus and how common is it? - AAPOS
There are many different types of strabismus. Strabismus is most commonly described by the direction of the eye misalignment; common types of strabismus are esotropia, exotropia, hypotropia, and hypertropia.. Strabismus can also be described by its cause. The 3 cranial nerves (III, IV, VI) responsible for eye movement can be weak or palsied and cause strabismus. Some examples of paralytic strabismus include third nerve palsy and superior oblique palsy.. Special patterns of strabismus can have unique names such as Brown syndrome, and Duane syndrome.. ...
Utility Analysis to Quantify the Quality of Life in Amblyopia and Strabismus Patients | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Purpose: : We previously developed the Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ) to measure the quality of life of amblyopia and/or strabismus with a disease specific questionnaire. A large historic cohort that had been treated for amblyopia 35 years ago and had filled out the A&SQ (N=174) has been orthoptically re-examined for the clinical validation of the A&SQ. To estimate the absolute measure of quality of life in amblyopia and strabismus patients, utility analysis was performed in the historic cohort Methods: : Subjects of the historic cohort were first asked which eye condition troubled the most: the amblyopic eye, the squinting eye, or the lack of depth vision. Then Standard Gamble (SG) and Time Tradeoff (TTO) forced choices were presented to the subjects of the historic cohort. The TTO and SG outcomes were converted into utility values by subtracting the obtained value from 1.0 (perfect vision and not prepared to give up any time or take any risk). Then the utility values were ...
Treatment of Strabismus
Strabismus is rather common, with statistics showing approximately 2% of all children afflicted with it. Diagnosis of strabismus at an early age by an ophthalmologist and optometrist who specializes in strabismus can be critical in the success of strabismus treatment and in the prevention of a lazy eye.. Strabismus treatment can be performed surgically or optically, or a combination of the two. Optic treatment of strabismus generally involves use of a monofocal lens and inclusion of prisms based on the type of strabismus, while customizing the eyeglass frame to the lens. Another treatment for strabismus, and particularly accommodative estropia, involves multifocal lenses. Special multifocal lenses are occasionally required that are designed using advanced technology of simultaneous vision and preference. ...
Articles, images, and people related to Strabismus
Amblyopia and Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ): clinical validation in a historic cohort
Abstract BackgroundÃ‚Â Ã‚Â We recently developed the Amblyopia & Strabismus Questionnaire (A&SQ) to assess the quality of life in amblyopia and/or strabismus patients, and evaluated its content and criterion validity. The A&SQ was now validated clinically by correlating its outcome with past and current orthoptic parameters in a historic cohort of amblyopia and/or strabismus patients. MethodsÃ‚Â Ã‚Â The cohort was derived from all 471 patients who were treated by occlusion therapy in the Waterland Hospital in Purmerend between 1968 and 1974 and born between 1962 and 1972. All children with insufficient visual acuity from the Waterland area had been referred to a single ophthalmologist and orthoptist. Of these, 203 were traced, and 174 filled out the A&SQ. In 137 of these, binocular vision, visual acuity, and angle of strabismus were reassessed 30Ã¢Â€Â"35Ã‚Â years after occlusion therapy. These clinical parameters were correlated with the five A&SQ domains: ...
Adult Strabismus - Dr. Brian G. Sherman, MD
Adult strabismus can be associated with residual strabismus from childhood or can develop later in life. Adult onset strabismus can be associated with neurological conditions (stroke), injury or thyroid disease. Many patients who develop strabismus during adulthood can have double vision.. The symptoms of diplopia can sometimes be improved with the use of prismatic correction in eyeglasses if the misalignment is small. For larger angle misalignment, eye muscle surgery may be indicated. Also, strabismus affects adults in emotional, social, and economical ways. Realigning the eyes can "reconstruct" the abnormal appearance of the eyes providing a better quality of life ...
Clinical Management of Strabismus - MED-SERVIS, spol. s r. o.
This book on ophthalmic sub-specialty encompasses a wide range of disorders of both congenital and acquired origin involving abnormalities of ocular motility and alignment, the final consequence in most cases being loss of binocular co-ordination of the eyes. 1. The Human Eye and the Developing Visual Pathways: The Concept of Amblyopia, 2. Genetics in Ocular Motility Disorders and Strabismus, 3. Clinical Approach to Ocular Motility Disorders and Strabismus, 4. Refraction in Ocular Motility Disorders and Strabismus, 5. Clinical Presentations of Ocular Motility Disorders and Strabismus, 6. Non-Surgical Management of Ocular Motility Disorders and Strabismus, 7. Surgical Management of Ocular Motility Disorders and Strabismus
Strabismus; Phorias; Squint; Hypertropia; Strabismus, Comitant; Strabismus, Noncomitant
Pediatric Strabismus Service | Overview | Boston Children's Hospital
strabismus in dictionary, Dictionary site. All dictionaries together.
Can you become blind from strabismus surgery - Things You Didn't Know
Can you become blind from strabismus surgery - Can you become blind from strabismus surgery? Unlikely. Blindness from strabismus surgery is a rare and unlikely complication. Statistically, it is probably more dangerous to drive in a car for the surgery than to have the anesthesia and surgery for most people.
Best Strabismus Surgery Doctor in Mumbai, Strabismus Surgery Doctors | Credihealth
Strabismus (Eye Muscle) Surgery
What is strabismus? Strabismus, or misaligned eyes, can cause the eyes to deviate in many directions - eyes can either be crossed in, drift out, or one may be higher than the other. Typically, strabismus in adults is a result of childhood strabismus that was not treated or progressive strabismus from injury or disease
Strabismus - Los gatos EyeCare
Treatment for strabismus includes glasses or contact lenses, prism lenses, vision therapy, or surgery. Depending on the cause of the strabismus, the correction of a large farsighted prescription with glasses or contacts can eliminate a strabismus. Prism can also be placed in glasses to alter the pathway of light entering the eye. There by, decreasing the amount of turning required by the eye to view an object or eliminate the strabismus completely. Vision therapy can be used to strengthen and reinforce proper eye-teaming and focusing as well and the connection between the brain and eyes. With appropriate exercise treatments, the eye muscles can strengthen themselves allowing proper eye alignment. If amblyopia occurs secondary to strabismus, patching and vision therapy may be required to improve vision in the affected eye. Surgery can alter muscle length and placement to align the eyes and improve cosmesis and function. However, vision therapy may be required post-surgery to improve functional ...
Potential Benefits of Strabismus Surgery - Edsel Ing: Toronto Eyelid Strabismus & Orbit Surgery Centre
Strabismus surgery should NOT be considered as "just a cosmetic procedure". Misaligned eyes are not a normal state. Misaligned eyes affect ones ability to see, communicate, gain social acceptance, find a job, make friends, seek a life partner and avert depression. Therefore strabismus surgery is more proprely referred to as a RECONSTRUCTIVE rather than just cosmetic. ...
Incidence, Types, and Lifetime Risk of Adult-Onset Strabismus - Corrected Proof - LinkOPH
Objective: To describe the incidence and types of adult-onset strabismus in a geographically defined population.Design: Retrospectively reviewed population-based cohort.Participants: All adult (≥19 years of age) residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, diagnosed with new-onset adult strabismus from January 1, 1985, through December 31, 2004.Methods: The medical records of all potential cases identified by the resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project were reviewed.Main Outcome Measures: Incidence rates for adult-onset strabismus and its types.Results: Seven hundred fifty-three cases of new-onset adult strabismus were identified during the 20-year period, yielding an annual age- and gender-adjusted incidence rate of 54.1 cases (95% confidence interval, 50.2-58.0) per (Read more...) Full Story →. ...
Most recent papers with the keyword prism strabismus | Read by QxMD
CONTEXT: Surgery for horizontal strabismus reportedly has a success rate of 60%-80%. However, which preoperative factors are predictive of this success is not clear. AIMS: To identify prognostic factors those are predictive of successful outcome in horizontal strabismus surgery. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Observational analytical study using multiple logistic regression (MLR). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We assessed the medical records of patients who had undergone first-time horizontal muscle strabismus surgery between 2002 and 2013, where complete follow-up data were available for ≥6 weeks, and also, we collected data prospectively on patients operated between January 2014 and September 2015 ...
Cosmetic Injections Cause Inoperable Strabismus
Cosmetic facial fillers used in "eye lifts" and other such procedures can often unleash a cascade of deleterious ocular effects, according to research. The materials injected into the lids and periocular area can paralyze the extraocular muscles, which leads to iatrogenic central retinal artery or ophthalmic artery occlusion approximately half the time. A third of patients will develop strabismus. Many patients will return to the surgery center to correct the strabismus, but a new study is showing not everyone can achieve the best results. When these patients develop strabismus, surgery is only successful when patients dont have persistent ophthalmoplegia at the time of the procedure, the study shows.1. The study looked over the records of 23 patients who had suffered occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches after undergoing cosmetic facial filler injections, six of whom underwent strabismus surgery. The investigators looked at the patients initial, preoperative and final ocular ...
Surgical treatment of myopic strabismus fixus: a graded approach - Zurich Open Repository and Archive
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of myopic strabismus fixus is challenging. Options for its correction range from conventional combined recession-resection surgery to innovative surgical procedures aiming to correct the deviated muscle paths. In this report we review our experience and compare the results of various surgical options for treatment of strabismus fixus. METHODS: We report the surgical outcomes of nine adults with acquired strabismus fixus due to myopia with a follow-up of 1 year. Patients were enrolled between May 2003 and April 2007 in this retrospective study. The surgical procedure was determined depending on the angle of deviation and extent of motility impairment. A new transposition technique was performed in one patient who had an extreme variant of strabismus fixus. RESULTS: Combined recession-resection surgery was performed in four patients with resulting small-angle esotropia. In patients with both esotropia and hypotropia due to muscle alignment, we performed an additional ...
Hirschberg | Article about Hirschberg by The Free Dictionary
The Effect of Weakening Procedures of Superior Oblique Muscle for A-pattern Strabis | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Abstract: : Purpose: To investigate the treatment effect of A-pattern strabismus by weakening procedures of superior oblique muscle. Methods: The clinical features and types of surgeries of 35 cases of A-pattern strabismus admitted in the Department of Strabismus in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center were analyzed. 17 patients were males,18 cases were females, aged from 5-15 years, average 21 years. Results: 69 eyes of 34 cases had SOOA. 60 eyes of 30 cases have undergone bilateral weakening procedure of SO, 4 cases unilateral weakening procedure of SO. 64 eyes of 34 cases had normal action of SO after surgery. A-pattern in all 35 cases disappeared, 31 cases(88.6%) had normal alignment (horizontal strabismus less than 5 degrees). Conclusion: The SOOA is the main feature of A-pattern strabismus. Weakening procedure of SO is important to correct the A-pattern strabismus. The horizontal deviation can be corrected by the procedure of medial or lateral rectus muscle. ...
Strabismus Measurements - AAPOS
Light reflex testing (called Hirschberg testing) involves directing a patient to look at a point of light held about three feet from the patients face. If the light reflexes are located in the same spot in each pupil, the reflexes are symmetric and the eyes are straight. If the light reflexes fall asymmetrically in the pupils, strabismus may be present. Hirschberg testing estimates the size of the strabismus by determining how far the deviated light reflex is off-center. Krimsky light reflex testing involves holding a prism over one eye to center the deviated light reflex until the reflexes are symmetric. The amount of the prism needed to center the deviated light reflex estimates the size of the eye misalignment. Light reflex testing is the least accurate way to measure strabismus but may be the only means possible in young children and in those with vision too poor to fixate on a target well.. ...
Retrospective study identifies incidence and demographics of new-onset strabismus in adults - For Medical Professionals - Mayo...
Simultaneous Horizontal and Cyclovertical Strabismus Surgery | Rent 9780792322467 | 0792322460
Thirty years ago, Gobin and Bierlaagh developed the simultaneous horizontal and cyclovertical strabismus surgery that became a recognized, albeit much debated method, but no manual on the subject was available until now. The book is aimed at ophthalmologists interested in strabismus. It is also intended for orthoptists, in view of the importance of examining ocular motility. Although the ophthalmologist remains responsible for the surgical indication, the active participation of the orthoptist is advantageous. The analysis of incomitances of the eye movements is discussed extensively, as it is the keystone of simultaneous surgery. For the same reason, great attention is given to the surgical indications. The chapter on oculomotor disturbances is completed with a series of examples of the most common motility disorders and the indications for their surgical treatment. Surgery is covered in detail. Primary surgery is discussed in the same section as surgery for under and overcorrection. Since a ...
Problems with Vision | Phoenix Children's Hospital
Strabismus or "crossed-eyes." Strabismus is one of the most common eye problems in children in which the eyes are misaligned. The eyes (one or both) may turn inward, outward, turn up, or turn down. At times, more than one of these conditions are present. Strabismus is also called "wandering eye" or "crossed-eyes." Children younger than 6 months of age may have a common form of strabismus that comes and goes. This type of strabismus may be normal. Most strabismus is caused by abnormality of neuromuscular (including brain) control of eye movement. Strabismus as a result of poor muscle strength in the eye is less common.The signs and symptoms of strabismus may include a child squinting his or her eyes, a child that cannot properly judge distance to pick up objects, a child that closes one eye to see better, dizziness, or the childs eyes move inward or outward. Early diagnosis of the underlying problem is essential in order to prevent vision loss. Treatment of strabismus may include patching the ...
Strabismus surgery: beautiful event for Christmas | Eyes Apart: Living with strabismus
Management of strabismus - Wikipedia
The management of strabismus may include the use of drugs or surgery to correct the strabismus. Strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes and may also result in amblyopia (lazy eye) or impairments of binocular vision. Agents used include paralytic agents such as botox used on extraocular muscles, topical autonomic nervous system agents to alter the refractive index in the eyes, and agents that act in the central nervous system to correct amblyopia. Pharmacologic injection treatments can be given to cooperative adults under local anesthesia in an outpatient setting, and for some agents, under light general anesthesia. In the former case, it is possible to bring the injection needle to an optimal location in the desired muscle using EMG guidance as the alert patient looks in diagnostic directions, the needle is advanced until the electromyogram (the electrical signal from an activated skeletal muscle) indicates it is optimally positioned, whereupon the injection is completed. Some agents (e.g., ...
Minimally invasive strabismus surgery | British Journal of Ophthalmology
In 2007, I published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology a new, minimally invasive access technique for primary horizontal rectus muscle recession and plication and its results.1 I suggested performing these types of surgeries using only two, small parainsertional openings. The term minimally invasive surgery (MISS) was proposed for all types of strabismus surgeries (1) minimizing the … ...
Grand rounds 57: A case of torsional diplopia after three previous strabismus surgical procedures<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Grand rounds 57. T2 - A case of torsional diplopia after three previous strabismus surgical procedures. AU - Kushner, B. J.. AU - Stager, Jr. AU - Sato, M.. AU - Plut, M.. AU - Freedman, S. F.. AU - Brodsky, Michael C. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0034024331&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0034024331&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 10767682. AN - SCOPUS:0034024331. VL - 15. SP - 48. EP - 52. JO - Binocular Vision and Strabismus Quarterly. JF - Binocular Vision and Strabismus Quarterly. SN - 1088-6281. IS - 1. ER - ...
What are the consequences of strabismus? Strabismus Ophthalmology Rehabilitation Blog
About Strabismus Surgery Outcomes | Cleveland Clinic
Cole Eye Institute considers the outcome of surgery for strabismus in adults to be good if there is: (1) disappearance of diplopia and/or anomalous head position in primary position of gaze or (2) in the absence of diplopia or anomalous head position, a constant deviation of , 10 prism diopters (D). In children, a good outcome is defined as: (1) a constant deviation of , 10 prism D in primary position or (2) the disappearance of anomalous head position for those in whom the surgery was done for that purpose, such as patients with a 4th nerve palsy, Brown syndrome, or Duane syndrome. The results shown reflect reviews of follow-up visits during each calendar year. Hence, follow-up data for some patients are not included here, nor are long-term outcomes.. Between January and December 2018, 310 strabismus procedures were performed by 5 surgeons; 196 procedures were performed on children and 114 on adults (defined as age 16 years or older).. ...
What Causes Strabismus?
Many things and/or events can cause a strabismus. They include genetics, inappropriate development of the "fusion center" of the brain, problems with the controlled center of the brain, injuries to muscles or nerves or other problems involving the muscles or nerves. Surprisingly, most cases of strabismus are not a result of a muscle problem, but are due to the control system - the brain.. Treatment should be directed at the source of the problem. The eye doctor must determine if the strabismus is due to an eyeglass problem or brain problem. Sometimes, bifocals are needed to eliminate the eye turn.. Different Types Have Different ...
Strabismus - Things You Didn't Know
strabismus facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about strabismus
What About Strabismus Surgery?
Your brain directs and controls your eyes and eye muscle surgery is not brain surgery. Cutting and moving the eye muscles will not automatically change the brain or the signals it sends to the eye muscles. This is why patients eyes often "go back" or deviate again after surgery. Frequently, then, the surgeon recommends a repeat surgery. It is important to understand that while eye muscle surgery can improve cosmetic appearance, it does not necessarily improve eyesight or vision.. Numerous peer-reviewed scientific studies report success rates for eye muscle surgeries ranging from 30% to 80%. In those studies, the success is sometimes defined as cosmetic improvement only. "Cosmetic improvement only" means that, following the eye muscle surgery, the patients eyes maintained a straight and aligned appearance, but improved vision was not achieved.. For example, one scientific research study (Flax and Duckman, Orthoptic Treatment of Strabismus, Journal of AOA, 49th edition (12) p. 1353, 1978) ...
What Is Adult Strabismus? - American Academy of Ophthalmology
Adult Strabismus | Mass. Eye and Ear
Hypotropia (Vertical Strabismus)
Strabismus and amblyopia (lazy eye) | Strabismus World
My name is Michael Lievens (°89). Ive had strabismus ever since I was three years old. I have undergone three eye muscle surgeries at the ages of 16, 18 and 19. Surgery only worsened the double vision and lack of ocular control which were impeding me from reading and studying properly at University. Ultimately, in total desperation, I discovered something called Vision Therapy or Visual Neuro-Rehabilitation on the internet. I have consistently been pursuing this avenue ever since with slow but definite success. My double vision is already in the past and my binocular vision continues to improve ...
Strabismus Surgery - A Follow-Up | MiFOCALS
It seems that I am just now recovering from the holiday craze - enough to have the mental capacity to recall and recount my sons eye surgery. At the end of October, KJ had strabismus surgery to correct his esotropia. Historically, anticipation has always been much worse for me than the actual thing when it…
Color Atlas of Strabismus Surgery - Strategies and Techniques | Kenneth W. Wright | Springer
How long does redness last after strabismus surgery - hi. How long does redness last after strabismus surgery? Renald :: PN...
You need to go to the bank for getting the exact figure and over there you will have to sit down and must talk to them face to face. The people at the local branch will not be able to help you but they will able to tell you the concern department of bank that you need to talk with. You also need to find out your local community has a financial assistance program that can also provide you free counseling about foreclosure Well i think that you have almost 90 days after paying rent to the bank. I hope this helps you a lot ...
Vision Therapy/Strabismus & Amblyopia: VT3 | Optometric Extension Program Foundation
Prerequisite: VT/Visual Dysfunctions VT - 1. This course supplements the core VT/Visual Dysfunctions (VT I) course with testing and therapy activities to diagnose and treat patients with strabismus and amblyopia.. For whatever reasons, strabismus and amblyopia have a reputation for being difficult to understand and treat. The approach of the OEP Clinical Curriculum stems from the understanding of Chaos and Complexity Theory which states, "That which appears to be complex, most often can be explained very simply. That which appears so simple, most often is actually very complex." You will learn how specific disruptions or "thwarting" experiences occurring at critical times in normal infant development can result in strabismus or amblyopia. How and why do amblyopia and strabismus develop? What percentage of strabismus and amblyopia are functionally related? How can the development of amblyopia or strabismus be beneficial to the person at a specified point in time and why is this behavior not ...
Corneal topography changes following strabismus surgery
The factors that influence a normal corneal topography are not well understood. Factors that may change the corneal curvature measured using corneal topography in a normal eye include accommodation and external forces such as those exerted by the eye lid . Suture and muscle placement are the mechanical forces that may alter the corneal curvature. If a muscle is placed too close to the limbus or tied to the sclera under tightly, the corneal curvature might be altered . Although it has been reported that there are changes of the corneal curvature following extraocular muscle surgery, the effect was also known to be transient [2, 7]. This study demonstrated that there are a corneal topography changes following horizontal muscle strabismus correction surgery, however the effect is transient. Corneal topography measurement 6 weeks after the operation was significantly different than that before operation (mean difference = 0.210±0.096, p=0.029). There was a significant difference in corneal ...
Ketamine versus propofol for strabismus surgery in children | OPTH
Ketamine versus propofol for strabismus surgery in children Ayse Mizrak1, Ibrahim Erbagci2, Tulin Arici1, Ibrahim Ozcan1, Gurkan Tatar2, Unsal Oner11Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Gaziantep, Turkey; 2The Department of Ophthalmology, Gaziantep University School of Medicine, Gaziantep, TurkeyPurpose: To compare the effects of intravenous infusion of ketamine and propofol anesthesia in children undergoing strabismus surgery. Methods: Sixty pediatric patients aged 4â 11 years were enrolled for the study. Patients in Group K were infused ketamine 1â 3 mg/kg/hr (n = 30) and patients in Group P were infused with propofol6â 9 mg/kg/hr (n = 30). After giving fentanyl 1 Âµg/kg and rocuronium bromide 0.5 mg/kg, patients were intubated.Results: The consumption of anesthetics (P = 0.0001) and antiemetics (P = 0.004), the incidence of Â-oculocardiac reflex (P = 0.02) in Group K were significantly lower than in Group P. The recovery time (P = 0.008), postoperative
Handbook Of Pediatric Strabismus And Amblyopia, Book by Kenneth W. Wright (Paperback) | chapters.indigo.ca
Autonomic Nervous System Activity and Oculocardiac Reflex. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Pulling the eyeball during ophthalmic surgery provokes decrease in heart rate. This phenomenon is called oculocardiac reflex. In some patients asystole may occur. Other cardiac features of this reflex include hypotension, dysrhythmias, atrioventricular block. These cardiovascular disturbances may lead to decreased perfusion and ischemia of vital organs. Patients with existing cardiovascular disease are in risk of complications. Cardiovascular system is mainly innervated with autonomic nervous system (ANS). Sympathetic/parasympathetic activity may be determined by Heart Rate Variability (HRV). HRV analysis based on short 5 minutes electrocardiography has been found useful for prediction of hypotension and bradycardia during induction of general anaesthesia and during spinal block. The aim of this study is to verify whether it is possible to predict oculocardiac reflex with the use of HRV analysis for ANS activity assessment, measured prior to the ophthalmic surgery ...
Unharmonious retinal correspondence | definition of unharmonious retinal correspondence by Medical dictionary
Looking for online definition of unharmonious retinal correspondence in the Medical Dictionary? unharmonious retinal correspondence explanation free. What is unharmonious retinal correspondence? Meaning of unharmonious retinal correspondence medical term. What does unharmonious retinal correspondence mean?
Patient-reported outcome measures in amblyopia and strabismus: a systematic review - COSMIN database
BACKGROUND: Many patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have been developed and/or used to measure the impact of amblyopia and strabismus on quality of life (QoL). Identifying the one with superior quality is important for evaluating the effectiveness of novel therapy for amblyopia and for directing improved clinical decision-making in adults considering strabismic surgery. Therefore, the aim of this review is to identify all PROMs previously developed/used to study the impact of amblyopia and/or strabismus on QoL and to appraise the quality and comprehensiveness of content of the disease-specific instruments ...
Impact of a Strabismus Surgery Suture Course for First- and Second-Year Ophthalmology Residents
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | Purpose:To investigate the effectiveness of an eye muscle surgery course on first- and second-year postgraduate ophthalmology residents.Methods:This prospective cohort pilot study invited first- and second-year ophthalmology residents to participate in a 2-hour strabismus surgery course at Wills Eye Hospital. The course consisted of a didactic session followed by a wet laboratory session. The wet
Oculocardiac reflex - Wikipedia
The Oculocardiac reflex, also known as Aschner phenomenon, Aschner reflex, or Aschner-Dagnini reflex, is a decrease in pulse rate associated with traction applied to extraocular muscles and/or compression of the eyeball. The reflex is mediated by nerve connections between the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal cranial nerve via the ciliary ganglion, and the vagus nerve of the parasympathetic nervous system. Nerve fibres from the maxillary and mandibular divisions of the trigeminal nerve have also been documented. These afferents synapse with the visceral motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, located in the reticular formation of the brain stem. The efferent portion is carried by the vagus nerve from the cardiovascular center of the medulla to the heart, of which increased stimulation leads to decreased output of the sinoatrial node. This reflex is especially sensitive in neonates and children, particularly during strabismus correction surgery. However, this reflex may also occur with adults. ...
Oculocardiac Reflex | Medicalalgorithms.com
Refractive surgery in patients with accommodative and non-accommodative strabismus - one year prospective follow up | British...
Aim: To determine the efficacy and safety of keratorefractive surgery in patients with accommodative and non-accommodative strabismus in a prospective study. Methods: Preoperative assessment included uncorrected (UCVA) and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), manifest and cycloplegic refraction and orthoptic examination. LASIK, LASEK and Artisan phakic intraocular lens implantation were performed. All treated eyes had BCVA of at least 6/18 preoperatively. One year postoperatively, visual acuity, refractive error and ocular alignment were reassessed. Results: 28 patients (9 male, 19 female) of mean age 33.0±10.0 years (range 20 to 59). Esotropia was present in 16 patients; 9 fully accommodative, 3 partially accommodative and 4 non-accommodative. Twelve patients had exodeviations; 10 exotropia and 2 exophoria and history of strabismus surgery. Excellent visual and refractive outcomes were obtained postoperatively. There was no loss and one eye gained a line of BCVA. Fully accommodative esotropes ...
Dr. Sue Barry, PhD Both a researcher and an individual with Strabismus & Amblyopia
Below is a translation into common language of a technical paper that reviewed literature on Amblyopia, commonly known as lazy eye, and then a review by Dr. Susan Barry, PhD, who is both a researcher, college professor, and an individual who had several surgeries as a young child to address her eye turn and lazy eye. As an adult, she had Vision Therapy and was then able to gain the ability to use her two eyes as a team and resolve both the amblyopia and the strabismus.. Amblyopia (lazy eye) is a neuro-developmental disorder of the visual cortex that arises from abnormal visual experience early in life. Amblyopia is clinically important because it is a major cause of vision loss in infants and young children.. Amblyopia is not a problem of the eye, but rather a brain based problem that is caused when someone does not have normal visual development. Yes, VISION DEVELOPS.. Undestanding Amblyopia and how it is fixed also helps us understand how changable the brain is, and how it can recover, for ...
Countries continue to notice medical education programs and prevention of amblyopia and strabismus children study class "...
Adult Strabismus | Optometrist in Grand Junction, CO | Western Rockies Eye Center
Adult Strabismus | Optometrist in Casper, WY | The Eye Institute of Wyoming, P.C.
Fellowship In Pediatric Ophthalmology And Strabismus - Department of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus - Al-Shifa Trust...
The fellow plays an active role in both the clinical and surgical aspects of the program. One-on-one contact with faculty, learning, operating, and teaching in the field of pediatric ophthalmology and adult strabismus takes place during the training period. The division has eight full-time faculty members, two well-trained orthoptists and two qualified pediatric refractionists. Our fellows can take advantage of continued exposure to country renowned ophthalmologists in all ophthalmic subspecialties via daily morning lectures, monthly Grand Roundsand clinicalrotations.. This fellowship is aimed at providing an in depth, diverse and enriching experience focused on pediatric eye disease. Our Fellowship offers a comprehensive experience in pediatric eye diseases The Fellows attend four clinics and two operating days each week. The Fellow will gain excellent experience in pediatric cataract surgery, pediatric glaucoma surgery, nasolacrimal disorders, retinoblastoma and ROP screening and ...
Strabismus and double vision | Strabismus World
My name is Michael Lievens (°89). Ive had strabismus ever since I was three years old. I have undergone three eye muscle surgeries at the ages of 16, 18 and 19. Surgery only worsened the double vision and lack of ocular control which were impeding me from reading and studying properly at University. Ultimately, in total desperation, I discovered something called Vision Therapy or Visual Neuro-Rehabilitation on the internet. I have consistently been pursuing this avenue ever since with slow but definite success. My double vision is already in the past and my binocular vision continues to improve ...
Binocular treatment of amblyopia using videogames (BRAVO): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial | Trials | Full Text
Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of the visual system that is caused by abnormal binocular visual experience during early childhood, typically due to anisometropia or strabismus . Amblyopia causes a range of monocular deficits in the affected eye including impaired visual acuity , contrast sensitivity , motion perception [3, 4] and excessive crowding  (see  for a recent review). Patients with amblyopia also experience impaired binocular vision. In particular, the fellow eye often suppresses the amblyopic eye when both eyes are open, and stereopsis is commonly impaired or absent . Stronger interocular suppression has been associated with poorer stereopsis and monocular visual acuity in patients [8-11], as well as poorer amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity in animal models of amblyopia [12, 13].. In children, the visual acuity deficit associated with amblyopia can be treated monocularly by optically correcting any significant refractive error and then occluding ...
Download Handbook Of Pediatric Strabismus And Amblyopia
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Browse by Authors and Editors - Nottingham ePrints
Astle, Andrew T. and Foulsham, Thomas and McGraw, Paul V. (2016) The consequences of strabismus and the benefits of adult strabismus surgery. Optometry in Practice, 17 (3). pp. 121-130. ISSN 1467-9051 Astle, Andrew T. and Foulsham, Thomas and Foss, Alexander J. and McGraw, Paul V. (2016) Is the frequency of adult strabismus surgery increasing? Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 36 (4). pp. 487-493. ISSN 1475-1313 ...
Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus | January/February 2012 Issue
The Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus is a bimonthly peer-reviewed publication for pediatric ophthalmologists. The Journal has published original articles on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of eye disorders in the pediatric age group and the treatment of strabismus in all age groups for over 50 years.
Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Ribbon Strabismus Scissors 4' - 64-1340 - Each - Surgical Instruments - Scissors
Strabismus Scissors 4 1/4' - 64-1442 - Each - Surgical Instruments - Scissors
Identification and Treatment of Amblyopia - American Family Physician
Amblyopia is the leading cause of vision loss in children. It is treatable if diagnosed early, making identification of affected children critical. The American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that clinicians routinely perform age-appropriate vision chart testing, red reflex testing, and examination for signs of strabismus. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends vision screening for all children at least once between three and five years of age to detect the presence of amblyopia or its risk factors. Photoscreening may be a useful adjunct to traditional vision screening, but there is limited evidence that it improves visual outcomes. Treatments for amblyopia include patching, atropine eye drops, and optical penalization of the nonamblyopic eye. In children with moderate amblyopia, patching for two hours daily is as effective as patching for six hours daily, and daily atropine is as effective as daily patching. Children
Jaxon - Strabismus and Amblyopia - Eye Power Kids Wear
My son Jaxon is almost 5 years old. We noticed something was going on with his eyes just shortly after his 1st birthday. I recall looking through photos from his birthday party and noticing that the red reflex (red eye) existed in just one of his eyes. The other eye did not have "red eye" from the camera flash. I thought that was a little odd. At that point every now and then when he would look at me I couldnt quite tell if he was look at me or past me. We then made an appointment to have his eyes checked. Turns out Jaxon has both strabismus and amblyopia in his right eye. We went to his eye doctor regularly and Jaxon screamed and screamed at every appointment for nearly 2 years. The doctor and her assistant were so kind and helpful and really did their best to work with him and try to measure his eye turn but invariably after 5 or 10 minutes it would turn into a cry/scream fest. Im sure it has nothing to do with his redhead temperament.. ...
Cortical correlates of amblyopia<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cortical correlates of amblyopia. AU - Kiorpes, Lynne. AU - Daw, Nigel. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - There are many levels of disorder in amblyopic vision, from basic acuity and contrast sensitivity loss to abnormal binocular vision and global perception of motion and form. Amblyopia treatment via patching to restore acuity often leaves other aspects of vision deficient. The source for these additional deficits is unclear. Neural correlates of poor binocular function and acuity loss are found in V1 and V2. However, they are generally not sufficient to account for behaviorally measured vision loss. This review summarizes the known cortical correlates of visual deficits found in association with amblyopia, particularly those relevant to binocular vision and higher-order visual processing, in striate and extrastriate cortex. Recommendations for future research address open questions on the role of suppression and oculomotor abnormalities in amblyopic vision, and underexplored ...
VT3/Strabismus and Amblyopia - Course Readings | Optometric Extension Program Foundation
Moms.com | How to predict and prevent strabismus and amblyopia in toddler - Moms Expertise
What is Amblyopia and why should every pediatrician screen for vision impairments?
One barrier to detecting amblyopia in children is that kids get used to the condition. The most common symptom of amblyopia is strabismus, commonly referred to as crossed-eyed. The vision of the straight eye becomes dominant, whereas the crossed eyes vision deteriorates. Amblyopia can be passed down genetically, and there is more of a risk if the child is born prematurely. If not treated, a patient can have increased healthcare costs, educational difficulties, permanent vision impairment and blindness. The older a child gets, usually around eight, the harder it is to avoid permanent vision impairment. With GoCheckKids, amblyopia can be detected early on. Using photoscreening or visual acuity, pediatricians can see if they are developing amblyopia and refer them to an eye care specialist. The AAP recommends annual photo screening starting at age one. The earlier amblyopia is detected, the more effective the treatment options are. Fast ...
Blepharospasm and strabismus. See also: Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus. University-based ophthalmologists in the ... Strabismus. Ophthalmologists specializing in eye muscle disorders (strabismus) had developed the method of EMG-guided ... Strabismus, otherwise known as improper eye alignment, is caused by imbalances in the actions of muscles that rotate the eyes. ... Scott AB (1994). "Change of eye muscle sarcomeres according to eye position". Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus ...
Blepharospasm and strabismus. See also: Botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus. University-based ophthalmologists in the ... Strabismus. Ophthalmologists specializing in eye muscle disorders (strabismus) had developed the method of EMG-guided ... Strabismus is caused by imbalances in the actions of muscles that rotate the eyes, and can sometimes be relieved by weakening a ... He injected the first strabismus patients in 1977, reported its clinical utility in 1980, and had soon trained hundreds of ...
The influence of strabismus surgery on the Listing's planes of the two eyes is not fully understood. In one study, patients' ... Disorders of the eye muscles (such as strabismus) often cause torsional offsets in eye position that are particularly ... Strabismus. 10 (3): 199-209. doi:10.1076/stra.10.3.199.8124. Crawford JD, Martinez-Trujillo JC, Klier EM. Neural control of ...
"Strabismus". kidshealth.org. Retrieved 2015-09-08. "Esotropia , Exotropia , Treatment Options , Strabismus". www.strabismus.org ... Treatment for strabismus may include orthoptics a term used for eye muscle training, this treatment can be provided by ... The main cause of strabismus is usually the muscular imbalance of the six surrounding muscles that allow both eyes to focus on ... Further symptoms of strabismus include decreased vision, double vision, headaches, asthenopia and eye fatigue. Scoliosis, is a ...
Santosh G. Honavar
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2015 Mar-Apr;52(2):128. 23. Mulay K, Sharma V, Honavar SG. Forget Me Not: A Case of ... J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2013 Aug 6;50 Online:e37-40. 43. Ali MJ, Honavar SG, Naik MN, Vemuganti GK. Orbital solitary ... J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2013 Apr 30;50 Online:e18-20. 51. Mulay K, Puthyapurayil FM, Mohammad JA, Hasnat Ali M, ... J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2007 Mar-Apr;44(2):120-3. 121. Naik MN, Honavar SG, Bhaduri A, Linberg JV. Congenital ...
When one or more of these muscles doesn't work properly, some form of strabismus may occur. Strabismus is more common in ... Strabismus surgery is sometimes recommended if the exotropia is present for more than half of each day or if the frequency is ... In young children with any form of strabismus, the brain may learn to ignore the misaligned eye's image and see only the image ... However, strabismus surgery is usually a safe and effective treatment. "Exotropia Origin". dictionary.com. Retrieved 21 July ...
Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia
The most common strabismus finding is large angle exotropia which can be treated by maximal bilateral eye surgery, but due to ... Tinley, C; Dawson, E; Lee, J (June 2010). "The management of strabismus in patients with chronic progressive external ... the progressive nature of the disease, strabismus may recur. Those that have diplopia as a result of asymmetric ophthalmoplegia ... ophthalmoplegia". Strabismus. 18 (2): 41-7. doi:10.3109/09273971003758388. PMID 20521878. http://www4.ocn.ne.jp/~nurophth/CPEO1 ...
Congenital disorder of glycosylation
"All About Strabismus or Lazy Eye Surgery". What is Strabismus?. Optometrists Network. "Squint / Strabismus". Parallel Vision ... Esotropia is a form of strabismus in which one or both eyes turns inward. The condition can be constantly present, or occur ... It is the most frequent type of natural strabismus not only in humans, but also in monkeys. Concomitant esotropia can itself be ... Only about 20% of children with hyperopia greater than +3.5 diopters develop strabismus. Where the esotropia is solely a ...
Bagolini Striated Glasses Test
Strabismus (4th ed.). Woburn: Butterworth-Heinemann Pratt-Johnson, J.A., Tillson, G. (1994). Management of strabismus and ... Play media The BSGT is used for patients with strabismus to test for suppression, normal retinal correspondence or abnormal ... It is mainly used in strabismus clinics. Through this test, suppression, microtropia, diplopia and manifest deviations can be ... Cover test Diplopia Eye examination Maddox rod Prism cover test Retinal correspondence Strabismus Worth's four light test Von ...
ISBN 978-0-387-95478-3. AAPOS website on Strabismus, also containing FAQ's on the subject of Strabismus List of eye diseases ... In general, strabismus can be approached and treated with a variety of procedures. Depending on the individual case, treatment ... Hypertropia is a condition of misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), whereby the visual axis of one eye is higher than the ... Specialty fellowship trained pediatric ophthalmologists and strabismus surgeons are best equipped to deal with these complex ...
Jane D. Kivlin
A longstanding member of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, she served as President of this ... Jane Kivlin is an American ophthalmologist who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatrics genetics and strabismus ... J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 143 (23): 2785-2795. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32036. PMID 17994562. Ganes A, Stephens D, Kivlin JD, ... American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Professor, Medical College of Wisconsin Kivlin, JD. A 12-year ...
See Clearly Method
Fragile X syndrome
Congenital fourth nerve palsy
Helveston, Eugene M.; Faruk H. Orge; Rosa Naranjo; Lourdes Hernandez (October 2001). "Telemedicine: Strabismus e-consultation ... strabismus and adnexal eye diseases. Less common conditions that can be revealed using retinal images are arterial and vein ... ". Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 5 (5): 291-296. doi:10.1067/mpa.2001.118214. ...
... strabismus, amblyopia, etc.). Young children with strabismus normally suppress the visual field of one eye (or part of it), ... The scene simply disappears for the suppressed eye." Suppression is frequent in children with anisometropia or strabismus or ... Patients who have undergone strabismus surgery at a young age often have monofixation syndrome (with peripheral binocular ... "Refractive surgery and strabismus". Step by Step LASIK Surgery. CRC Press. pp. 100-107. ISBN 978-1-84184-469-5. Carlson, NB, et ...
Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts
... is a form of strabismus in which, compared to the correct positioning of the eyes, there is a torsion of one eye ( ... G.K. von Noorden (July-August 1984). "Clinical and theoretical aspects of cyclotropia". J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 21 (4 ... J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 21 (4). pp. 126-132. PMID 6470908. S.-J. Woo; J.-M. Seo; J.-M. Hwang (2005). "Clinical". Eye ( ... Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. 13 (6). pp. 593-595. doi:10.1016/j.jaapos.2009.09. ...
Find pediatric strabismus news articles, videos, blogs, books, Continuing Medical Education (CME), meeting coverage, and ... Pediatrics/Strabismus Pediatrics/Strabismus. Top Story CHIP funding renewed for 6 years. January 23, 2018. After 4 months ... Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Online Advanced Release, January 31, 2018. To compare the effect of two ...
strabismus facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about strabismus
Make research projects and school reports about strabismus easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... Strabismus Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, 3rd ed. COPYRIGHT 2006 Thomson Gale. Strabismus. Definition. Strabismus is a ... Strabismus. Definition. Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not align in the same direction. It is also called ... Types of strabismus Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus in infants. Accommodative esotropia develops in children ...
Strabismus Measurements - AAPOS
Strabismus Measurements. Read in Chinese How is strabismus measured?. Eye misalignment or strabismus can be measured by several ... Why is it important to get good strabismus measurements?. Medical and surgical treatment of strabismus is based on the amount ... Prism and cover testing is used to determine the amount of strabismus present. A prism is held over the deviated eye and the ... A person can look like they have strabismus because of an off-center light reflex and still have straight eyes. They will not ...
What causes strabismus? - AAPOS
Cut and paste: sutureless conjunctival closure in strabismus surgery. - PubMed - NCBI
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2010 Jul-Aug;47(4):228-30. doi: 10.3928/01913913-20091019-04. Comparative Study; Research ... Cut and paste: sutureless conjunctival closure in strabismus surgery.. Guo S1, Wagner RS, Forbes BJ, DeRespinis PA, Caputo AR. ... J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2010 Jul-Aug;47(4):228-30. doi: 10.3928/01913913-20091019-04. ... These results are promising and demonstrated a safe and effective alternative to traditional suture closure in strabismus ...
Color Atlas of Strabismus Surgery - Strategies and Techniques | Kenneth W. Wright | Springer
Color Atlas of Strabismus Surgery: Strategies and Techniques provides concise, comprehensive descriptions of surgical ... to learn nuances of strabismus surgery. All in all an excellent book to learn about strabismus surgery, next only to first hand ... Color Atlas of Strabismus Surgery. Book Subtitle. Strategies and Techniques. Authors. * Kenneth W. Wright ... "The book has been written to serve as a practical text to teach strabismus surgical technique, with the incorporation of both ...
What is the typical cost of strabismus surgery? | Reference.com
... strabismus surgery costs about $4,250 per case, states Cost Helper. Costs without doctors fees can run up to $15,000 for ... As of 2015, strabismus surgery costs about $4,250 per case, states Cost Helper. Costs without doctors fees can run up to $ ... Children and adults undergo strabismus surgery, during which a surgeon makes a tiny incision in the eye to detach and reattach ... Health insurance usually covers strabismus, or lazy eye treatment, which is considered a therapeutic and not a cosmetic ...
About Strabismus Surgery Outcomes | Cleveland Clinic
About Strabismus Surgery Cole Eye Institute considers the outcome of surgery for strabismus in adults to be good if there is: ( ... Strabismus Surgery. Previous: Distance-Only PRK Surface Ablation for All Myopia Next: Adult Cases ... Between January and December 2018, 310 strabismus procedures were performed by 5 surgeons; 196 procedures were performed on ... Strabismus Surgery Vitreoretinal Surgery Patient Experience View All Cleveland Clinic Outcomes ...
Strabismus (Crossed Eyes) | Nemours
Pediatric Strabismus Service | Overview | Boston Children's Hospital
Strabismus Surgery in Children after a comprehensive evaluation and correction of pediatric strabismus in babies, children, and ... The Pediatric Strabismus Service at Boston Childrens Hospital offers comprehensive evaluation and correction of strabismus ( ... Adults with strabismus are referred to our pediatric practice because ophthalmologists specially trained in childhood eye ... Here, baby and child friendly eye exams are used to detect strabismus and innovative approaches are used to straighten the eyes ...
... the Wills Eye Strabismus Center is especially interested in and experienced with strabismus and nystagmus in adults. No person ... The Wills Eye Strabismus Center is a center of excellence providing leadership in patient care, education, and innovative ... Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus Service *Refractive Surgery for Children and Adults with Special Needs ... Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus Service *Refractive Surgery for Children and Adults with Special Needs ...
Strabismus repair - ONA
Strabismus, or abnormal ocular alignment, is one of the most common ocular problems in children affecting almost 5% of the ... Strabismus is primarily idiopathic but can be associated with poor vision, cataracts, trauma, neuromuscular disorders, or one ... Not specific to strabismus repair. Presence of difficult airway may lead to more cautious extubation. ... No medications are taken specific to strabismus repair.. h. Are there medications commonly seen in patients undergoing this ...
Introducing the new VisionHelp Strabismus Library | The VisionHelp Blog
... the brand new VisionHelp Strabismus Library. This new site brings together a compendium of content that includes Videos, ... Presentations, Books, Research and much more, dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of Strabismus. This was created as a ... dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of Strabismus. This was created as a place for advanced understanding of strabismus, ... Introducing the new VisionHelp Strabismus Library. By Dan L. Fortenbacher, OD FCOVD July 22, 2020. "vision and concussion" ...
Strabismus surgery - Wikipedia
Surgery Encyclopedia - Eye Muscle Surgery Strabismus Surgery Strabismus.com - Strabismus Surgery Parikh, RK; Leffler, CT (July ... Strabismus Surgery, Horizontal on EyeWiki from the American Academy of Ophthalmology Strabismus Surgery Complications on ... and Conventional Strabismus Surgery Using the Limbal ApproachJ Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:208-215.. Asproudis I, ... Strabismus. 16 (3): 116-118. doi:10.1080/09273970802405493. PMID 18788060. Mojon DS: Minimally invasive strabismus surgery. In ...
Strabismus (protein) - Wikipedia
Strabismus was originally identified as a Drosophila protein involved in planar cell polarity. Flies with mutated strabismus ... Vertebrates have two Strabismus-related proteins, VANGL1 and VANGL2 (an alternate name for the Drosophila "Strabismus" protein ... Katoh M (2002). "Strabismus (STB)/Vang-like (VANGL) gene family". Int. J. Mol. Med. 10 (1): 11-5. doi:10.3892/ijmm.10.1.11. ... In cells of the developing Drosophila wing, Prickle and Strabismus are concentrated at the cell surface membrane on the most ...
... is when someones eyes dont look straight ahead. It might look as if the person has one crossed eye. Find out more ... Sometimes strabismus can cause amblyopia, and sometimes its the other way around with amblyopia causing strabismus. When a kid ... Strabismus (say: struh-BIZ-mus) is the term used for eyes that are not straight and do not focus on the same object. Eyes can ... Usually doctors diagnose strabismus when a baby or young kid has a regular checkup. If a doctor or parent suspects a kid has ...
Strabismus - Wiktionary
Strabismus | physiology | Britannica.com
Strabismus, misalignment of the eyes. The deviant eye may be directed inward toward the other eye (cross-eye, or esotropia), ... Acquired strabismus appears later in life and has many potential etiologies. For example, acquired strabismus can be due to ... Strabismus, also called squint, misalignment of the eyes. The deviant eye may be directed inward toward the other eye (cross- ... eye disease: Strabismus (squint). In the lower vertebrates, such as fishes, the eyes are situated on either side of the head to ...
Unknown: Strabismus | Encyclopedia.com
Strabismus: UXL Encyclopedia of Diseases and Disorders dictionary. ... Strabismus may be constant or it may come and go. In children, strabismus may vary over the course of a few hours as well as ... Strabismus appears to run in some families, although no specific genes have yet been identified that are linked to strabismus. ... When strabismus in children is detected and treated early, the prognosis is good. The prognosis for strabismus in adults ...
Strabismus: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
The most common form of strabismus is known as crossed ... Strabismus is a disorder in which both eyes do not line up in ... If strabismus has occurred because of vision loss, the vision loss will need to be corrected before strabismus surgery can be ... About one third of children with strabismus will develop amblyopia.. Many children will get strabismus or amblyopia again. ... American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus website. Strabismus. aapos.org/browse/glossary/entry? ...
An eye exam is usually required to test for and diagnose strabismus, specialized to determine the focus and movement of the ... The following tests may be a component of the eye examination used to diagnose strabismus:. *Visual acuity test: to assess the ... An eye exam is usually required to test for and diagnose strabismus, specialized to determine the focus and movement of the ... Early diagnosis is important because severe cases of strabismus that go untreated can result in loss of vision. For this reason ...
Strabismus A Neurodevelopmental Approach | SpringerLink
Strabismus News, Research
Strabismus News and Research. RSS Strabismus is a term used to describe eyes that are not straight and parallel. One eye may ... Strabismus is a serious eye condition that requires early medical treatment if it is to be successfully corrected. Further ... Children living in poor communities less likely to receive diagnosis for strabismus, study shows Children are less likely to be ... Maternal smoking during pregnancy associated with increased risk of strabismus in offspring In an Acta Ophthalmologica analysis ...
Non surgical management of strabismus .ppt
Strabismus Mashhad Eye Research Center Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Eye HospitalKh… ... Non surgical management of strabismus .ppt * 1. Non- Surgical Strabismus management GroupPediatric ophthalmology & Strabismus ... Small-angle strabismus following intraocular surgery and Residual deviations following strabismus surgery. In most cases of ... 4. Constant Strabismus a. Corrective Prisms for Resolvable Strabismus • Avoid using prism when patient has Anomalous ...
Squint, or strabismus: Causes and treatment
Strabismus occurs when the eyes do not align properly. One of the eyes turns inwards, upwards, downwards, or outwards, while ... There are several different types of strabismus, including a lazy eye.. There are different types of strabismus. They can be ... Strabismus can lead to double vision if it returns in adulthood.. Untreated, it can lead to amblyopia, or "lazy eye," in which ... A squint, or strabismus, is a condition in which the eyes do not align properly. One eye turns inwards, upwards, downwards, or ...
Eye Movement Disorders | Nystagmus | Strabismus | MedlinePlus
... such as strabismus, where the eyes point in different directions, and nystagmus, which causes rapid eye movements. ... Strabismus Measurements (American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus) * Videonystagmography (VNG) (National ... Brown Syndrome (American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus) * Conjugate Gaze Palsies (Merck & Co., Inc.) ... Anatomy of the Eye (American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus) * Diagram of the Eye (National Eye ...
ALOPECIA AREATA AND STRABISMUS | The BMJ
Strabismus - Eye Care - MedHelp
I was recently diagnosed with a condition called Strabismus. Im 23 years old. Are there any low-cost treatments out there? ... Also, I was under the impression that Strabismus was the sam... ... Strabismus is the broad name for ALL eye muscle problems (think ... Also, I was under the impression that Strabismus was the same as being cross-eyed. One of my eyes is weaker then the other. but ... I was recently diagnosed with a condition called Strabismus. Im 23 years old. Are there any low-cost treatments out there? ...
Strabismus | Johns Hopkins Medicine
Strabismus - also known as hypertropia and crossed eyes - is misalignment of the eyes, causing one eye to deviate inward ( ... Strabismus. Facebook Twitter Linkedin Pinterest Print. Eyes What is strabismus?. Strabismus - also known as hypertropia and ... In children, uncorrected strabismus can lead to amblyopia, a condition in which the brain starts to ignore signals sent by the ... Some types of strabismus now can be treated with a new drug instead of surgery. The drug temporarily weakens muscles, and when ...
What Is Strabismus? - Cross Eyes | familydoctor.org
Strabismus is an eye disorder. It causes your eyes to cross or wander and affects your vision. Learn more about treatment and ... Tags: concomitant strabismus, convergent strabismus, crossed eyes, eye parallelism, latent strabismus, nonparalytic strabismus ... What is strabismus?. Strabismus is an eye disorder. It affects the muscle control in your eyes. The eyes dont line up properly ... ocular muscles, orthotic exercises, parallelism of the eyes, paralytic strabismus, strabismus ...
Strabismus - Prevent Blindness
Strabismus is a word for eyes that are not straight or do not line up with each other. If the problem is not treated, it can ... Is Strabismus Present at Birth?. Strabismus may be present at birth, it may become apparent at a later age or it may appear at ... What is False or Pseudo-strabismus?. Certain children may appear to have strabismus when, in fact, they do not. An extra fold ... How Many Children Have Strabismus?. Approximately two percent of the nations children have strabismus. Half of them are born ...
Eye Alignment and Strabismus | Casey Eye Institute | OHSU
Information for patients or children who want to learn more about eye alignment and strabismus care and treatment at OHSU Casey ... Eye Alignment and Strabismus The eye alignment and strabismus clinic is part of the Elks Childrens Eye Clinic at OHSU Casey ... What is strabismus? It is the medical term for when one eye or the other is turned from its normal position so the eyes ... Treating strabismus sometimes means having surgery. The doctor will discuss the results of you or your childs exam and answer ...
Strabismus Symptoms - American Academy of Ophthalmology
The main sign of strabismus is an eye that is not straight. Sometimes children will squint one eye in bright sunlight or tilt ... A child will not outgrow true strabismus. An ophthalmologist can distinguish true strabismus and pseudostrabismus. ... The main sign of strabismus is an eye that is not straight. Sometimes children will squint one eye in bright sunlight or tilt ... Unlike true strabismus (top of. page), note here the. symmetrical light reflection of. pseudostrabismus. ...
Strabismus Treatment - American Academy of Ophthalmology
In some cases of strabismus, eyeglasses can be prescribed for you ... Treatment for strabismus works to straighten the eyes and ... Treatment for strabismus works to straighten the eyes and restore binocular (two-eyed) vision. In some cases of strabismus, ... How is strabismus surgery done?. The eyeball is never removed from the socket during any kind of surgery. The ophthalmologist ...
Success in strabismus therapy: a literature review. - PubMed - NCBI
Divergent strabismus | Definition of Divergent strabismus at Dictionary.com
ORT4INC strabismus, Your course, La Trobe University
02. Synthesise and analyse clinical data to provide a differential diagnosis for incomitant strabismus.. 03. Apply best ... In this subject, you will build on concepts presented in Binocular Vision, Concomitant Strabismus and Neuro-ophthalmology and ... You will develop an understanding of the aetiology, investigation, diagnosis, and management of incomitant strabismus and ... 01. Develop and justify appropriate clinical investigations and management strategies for incomitant strabismus and the related ...
Strabismus | Denver Health
Strabismus is most common in children, but it may occur in adults. Other factors that may increase the chance of strabismus ... Strabismus is most common in children, but it may occur in adults. Other factors that may increase the chance of strabismus ... Strabismus is a misalignment of one or both eyes. It prevents both eyes from focusing on the same point at the same time. ... Strabismus is a misalignment of one or both eyes. It prevents both eyes from focusing on the same point at the same time. ...
OphthalmologyType of strabismusAdults with strabismusManagement of strabismusExotropiaEsotropiaFamily history of strabismusMisalignment of the eyesDiplopiaBinocularCases of strabismusSquintComplex StrabismusVertical strabismusParalytic StrabismusIncomitant strabismusSurgeriesUndergoing strabismus surgeryNystagmusLazyHorizontalPatientsColor Atlas Of Strabismus SurgeryPrismDiagnosisDetect strabismusCongenital strabismusOphthalmologistsChildhoodTreatmentOphthalmolCorrectionUndergo strabismus surgeryOcular alignmentEyesOccursSurgery for strabismusChildren have strabismus
- Existing reports provide very little data on the true incidence and demographics of strabismus in adults," says Brian G. Mohney, M.D. , with the Department of Ophthalmology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. Dr. Mohney led a team that used Rochester Epidemiology Project data to study the incidence of new-onset strabismus and its types in a geographically defined adult population diagnosed over a 20-year period. (mayoclinic.org)
Type of strabismus3
- Esotropia is the most common type of strabismus. (encyclopedia.com)
- The types of treatments may be used alone or in combination, depending on the type of strabismus and its cause. (preventblindness.org)
- Optic treatment of strabismus generally involves use of a monofocal lens and inclusion of prisms based on the type of strabismus, while customizing the eyeglass frame to the lens. (arzavision.co.il)
Adults with strabismus4
- Young children learn to ignore distorted messages from a misaligned eye, but adults with strabismus often develop double vision (diplopia). (encyclopedia.com)
- We are committed to providing comprehensive care for children and adults with strabismus, amblyopia, and nystagmus . (willseye.org)
- Adults with strabismus may have symptoms of double vision. (drbriansherman.com)
- Fortunately, various treatment options including prismatic glasses and surgery are available for adults with strabismus. (drbriansherman.com)
Management of strabismus1
Family history of strabismus1
Misalignment of the eyes2
- Nearly 90 percent of children with strabismus are diagnosed by their sixth year of life, two-thirds display an esotropic deviation, many have amblyopia, and diplopia is rare," says Dr. Mohney. (mayoclinic.org)
- Often times, adults will have double vision, or diplopia, as a result of their strabismus. (honolulueyeclinic.com)
- Binocular Vision and Strabismus Quarterly , 15 (1), 48-52. (elsevier.com)
- Congenital strabismus, which affects up to 4% of the population worldwide and 6-12 million people in the United States, can reduce vision in one or both eyes, impair binocular vision (depth perception), and disturb interpersonal interactions and self-esteem. (grantome.com)
Cases of strabismus3
- Our highly trained and experienced pediatric ophthalmologists are known locally and nationally for treating the common as well as the most difficult and complex cases of strabismus. (willseye.org)
- Surprisingly, most cases of strabismus are not a result of a muscle problem, but are due to the control system - the brain. (aspirevisioncare.com)
- Early detection and treatment is very important in all cases of strabismus! (aspirevisioncare.com)
- People who have strabismus often squint in bright sunlight or tilt their heads to focus their eyes. (encyclopedia.com)
- The medical name for squint is strabismus. (patient.info)
- What is a squint (strabismus)? (patient.info)
- Are there different types of squint (strabismus)? (patient.info)
- What are the causes of squint (strabismus) in children? (patient.info)
- What problems can be caused by a squint (strabismus) in a child? (patient.info)
- How is a squint (strabismus) diagnosed and assessed? (patient.info)
- What are the treatments for squint (strabismus)? (patient.info)
- Surgical interventions for vertical strabismus in superior oblique palsy. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Superior oblique palsy is a common cause of vertical strabismus in adults and children. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Most patients who are symptomatic elect to undergo strabismus surgery, but the optimal surgical treatment for vertical strabismus in people with superior oblique palsy is unknown. (readbyqxmd.com)
- To assess the relative effects of surgical treatments compared with another surgical intervention, non-surgical intervention, or observation for vertical strabismus in people with superior oblique palsy. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Vertical strabismus is termed hypotropia (downward turn of the eye) or hypertropia (upward turn of the eye). (seevividly.com)
- Therefore, hypotropia is a form of vertical strabismus where one eye deviates downwards in comparison to the other eye. (seevividly.com)
- For paralytic strabismus, the association between age and the incidence may be related to the age-dependent increase of diseases such as hypertension and diabetes," says Dr. Mohney. (mayoclinic.org)
- Paralytic strabismus was also significantly more common in males, due primarily to the higher incidence of fourth nerve palsy. (mayoclinic.org)
- Roughly 50,000 adults will have some form of paralytic strabismus," says Dr. Mohney. (mayoclinic.org)
- In incomitant strabismus, the amount of misalignment depends upon which direction the eyes are pointed. (encyclopedia.com)
- Genetic and neurodevelopmental studies of rare forms of incomitant strabismus have revealed that it can result from mutations in genes critical to ocular cranial motor neuron development and to the proper growth and guidance of developing axons. (grantome.com)
- I've had two eye muscle surgeries for strabismus, one when I was a year, and one when I was 13 years old. (metafilter.com)
- In total, we enrolled 126 children (6 to 10 years of age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I to II) undergoing strabismus surgeries between December 2018 and March 2019 at the EENT Hospital, Shanghai, China. (researchsquare.com)
Undergoing strabismus surgery4
- The present study aimed to compare the effects of different doses of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on PONV incidence in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery. (researchsquare.com)
- Conclusion : Dexmedetomidine (0.5 ug/kg) reduced OCR and PONV without lengthening extubation time or recovery time in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery. (researchsquare.com)
- Despite numerous efforts to decrease the incidence of PONV, it remains a significant challenge in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery. (researchsquare.com)
- In order to address these knowledge gaps, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of two different doses of dexmedetomidine on the incidence of PONV in pediatric patients undergoing strabismus surgery. (researchsquare.com)
- Health insurance usually covers strabismus, or lazy eye treatment, which is considered a therapeutic and not a cosmetic procedure, notes Cost Helper. (reference.com)
- Diagnosis of strabismus at an early age by an ophthalmologist and optometrist who specializes in strabismus can be critical in the success of strabismus treatment and in the prevention of a lazy eye. (arzavision.co.il)
- The study included 12 patients undergoing horizontal strabismus surgery, of whom 5 underwent bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions and 7 underwent bilateral lateral rectus muscle recessions. (nih.gov)
- Thirty years ago, Gobin and Bierlaagh developed the simultaneous horizontal and cyclovertical strabismus surgery that became a recognized, albeit much debated method, but no manual on the subject was available until now. (valorebooks.com)
- The work is based on an analysis of more than 6500 cases.Govin, Marc H. is the author of 'Simultaneous Horizontal and Cyclovertical Strabismus Surgery' with ISBN 9780792322467 and ISBN 0792322460. (valorebooks.com)
- Prism under cover test in alternate fixation horizontal strabismus. (readbyqxmd.com)
- To evaluate the applicability of the prism under cover test (PUCT) to quantify manifest deviation in horizontal strabismus with alternate fixation when simultaneous prism and cover test (SPCT) is not feasible. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Children aged 4-11 years, with alternate fixation horizontal strabismus and alternate prism and cover test (APCT) distance deviation (DD) up to 25 PD were eligible. (readbyqxmd.com)
- In general, strabismus (or tropia) is defined by frequency (intermittent or constant), laterality (right, left, or alternating), and direction (horizontal or vertical). (seevividly.com)
- Patients at the Wills Eye Center for Strabismus receive an unequalled level of care and responsive service with the highest quality of ophthalmic evaluation in a compassionate, patient-centered environment. (willseye.org)
- Childhood strabismus has been well-characterized by epidemiologic studies worldwide, but published reports of strabismus among adults are uncommon - and almost exclusively institution-based series of patients referred solely for surgical intervention. (mayoclinic.org)
- Strabismus surgery is an in-dependent risk factor for PONV in pediatric patients. (researchsquare.com)
- This type of surgery is ideal for patients who have had re-operations in the past, or for those who have double vision from their strabismus. (honolulueyeclinic.com)
- Many patients who develop strabismus during adulthood can have double vision. (drbriansherman.com)
Color Atlas Of Strabismus Surgery1
- Prism and cover testing is used to determine the amount of strabismus present. (aapos.org)
- Treatments include prism therapy, Botox injections and strabismus surgery. (masseyeandear.org)
- Treatment for strabismus includes glasses or contact lenses, prism lenses, vision therapy, or surgery. (lgeyecare.com)
- Is It Important to Detect Strabismus Early? (preventblindness.org)
- that is known as congenital strabismus. (ihealthlist.com)
- Congenital strabismus may be differentiated into comitant and incomitant forms. (grantome.com)
- Comitant congenital strabismus (CCS) accounts for 98% of cases, and affected individuals have full eye movements, with the angle of misalignment remaining constant with changes in gaze direction. (grantome.com)
- This proposal aims to define the genetic contributions to congenital strabismus, which in turn should provide insight into its neurodevelopmental basis and lead to improved detection and treatment. (grantome.com)
- Many adults also have strabismus, either since childhood or developed in adult life (for example, after injury or brain surgery). (willseye.org)
- Typically, strabismus in adults is a result of childhood strabismus that was not treated or progressive strabismus from injury or disease like thyroid, stroke, or diabetes. (honolulueyeclinic.com)
- Adult strabismus can be associated with residual strabismus from childhood or can develop later in life. (drbriansherman.com)
- Medical and surgical treatment of strabismus is based on the amount of eye misalignment present. (aapos.org)
- No person is ever too old to have treatment for strabismus. (willseye.org)
- Adult Strabismus clinicians provide comprehensive diagnoses and treatment for eye conditions that cause eye misalignment in adults 18 years and over. (masseyeandear.org)
- Eye muscle exercises and glasses may be helpful with mild strabismus prior to surgery as treatment. (healthtap.com)
- To evaluate the effectiveness of superior rectus (SR) and lateral rectus (LR) union suture without scleral fixation for the treatment of myopic strabismus fixus. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Home » Vision Therapy » Strabismus Treatment in Round Rock, TX » What Causes Strabismus? (aspirevisioncare.com)
- See Types and Treatment of Strabismus . (aspirevisioncare.com)
- What Treatment is Available for Strabismus? (preventblindness.org)
- Children cannot "grow out" of strabismus and it is important they receive treatment as soon as possible. (lgeyecare.com)
- Strabismus treatment can be performed surgically or optically, or a combination of the two. (arzavision.co.il)
- Another treatment for strabismus, and particularly accommodative estropia, involves multifocal lenses. (arzavision.co.il)
- Arza Fruchter has been specializing in the treatment of strabismus for many years, including complex cases, and has the necessary professional experience required to customize the right treatment based on the type of diagnoses strabismus. (arzavision.co.il)
- Arza's clinic provides treatment for strabismus, providing specially designed contact lenses or lenses with optimal thickness and correct thickness design as well as a customized frame that best suits the specific lens. (arzavision.co.il)
- If you suspect strabismus or have diagnosed strabismus that requires treatment, please contact below. (arzavision.co.il)
- In fact, strabismus may get worse without treatment. (eyesofallsize.com)
- Acute issues involving any of these disorders likely will take precedence over strabismus correction. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Depending on the cause of the strabismus, the correction of a large farsighted prescription with glasses or contacts can eliminate a strabismus. (lgeyecare.com)
- Surgical correction of adult strabismus is not considered cosmetic surgery and is restorative. (drbriansherman.com)
Undergo strabismus surgery1
- Strabismus is a condition in which the eyes do not align in the same direction. (encyclopedia.com)
- Other strabismus conditions include hypertrophia, where the eyes turn upward, and hypotropia, where the eyes turn downward. (encyclopedia.com)
- A person can look like they have strabismus because of an off-center light reflex and still have straight eyes. (aapos.org)
- Sometimes called "crossed-eyes" or "walleye," strabismus often begins when a child is very young and is usually the result of a problem with neuromuscular, including brain, control of eye movement, or less often, the actual eye muscle. (nemours.org)
- I've always associated strabismus with crossed eyes, but your description of your condition prompted me to look up the definition. (metafilter.com)
- Strabismus is when the eyes do not move together to look at the same thing. (healthtap.com)
- Animals that have lateral position of the eyes and individuals who have constant strabismus (eye turn) lack two-eyed depth perception or stereopsis. (aspirevisioncare.com)
- Strabismus is a word for eyes that are not straight or do not line up with each other. (preventblindness.org)
- When Strabismus is Present, Will the Eyes Always Look Misaligned? (preventblindness.org)
- An extra fold of skin near the inner eye, a broad, flat nose or eyes that are unusually close together may also produce the effect of false (or pseudo) strabismus. (preventblindness.org)
- Strabismus, or misaligned eyes, can cause the eyes to deviate in many directions - eyes can either be crossed in, drift out, or one may be higher than the other. (honolulueyeclinic.com)
- In the exam, the presence of strabismus is determined by obtaining proper patient history, evaluating the visual ability of each eye and both eyes together (visual acuity), testing eye-teaming skills and coordination, determination of refractive error, and complete health evaluation. (lgeyecare.com)
- A significant part of Dr. Sherman's practice is treating adults with misaligned eyes (strabismus). (drbriansherman.com)
- Crossed eyes, or strabismus, is a condition in which both eyes do not look at the same place at the same time. (eyesofallsize.com)
- Strabismus occurs equally in boys and girls and shows no variation in racial or ethnic distribution. (encyclopedia.com)
- Strabismus occurs when the eye are not aligned properly, so they do not work well together. (healthtap.com)
- It occurs early in life and will almost never occur if the strabismus develops after four years of age. (aspirevisioncare.com)
- Strabismus most often occurs in young children of a developmental age, but can occur in older children and adults. (lgeyecare.com)
- If amblyopia occurs secondary to strabismus, patching and vision therapy may be required to improve vision in the affected eye. (lgeyecare.com)