Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.
A visual symptom in which a single object is perceived by the visual cortex as two objects rather than one. Disorders associated with this condition include REFRACTIVE ERRORS; STRABISMUS; OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES; TROCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES; and diseases of the BRAIN STEM and OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.
A condition of an inequality of refractive power of the two eyes.
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Deviations from the average or standard indices of refraction of the eye through its dioptric or refractive apparatus.
Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
A pair of ophthalmic lenses in a frame or mounting which is supported by the nose and ears. The purpose is to aid or improve vision. It does not include goggles or nonprescription sun glasses for which EYE PROTECTIVE DEVICES is available.
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
An objective determination of the refractive state of the eye (NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; ASTIGMATISM). By using a RETINOSCOPE, the amount of correction and the power of lens needed can be determined.
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.
Images seen by one eye.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
A form of spinal dysraphism associated with a protruding cyst made up of either meninges (i.e., a MENINGOCELE) or meninges in combination with spinal cord tissue (i.e., a MENINGOMYELOCELE). These lesions are frequently associated with spinal cord dysfunction, HYDROCEPHALUS, and SYRINGOMYELIA. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp224-5)
A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.
A type of massage in which finger pressure on specific body sites is used to promote healing, relieve fatigue, etc. Although the anatomical locations are the same as the ACUPUNCTURE POINTS used in ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY (hence acu-), no needle or other acupuncture technique is employed in acupressure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed). Shiatsu is a modern outgrowth that focuses more on prevention than healing.
A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.
Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.
Fractures of the bones in the orbit, which include parts of the frontal, ethmoidal, lacrimal, and sphenoid bones and the maxilla and zygoma.
The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
A surgical specialty concerned with the study and treatment of disorders of the ear, nose, and throat.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.
Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.
The white, opaque, fibrous, outer tunic of the eyeball, covering it entirely excepting the segment covered anteriorly by the cornea. It is essentially avascular but contains apertures for vessels, lymphatics, and nerves. It receives the tendons of insertion of the extraocular muscles and at the corneoscleral junction contains the canal of Schlemm. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Instruments used to observe distant objects.
A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.

Family study of inherited syndrome with multiple congenital deformities: symphalangism, carpal and tarsal fusion, brachydactyly, craniosynostosis, strabismus, hip osteochondritis. (1/819)

A syndrome of brachydactyly (absence of some middle or distal phalanges), aplastic or hypoplastic nails, symphalangism (ankylois of proximal interphalangeal joints), synostosis of some carpal and tarsal bones, craniosynostosis, and dysplastic hip joints is reported in five members of an Italian family. It may represent a previously undescribed autosomal dominant trait.  (+info)

Risk factors for strabismus in children born before 32 weeks' gestation. (2/819)

AIM: To investigate risk factors associated with strabismus in children born prematurely. METHODS: Prospective study of all children born before 32 weeks' gestation between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1991 in a geographically defined population of approximately 3 million in the Northern Region of the United Kingdom. All children were examined aged 2 years by the same ophthalmologist and paediatrician. RESULTS: 558 children (98.6% of study group) were examined. Logistic regression showed an increased risk of strabismus in children with cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity (p=0.02), refractive error (p=0.003), family history of strabismus (p<0.0001), and poor neurodevelopmental outcome (p<0.0001), in particular impaired locomotor skills (p=0.008) and hand-eye coordination (p=0. 001). Gestational age and regressed acute ROP were not independent risk factors for strabismus (p=0.92 and 0.85 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified factors which are independently related to strabismus (although not necessarily causative) and others which are related only indirectly. This may contribute both to the management of children born prematurely and to future studies of the aetiology of strabismus.  (+info)

A deficit in strabismic amblyopia for global shape detection. (3/819)

Using a task which relied upon the detection of sinusoidal deformations from circularity, we show that strabismic amblyopes exhibit deficits which are not critically dependent on either the scale of deformation or the spatial frequency characteristics of the stimulus (circular D4) itself. We show that this loss is not due to the restricted passband of the amblyopic eye. Furthermore, in a pedestal distortion experiment, we show that the suprathreshold form of this loss is consistent with an elevated level of 'intrinsic noise' rather than a loss in 'sampling efficiency'.  (+info)

Orientation-based texture segmentation in strabismic amblyopia. (4/819)

Texture segmentation of 'target' Gabors from an array of 'background' Gabors was measured in terms of the difference in orientation between the two regions, as well as the difference in orientation within each region. Segmentation was shown to occur on the basis of local orientation differences at the boundary between the target and background regions (Nothdurft, H.C. (1992). Feature analysis and the role of similarity in preattentive vision. Perception and Psychophysics, 52, 355-375.). We obtained similar results for both the amblyopic and non-amblyopic eye of three strabismic amblyopes, and showed also that the effects of texture undersampling and positional jitter were similar for the two eyes. This pattern of results is consistent with intact mechanisms of texture perception in amblyopic cortex, and suggests also that any amblyopic deficits in first-order cortical units (undersampling and/or positional uncertainty) do not limit higher-order texture segmentation processes. Therefore, first- and second-order processes involved in perceptual grouping of oriented elements (that appear to be abnormal in amblyopic cortex; Kovacs, I., Polat, U., Norcia, A.M. (1996). Breakdown of binding mechanisms in amblyopia. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology Abstracts; Mussap, A.J., Levi, D.M. (1995). Amblyopic deficits in perception of second-order orientation. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (Supplement), 36, S634; Mussap, A.J., Levi, D.M. (1998). Amblyopic deficits in perceptual grouping. Vision Research, submitted) do not contribute to texture perception based on orientation contrast.  (+info)

Position jitter and undersampling in pattern perception. (5/819)

The present paper addresses whether topographical jitter or undersampling might limit pattern perception in foveal, peripheral and strabismic amblyopic vision. In the first experiment, we measured contrast thresholds for detecting and identifying the orientation (up, down, left, right) of E-like patterns comprised of Gabor samples. We found that detection and identification thresholds were both degraded in peripheral and amblyopic vision; however, the orientation identification/detection threshold ratio was approximately the same in foveal, peripheral and amblyopic vision. This result is somewhat surprising, because we anticipated that a high degree of uncalibrated topographical jitter in peripheral and amblyopic vision would have affected orientation identification to a greater extent than detection. In the second experiment, we investigated the tolerance of human and model observers to perturbation of the positions of the samples defining the pattern when its contrast was suprathreshold, by measuring a 'jitter threshold' (the amount of jitter required to reduce performance from near perfect to 62.5% correct). The results and modeling of our jitter experiments suggest that pattern identification is highly robust to positional jitter. The positional tolerance of foveal, peripheral and amblyopic vision is equal to about half the separation of the features and the close similarity between the three visual systems argues against extreme topographical jitter. The effects of jitter on human performance are consistent with the predictions of a 'template' model. In the third experiment we determined what fraction of the 17 Gabor samples are needed to reliably identify the orientation of the E-patterns by measuring a 'sample threshold' (the proportion of samples required for 62.5% correct performance). In foveal vision, human observers are highly efficient requiring only about half the samples for reliable pattern identification. Relative to an ideal observer model, humans perform this task with 85% efficiency. In contrast, in both peripheral vision and strabismic amblyopia more samples are required. The increased number of features required in peripheral vision and strabismic amblyopia suggests that in these visual systems, the stimulus is underrepresented at the stage of feature integration.  (+info)

Assessment of cortical dysfunction in human strabismic amblyopia using magnetoencephalography (MEG). (6/819)

The aim of this study was to use the technique of magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine the effects of strabismic amblyopia on the processing of spatial information within the occipital cortex of humans. We recorded evoked magnetic responses to the onset of a chromatic (red/green) sinusoidal grating of periodicity 0.5-4.0 c deg-1 using a 19-channel SQUID-based neuromagnetometer. Evoked responses were recorded monocularly on six amblyopes and six normally-sighted controls, the stimuli being positioned near the fovea in the lower right visual field of each observer. For comparison, the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for the detection of chromatic gratings was measured for one amblyope and one control using a two alternate forced-choice psychophysical procedure. We chose red/green sinusoids as our stimuli because they evoke strong magnetic responses from the occipital cortex in adult humans (Fylan, Holliday, Singh, Anderson & Harding. (1997). Neuroimage, 6, 47-57). Magnetic field strength was plotted as a function of stimulus spatial frequency for each eye of each subject. Interocular differences were only evident within the amblyopic group: for stimuli of 1-2 c deg-1, the evoked responses had significantly longer latencies and reduced amplitudes through the amblyopic eye (P < 0.05). Importantly, the extent of the deficit was uncorrelated with either Snellen acuity or contrast sensitivity. Localization of the evoked responses was performed using a single equivalent current dipole model. Source localizations, for both normal and amblyopic subjects, were consistent with neural activity at the occipital pole near the V1/V2 border. We conclude that MEG is sensitive to the deficit in cortical processing associated with human amblyopia, and can be used to make quantitative neurophysiological measurements. The nature of the cortical deficit is discussed.  (+info)

The puzzle of autism: an ophthalmologic contribution. (7/819)

PURPOSE: A previous study of 86 thalidomide-affected subjects with ophthalmic manifestations revealed the unexpected finding of autism in 4 of the 5 severely retarded individuals. The subjects had anomalies associated with an early gestational effect of thalidomide, including facial nerve palsy and incomitant strabismus. Because autism has been observed in a few cases of Mobius sequence (Mobius syndrome), a condition characterized by involvement of the sixth and seventh cranial nerves, the similarity to early thalidomide embryopathy suggested a relation between cranial nerve involvement and autism. The present study was undertaken to further evaluate the association of autism with patients manifesting findings of Mobius syndrome. METHODS: A prospective study of 25 Swedish patients with Mobius sequence was conducted. The patients had a complete multidisciplinary evaluation, including ophthalmologic and psychiatric examinations and standard testing for autism. Findings associated with autism were compared with the ocular and systemic anomalies of the 4 thalidomide-affected subjects. RESULTS: In the Mobius group 6 patients had autism, achieving the criteria for autism according to all the diagnostic manuals that were used. One patient showed autistic-like conditions meeting fewer numbers of the criteria. A few were too young to be meeting evaluated. Incomitant strabismus ranging from primary abduction defects alone to a horizontal gaze paresis pattern was noted in these patients, in addition to characteristic findings of seventh nerve paresis. Aberrant lacrimation was observed in many cases, especially often associated with autism. CONCLUSION: The common group of anomalies noted in both cases of thalidomide embryopathy and Mobius sequence suggests that brain-stem damage probably early in embryogenesis can sometimes be associated with autism.  (+info)

The therapy of amblyopia: an analysis of the results of amblyopia therapy utilizing the pooled data of published studies. (8/819)

CONTEXT: Although the treatment of amblyopia with occlusion has changed little over the past 3 centuries, there is little agreement about which regimes are most effective and for what reasons. OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcome of occlusion therapy in patients with anisometropic, strabismic, and strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia employing the raw data from 961 patients reported in 23 studies published between 1965 and 1994. DESIGN: Analysis of the published literature on amblyopia therapy results during the above interval, utilizing primary data obtained from the authors of these articles or tables published in the articles detailing individual patient outcomes. PARTICIPANTS: 961 amblyopic patients, participants in 23 studies, undergoing patching therapy for amblyopia from 1965 to 1994 with anisometropia, strabismus, or anisometropia-strabismus. MAIN OUTCOMES: In the pooled data set, success of occlusion therapy was defined as visual acuity of 20/40 at the end of treatment. RESULTS: Success by the 20/40 criteria was achieved in 512 of 689 (74.3%) patients. By category, 312 of 402 (77.6%) were successful in strabismic amblyopia, 44 of 75 (58.7%) in strabismic-anisometropic amblyopia, and 72 of 108 (66.7%) in anisometropic amblyopia. Success was not related to the duration of occlusion therapy, type of occlusion used, accompanying refractive error, patient's sex, or eye. Univariate analyses showed that success was related to the age at which therapy was initiated; the type of amblyopia; the depth of visual loss before treatment for the anisometropic patients and the strabismic patients, but not for the anisometropic-strabismic patients; and the difference in spherical equivalents between eyes, for the anisometropic patients. Logistic/linear regression revealed that 3 were independent predictors of a successful outcome of amblyopia therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Factors that appear most closely related to a successful outcome are age, type of amblyopia, and depth of visual loss before treatment. These may be related to factors, as yet undetermined in the pathogenesis of amblyopia. With present emphasis on the value of screening and prevention and the development of new screening tools, such a look at the results of amblyopia therapy in a large population seems indicated.  (+info)

Strabismus is a condition of the ocular muscles where the eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions. One eye may turn inward, outward, upward, or downward while the other one remains fixed and aligns normally. This misalignment can occur occasionally or constantly. Strabismus is also commonly referred to as crossed eyes or walleye. The condition can lead to visual impairments such as amblyopia (lazy eye) and depth perception problems if not treated promptly and effectively, usually through surgery, glasses, or vision therapy.

Esotropia is a type of ocular misalignment, also known as strabismus, in which one eye turns inward toward the nose. This condition can be constant or intermittent and may result in double vision or loss of depth perception. Esotropia is often classified based on its cause, age of onset, and frequency. Common forms include congenital esotropia, acquired esotropia, and accommodative esotropia. Treatment typically involves corrective eyewear, eye exercises, or surgery to realign the eyes.

The oculomotor muscles are a group of extraocular muscles that control the movements of the eye. They include:

1. Superior rectus: This muscle is responsible for elevating the eye and helping with inward rotation (intorsion) when looking downwards.
2. Inferior rectus: It depresses the eye and helps with outward rotation (extorsion) when looking upwards.
3. Medial rectus: This muscle adducts, or moves, the eye towards the midline of the face.
4. Inferior oblique: The inferior oblique muscle intorts and elevates the eye.
5. Superior oblique: It extorts and depresses the eye.

These muscles work together to allow for smooth and precise movements of the eyes, enabling tasks such as tracking moving objects, reading, and maintaining visual fixation on a single point in space.

Exotropia is a type of ocular misalignment or strabismus, where one eye turns outward (towards the ear) while the other eye remains aligned straight ahead. This condition can be constant or intermittent and may result in limited or absent depth perception, double vision, and in some cases, amblyopia (lazy eye). Exotropia is typically diagnosed during childhood through a comprehensive eye examination by an optometrist or ophthalmologist. Treatment options include eyeglasses, prism lenses, vision therapy, or surgery, depending on the severity and frequency of the misalignment.

Amblyopia is a medical condition that affects the visual system, specifically the way the brain and eyes work together. It is often referred to as "lazy eye" and is characterized by reduced vision in one or both eyes that is not correctable with glasses or contact lenses alone. This occurs because the brain favors one eye over the other, causing the weaker eye to become neglected and underdeveloped.

Amblyopia can result from various conditions such as strabismus (eye misalignment), anisometropia (significant difference in prescription between the two eyes), or deprivation (such as a cataract that blocks light from entering the eye). Treatment for amblyopia typically involves correcting any underlying refractive errors, patching or blurring the stronger eye to force the weaker eye to work, and/or vision therapy. Early intervention is crucial to achieve optimal visual outcomes.

Diplopia is a medical term that refers to the condition where a person sees two images of a single object. It is commonly known as double vision. This can occur due to various reasons, such as nerve damage or misalignment of the eyes. Diplopia can be temporary or chronic and can affect one or both eyes. If you're experiencing diplopia, it's essential to consult an eye care professional for proper evaluation and treatment.

Ophthalmologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed on the eye and its surrounding structures by trained medical professionals called ophthalmologists. These procedures aim to correct or improve vision, diagnose and treat eye diseases or injuries, and enhance the overall health and functionality of the eye. Some common examples of ophthalmologic surgical procedures include:

1. Cataract Surgery: This procedure involves removing a cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).
2. LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis): A type of refractive surgery that uses a laser to reshape the cornea, correcting nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.
3. Glaucoma Surgery: Several surgical options are available for treating glaucoma, including laser trabeculoplasty, traditional trabeculectomy, and various drainage device implantations. These procedures aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and prevent further optic nerve damage.
4. Corneal Transplant: This procedure involves replacing a damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy donor cornea to restore vision and improve the eye's appearance.
5. Vitreoretinal Surgery: These procedures focus on treating issues within the vitreous humor (gel-like substance filling the eye) and the retina, such as retinal detachment, macular holes, or diabetic retinopathy.
6. Strabismus Surgery: This procedure aims to correct misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) by adjusting the muscles responsible for eye movement.
7. Oculoplastic Surgery: These procedures involve reconstructive, cosmetic, and functional surgeries around the eye, such as eyelid repair, removal of tumors, or orbital fracture repairs.
8. Pediatric Ophthalmologic Procedures: Various surgical interventions are performed on children to treat conditions like congenital cataracts, amblyopia (lazy eye), or blocked tear ducts.

These are just a few examples of ophthalmic surgical procedures. The specific treatment plan will depend on the individual's condition and overall health.

Binocular vision refers to the ability to use both eyes together to create a single, three-dimensional image of our surroundings. This is achieved through a process called binocular fusion, where the images from each eye are aligned and combined in the brain to form a unified perception.

The term "binocular vision" specifically refers to the way that our visual system integrates information from both eyes to create depth perception and enhance visual clarity. When we view an object with both eyes, they focus on the same point in space and send slightly different images to the brain due to their slightly different positions. The brain then combines these images to create a single, three-dimensional image that allows us to perceive depth and distance.

Binocular vision is important for many everyday activities, such as driving, reading, and playing sports. Disorders of binocular vision can lead to symptoms such as double vision, eye strain, and difficulty with depth perception.

Vision screening is a quick and cost-effective method used to identify individuals who are at risk of vision problems or eye diseases. It is not a comprehensive eye examination, but rather an initial evaluation that helps to determine if a further, more in-depth examination by an eye care professional is needed. Vision screenings typically involve tests for visual acuity, distance and near vision, color perception, depth perception, and alignment of the eyes. The goal of vision screening is to detect potential vision issues early on, so that they can be treated promptly and effectively, thereby preventing or minimizing any negative impact on a person's overall vision and quality of life.

Anisometropia is a medical term that refers to a condition where there is a significant difference in the refractive power between the two eyes. In other words, one eye has a significantly different optical prescription compared to the other eye. This condition can cause issues with binocular vision and depth perception, and can sometimes lead to amblyopia (lazy eye) if not corrected early in life. It is typically diagnosed through a comprehensive eye examination and can be corrected with glasses or contact lenses.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

Refractive errors are a group of vision conditions that include nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), astigmatism, and presbyopia. These conditions occur when the shape of the eye prevents light from focusing directly on the retina, causing blurred or distorted vision.

Myopia is a condition where distant objects appear blurry while close-up objects are clear. This occurs when the eye is too long or the cornea is too curved, causing light to focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it.

Hyperopia, on the other hand, is a condition where close-up objects appear blurry while distant objects are clear. This happens when the eye is too short or the cornea is not curved enough, causing light to focus behind the retina.

Astigmatism is a condition that causes blurred vision at all distances due to an irregularly shaped cornea or lens.

Presbyopia is a natural aging process that affects everyone as they get older, usually around the age of 40. It causes difficulty focusing on close-up objects and can be corrected with reading glasses, bifocals, or progressive lenses.

Refractive errors can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam and are typically corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK.

An oculocardiac reflex is a medical term that refers to a reflexive response that involves the eye and the heart. This reflex is elicited when there is pressure or traction applied to the eye or its surrounding structures, which can result in a decrease in heart rate.

The oculocardiac reflex is mediated by the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) and the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X). When the eye or its surrounding structures are stimulated, the impulses travel through the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve to the brainstem, where they synapse with neurons in the vagus nerve. The vagus nerve then carries these impulses to the sinoatrial node of the heart, which results in a decrease in heart rate.

The oculocardiac reflex is commonly seen during ophthalmic surgical procedures, particularly those that involve manipulation of the eye or its surrounding structures. It can also occur in response to other forms of stimulation, such as coughing, sneezing, or vomiting. In some cases, the oculocardiac reflex can lead to a significant decrease in heart rate, which may require medical intervention to prevent serious complications.

Eye movements, also known as ocular motility, refer to the voluntary or involuntary motion of the eyes that allows for visual exploration of our environment. There are several types of eye movements, including:

1. Saccades: rapid, ballistic movements that quickly shift the gaze from one point to another.
2. Pursuits: smooth, slow movements that allow the eyes to follow a moving object.
3. Vergences: coordinated movements of both eyes in opposite directions, usually in response to a three-dimensional stimulus.
4. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): automatic eye movements that help stabilize the gaze during head movement.
5. Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN): rhythmic eye movements that occur in response to large moving visual patterns, such as when looking out of a moving vehicle.

Abnormalities in eye movements can indicate neurological or ophthalmological disorders and are often assessed during clinical examinations.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Eyeglasses are a medical device used to correct vision problems. Also known as spectacles, they consist of frames that hold one or more lenses through which a person looks to see clearly. The lenses may be made of glass or plastic and are designed to compensate for various visual impairments such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, or presbyopia. Eyeglasses can be custom-made to fit an individual's face and prescription, and they come in a variety of styles, colors, and materials. Some people wear eyeglasses all the time, while others may only need to wear them for certain activities such as reading or driving.

Pathological nystagmus is an abnormal, involuntary movement of the eyes that can occur in various directions (horizontal, vertical, or rotatory) and can be rhythmical or arrhythmic. It is typically a result of a disturbance in the vestibular system, central nervous system, or ocular motor pathways. Pathological nystagmus can cause visual symptoms such as blurred vision, difficulty with fixation, and oscillopsia (the sensation that one's surroundings are moving). The type, direction, and intensity of the nystagmus may vary depending on the underlying cause, which can include conditions such as brainstem or cerebellar lesions, multiple sclerosis, drug toxicity, inner ear disorders, and congenital abnormalities.

Depth perception is the ability to accurately judge the distance or separation of an object in three-dimensional space. It is a complex visual process that allows us to perceive the world in three dimensions and to understand the spatial relationships between objects.

Depth perception is achieved through a combination of monocular cues, which are visual cues that can be perceived with one eye, and binocular cues, which require input from both eyes. Monocular cues include perspective (the relative size of objects), texture gradients (finer details become smaller as distance increases), and atmospheric perspective (colors become less saturated and lighter in value as distance increases). Binocular cues include convergence (the degree to which the eyes must turn inward to focus on an object) and retinal disparity (the slight difference in the images projected onto the two retinas due to the slightly different positions of the eyes).

Deficits in depth perception can occur due to a variety of factors, including eye disorders, brain injuries, or developmental delays. These deficits can result in difficulties with tasks such as driving, sports, or navigating complex environments. Treatment for depth perception deficits may include vision therapy, corrective lenses, or surgery.

Ophthalmoplegia is a medical term that refers to the paralysis or weakness of the eye muscles, which can result in double vision (diplopia) or difficulty moving the eyes. It can be caused by various conditions, including nerve damage, muscle disorders, or neurological diseases such as myasthenia gravis or multiple sclerosis. Ophthalmoplegia can affect one or more eye muscles and can be partial or complete. Depending on the underlying cause, ophthalmoplegia may be treatable with medications, surgery, or other interventions.

Retinoscopy is a diagnostic technique used in optometry and ophthalmology to estimate the refractive error of the eye, or in other words, to determine the prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses. This procedure involves shining a light into the patient's pupil and observing the reflection off the retina while introducing different lenses in front of the patient's eye. The examiner then uses specific movements and observations to determine the amount and type of refractive error, such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, or presbyopia. Retinoscopy is a fundamental skill for eye care professionals and helps ensure that patients receive accurate prescriptions for corrective lenses.

Ocular convergence is the normal, inward movement of both eyes towards each other to focus on a nearby object. This coordinated action allows for single, clear vision (binocular vision) of the object. It is an important component of visual function and is controlled by the brain receiving input from the muscles that move the eyes.

Convergence insufficiency is a common condition where the eyes have difficulty maintaining alignment during close work, such as reading or using a computer. This can result in eye strain, double vision, and difficulty concentrating. Treatment for convergence insufficiency may include vision therapy, exercises to improve convergence ability, and/or the use of prism lenses.

Ocular fixation is a term used in ophthalmology and optometry to refer to the ability of the eyes to maintain steady gaze or visual focus on an object. It involves the coordinated movement of the extraocular muscles that control eye movements, allowing for clear and stable vision.

In medical terminology, fixation specifically refers to the state in which the eyes are aligned and focused on a single point in space. This is important for maintaining visual perception and preventing blurring or double vision. Ocular fixation can be affected by various factors such as muscle weakness, nerve damage, or visual processing disorders.

Assessment of ocular fixation is often used in eye examinations to evaluate visual acuity, eye alignment, and muscle function. Abnormalities in fixation may indicate the presence of underlying eye conditions or developmental delays that require further investigation and treatment.

Vision tests are a series of procedures used to assess various aspects of the visual system, including visual acuity, accommodation, convergence, divergence, stereopsis, color vision, and peripheral vision. These tests help healthcare professionals diagnose and manage vision disorders, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, amblyopia, strabismus, and eye diseases like glaucoma, cataracts, and macular degeneration. Common vision tests include:

1. Visual acuity test (Snellen chart or letter chart): Measures the sharpness of a person's vision at different distances.
2. Refraction test: Determines the correct lens prescription for glasses or contact lenses by assessing how light is bent as it passes through the eye.
3. Color vision test: Evaluates the ability to distinguish between different colors and color combinations, often using pseudoisochromatic plates or Ishihara tests.
4. Stereopsis test: Assesses depth perception and binocular vision by presenting separate images to each eye that, when combined, create a three-dimensional effect.
5. Cover test: Examines eye alignment and the presence of strabismus (crossed eyes or turned eyes) by covering and uncovering each eye while observing eye movements.
6. Ocular motility test: Assesses the ability to move the eyes in various directions and coordinate both eyes during tracking and convergence/divergence movements.
7. Accommodation test: Evaluates the ability to focus on objects at different distances by using lenses, prisms, or dynamic retinoscopy.
8. Pupillary response test: Examines the size and reaction of the pupils to light and near objects.
9. Visual field test: Measures the peripheral (side) vision using automated perimetry or manual confrontation techniques.
10. Slit-lamp examination: Inspects the structures of the front part of the eye, such as the cornea, iris, lens, and anterior chamber, using a specialized microscope.

These tests are typically performed by optometrists, ophthalmologists, or other vision care professionals during routine eye examinations or when visual symptoms are present.

Ocular refraction is a medical term that refers to the bending of light as it passes through the optical media of the eye, including the cornea and lens. This process allows the eye to focus light onto the retina, creating a clear image. The refractive power of the eye is determined by the curvature and transparency of these structures.

In a normal eye, light rays are bent or refracted in such a way that they converge at a single point on the retina, producing a sharp and focused image. However, if the curvature of the cornea or lens is too steep or too flat, the light rays may not converge properly, resulting in a refractive error such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), or astigmatism.

Ocular refraction can be measured using a variety of techniques, including retinoscopy, automated refraction, and subjective refraction. These measurements are used to determine the appropriate prescription for corrective lenses such as eyeglasses or contact lenses. In some cases, ocular refractive errors may be corrected surgically through procedures such as LASIK or PRK.

Monocular vision refers to the ability to see and process visual information using only one eye. It is the type of vision that an individual has when they are using only one eye to look at something, while the other eye may be covered or not functioning. This can be contrasted with binocular vision, which involves the use of both eyes working together to provide depth perception and a single, combined visual field.

Monocular vision is important for tasks that only require the use of one eye, such as when looking through a microscope or using a telescope. However, it does not provide the same level of depth perception and spatial awareness as binocular vision. In some cases, individuals may have reduced visual acuity or other visual impairments in one eye, leading to limited monocular vision in that eye. It is important for individuals with monocular vision to have regular eye exams to monitor their eye health and ensure that any visual impairments are detected and treated promptly.

Sensory deprivation, also known as perceptual isolation or sensory restriction, refers to the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses. This can include limiting input from sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. The goal is to limit a person's sensory experiences in order to study the effects on cognition, perception, and behavior.

In a clinical context, sensory deprivation can occur as a result of certain medical conditions or treatments, such as blindness, deafness, or pharmacological interventions that affect sensory processing. Prolonged sensory deprivation can lead to significant psychological and physiological effects, including hallucinations, delusions, and decreased cognitive function.

It's important to note that sensory deprivation should not be confused with meditation or relaxation techniques that involve reducing external stimuli in a controlled manner to promote relaxation and focus.

Spina Bifida Cystica is a type of neural tube defect that occurs when the bones of the spine (vertebrae) do not form properly around the developing spinal cord, resulting in a sac-like protrusion of the spinal cord and its surrounding membranes through an opening in the spine. This sac, called a meningocele or myelomeningocele, can be covered with skin or exposed, and it may contain cerebrospinal fluid, nerve roots, or portions of the spinal cord.

Myelomeningocele is the most severe form of Spina Bifida Cystica, where the sac contains a portion of the spinal cord and nerves. This can lead to various neurological complications such as weakness or paralysis below the level of the spine affected, loss of sensation, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and hydrocephalus (accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain). Early diagnosis and intervention, including prenatal surgery, can help improve outcomes for individuals with Spina Bifida Cystica.

Duane Retraction Syndrome (DRS) is a congenital eye movement disorder, characterized by limited abduction (lateral movement away from the nose) of the affected eye, and on attempted adduction (movement towards the nose), the eye retracts into the orbit and the lid narrows. It is often accompanied by other eye alignment or vision anomalies. The exact cause is not known, but it is believed to be a result of abnormal development of the cranial nerves that control eye movement during fetal development. DRS is usually idiopathic, but it can also be associated with other congenital anomalies. It is typically diagnosed in early childhood and managed with a combination of observation, prism glasses, and/or surgery, depending on the severity and impact on vision.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is a motor nerve that originates from the midbrain. It controls the majority of the eye muscles, including the levator palpebrae superioris muscle that raises the upper eyelid, and the extraocular muscles that enable various movements of the eye such as looking upward, downward, inward, and outward. Additionally, it carries parasympathetic fibers responsible for pupillary constriction and accommodation (focusing on near objects). Damage to this nerve can result in various ocular motor disorders, including strabismus, ptosis, and pupillary abnormalities.

Ocular accommodation is the process by which the eye changes optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. This is primarily achieved by the lens of the eye changing shape through the action of the ciliary muscles inside the eye. When you look at something far away, the lens becomes flatter, and when you look at something close up, the lens thickens. This ability to adjust focus allows for clear vision at different distances.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve, is responsible for controlling the lateral rectus muscle of the eye, which enables the eye to move outward. Abducens nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can result in various symptoms, primarily affecting eye movement.

Here are some medical definitions related to abducens nerve diseases:

1. Abducens Nerve Palsy: A condition characterized by weakness or paralysis of the abducens nerve, causing difficulty in moving the affected eye outward. This results in double vision (diplopia), especially when gazing towards the side of the weakened nerve. Abducens nerve palsy can be congenital, acquired, or caused by various factors such as trauma, tumors, aneurysms, infections, or diseases like diabetes and multiple sclerosis.
2. Sixth Nerve Palsy: Another term for abducens nerve palsy, referring to the weakness or paralysis of the sixth cranial nerve.
3. Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (INO): A neurological condition affecting eye movement, often caused by a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the abducens nucleus with the oculomotor nucleus. INO results in impaired adduction (inward movement) of the eye on the side of the lesion and nystagmus (involuntary eye movements) of the abducting eye on the opposite side when attempting to look towards the side of the lesion.
4. One-and-a-Half Syndrome: A rare neurological condition characterized by a combination of INO and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with horizontal gaze palsy on the same side, caused by damage to both the abducens nerve and the paramedian pontine reticular formation (PPRF). This results in limited or no ability to move the eyes towards the side of the lesion and impaired adduction of the eye on the opposite side.
5. Brainstem Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brainstem, which can affect the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves, leading to various neurological symptoms such as diplopia (double vision), ataxia (loss of balance and coordination), and facial weakness. Brainstem encephalitis can be caused by infectious agents, autoimmune disorders, or paraneoplastic syndromes.
6. Multiple Sclerosis (MS): An autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system, including the brainstem and optic nerves. MS can cause various neurological symptoms, such as diplopia, nystagmus, and INO, due to damage to the abducens nerve and other cranial nerves.
7. Wernicke's Encephalopathy: A neurological disorder caused by thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, often seen in alcoholics or individuals with malnutrition. Wernicke's encephalopathy can affect the brainstem and cause various symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, confusion, and oculomotor abnormalities.
8. Pontine Glioma: A rare type of brain tumor that arises from the glial cells in the pons (a part of the brainstem). Pontine gliomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, facial weakness, and difficulty swallowing due to their location in the brainstem.
9. Brainstem Cavernous Malformation: A benign vascular lesion that arises from the small blood vessels in the brainstem. Brainstem cavernous malformations can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, ataxia, and facial weakness due to their location in the brainstem.
10. Pituitary Adenoma: A benign tumor that arises from the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain. Large pituitary adenomas can compress the optic nerves and cause various visual symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, and decreased vision.
11. Craniopharyngioma: A benign tumor that arises from the remnants of the Rathke's pouch, a structure that gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland. Craniopharyngiomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the optic nerves and pituitary gland.
12. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, and seizures depending on their location in the brain or spinal cord.
13. Chordoma: A rare type of malignant tumor that arises from the remnants of the notochord, a structure that gives rise to the spine during embryonic development. Chordomas can cause various neurological and endocrine symptoms such as diplopia, visual field defects, headaches, and hormonal imbalances due to their location near the brainstem and spinal cord.
14. Metastatic Brain Tumors: Malignant tumors that spread from other parts of the body to the brain. Metastatic brain tumors can cause various neurological symptoms such as diplopia, headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment depending on their location in the brain.
15. Other Rare Brain Tumors: There are many other rare types of brain tumors that can cause diplopia or other neurological symptoms, including gliomas, ependymomas, pineal region tumors, and others. These tumors require specialized diagnosis and treatment by neuro-oncologists and neurosurgeons with expertise in these rare conditions.

In summary, diplopia can be caused by various brain tumors, including pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, chordomas, metastatic brain tumors, and other rare types of tumors. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience diplopia or other neurological symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

Acupressure is a complementary therapy based on the concept of acupuncture, which involves applying pressure (usually with fingers, hands, or elbow) to specific points on the body (known as acupoints). The goal of acupressure is to stimulate and balance the flow of energy (chi or qi) through the body's meridians or channels. This practice is believed to help promote relaxation, reduce stress, relieve pain, improve sleep, and enhance overall well-being.

It is important to note that while acupressure has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine, its effectiveness is not consistently supported by scientific research. Some studies suggest potential benefits, but more rigorous, high-quality research is needed to confirm these findings. As with any therapy, it's recommended to consult a healthcare professional before starting an acupressure practice, especially if you have any health conditions or are taking medications.

Polyglactin 910 is a type of synthetic absorbable suture made from copolymers of lactide and glycolide. It is designed to gradually break down and be absorbed by the body over time, typically within 56 to 70 days after being used in surgical wounds. This property makes it an ideal choice for soft tissue approximation and laceration repairs.

Polyglactin 910 sutures are often used in various surgical procedures, including orthopedic, ophthalmic, cardiovascular, and general surgery. They come in different sizes and forms, such as plain, reverse cutting, and braided, to suit various surgical needs.

The gradual absorption of Polyglactin 910 sutures helps minimize scarring and reduces the need for suture removal procedures. However, it is essential to note that inflammation may occur during the degradation process, which could potentially lead to adverse reactions in some individuals. Proper wound care and follow-up with healthcare professionals are crucial to ensure optimal healing and manage any potential complications.

Blepharoptosis is a medical term that refers to the drooping or falling of the upper eyelid. It is usually caused by weakness or paralysis of the muscle that raises the eyelid, known as the levator palpebrae superioris. This condition can be present at birth or acquired later in life due to various factors such as aging, nerve damage, eye surgery complications, or certain medical conditions like myasthenia gravis or brain tumors. Blepharoptosis may obstruct vision and cause difficulty with daily activities, and treatment options include eyedrops, eye patches, or surgical correction.

Orbital fractures refer to breaks in the bones that make up the eye socket, also known as the orbit. These bones include the maxilla, zygoma, frontal bone, and palatine bone. Orbital fractures can occur due to trauma, such as a blunt force injury or a penetrating wound.

There are several types of orbital fractures, including:

1. Blowout fracture: This occurs when the thin bone of the orbital floor is broken, often due to a direct blow to the eye. The force of the impact can cause the eyeball to move backward, breaking the bone and sometimes trapping the muscle that moves the eye (the inferior rectus).
2. Blow-in fracture: This type of fracture involves the breakage of the orbital roof, which is the bone that forms the upper boundary of the orbit. It typically occurs due to high-impact trauma, such as a car accident or a fall from a significant height.
3. Direct fracture: A direct fracture happens when there is a break in one or more of the bones that form the walls of the orbit. This type of fracture can result from a variety of traumas, including motor vehicle accidents, sports injuries, and assaults.
4. Indirect fracture: An indirect fracture occurs when the force of an injury is transmitted to the orbit through tissues surrounding it, causing the bone to break. The most common type of indirect orbital fracture is a blowout fracture.

Orbital fractures can cause various symptoms, including pain, swelling, bruising, and double vision. In some cases, the fracture may also lead to enophthalmos (sinking of the eye into the orbit) or telecanthus (increased distance between the inner corners of the eyes). Imaging tests, such as CT scans, are often used to diagnose orbital fractures and determine the best course of treatment. Treatment may include observation, pain management, and in some cases, surgery to repair the fracture and restore normal function.

The abducens nerve, also known as the sixth cranial nerve (CN VI), is a motor nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle of the eye. This muscle is responsible for moving the eye away from the midline (towards the temple) and enables the eyes to look towards the side while keeping them aligned. Any damage or dysfunction of the abducens nerve can result in strabismus, where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions, specifically an adduction deficit, also known as abducens palsy or sixth nerve palsy.

Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases and disorders of the eye and visual system. It is a surgical specialty, and ophthalmologists are medical doctors who complete additional years of training to become experts in eye care. They are qualified to perform eye exams, diagnose and treat eye diseases, prescribe glasses and contact lenses, and perform eye surgery. Some subspecialties within ophthalmology include cornea and external disease, glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, pediatric ophthalmology, retina and vitreous, and oculoplastics.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is responsible for controlling several important eye movements and functions. Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can lead to various symptoms related to eye movement and function. Here's a medical definition of oculomotor nerve diseases:

Oculomotor nerve diseases are a group of medical disorders characterized by the dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN III), resulting in impaired eye movements, abnormalities in pupillary response, and potential effects on eyelid position. These conditions can be congenital, acquired, or traumatic in nature and may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the nerve. Common oculomotor nerve diseases include oculomotor nerve palsy, third nerve ganglionopathies, and compressive oculomotor neuropathies caused by various pathologies such as aneurysms, tumors, or infections.

Ocular motility disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect the movement of the eyes. These disorders can result from nerve damage, muscle dysfunction, or brain injuries. They can cause abnormal eye alignment, limited range of motion, and difficulty coordinating eye movements. Common symptoms include double vision, blurry vision, strabismus (crossed eyes), nystagmus (involuntary eye movement), and difficulty tracking moving objects. Ocular motility disorders can be congenital or acquired and may require medical intervention to correct or manage the condition.

Otolaryngology is a specialized branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, management, and treatment of disorders related to the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and head and neck region. It's also known as ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat) specialty. Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management of conditions such as hearing and balance disorders, nasal congestion, sinusitis, allergies, sleep apnea, snoring, swallowing difficulties, voice and speech problems, and head and neck tumors.

Optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) is a type of involuntary eye movement that occurs in response to large moving visual patterns. It serves as a mechanism for stabilizing the image on the retina during head movement and helps in maintaining visual fixation.

In OKN, there are two phases of eye movement: a slow phase where the eyes follow or track the moving pattern, and a fast phase where the eyes quickly reset to the starting position. This results in a back-and-forth or "to-and-fro" motion of the eyes.

Optokinetic nystagmus can be elicited by observing a large moving object or a series of alternating visual stimuli, such as stripes on a rotating drum. It is often used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of the visual system, including oculomotor function and visual acuity.

Abnormalities in OKN can indicate problems with the vestibular system, brainstem, or cerebellum, and may be associated with conditions such as brain injury, multiple sclerosis, or cerebral palsy.

Otorhinolaryngologic surgical procedures are surgeries that are performed on the head and neck region, specifically involving the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) regions. This field is also known as otolaryngology-head and neck surgery. The procedures can range from relatively minor ones, such as removing a small nasal polyp or inserting ear tubes, to more complex surgeries like cochlear implantation, endoscopic sinus surgery, or removal of tumors in the head and neck region. These surgical procedures are typically performed by specialized physicians called otorhinolaryngologists (also known as ENT surgeons) who have completed extensive training in this area.

In medical terms, the orbit refers to the bony cavity or socket in the skull that contains and protects the eye (eyeball) and its associated structures, including muscles, nerves, blood vessels, fat, and the lacrimal gland. The orbit is made up of several bones: the frontal bone, sphenoid bone, zygomatic bone, maxilla bone, and palatine bone. These bones form a pyramid-like shape that provides protection for the eye while also allowing for a range of movements.

The sclera is the tough, white, fibrous outer coating of the eye in humans and other vertebrates, covering about five sixths of the eyeball's surface. It provides protection for the delicate inner structures of the eye and maintains its shape. The sclera is composed mainly of collagen and elastic fiber, making it strong and resilient. Its name comes from the Greek word "skleros," which means hard.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "telescopes" is not a medical term. A telescope is an optical instrument that makes distant objects appear closer and larger by using an arrangement of lenses or mirrors and curved surfaces to gather and focus light. It is commonly used in astronomy to observe celestial bodies. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I would be happy to help!

Hyperopia, also known as farsightedness, is a refractive error in which the eye does not focus light directly on the retina when looking at a distant object. Instead, light is focused behind the retina, causing close-up objects to appear blurry. This condition usually results from the eyeball being too short or the cornea having too little curvature. It can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery.

Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are common complications following surgical procedures. It is defined as nausea, vomiting, or both that occurs within the first 24 hours after surgery. PONV can lead to dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, wound dehiscence, and impaired patient satisfaction. Risk factors for PONV include female gender, non-smoking status, history of motion sickness or PONV, use of opioids, and longer duration of surgery. Preventive measures and treatments include antiemetic medications, fluid therapy, and acupuncture or acupressure.

The eye is the organ of sight, primarily responsible for detecting and focusing on visual stimuli. It is a complex structure composed of various parts that work together to enable vision. Here are some of the main components of the eye:

1. Cornea: The clear front part of the eye that refracts light entering the eye and protects the eye from harmful particles and microorganisms.
2. Iris: The colored part of the eye that controls the amount of light reaching the retina by adjusting the size of the pupil.
3. Pupil: The opening in the center of the iris that allows light to enter the eye.
4. Lens: A biconvex structure located behind the iris that further refracts light and focuses it onto the retina.
5. Retina: A layer of light-sensitive cells (rods and cones) at the back of the eye that convert light into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve.
6. Optic Nerve: The nerve that carries visual information from the retina to the brain.
7. Vitreous: A clear, gel-like substance that fills the space between the lens and the retina, providing structural support to the eye.
8. Conjunctiva: A thin, transparent membrane that covers the front of the eye and the inner surface of the eyelids.
9. Extraocular Muscles: Six muscles that control the movement of the eye, allowing for proper alignment and focus.

The eye is a remarkable organ that allows us to perceive and interact with our surroundings. Various medical specialties, such as ophthalmology and optometry, are dedicated to the diagnosis, treatment, and management of various eye conditions and diseases.

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Strabismus was originally identified as a Drosophila protein involved in planar cell polarity. Flies with mutated strabismus ... Vertebrates have two Strabismus-related proteins, VANGL1 and VANGL2 (an alternate name for the Drosophila "Strabismus" protein ... Katoh M (2002). "Strabismus (STB)/Vang-like (VANGL) gene family". Int. J. Mol. Med. 10 (1): 11-5. doi:10.3892/ijmm.10.1.11. ... In cells of the developing Drosophila wing, Prickle and Strabismus are concentrated at the cell surface membrane on the most ...
The management of strabismus may include the use of drugs or surgery to correct the strabismus. Agents used include paralytic ... and has been used as an alternative to strabismus surgery to treat moderate-sized, non-paralytic, non-restrictive strabismus ... Strabismus is a misalignment of the eyes and may also result in amblyopia (lazy eye) or impairments of binocular vision. ... Ptosis and vertical strabismus are caused by spreading of toxin to adjacent muscles, and their risk decreases with lower doses ...
... (MISS) is a technique in strabismus surgery that uses smaller incisions than the ... Minimally invasive strabismus surgery. Comparison of a new, minimally invasive strabismus surgery technique with the usual ... and Conventional Strabismus Surgery Using the Limbal Approach. In: J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 54(4), 1. Jul 2017, S. 208- ... and Conventional Strabismus Surgery Using the Limbal ApproachJ Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:208-215. Kushner BJ. ...
... is a medical technique used sometimes in the management of strabismus, in which botulinum ... For treating strabismus, the toxin is used in much diluted form, and the injection is targeted to reach specific muscles that ... Other options for strabismus management are vision therapy and occlusion therapy, corrective glasses (or contact lenses) and ... Kowal L, Wong E, Yahalom C (Dec 15, 2007). "Botulinum toxin in the treatment of strabismus. A review of its use and effects". ...
"Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus". Healio: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Slack ... The journal publishes articles regarding eye disorders in pediatric individuals and the treatment of strabismus in all age ... The Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus is a bimonthly peer-reviewed publication for pediatric ophthalmologists. ... "Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus". MIAR: Information Matrix for the Analysis of Journals. University of ...
The American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (AAPOS) is an academic association of pediatric ... American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus (Articles with NKC identifiers, Ophthalmology organizations, ... ophthalmologists and strabismus surgeons. The pediatric ophthalmology fellowships in the United States are accredited by the ...
Strabismus; misalignment or crossing of the eyes when viewing an object, direct hypermetropia; farsightedness, and nystagmus; ...
Gunton KB, Wasserman BN, DeBenedictis C (September 2015). "Strabismus". Primary Care. 42 (3): 393-407. doi:10.1016/j.pop. ... strabismus, "white pupils" and birth defects like coloboma and aniridia. People that are pregnant from families with a history ... American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; American Association of Certified Orthoptists) (January 2016 ...
Sireteanu, R. (2000). "The binocular act in strabismus"; în G. Lennerstrand și J. Ygge (ed.): Advances in Strabismus Research: ... Fronius, Maria; Leonards, Ute; Strasburger, Hans; Greenlee, Mark (2008). "Ruxandra Sireteanu (1945-2008)". Strabismus. 16 (4): ... Adam Stiftung for Excellence in Research in Ophthalmology in 1991 and from the Bielschowsky Society for Research in Strabismus ...
Final Activity and Management Report Summary - SVS (Strabismus and visual suppression), CORDIS Birch EE (2013). "Amblyopia and ... Strabismus. 15 (3): 197-203. doi:10.1080/09273970701631975. PMID 18058356. S2CID 26471932. Georgievski Z, Koklanis K, Leone J ( ...
Louis, Mo, ISBN 0-7216-0240-1. "Strabismus". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. Retrieved 11 August 2021. "Pediatric ... lethargy irritability or malaise drooling strabismus (a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other) ...
Also when children with congenital (infantile) strabismus (e.g. infantile esotropia) receive strabismus surgery within the ... The majority of adults will experience some improvement in binocular function after strabismus surgery even if the strabismus ... Strabismus surgery itself does not improve visual acuity. Orthoptic exercises have proven to be effective for reducing symptoms ... In cases of acquired strabismus with double vision (diplopia), it is long-established state of the art to aim at curing the ...
... a new method of reducing adhesions and fibrosis in strabismus surgery". Strabismus. 16 (3): 116-118. doi:10.1080/ ... mitomycin C has also been shown to reduce fibrosis in strabismus surgery. The third is in esophageal and tracheal stenosis ...
Strabismus usually results in normal vision in the preferred sighting (or "fellow") eye (the eye that the person prefers to use ... Adult-onset strabismus usually causes double vision (diplopia), since the two eyes are not fixed on the same object. Children's ... Wright KW, Spiegel PH, Thompson LS (2006). Handbook of Pediatric Strabismus and Amblyopia. New York, New York: Springer. ISBN ... Tychsen L (August 2012). "The cause of infantile strabismus lies upstairs in the cerebral cortex, not downstairs in the ...
Hess RF, Mansouri B, Thompson B (2011). "Restoration of binocular vision in amblyopia". Strabismus. 19 (3): 110-8. doi:10.3109/ ...
late infantile strabismus surgery study (ELISSS), a controlled, prospective, multicenter study". Strabismus. Vol. 4, no. 13. pp ... Aside the strabismus itself, there are other aspects or conditions that appear to improve after surgery or botulinum toxin eye ... Further recent evidence indicates that a cause for infantile strabismus may lie with the input that is provided to the visual ... ISBN 978-1-4511-7834-0. Kenneth W. Wright; Yi Ning J. Strube (19 November 2014). Color Atlas Of Strabismus Surgery: Strategies ...
The influence of strabismus surgery on the Listing's planes of the two eyes is not fully understood. In one study, patients' ... Disorders of the eye muscles (such as strabismus) often cause torsional offsets in eye position that are particularly ... Strabismus. 10 (3): 199-209. doi:10.1076/stra.10.3.199.8124. PMID 12461714. S2CID 46219752. Crawford, J. D.; Martinez-Trujillo ...
1993). "Ametropic Amblyopia". Strabismus. Informa Plc. 1 (2): 63-67. doi:10.3109/09273979309087719. PMID 21314500. Abraham, S. ... "Amblyopia case reports--bilateral hypermetropic ametropic amblyopia." Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus 22.5 ( ... V. "Bilateral ametropic amblyopia." J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 1 (1964): 57-61. Werner, D. B., and W. E. Scott. " ...
Symptoms which often draw caregivers to the presence of PFV include the presence of strabismus (crossed eyes), nystagmus ( ... Pollard ZF (1997). "Treatment of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous". Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. ... Pollard ZF (1985). "Treatment of persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous". Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. ... "Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) - American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus". aapos.org. Retrieved ...
Congenital fourth cranial nerve palsy can be treated with strabismus surgery, where muscle attachment sites on the globe are ... Chang MY, Coleman AL, Tseng VL, Demer JL (November 2017). "Surgical interventions for vertical strabismus in superior oblique ... Strabismus. 9 (2): 83-90. doi:10.1076/stra.9.2.83.702. PMID 11458297. S2CID 40468690. (Articles with short description, Short ...
"Strabismus". kidshealth.org. Retrieved 2015-09-08. "Esotropia , Exotropia , Treatment Options , Strabismus". www.strabismus.org ... Treatment for strabismus may include orthoptics a term used for eye muscle training, this treatment can be provided by ... The main cause of strabismus is usually the muscular imbalance of the six surrounding muscles that allow both eyes to focus on ... Further symptoms of strabismus include decreased vision, double vision, headaches, asthenopia and eye fatigue. Scoliosis, is a ...
The inability of an eye to turn outward, results in a convergent strabismus or esotropia of which the primary symptom is ... Sixth nerve palsy causes the eyes to deviate inward (see: Pathophysiology of strabismus). Vallee et al. report that benign and ... Harley RD (January 1980). "Paralytic strabismus in children. Etiologic incidence and management of the third, fourth, and sixth ... botulinum toxin therapy of strabismus). The use of BT serves a number of purposes. Firstly, it helps to prevent the contracture ...
Murthy R, Naik MN, Desai S, Honavar SG (2009). "PHACE syndrome associated with congenital oculomotor nerve palsy". Strabismus. ... J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 50 Online (6): e37-40. doi:10.3928/01913913-20130730-01. PMID 24261320.{{cite journal}}: CS1 ... J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 50 Online (6): e18-20. doi:10.3928/01913913-20130423-03. PMID 23614508.{{cite journal}}: CS1 ... J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 50 Online (6): e18-20. doi:10.3928/01913913-20130423-03. PMID 24601412.{{cite journal}}: CS1 ...
When one or more of these muscles does not work properly, some form of strabismus may occur. Strabismus is more common in ... Strabismus surgery is sometimes recommended if the exotropia is present for more than half of each day or if the frequency is ... In young children with any form of strabismus, the brain may learn to ignore the misaligned eye's image and see only the image ... However, strabismus surgery is usually a safe and effective treatment. "Exotropia Origin". dictionary.com. Retrieved 21 July ...
Tinley, C; Dawson, E; Lee, J (June 2010). "The management of strabismus in patients with chronic progressive external ... The most common strabismus finding is large angle exotropia which can be treated by maximal bilateral eye surgery, but due to ... the progressive nature of the disease, strabismus may recur. Those that have diplopia as a result of asymmetric ophthalmoplegia ... ophthalmoplegia". Strabismus. 18 (2): 41-7. doi:10.3109/09273971003758388. PMID 20521878. S2CID 20074185. https://web.archive. ...
Scholtz et al, 2019 Tyler, CW (18 October 2018). "Evidence That Leonardo da Vinci Had Strabismus" (PDF). JAMA Ophthalmology. ... The life of Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, "il Guercino" - the squinter". Strabismus. 27 (1): 39-42. doi:10.1080/09273972.2019. ...
1805". Strabismus. 11 (1): 63-8. doi:10.1076/stra.11.1.63.14089. PMID 12789585. S2CID 37899713. Mitchell RN (8 April 2011). " ...
Many patients with ROHHAD experience strabismus, which is a weakness in eye muscle causing a "cross-eyed" effect. This can be ... "Strabismus - AAPOS". www.aapos.org. Retrieved 2018-06-08. "Bradycardia - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2018-06- ... Examples of autonomic dysfunction include hyperthermia, hypothermia, pupillary dysfunction, strabismus, chronic constipation, ...
How is strabismus treated?. The goals of strabismus treatment are to improve eye alignment and mobility, thus allowing the eyes ... Different kinds of strabismus require different treatments - these include glasses, exercises, prisms, eye muscle surgery, and ... Promoting the highest quality medical and surgical eye care worldwide for children and adults with strabismus.. Learn More ... American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus. 1935 County Rd B2 W. Suite 165. Roseville, MN 55113. Office ...
Nonparetic strabismus is generally concomitant. Most types of infant and childhood strabismus are comitant. Paretic strabismus ... The degree of strabismus can vary based on whether the person is viewing a distant or near target. Strabismus that sets in ... The appearance of strabismus may also be a cosmetic problem. One study reported 85% of adult with strabismus "reported that ... Strabismus can be further classified as follows: Paretic strabismus is due to paralysis of one or several extraocular muscles. ...
The most common form of strabismus is known as crossed ... Strabismus is a disorder in which both eyes do not line up in ... If strabismus has occurred because of vision loss, the vision loss will need to be corrected before strabismus surgery can be ... About one third of children with strabismus will develop amblyopia.. Many children will get strabismus or amblyopia again. ... American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus website. Strabismus. aapos.org/browse/glossary/entry? ...
... and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. I explain, in some detail, current methods of assessing stereo vision and ... Von Noorden G, Campos EC . Binocular Vision and Ocular Motility: Theory and Management of Strabismus. Mosby-Year Book: St Louis ... In strabismus, this system is impaired. Even a misalignment of just 0.25° (900 arcsec, 0.44 prism dioptres) would have a ... Strabismus in early life prevents the normal development of binocular sensory neurons in visual cortex.61 Accordingly, early ...
Care guide for Strabismus in Adults. Includes: possible causes, signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of ... What causes strabismus?. Strabismus may be present since childhood. Strabismus that occurs during adulthood may be caused by ... What is strabismus?. Strabismus is a condition that causes your eyes to look in different directions. Your eye muscles do not ... In some cases, the cause of strabismus may be unknown.. What are the signs and symptoms of strabismus?. *An eye that wanders or ...
... most often begins in early childhood. It is sometimes called crossed-eyes, walleye, or squint. Normally, the muscles ... Strabismus (say struh-BIZ-mus) is a vision problem in which both eyes do not look at the same point at the same time. ... How is strabismus treated?. Common treatments for strabismus are glasses for mild strabismus or a temporary eye patch to make ... What is strabismus?. Strabismus (say "struh-BIZ-mus") is a vision problem in which both eyes do not look at the same point at ...
In strabismus or squint, 1 or both eyes deviate inwards or outwards and appear to be in nonalignment towards the direction of ... Strabismus). It can be due to refractive error, binocular fusion abnormalities, or neuromuscular anomalies of ocular movements ... 2] If diagnosed and treated early, strabismus has an excellent prognosis. Treatment is usually by refractive error correction, ... Strabismus is derived from a Greek word that translates to eyes looking obliquely and means misaligned eyes.[1] Often, ...
Strabismus is when the eyes are not lined up correctly.. More to Know. In strabismus, the brain may get a blurry image from the ... If strabismus is not corrected, this can lead to "lazy eye" (amblyopia) with low vision. Strabismus and amblyopia are closely ... You might hear strabismus called "crossed eyes" (when the eye turns in) or "walleye" (when the eye turns out).. Strabismus can ... Strabismus can cause vision problems if not treated. If those treatments do not help the eyes line up correctly, surgery may be ...
Yasmin Bradfield offers some clinical pearls to help surgeons perform reoperations of strabismus surgery. ... Bradfield offers clinical pearls to help surgeons overcome some of the difficulties of performing reoperations of strabismus ...
The enigmatic strabismus of Albrecht Dürer. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android ... Strabismus. 2019;27(1):35-38.. Goes, F. J. (2019). The enigmatic strabismus of Albrecht Dürer. Strabismus, 27(1), 35-38. https ... strabismus SP - 35 EP - 38 JF - Strabismus JO - Strabismus VL - 27 IS - 1 N2 - The author discusses several of Albrecht Dürers ... The enigmatic strabismus of Albrecht Dürer.. Strabismus. 2019 03; 27(1):35-38.S ...
... quieting your mindray gottliebreadingresistanceretinal detachmentretinitis pigmentosasaccadesschoolskepticismstrabismussuccess ...
... eyes of observers with an early onset of strabismus but only in the deviating eye of those with a later onset of strabismus. ... in observers with strabismus have found that asymmetry of OKN tends to occur in both ... unilateral strabismus, and 12 normally sighted control observers. In the deviating eye, observers with early-onset strabismus ... Monocular horizontal OKN in observers with early- and late-onset strabismus Behav Brain Res. 1999 Sep;103(2):135-43. doi: ...
American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus. 1935 County Rd B2 W. Suite 165. Roseville, MN 55113. Office ...
Strabismus. Strabismus, condition in which the 2 eyes do not see the identical image simultaneously; usually one eye is ... Forms of strabismus include heterotropia (squinting); esotropia (cross-eyes), where one or both eyes look inward; exotropia ( ...
The Wills Eye Strabismus Center is a center of excellence providing leadership in patient care, education, and innovative ... the Wills Eye Strabismus Center is especially interested in and experienced with strabismus and nystagmus in adults. No person ... The Wills Eye Strabismus Center is a center of excellence providing leadership in patient care, education, and innovative ... Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus Service *Refractive Surgery for Children and Adults with Special Needs ...
American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus. 1935 County Rd B2 W. Suite 165. Roseville, MN 55113. Office ...
Strabismus Surgery. by Russ Lazarus August 7, 2020 What is strabismus surgery? Strabismus, also known as "crossed-eyes" occurs ... What Is Strabismus (Crossed-Eyes)?. by Russ Lazarus March 12, 2020 Up to 5% of the population has strabismus, or an eye turn. ... Strabismus FAQs. by Russ Lazarus April 7, 2020 Q: Is strabismus surgery the only treatment option for an eye turn? A: No. ... What Is Intermittent Strabismus?. by Russ Lazarus August 30, 2020 Strabismus, also called an eye turn, can be intermittent or ...
2023 The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute ...
Stepped strabismus surgery is a useful technique for small to moderate angle strabismus cases with the potential for reducing ...
Basically, strabismus is an eye condition that makes the eye muscles not work together, which causes double vision. Strabismus ... WebMD.com describes Strabismus as a vision problem in which both eyes do not look at the same point at the same time. ... Strabismus is usually seen as a childhood condition, but sometimes it can go misdiagnosed for years. That was my case. It had ... Strabismus is a condition that affects many people, and it is something that is extremely personal to me. While it might be ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology & Strabismus. 1935 County Rd B2 W. Suite 165. Roseville, MN 55113. Office ...
Strabismus - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... What is strabismus? Strabismus is having one eye that looks in a different direction than the other eye. The eye may look ... How do doctors treat strabismus? If your child has strabismus, an eye doctor (ophthalmologist) can decide what treatment might ... If strabismus is caused by a weak or paralyzed nerve, doctors may do a CT (computed tomography) scan Computed Tomography A CT ...
August 2009 CASE REPORT An unusual complication after strabismus surgery Flora HS Lau, TF Leung, Dorothy SP Fan Department of ... We report a case where early use of aggressive treatment to manage a post-strabismus surgery infection led to a good outcome. ... Orbital cellulitis is rarely reported after strabismus surgery; fewer than 10 cases have been reported. Nonetheless, orbital ...
Strabismus. Home / Products tagged "Strabismus". We made placing orders much easier. No need to sign up or create an account to ... strabismus, binocular vision, accommodative, oculomotor, and visual information-processing disorders, progressive myopia, and ...
I had strabismus eye surgery and today is the fourth day post surgery. How many days does it take for the stitches to melt? Or ... I had strabismus surgery as an adult aged 31 it was mild and I wanted to know what the likelihood of it returning? Also I smoke ... Why strabismus have familial tendencies?? i am a mother and have squint and am worried for my children.. will they surely have ... My brother is 19 years old he has strabismus he went to surgery but he seems to get back like he was. is there is a way ...
... strabismus can have long-term effects if untreated. Health screenings, monitoring and limited screen-time can prevent that. ... What causes strabismus?. The exact cause of the eye misalignment that leads to strabismus is not fully understood. However, ... Strabismus in a newborn can be diagnosed during a routine eye exam at the paediatrician or ophthalmologist. If strabismus is ... Strabismus should be detected and treated as early as possible, recommends doctor Lavinia Postolache, paediatric ...
Comparison of the efficacy of diclofenac and betamethasone following strabismus surgery. British Journal of Ophthalmology 1997; ...
The examination can determine if strabismus is present.. How is strabismus treated?. Treatment for strabismus can include ... Strabismus (Crossed Eyes). What is a crossed eye or strabismus?. A crossed eye or out-turned eye is referred to clinically as ... Who is affected by strabismus?. Children under age six are most affected by strabismus, but it usually first appears between ... It is estimated that five per cent of all children have some type or degree of strabismus. Although rare, strabismus can ...
Online Medical Supply carries medical surgical supplies and instruments in the Scissors Strabismus Scissors category, such as ...
  • citation needed] However, a constant unilateral strabismus causing constant suppression is a risk for amblyopia in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • These tests will also help the doctor find out if the child has amblyopia (lazy eye), which sometimes occurs with strabismus. (stlukesonline.org)
  • If strabismus is not corrected, this can lead to "lazy eye" (amblyopia) with low vision. (childrensmn.org)
  • Strabismus and amblyopia are closely related and often occur together. (childrensmn.org)
  • We are committed to providing comprehensive care for children and adults with strabismus, amblyopia, and nystagmus . (willseye.org)
  • Strabismus may cause reduced vision, or amblyopia, in the misaligned eye. (fortworth2020.com)
  • Approximately half of the children who have strabismus develop amblyopia. (fortworth2020.com)
  • Her professional practice is based on the diagnosis and treatment of ocular muscle alterations, both in children and adults, and she is a specialist in some of the most prevalent pathologies in childhood, such as amblyopia and strabismus , among others. (imo.es)
  • The correlations of patients' age, strabismus type, amblyopia degree, RsL, RcL, preoperative angle of deviation (PreAD) with PAD were estimated using Pearson's correlation analysis. (bmj.com)
  • ABSTRACT Early diagnosis and management of strabismus is needed to avoid complications such as amblyopia. (who.int)
  • Left untreated, strabismus can lead to amblyopia or permanent vision loss in children. (rileychildrens.org)
  • If strabismus continues and vision loss in the weaker eye progresses, it can lead to a condition called amblyopia or lazy eye . (rileychildrens.org)
  • About one-third of children with strabismus will develop amblyopia. (rileychildrens.org)
  • Many children will have strabismus or amblyopia more than once. (rileychildrens.org)
  • Many children have strabismus or amblyopia more than once, so continued monitoring is necessary. (rileychildrens.org)
  • Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. (cdc.gov)
  • Children with strabismus may also develop secondary vision loss (amblyopia, also know as lazy eye). (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • Strabismus associated with eccentric fixation, anomolus correspondence, suppression, amblyopia, noncomitant deviation and monocular deviation is unlikely to be successfully treated with therapy. (optometryforums.com)
  • We specialize in all aspects of pediatric eye care and adult strabismus including amblyopia (lazy eye), ocular misalignment, double vision, eye movement disorders, cataract, refractive error, eye surface disease and nasolacrimal disorders. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • If strabismus goes untreated in children, it often develops into amblyopia (lazy eye), in which the brain ignores images coming from the weak eye, rendering a person effectively blind in one eye. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • Amblyopia, also known as lazy eye, and strabismus, commonly known as crossed-eyes, are two conditions that affect the eyes. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Strabismus can result in amblyopia if not treated promptly. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Two common eye problems, amblyopia (lazy eye) and strabismus (crossed eyes) can be treated and prevent further vision problems if they are found early (2). (cdc.gov)
  • How do doctors treat strabismus? (merckmanuals.com)
  • It is crucial to detect and treat strabismus as soon as possible, regardless of the age of the child, to prevent long-term visual complications and promote normal visual development," Dr. Postolache told RTBF. (brusselstimes.com)
  • Though we know how to treat strabismus, we still do not understand why this occurs in some children and not others. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • Strabismus: Medications are generally not used to treat strabismus. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Interestingly, it usually occurs in children who are otherwise completely normal but there are some disorders that can put patients at a higher risk of strabismus such as cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, hydrocephalus, and brain tumors. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • A family history of strabismus is a risk factor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Those with a family history of strabismus may be at an increased risk for the condition. (childrensmn.org)
  • Congenital causes were recorded for 83.0% of cases and 24.9% had a family history of strabismus. (who.int)
  • When observing a person with strabismus, the misalignment of the eyes may be quite apparent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exact cause of the eye misalignment that leads to strabismus is not fully understood. (brusselstimes.com)
  • Strabismus is misalignment of the eyes. (rileychildrens.org)
  • Strabismus, a misalignment of the eyes, is one of the most common eye problems in children, affecting approximately 4 percent of children under the age of six years. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • Strabismus is typically described by the direction of the eye misalignment. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • In adults, strabismus that is acute will cause double vision as the brain is not used to the new misalignment of the eyes and cannot adapt like a child's brain can. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • Strabismus is often visually evident by the misalignment of the eyes and is sometimes noticed by a parent before being diagnosed by a physician. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • This can be due to factors such as refractive errors (nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism), eye misalignment (strabismus), or structural abnormalities of the eye. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Strabismus: It is the misalignment of the eyes, which can occur due to muscle imbalances or nerve abnormalities. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Strabismus: Physical examination may reveal misalignment of the eyes, with one eye deviating inward, outward, upward, or downward. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Strabismus: Differential diagnosis may include pseudostrabismus (false appearance of eye misalignment due to facial anatomy), muscle weakness, or nerve disorders. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Promoting the highest quality medical and surgical eye care worldwide for children and adults with strabismus. (aapos.org)
  • Adults with mild strabismus that comes and goes may do well with glasses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adults may develop strabismus from eye or blood vessel damage. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Loss of vision, an eye tumor or a brain tumor, Graves' disease , stroke, and various muscle and nerve disorders can also cause strabismus in adults. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Many adults also have strabismus, either since childhood or developed in adult life (for example, after injury or brain surgery). (willseye.org)
  • In addition to children, the Wills Eye Strabismus Center is especially interested in and experienced with strabismus and nystagmus in adults. (willseye.org)
  • Adults who develop strabismus often have double vision because their brains have already learned to receive images from both eyes and cannot ignore the image from the turned eye. (fortworth2020.com)
  • In adults, strokes, neuromuscular disorders (myasthenia gravis), and Graves disease (thyroid eye disorders) are common causes of strabismus. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • Eye trauma can also cause strabismus in both children and adults. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • The goal of strabismus treatment in adults is typically to eliminate double vision. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • In children, strabismus can cause severe permanent vision impairment but in adults the main problem is diplopia or social difficulties such as avoiding eye contact, which can be very disabling. (lu.se)
  • Treatment depends on the type of strabismus and the underlying cause. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment depends on the type of strabismus. (childrensmn.org)
  • This is the most common type of strabismus in infants. (fortworth2020.com)
  • In this type of strabismus, when the child focuses the eyes to see clearly, the eyes turn inward. (fortworth2020.com)
  • Exotropia, or an outward turning eye, is another common type of strabismus. (fortworth2020.com)
  • Strabismus that is alternating, non amblyopic, varible suppression, and variable correspondance is more likely to be treatable with a good outcome, the later type of strabismus is rarer than the former. (optometryforums.com)
  • What are the Different Types of Strabismus and How are They Named? (micentraleyecare.com)
  • The most common types of strabismus are esotropia (eye turning in), exotropia (eye turning out) and hypertropia (eye turning up). (micentraleyecare.com)
  • Sometimes lazy eye is present first, and it causes strabismus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Strabismus, often referred to as "crossed eyes" or "lazy eye," is a common visual disorder affecting millions worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Problems associated with strabismus like lazy eye, ptosis and cataracts are usually treated before surgery. (rileychildrens.org)
  • Childhood strabismus often has no known cause, although it tends to run in families. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Adult-onset strabismus is due to neurological causes or can result from childhood strabismus. (nih.gov)
  • An association between diagnosis of childhood strabismus and increased risk of development of several mental health disorders by early adulthood has been reported in the literature. (reviewofoptometry.com)
  • This article develops reflections on the construction of the look in mother-baby dyads in the context of childhood strabismus. (bvsalud.org)
  • The goal of strabismus treatment is to improve eye alignment and allow the eyes to work together better. (rileychildrens.org)
  • The goal of strabismus treatment in children is to improve eye alignment to achieve better binocular vision. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • Strabismus is a more common cause of double vision than is refractive defect. (brightwayoptometry.com)
  • There are many causes for strabismus, ranging from refractive errors to severe neurological conditions. (lu.se)
  • 0.5 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) and/or strabismus and/or any refractive error were analysed. (lu.se)
  • 0.5 logMAR) was found in 32 (14%), strabismus in 82 (38%), refractive errors in 114 (52%) and significant eye problem in 143 (65%) children. (lu.se)
  • An additional week of GA at birth reduced the risk for refractive errors, strabismus and significant eye problems. (lu.se)
  • Visual acuity (VA), refractive errors and strabismus, together with visual impairment (VI) and any significant eye problem, defined as VA >0.5 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) and/or strabismus and/or any refractive error were analysed. (lu.se)
  • citation needed] Symptoms of strabismus include double vision and eye strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small-angle and intermittent strabismus are more likely to cause disruptive visual symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Symptoms of strabismus may be present all the time or may come and go. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the signs and symptoms of strabismus? (drugs.com)
  • Symptoms of strabismus include crossed eyes, eyes that do not align in the same direction and uncoordinated eye movements. (rileychildrens.org)
  • The symptoms of strabismus may resemble other medical conditions. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • However, if your child is having symptoms of strabismus or other eye disorders at any age, a complete eye examination should be performed. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • Children with myasthenia gravis may present to the ophthalmologist first, with symptoms such as unilateral or bilateral blepharoptosis , diplopia , strabismus or ophthalmoplegia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Strabismus Market 2021-Industry Size, Growth Factors, Top. (pharmiweb.com)
  • The latest research on " Global Strabismus Market Report 2021 " offered by DBMR provides a comprehensive investigation into the geographical landscape, industry size along with the revenue estimation of the business. (pharmiweb.com)
  • They then calculated the relative risk (RR) of being diagnosed with any one of several mental health disorders between a patient with strabismus vs. one without. (reviewofoptometry.com)
  • The investigators found that patients with a history of strabismus were more likely to be diagnosed with several mental health disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (RR: 1.73), major depressive disorder (RR: 1.22), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (RR: 1.57), substance use disorder (RR: 1.60), adjustment disorder (RR: 1.78), obsessive-compulsive disorder (RRL 1.63), post-traumatic stress disorder (RR: 1.21), anorexia (RR: 1.92), conduct disorders (RR: 1.75) and Tourette's syndrome (RR: 1.34). (reviewofoptometry.com)
  • Associations between a strabismus diagnosis and subsequent mental health disorders in children and adolescents. (reviewofoptometry.com)
  • There appears to be a higher incidence of strabismus in children with disorders that affect the brain, such as cerebral palsy or hydrocephalus. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • It is very important that children with strabismus are seen by a qualified eye specialist to avoid potential vision threatening and even life threatening disorders. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • Strabismus (say "struh-BIZ-mus") is a vision problem in which both eyes do not look at the same point at the same time. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Having strabismus can be hard on your child's self-esteem. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Other things that can increase your child's risk for strabismus include an illness that affects the muscles and nerves, premature birth, Down syndrome, a head injury, and other problems. (stlukesonline.org)
  • A doctor can often tell that a child has strabismus just by looking at the child's eyes. (stlukesonline.org)
  • If your child's strabismus isn't corrected before about 8 years old, the vision loss may be permanent. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Different kinds of strabismus require different treatments - these include glasses, exercises, prisms, eye muscle surgery, and eye muscle injection. (aapos.org)
  • There are many different kinds of strabismus. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • How can doctors tell if my child has strabismus? (merckmanuals.com)
  • If your child has strabismus, an eye doctor (ophthalmologist) can decide what treatment might be needed. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Most people's brains can offset minor deviations in their line of sight, but that is not the case for a person with Strabismus. (mombloggersclub.com)
  • The problem in treatment of Strabisbus is the belief system of both the person with strabismus and the person treating it. (optometryforums.com)
  • Strabismus that occurs during adulthood may be caused by conditions such as Graves disease, stroke, head injury, or eye injury. (drugs.com)
  • Strabismus that develops in adulthood is frequently a result of an underlying vascular disease such as diabetes or high blood pressure that affects the nerves leading to the eye. (theeyecenter.com)
  • Strabismus is commonly congenital, or develops in young children, though it may develop in adulthood as well. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • Strabismus can occur due to muscle dysfunction, farsightedness, problems in the brain, trauma or infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes strabismus develops when the eyes compensate for other vision problems, such as farsightedness or a cataract . (stlukesonline.org)
  • Eyeglasses or contact lenses, prism lenses, vision therapy, eye drops, botulinum toxin and eye muscle surgery are some of the options indicated for strabismus treatment. (pharmiweb.com)
  • In fact, the official name for the fellowship after 4 years of ophthalmology surgical residency is "Pediatric ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus. (gtoc.net)
  • The goals of strabismus treatment are to improve eye alignment and mobility, thus allowing the eyes to work together better. (aapos.org)
  • A socioeconomic consideration exists as well in the context of decisions regarding strabismus treatment, including efforts to re-establish binocular vision and the possibility of stereopsis recovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Without treatment, strabismus can cause permanent vision problems. (stlukesonline.org)
  • This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of strabismus and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and treating patients with this condition. (nih.gov)
  • No person is ever too old to have treatment for strabismus. (willseye.org)
  • Without focused treatment, Strabismus can lead to vision problems later in life. (mombloggersclub.com)
  • We report a case where early use of aggressive treatment to manage a post-strabismus surgery infection led to a good outcome. (hkmj.org)
  • Treatment for strabismus depends on its cause and severity. (brusselstimes.com)
  • A child will not outgrow strabismus without treatment. (optometrists.ab.ca)
  • We propose just a way for horizontal strabismus surgical treatment optimisation, a step forward to a person-centred medicine and with this study we would like to encourage the researchers to improve these models by finding more predictors and validation in a larger research. (bmj.com)
  • Parents and caregivers can use their website to learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of strabismus. (rileychildrens.org)
  • Recent research explores the use of intraocular lens and secondary Artisan lens implants in children as a treatment for cataracts, new drugs to treat glaucoma, new therapies for macular degeneration and treatment of strabismus. (rileychildrens.org)
  • It is vital to the correction of strabismus that treatment begins as early as possible. (theeyecenter.com)
  • Some strabismus is treated with glasses while some cases are so severe that the only treatment option is surgical. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • Strabismus: Treatment options for strabismus include corrective glasses, eye patching, eye exercises, and in some cases, surgical intervention to realign the eye muscles. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Strabismus: Regular follow-up visits are crucial to monitor eye alignment and assess the effectiveness of treatment. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • No apparent association with premature birth was observed, and no evidence was found linking later onset of mental illness to psychosocial stressors frequently encountered by those with strabismus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the age of onset of strabismus, it can be defined as infantile, when the deviation of eyes has been noticed at or before 6 months of age. (nih.gov)
  • Several reports on monocular optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in observers with strabismus have found that asymmetry of OKN tends to occur in both eyes of observers with an early onset of strabismus but only in the deviating eye of those with a later onset of strabismus. (nih.gov)
  • Our objective was to quantify and compare the magnitude of the OKN asymmetry in each eye as a function of observer's age at onset of strabismus. (nih.gov)
  • We studied monocular OKN in ten observers with early-onset (up to 24 months of age), seven observers with late-onset (after 24 months of age) unilateral strabismus, and 12 normally sighted control observers. (nih.gov)
  • In the deviating eye, observers with early-onset strabismus showed large OKN asymmetries in favour of nasalward motion while observers with late-onset strabismus showed smaller OKN asymmetries in that eye. (nih.gov)
  • These findings may be due to both age at onset of strabismus and chronological age and are discussed in terms of the issue of plasticity or recovery of function. (nih.gov)
  • The patient's blinking (see blink artefact over frontal regions indicated by the right arrow) could be a semiconscious reaction to the sudden onset of diplopia due to ictal strabismus (when questioned postictally, the patient did not recall any symptom of double vision occurring immediately before loss of consciousness). (jle.com)
  • There was a statistically significant relationship between age at onset and vertical strabismus. (who.int)
  • There was no significant association between surgery outcomes and sex or age of onset of strabismus. (who.int)
  • The onset of strabismus is most common in children younger than six years of age. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • This is called congenital strabismus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • According to Lavinia Postolache, strabismus in babies is most often a congenital disorder that manifests itself at birth or during the first weeks of life. (brusselstimes.com)
  • Female patients had a higher rate of congenital vertical strabismus than did male patients. (who.int)
  • Pediatric ophthalmologists are also experts for patients with adult strabismus (misaligned eyes. (gtoc.net)
  • Hyper - This is a vertical strabismus in which the eyeball deviates superiorly. (nih.gov)
  • Hypo - This is a vertical strabismus in which the eyeball deviates inferiorly. (nih.gov)
  • In this retrospective cohort study we reviewed the profile and surgical outcome of vertical strabismus patients attending a clinic in Yazd city in the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • From the medical files of 265 patients, 19.2% were found to have pure vertical deviation and 80.8% had combined horizontal and vertical strabismus. (who.int)
  • Eso - This is a convergent strabismus in which the eyeball deviates nasally. (nih.gov)
  • the EEG shows rhythmic theta activity over the right posterior temporal region and rhythmic epileptic activity from the right temporal to right fronto-central regions, concomitant with the appearance of convergent strabismus due to adduction of the right eye without conjugate left eye abduction (right arrow). (jle.com)
  • However, a small magnitude or intermittent strabismus can easily be missed upon casual observation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you notice intermittent strabismus in your baby, you can wait up to six months before consulting a doctor. (brusselstimes.com)
  • Strabismus is of four types based on the direction the eye turns including esotropia, exotropia, hypertropia, hypotropia. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Strabismus occurs in about 2% of children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strabismus occurs when the eye muscles don't work properly to control eye movement. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Strabismus occurs equally in males and females. (fortworth2020.com)
  • Strabismus typically occurs from an abnormality in the neuromuscular control of eye movement. (micentraleyecare.com)
  • Strabismus, on the other hand, occurs when the eyes do not align properly and point in different directions. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Strabismus is a vision disorder in which the eyes do not properly align with each other when looking at an object. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strabismus is a disorder in which both eyes do not line up in the same direction. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common form of strabismus is known as "crossed eyes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Strabismus is a condition that causes your eyes to look in different directions. (drugs.com)
  • Strabismus is derived from a Greek word that translates to "eyes looking obliquely" and means misaligned eyes. (nih.gov)
  • Both of these terms describe eyes without any manifest strabismus. (nih.gov)
  • Strabismus is when the eyes are not lined up correctly. (childrensmn.org)
  • You might hear strabismus called "crossed eyes" (when the eye turns in) or "walleye" (when the eye turns out). (childrensmn.org)
  • WebMD.com describes Strabismus as a vision problem in which both eyes do not look at the same point at the same time. (mombloggersclub.com)
  • Strabismus is a visual disorder where the eyes are misaligned and point in different directions. (brusselstimes.com)
  • With strabismus, the two eyes are not aligned and therefore send two different images to the brain and in the case of a young child, the brain will keep only the image of the sharpest eye and, as a result, the visual acuity of the other eye decreases little by little. (brusselstimes.com)
  • Failure of your eyes, or more precisely, your eye muscles, to work together properly can lead to strabismus. (optometrists.ab.ca)
  • Strabismus is also known as crossed eyes in which both the eyes lose its ability to look at the same position at the same time. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Strabismus is a visual problem in which the eyes are not aligned properly and point in different directions. (fortworth2020.com)
  • Strabismus is sometimes called crossed eyes or wall-eyed. (rileychildrens.org)
  • Strabismus is also called "wandering eye" or "crossed-eyes. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • Strabismus is a condition where the eyes are not aligned together, with one eye turned either in or outwards. (brightwayoptometry.com)
  • Strabismus is an eye muscle imbalance that causes one or both eyes to be out of alignment. (theeyecenter.com)
  • Strabismus, also called a crossed eye, is a condition in which the eyes are misaligned. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • Strabismus is an incongruence of the eyes. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • Strabismus should be detected and treated as early as possible, recommends doctor Lavinia Postolache, paediatric ophthalmologist at the University Hospital of Brussels and Erasmus, or children may risk long-term effects. (brusselstimes.com)
  • Strabismus in a newborn can be diagnosed during a routine eye exam at the paediatrician or ophthalmologist. (brusselstimes.com)
  • Many times these patients have to ask for a referral from their optometrist or family doctor as these doctors aren't always aware of the benefits of seeing a pediatric ophthalmologist (strabismus surgeon). (gtoc.net)
  • Ophthalmologist specialising in paediatric ophthalmology at the Ocular Microsurgery Institute and professor on the Master's Course in Strabismus and Paediatric Ophthalmology run by IMO and the Faculty of Medicine at the Autonomous University of Barcelona. (imo.es)
  • Referral to a pediatric ophthalmologist or strabismus specialist may be warranted for complex cases or if surgery is being considered. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Children with strabismus, particularly those with exotropia, an outward turn, may be more likely to develop a mental health disorder than normal-sighted children. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most children with strabismus, the cause is unknown. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The first step in treating strabismus in children is to prescribe glasses, if needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Children should get regular eye exams to check for vision problems and strabismus, starting at a few months of age. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Children under age six are most affected by strabismus, but it usually first appears between birth and age 21 months. (optometrists.ab.ca)
  • It is estimated that five per cent of all children have some type or degree of strabismus. (optometrists.ab.ca)
  • Children with strabismus may initially have double vision. (optometrists.ab.ca)
  • moreover children suffering from Down syndrome are at higher risk of developing strabismus. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Strabismus is a common condition among children. (fortworth2020.com)
  • About 4 percent of all children in the United States have strabismus. (fortworth2020.com)
  • Often children experience strabismus as a result of problems that can be easily treated with glasses. (fortworth2020.com)
  • Methods and Analysis The analytical prospective clinical study was conducted from April 2016 to July 2019, on a sample of 216 patients (aged between 2-58) with concomitant strabismus who underwent strabismus surgery in Clinical Republican Hospital 'Timofei Mosneaga'and Children Hospital 'Em Cotaga' from Republic of Moldova. (bmj.com)
  • Siblings and children of an individual with strabismus may have an increased chance to also develop it, however, a single inherited cause has not been identified. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • For this reason, all children should be checked by a physician for strabismus by age three or four. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • Some children are born with strabismus. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • For some, these issues improved dramatically following strabismus surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • If strabismus has occurred because of vision loss, the vision loss will need to be corrected before strabismus surgery can be successful. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dr. Yasmin Bradfield offers clinical pearls to help surgeons overcome some of the difficulties of performing reoperations of strabismus surgery, including marking with a pen exactly where the incision will be made, using lidocaine, using the ocular cardiac reflex, and making an autograft. (aao.org)
  • Is strabismus surgery a guarantee for permanent results? (healthtap.com)
  • My brother is 19 years old he has strabismus he went to surgery but he seems to get back like he was. (healthtap.com)
  • Ten days after having bi lateral strabismus surgery, my double vision is back. (healthtap.com)
  • When the deviation persists, strabismus can be treated with surgery. (brusselstimes.com)
  • It is best to practice this surgery before the patient reaches two years old if it is an early strabismus," she added. (brusselstimes.com)
  • Regular strabismus surgery moves muscles from their present location to a different location. (gtoc.net)
  • Background Many surgical formulas have been developed and proposed based on the experience of surgeons to improve the predictability of strabismus surgery. (bmj.com)
  • However, the consent among strabismus surgeons regarding the dose effect of the extraocular muscle (EOM) recession or resection was not achieved yet and the disagreement about the appropriate amount of strabismus surgery still exists. (bmj.com)
  • PAD modelling showed the PreAD, EOM RsL and EOM RcL predictive ability for strabismus surgery outcome prediction. (bmj.com)
  • However, it is still difficult to predict strabismus surgery outcome with certainty. (bmj.com)
  • With strabismus or eye muscle surgery , recovery time depends on how extensive the procedure was. (winksandiego.com)
  • You can expect a certain range of side effects during your strabismus surgery recovery , from redness to discomfort. (winksandiego.com)
  • Minor discomfort, bruising, and swelling are all common after strabismus surgery . (winksandiego.com)
  • The surface of your eye will likely appear bright red for a while after strabismus surgery. (winksandiego.com)
  • Strabismus surgery is a predictable method of addressing eye misalignments. (winksandiego.com)
  • However, surgery is sometimes necessary to correct strabismus. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • Strabismus surgery is generally a safe and common procedure, and when indicated is the only way to effectively treat the disorder. (olympuseyemd.com)
  • This project focuses on evaluating novel imaging techniques for measurement of perfusion and oxygenation in the anterior segment of the eye and the eye muscles during strabismus surgery. (lu.se)
  • Anterior segment ischemia is a rare but severe complication to strabismus surgery. (lu.se)
  • It is generally believed that to reduce the risk of anterior segment ischemia, only two muscles should be operated on during strabismus surgery and a third muscle can only be operated on given that 6 months healing time has passed. (lu.se)
  • However, when the commonly used strabismus surgery procedures were developed a century ago, they were based on empirical observations of clinical outcome. (lu.se)
  • Knowledge of the effect of strabismus surgery on perfusion to the anterior segments of the eye is virtually non-existent. (lu.se)
  • Our research attempts to develop perfusion and oxygenation monitoring techniques to assess the effect of strabismus surgery for the first time. (lu.se)
  • 2019). However, the potential of LSCI has not yet been used to monitor blood perfusion in strabismus surgery. (lu.se)
  • 2012). However, the technique has never been tested for monitoring oxygenation in strabismus surgery. (lu.se)
  • The purpose of this project is to use LSCI and HSI for perfusion and saturation monitoring during strabismus surgery. (lu.se)
  • Hopefully, adequate monitoring techniques during surgery could lead to the prediction and elimination of anterior segment ischemia after strabismus surgery. (lu.se)
  • Strabismus is defined as acquired if the deviation is noticed after 6 months of age, following a presumed normal ocular alignment. (nih.gov)
  • Further, the strabismus is called comitant if the angle of deviation remains the same in different positions of gaze. (nih.gov)
  • Personally, I classify those with Strabismus into two categories, those who can sometimes control the deviation and those that can't. (mombloggersclub.com)
  • [2] If diagnosed and treated early, strabismus has an excellent prognosis. (nih.gov)
  • Strabismus can manifest in various forms and degrees and typically develops in childhood. (nih.gov)
  • Any other disease that causes vision loss may also cause strabismus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In this review, I briefly outline some of the neuronal mechanisms supporting stereo vision, and discuss how these are disrupted in strabismus. (nature.com)
  • A vision exam is done to check if strabismus has affected your vision. (drugs.com)
  • Vision tests may also be done to look for strabismus. (stlukesonline.org)
  • Strabismus can cause vision problems if not treated. (childrensmn.org)
  • Basically, strabismus is an eye condition that makes the eye muscles not work together, which causes double vision. (mombloggersclub.com)
  • Risk factors for developing strabismus in a newborn include familial predisposition, prematurity, neurodevelopmental problems as well as all causes that can cause vision problems. (brusselstimes.com)
  • If strabismus is left untreated, it can affect your baby's vision in the long term," she added. (brusselstimes.com)
  • But, sometimes adverse effect related to the eye drops, strict regulatory framework and high cost of vision therapy among others may hamper the strabismus market. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Many adult patients are also under the impression that nothing can be done to fix their double vision or strabismus. (gtoc.net)
  • How does Strabismus affect Vision? (micentraleyecare.com)
  • Usually, only one eye is affected and manifestations can include strabismus, decreased vision, and leukocoria. (cdc.gov)
  • Strabismus: Ocular alignment assessment, cover-uncover test, and evaluation of ocular motility are crucial diagnostic tests. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Strabismus is a state of impaired ocular alignment with a prevalence of 2-4% in the western world. (lu.se)
  • The primary aim when treating strabismus is to restore ocular alignment. (lu.se)
  • Strabismus may also occur later in life as a result of an illness, cataract, or eye injury. (stanfordchildrens.org)
  • Our highly trained and experienced pediatric ophthalmologists are known locally and nationally for treating the common as well as the most difficult and complex cases of strabismus. (willseye.org)
  • However, strabismus is certainly more common in families with a history of the disorder and can occur at any age. (brusselstimes.com)
  • What is Strabismus and How Common is It? (micentraleyecare.com)
  • Strabismus: It is relatively common, affecting approximately 2-4% of the population. (classassignmentwriters.com)
  • Strabismus can be treated through exercises and therapy in only a limited number of cases, very much dependent upon the details of the particular case. (optometryforums.com)
  • Early diagnosis and management in affected families and screening of patients with strabismus family history is needed. (who.int)
  • L'étude des dossiers médicaux de 265 patients a mis en évidence une déviation verticale simple chez 19,2 % et un strabisme horizontal et vertical chez 80,8 % d'entre eux. (who.int)