Codon, Terminator: Any codon that signals the termination of genetic translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). PEPTIDE TERMINATION FACTORS bind to the stop codon and trigger the hydrolysis of the aminoacyl bond connecting the completed polypeptide to the tRNA. Terminator codons do not specify amino acids.Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.Peptide Chain Termination, Translational: A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the terminal amino acid is added to a lengthening polypeptide. This termination process is signaled from the MESSENGER RNA, by one of three termination codons (CODON, TERMINATOR) that immediately follows the last amino acid-specifying CODON.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Peptide Termination Factors: Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Euplotes: A genus of ciliate protozoa having a dorsoventrally flattened body with widely spaced rows of short bristle-like cilia on the dorsal surface.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Reading Frames: The three possible sequences of CODONS by which GENETIC TRANSLATION may occur from one nucleotide sequence. A segment of mRNA 5'AUCCGA3' could be translated as 5'AUC.. or 5'UCC.. or 5'CCG.., depending on the location of the START CODON.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Selenocysteine: A naturally occurring amino acid in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. It is found in tRNAs and in the catalytic site of some enzymes. The genes for glutathione peroxidase and formate dehydrogenase contain the TGA codon, which codes for this amino acid.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational: Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Consanguinity: The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Opiate Alkaloids: Alkaloids found in OPIUM from PAPAVER that induce analgesic and narcotic effects by action upon OPIOID RECEPTORS.RNA Splice Sites: Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Tryptophanase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tryptophan and water to indole, pyruvate, and ammonia. It is a pyridoxal-phosphate protein, requiring K+. It also catalyzes 2,3-elimination and beta-replacement reactions of some indole-substituted tryptophan analogs of L-cysteine, L-serine, and other 3-substituted amino acids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.1.99.1.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Tobacco Use Cessation Products: Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.Paromomycin: An oligosaccharide antibiotic produced by various STREPTOMYCES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees: Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Anticodon: The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay: An mRNA metabolic process that distinguishes a normal STOP CODON from a premature stop codon (NONSENSE CODON) and facilitates rapid degradation of aberrant mRNAs containing premature stop codons.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Selenoproteins: Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Components: The parts of the gene sequence that carry out the different functions of the GENES.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genes, Overlapping: Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Medical Futility: The absence of a useful purpose or useful result in a diagnostic procedure or therapeutic intervention. The situation of a patient whose condition will not be improved by treatment or instances in which treatment preserves permanent unconsciousness or cannot end dependence on intensive medical care. (From Ann Intern Med 1990 Jun 15;112(12):949)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Afibrinogenemia: A deficiency or absence of FIBRINOGEN in the blood.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Factor XIII Deficiency: A deficiency of blood coagulation FACTOR XIII or fibrin stabilizing factor (FSF) that prevents blood clot formation and results in a clinical hemorrhagic diathesis.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Eye ProteinsFactor XI Deficiency: A hereditary deficiency of blood coagulation factor XI (also known as plasma thromboplastin antecedent or PTA or antihemophilic factor C) resulting in a systemic blood-clotting defect called hemophilia C or Rosenthal's syndrome, that may resemble classical hemophilia.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Macaca radiata: A species of macaque monkey that mainly inhabits the forest of southern India. They are also called bonnet macaques or bonnet monkeys.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.RNA, Transfer, Trp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Directly Observed Therapy: A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.3' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Great BritainOligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mutant Proteins: Proteins produced from GENES that have acquired MUTATIONS.
Molting occurs periodically throughout the snake's life. Before a molt, the snake stops eating and often hides or moves to a ... Molting, or ecdysis, serves a number of functions. Firstly, the old and worn skin is replaced; secondly, it helps get rid of ... This high cost is due to the repeated stops and starts of portions of the body as well as the necessity of using active ... The probe is marked at the point where it stops, removed, and compared to the subcaudal depth by laying it alongside the scales ...
It then molts into an opaque, blue-green chrysalis with small gold dots. At normal summer temperatures, it matures in 8-15 days ... Larvae stop feeding and search for a pupation site. The caterpillar attaches itself securely to a horizontal surface, using a ... Each caterpillar, or instar, that molts is larger than the previous as it eats and stores energy in the form of fat and ... Fifth-stage instar larva chew through the petiole or midrib of milkweed leaves and stop the flow of latex. After this, they eat ...
Migrating animals also exhibit philopatry to certain important areas on their route; staging areas, stop-overs, molting areas ...
During the fall migration, when there is plenty of open water, most fly over the area without stopping except for a brief rest ... Ducks and geese were easily captured when molting. Men in birchbark canoes quietly approached waterfowl in bays and coves and ...
Molting and breeding nests are similar, but use much more silk. These are found under stones at the base of the bush. When a ... In this position, he moves before the female, stopping after each few steps. The male advances in a zig-zag pathway, shifting ... They remain inside the nest until after a first molt, a little more than two weeks later, at which time they are self- ... Indeed, raising of the forelegs appears to have this 'stop-sign' effect even in encounters between congenerics of the three ...
If JH is present at the time of molting, the insect molts into a larger larval form; if absent, it molts into a pupa or adult. ... Some IGRs cause insects to stop feeding long before they die. Hormonal IGRs typically work by mimicking or inhibiting the ... As an insect grows it molts, growing a new exoskeleton under its old one and then shedding the old one to allow the new one to ... IGRs that mimic JH can produce premature molting of young immature stages, disrupting larval development. They can also act on ...
... usually becoming stuck during the molt due to their sexual organs and dying in the process. Females continue to molt after ... The tarantula also stops feeding and becomes more lethargic during this time. Tarantulas may live for years; most species take ... Clearly, molting will soon occur when the exoskeleton takes on a darker shade. If a tarantula previously used its urticating ... Most males do not live through this molt, as they tend to get their emboli, mature male sexual organs on pedipalps, stuck in ...
... they stopped picking on him when he began swimming again with the vest. Staff noted that Pierre had no problems molting prior ... In June 2004, Pierre molted what seemed would be his last coat of feathers. Pierre, who was the alpha male in his colony, began ... it is unknown whether the hydroxyzine was the actual cause of the molting problem. Another hypothesis was that Pierre was ...
They can make non-stop flights in excess of 6,000 km. Bristle-thighed curlews are unique among shorebirds in that they are ... flightless during molt. Also, their migration departures consist of small flocks and have no diurnal patterns. Its winter ...
Colonies stop producing brood before they overwinter. Colonies release alates synchronously. Alates mate in hilltop leks in ... molting). As larvae are relatively immobile, they only interact with nutrients as adults bring the nutrients to the larvae or ...
Prior to molting, the spider becomes sluggish and stops eating to conserve as much energy as possible. Their abdomens darken; ... Like all tarantulas, Brachypelma hamorii is an arthropod, and must go through a molting process to grow. Molting serves several ... Normally, the spider turns on its back to molt and stays in that position for several hours, as it pushes fluids just beneath ... When the tarantula needs privacy, e.g. when molting or laying eggs, the entrance is sealed with silk, sometimes supplemented ...
Molting occurs periodically throughout the snake's life. Before a molt, the snake stops eating and often hides or moves to a ... The shedding of scales is called ecdysis (or in normal usage, molting or sloughing). In the case of snakes, the complete outer ... Molting, or ecdysis, serves a number of functions. Firstly, the old and worn skin is replaced; secondly, it helps get rid of ... Renewal of the skin by molting is supposed to allow growth in some animals such as insects; however, this has been disputed in ...
1991). ANNUAL MOLTS AND INTERRUPTION OF THE FALL MIGRATION FOR MOLTING IN LAZULI BUNTINGS. Condor. vol 93, no 2. p. 236-250. ... Painted buntings often feed by hopping along the ground, cautiously stopping every few moments to look around. The painted ... Western birds (Arizona and northern Mexico) molt in mid-migration, while eastern birds tend to molt before they migrate.[9] ... 1991). THE SEQUENCE OF MOLTS AND PLUMAGES IN PAINTED BUNTINGS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORIES OF DELAYED PLUMAGE MATURATION. ...
The word moult/molt never originally had /l/ to begin with, instead deriving from Middle English mout and related ... In most circumstances, the changes stopped there. But in -alk and -olk words, the /l/ disappeared entirely in most accents ( ... It also influenced English spelling reform efforts, explaining the American English mold and molt vs. the traditional mould and ...
When mating season arrives both males and females stop molting and remain the same size for the remainder of their lives. The ... Stabilimenta among N. clavipes are sometimes seen in the webs of immatures nearing molt, hence the names "molting webs" or " ... The period of time between molts is called an instar and there can be 7-12 of these depending on food availability. Ecdysis, or ... Females are most likely to mate directly after their final molt at the beginning of adulthood and later in adulthood when they ...
The larvae migrate to the subcutaneous tissue and undergo two more molts. They form nodules as they mature into adult worms ... Various control programs aim to stop onchocerciasis from being a public health problem. The first was the Onchocerciasis ...
"Molting Military Dependent's Villages - ZhongTuo Community". 走過一甲子 (This is My Land). Taipei, Taiwan. 10 January 2014. 陳碧岩. "閱讀 ... Because the military and the Taipei City Government jointly arranged the construction, residents stopped being of exclusively " ...
Female N. pilipes spiders will stop molting, however, during times of high copulation where it may not be advantageous to ... Female N. pilipes spiders are able to achieve a large size because they can continue to molt and grow after maturity. This ... "Nephila Female Gigantism Attained through Post-maturity Molting". Journal of Arachnology. 40.3: 345-347. doi:10.1636/b12-03.1. ... contrasts with most spiders, where growth stops once sexual maturity is reached. ...
Its first marketing campaign was the logo with the slogan "És rodó i dura molt, Chupa Chups", which translates from Catalan as ... The company's current anti-smoking slogan is "Stop smoking, start sucking", with their packages parodying cigarette pack ...
The word moult/molt never originally had /l/ to begin with and instead derived from Middle English mout and related ... While in most circumstances L-vocalization stopped there, it continued in -alk and -olk words, with the /l/ disappearing ... It also influenced English spelling reform efforts, explaining the American English mold and molt as opposed to the traditional ...
The cause of pine death is stopping moving water in the timber. The phenomenon is caused by small bubbles, then air embolism of ... Nematodes of the third juvenile stage congregate in the cavity around the pupa, molt into the fourth juvenile stage, and invade ... xylem tissue stops water movement. The embolism doesn't make tylose or clog the nematode or pine cell. Why the several ...
Each one of these stages is separated by a molt. During a molt, the larvae shed its outer layer in order to accommodate for new ... If the temperature gets above or below a certain temperature it can cause all development of the fly to stop. In general, the ...
... and rendering the walls of cattle pens smooth with mortar to stop ticks molting there. Selection of cattle for good ability to ...
The town was primarily an agricultural community with a stop and depot. The Wheat basin post office was closed in 1936. The ... the town of Nora grew up from a railroad construction camp midway between the towns of Rapelje and Molt near the mouth of Big ...
To stop bleeding from a pin feather, it is necessary to pluck the feather from its base. Bleeding must be taken care of as soon ... Winged Wisdom Pet Bird Magazine - Weather The Feathers Molting in pet parrots and exotic birds - Birds, Birds, Birds Bleeding ...
After the breeding season, the birds migrate to specific molting sites to undergo molting, the loss and regeneration of ... These estuaries provide excellent wintering and stopping places during the ducks' migration. It is an extremely rare vagrant to ... These molting sites are often wetlands that are more drought resistant and plentiful in food, along with being less influenced ... then leave for the molting site. Mating pairs often stay intact even though the male and female are apart for long periods of ...
They gain a new pair with the first molting, and two pairs with each of their five subsequent moltings. Adults with 15 pairs of ... It may often be seen darting across floors with very great speed, occasionally stopping suddenly and remaining absolutely ... legs retain that number through three more molting stages (sequence 4-5-7-9-11-13-15-15-15-15 pairs).[5] ...
The Northern Pacific Railway had a stop in Molt en route to Rapelje and Hesper. Although the town has declined significantly ... Molt appears on the Molt U.S. Geological Survey Map. Molt farms potatoes. Molt thrived as a busy and well developed ... Molt is an unincorporated rural village located in Stillwater County, Montana, and has a post office serving ZIP code (59057), ... In 1918, the office was moved to town and the name changed to Molt (named for the person who donated the land for the townsite ...
Home→Readers Question→Readers question: My stick insect stopped eating after molting ... They have finished their final molt and weve been keeping an eye out for eggs, however since their last molt they have not ... My question being is this a sign of something wrong or do they recoup for a bit longer before eating after the final molt ( ... The eggs will not be produced until around 4 weeks after the final molt. With the giant prickly stick insect the eggs are very ...
How to Get Your Cockatiel to Stop Laying Eggs. Companion birds, such as cockatiels, can sometimes lay eggs when they do not ... Induce molting. Molting occurs when a bird sheds her old feathers and grows new ones. A female bird will typically molt after ... Improve her diet. Even though you want to stop your cockatiels egg laying, you will need to know what do if and when she ... For your cockatiel, inducing her to molt after she has laid her eggs will send a signal to her body that she should not try to ...
The Northern Pacific Railway had a stop in Molt en route to Rapelje and Hesper. Although the town has declined significantly ... Molt appears on the Molt U.S. Geological Survey Map. Molt farms potatoes. Molt thrived as a busy and well developed ... Molt is an unincorporated rural village located in Stillwater County, Montana, and has a post office serving ZIP code (59057), ... In 1918, the office was moved to town and the name changed to Molt (named for the person who donated the land for the townsite ...
... stop molting when they reach sexual maturity; others, like lobsters and crabs, molt throughout their lives. Most of… ... between molts is called an instar. Because of the frequency of molts, instars are short early in life but grow longer with ... In arthropod: The exoskeleton and molting. …between molts is called an instar. Because of the frequency of molts, instars are ... stop molting when they reach sexual maturity; others, like lobsters and crabs, molt throughout their lives. Most of… ...
Molted feathers, too.. Tip: Slow the pace as you scout for sign. Linger on the details. Enjoy the scouting process. Ask the ... Dusting bowls often represent where fall turkeys stop to loaf. Droppings in many variations - often but not always J-shaped for ...
6 They Molt. All spiders shed their skin. It happens more when theyre young, but it can continue later in life as well. A few ... It might stop eating or get bald patches (provided its a tarantula). ... The process of molting is long and complicated. A cocktail of hormones causes the spiders current skin to detach and a new one ... A sheet 2.5 centimeters (one inch) thick could stop a fighter jet. ...
Most molting happens as the juvenile spider grows into an adult. Once a spider stops growing, the molting stops completely. ... After the second molt, zebra spiders go off on their own.. Molting occurs between each of the growing cycles of a zebra spider ... Centipedes molt multiple times during the nymph stage and gain new sets of legs with ... Full Answer , Filed Under: * Bugs ... and a zebra spider reaches adulthood within a year after undergoing five to 11 molts as a juvenile. ...
I figured they stopped for molting. Well, after too much time passed, I changed things up. I got extra calcium. I am treating ... Mostly EEs unless I get a barnyard blend and maybe a few OEGB if she stops holding out on me. ...
Birds under a year old shouldnt be going thru a full molt...are you sure of their ages?. Do you free range?. Free range birds ... Birds under a year old shouldnt be going thru a full molt...are you sure of their ages?. Do you free range?. Free range birds ... hens stopped laying for months Discussion in Chicken Behaviors and Egglaying started by philipchickymad, Nov 15, 2014. ... i know there is less light these days but can anyone tell me why they might have stopped for so long ...
Molting occurs periodically throughout the snakes life. Before a molt, the snake stops eating and often hides or moves to a ... Molting, or ecdysis, serves a number of functions. Firstly, the old and worn skin is replaced; secondly, it helps get rid of ... This high cost is due to the repeated stops and starts of portions of the body as well as the necessity of using active ... The probe is marked at the point where it stops, removed, and compared to the subcaudal depth by laying it alongside the scales ...
Feather loss in chickens could be a sign of molting or a more dangerous condition. Learn how to tell the difference with these ... If the skin is damaged or you want the pecking to stop, tree-pruning sealer works great. It acts as a second skin while the ... It can be difficult to tell if backyard chickens are in molt, because many of them molt at different times and in different ... Chicken Feather Loss Has Causes Other Than Molting. Feather loss in chickens could be a sign of molting or a more dangerous ...
It then molts into an opaque, blue-green chrysalis with small gold dots. At normal summer temperatures, it matures in 8-15 days ... Larvae stop feeding and search for a pupation site. The caterpillar attaches itself securely to a horizontal surface, using a ... Each caterpillar, or instar, that molts is larger than the previous as it eats and stores energy in the form of fat and ... Fifth-stage instar larva chew through the petiole or midrib of milkweed leaves and stop the flow of latex. After this, they eat ...
Molting and breeding nests are similar, but use much more silk. These are found under stones at the base of the bush. When a ... In this position, he moves before the female, stopping after each few steps. The male advances in a zig-zag pathway, shifting ... They remain inside the nest until after a first molt, a little more than two weeks later, at which time they are self- ... Indeed, raising of the forelegs appears to have this stop-sign effect even in encounters between congenerics of the three ...
The 10 μg/mg concentration resulted in greater molt inhibition. In this group, all insects stopped their development as second ... Concentrations 0.1 and 1.0 μg blocked the molt of larvae, which remained as third instars until the end of the experiment. ...
I have more or less come to understand his routine, he stops feeding for a while, he molts and after a couple of day she has ... She has only ever molted 3x, and her last molt was in late November 2014. ,Molt periods get longer as crustaceans age, grow,. ... Ruckus has molted four times now but every time it has happened I was asleep so I am not sure if this is an indicator of a molt ... Cray fish molted .. what to do with old shell ? 6/22/11. Hi,. ,Hello,. My Cray fish just molted this morning and she looks fine ...
Migrating animals also exhibit philopatry to certain important areas on their route; staging areas, stop-overs, molting areas ...
The birds are molting. If only man could molt also - his mind once a year its errors, his heart once a year its useless ... Life Stops for No One: Go with the Flow or Get out of the Way. Posted on January 15, 2013. by Harry K. Jones ... One thought on "Life Stops for No One: Go with the Flow or Get out of the Way" * Mary Ann Steele on January 20, 2013 at 8:46 pm ...
She has molted twice since then, most recently about a month ago. Her feeding slowed way down before the molt. We feed crickets ... What it will do is eat a large amount of food and then stop eating for months, sometimes up to more than half a year. This is ... After a molt, its best also to wait 5-7 days before offering any prey since their exoskeleton and fangs have to harden first. ... Since the molt, she has been voracious, generally a cricket every day. For a month! Is this normal? Is she simply making up for ...
Older red morphs stop molting entirely and enter a blocked or terminal anecdysis state (Baghdassarian et al., 1996; Carlisle, ... Rather than stimulating molting, ESA delayed molting in two animals and a third animal did not molt by 90 days post-ESA (Fig. ... Effects of molting on NOS, GC-Iβ, GC-II, GC-III and EF2 expression. As intermolt green and red morphs were refractory to molt ... Molt regulation in green and red color morphs of the crab Carcinus maenas: gene expression of molt-inhibiting hormone signaling ...
"They then molt (grow) to nymphs and spend the winter in hibernation. The following year, they emerge early to infect the next ... If the timing of feeding (nymphs before larvae) gets disrupted, transmission of the bacterium stops. This seems to happen in ...
Maybe shell stop later in the molt, shes now about 3 weeks in. ... Shes molting. All of the hens will be soon, but Tina is first ... Nice to know they all molt differently as our Delaware hasnt been laying and was suspecting she was molting but not to the ... Our Brit-Red is molting and earned the nickname Patch because she looks so funny. My husband is using the shop vac to keep the ... My Mary, a Black Australorp, is really looking horrible these days in a molt. She does however continue to lay. I only have ...
"Induced molt using cassava meal. 2. Effects on eggshell quality, ultrastructure, and pore density in late-phase laying hens, ... The reaction was stopped by rinsing in distilled water. The shells were again removed from the tissue cassettes and left to dry ... of Pre-molt During molt Post-molt Pre-molt During molt Post-molt samples (73 wk) (Day 6 of molt) (95 wk) (73 wk) (Day 6 of molt ... of Pre-molt During molt Post-molt Pre-molt During molt Post-molt samples (73 wk) (Day 6 of molt) (95 wk) (73 wk) (Day 6 of molt ...
There are three larval molts. Mature larvae stop feeding and burrow for protection in drier surrounding areas, where they ...
6. Dont ship an animal that has just molted. Wait at least a week. Also, dont ship an animal that is about to molt. Since ... A good indicatior is when the animal stops eating. Also, if you see an increase in digging, this often suggests an approaching ... molt. Females with eggs are also difficult to ship and require much more water and air. Females that lay during shipping ... that is difficult to tell if an animal is going to molt without microscopic examiniation, you will have to use behavioral cues ...
She is molting and theyre starting to look bad again. But I will not clip the annoying ratyt flights or tail feathers. Im ... Almost immediately he stopped chewing his tail feathers. Like EM said, its impossible to know what they are thinking, but I ... So it is best that we stop trying to figure out what the bird is thinking, and instead concentrate on what it is doing and what ... I have seen some sprays sold to help with molting but they are basically just aloe juice and water. You can go to a health food ...
  • They have finished their final molt and we've been keeping an eye out for eggs, however since their last molt they have not eaten (save once, and very little at that) regardless of the leaves. (keepinginsects.com)
  • The eggs will not be produced until around 4 weeks after the final molt. (keepinginsects.com)
  • A female bird will typically molt after she has finished laying her eggs and weaned her babies. (wikihow.com)
  • For your cockatiel, inducing her to molt after she has laid her eggs will send a signal to her body that she should not try to lay any more eggs. (wikihow.com)
  • If you have a male and female cockatiel, trying to breed them to stop her from laying eggs is not recommended for several reasons. (wikihow.com)
  • Unfortunately as far as i've heard there's nothing you can do to stop a chicken from eating eggs once they've started. (backyardchickens.com)
  • But anyways, I don't know alot about eggs, but you should make sure theres nothing spooking them, when they get scared, they stop laying eggs because they feel it would be unsafe for the baby. (backyardchickens.com)
  • In addition, scanning electron microscopy revealed a smaller size of mammillary knobs accompanied by a higher density of mammillae in eggs taken from the molted treatments. (deepdyve.com)
  • After about 14 months, the chickens stop laying eggs for one to three months for the molting process. (dailygazette.com)
  • She also stopped laying eggs. (rootsimple.com)
  • Don't be surprised when your hens stop laying eggs in the winter. (oregonstate.edu)
  • 3. Broody - When a hen 'goes broody,' she stops laying eggs and starts sitting on the nest 'round the clock, trying to hatch some eggs. (omegafields.com)
  • 5. Predators - Not only will many predators steal and eat eggs, the mere presence of a predator lurking around your run area can stress the hens to the point that they stop laying. (omegafields.com)
  • For example, force-molting hens damages their immune systems so severely as to invite Salmonella enteritidis infection of their ovaries and their eggs. (upc-online.org)
  • Mion has raised the butterflies for years, which involves locating eggs on milkweed stalks, bringing them indoors for five molts to transform into a chrysalis, feeding the voracious caterpillars, then tagging the emerging butterfly with a tiny sticker with an identifying code and an email address and setting them free. (currypilot.com)
  • Gongruttananun, N 2018-03-01 00:00:00 Abstract This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a non-fasting induced molt using cassava meal on the eggshell quality, ultrastructure, and porosity in late-phase (74 wk old) H&N Brown laying hens. (deepdyve.com)
  • It was concluded that feeding the cassava molt diet for 4 wk could be an effective non-fasting molt method for improving eggshell quality, ultrastructure, and porosity in post-molt laying hens. (deepdyve.com)
  • Decreased daylight causes hens to molt and cease egg production, a process that may take several months," Hermes said. (oregonstate.edu)
  • A decrease in egg production this time of year is perfectly normal and most likely attributable to shorter days and molting hens, but it can also be something a bit more formidable. (omegafields.com)
  • 2. Molting - The fall is also the time when hens will generally molt. (omegafields.com)
  • 7. Overcrowding - Overcrowding in the run and coop can lead to pecking and other stresses that can cause your hens to stop laying. (omegafields.com)
  • In 2000, McDonald's became the first U.S. food company to impose minimum welfare standards on its egg suppliers when it announced suppliers must stop withholding food from hens to manipulate egg production (a practice known as 'forced molting'), increase the amount of cage space for each hen from 48 to 72 square inches, and phase out debeaking. (upc-online.org)
  • In this study, we report that three zinc finger-associated domain (ZAD)-C 2 H 2 zinc finger transcription factors-Séance (Séan), Ouija board (Ouib), and Molting defective (Mld)-cooperatively control ecdysone biosynthesis in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster . (genetics.org)
  • However, molting takes more and more energy as a lobster increases in size and the amount of effort it takes for even a 30-50 year old lobster to molt kills between 10% and 15% of the lobsters every year. (todayifoundout.com)
  • But just because lobsters can potentially continue to grow and molt up until their death, that does not mean they always do so, even if they have sufficient food available and ideal environmental conditions. (todayifoundout.com)
  • Elderly lobsters have been observed to stop molting altogether, with the theory being that their bodies simply no longer have the capacity to do so, likely via a lack of the needed metabolic energy. (todayifoundout.com)
  • In one of the later instars, the 5th or perhaps the 6th, a red cap appears in the eye region, but this marking disappears in the following molt. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the molt, she has been voracious, generally a cricket every day. (city-data.com)
  • If you can rule out everything else, then you can blame the feather loss on molt. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • Maybe he was on his last feather when I took him home and he stopped? (mytoos.com)
  • Protein is vital at all times but especially during molting season, when it's essential for feather regrowth. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • With high-gloss sequins and dramatic feather detail, this bebe dress has all the attention-stealing elements of a true show-stopping party dress. (bebe.com)
  • Induce molting. (wikihow.com)
  • You can induce molting by making changes to her environment, such as moving her cage to a different location or rearranging some of the items in her cage. (wikihow.com)
  • GABA was required to induce, and FLP-11 neuropeptides were required to sustain locomotion stop. (nature.com)
  • Recently, a class of interneurons in the murine brainstem was shown to induce a stop command for the pattern generation systems 8 . (nature.com)
  • However, molecular identities of stop cells are only partly known, and also different organisms appear to use different mechanisms and partly redundant circuitry to induce locomotion stop 13 . (nature.com)
  • After each breathing cycle, snakes experience apnea -- a stop in breathing -- that lasts from a few seconds to as long as a few minutes. (howstuffworks.com)
  • At the training school, students don't work with snakes when they're molting because they're more likely to bite. (glamour.com)
  • This conveniently coincides with the winter season, when there are fewer daylight hours, and it's colder, all signals to stop egg production. (hencam.com)
  • between molts is called an instar. (britannica.com)
  • These include collapse of the second instar trachea, filling of the third instar trachea, locomotor stopping, "biting behavior," in which the larva appears to tear at the old cuticle, and then ecdysis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Cm-MIH transcripts were detected in eyestalk ganglia, the brain and the thoracic ganglion from green intermolt animals, suggesing that MIH in the brain and thoracic ganglion prevents molt induction in green ESA animals. (biologists.org)
  • Molt-X has multiple modes of action to provide broad-spectrum control over pests such as aphids, whiteflies, thrips, mealybugs, scales, plant-parasitic nematodes and more. (growingmagazine.com)
  • Because of the frequency of molts, instars are short early in life but grow longer with increasing age. (britannica.com)
  • As they grow and molt, they become covered with a white waxy coating. (scottarboretum.org)
  • Humans grow through childhood and adolescence until they reach a certain size after which they usually do not grow any bigger (at least not vertically…) A lobster's body, however, never stops growing. (todayifoundout.com)
  • Reduced pore densities were found in the molted treatments in some periods of the post-molt production as compared to the CONT treatment. (deepdyve.com)
  • Often, when a hen stops laying, that is the first sign that something is wrong, so tracking production is not only fun and interesting, it can be very beneficial to monitor the health of your flock. (omegafields.com)
  • Since that is difficult to tell if an animal is going to molt without microscopic examiniation, you will have to use behavioral cues. (reefcentral.com)
  • In decapod crustaceans, regulation of molting is controlled by the X-organ/sinus gland complex in the eyestalks. (biologists.org)
  • Despite their fundamental importance for body size regulation, the mechanisms that stop growth are poorly understood. (universia.net)
  • Maybe she'll stop later in the molt, she's now about 3 weeks in. (hencam.com)
  • I am a bit worried and will definitely stop feeding her for a couple of weeks while she loses some weight. (arachnoboards.com)
  • A post office was first established in the Molt area in 1909. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.05) improvements in these parameters were observed for the FP3 and FP4 treatments during the post-molt period, with the greater degree in the FP4 treatment. (deepdyve.com)
  • Identifying the misbehaving bird is only the first step in stopping this unfortunate conduct. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • If the skin is damaged or you want the pecking to stop, tree-pruning sealer works great. (hobbyfarms.com)
  • MIH signaling involves nitric oxide and cGMP in the YO, which expresses nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC-I). Molting can generally be induced by eyestalk ablation (ESA), which removes the primary source of MIH, or by multiple leg autotomy (MLA). (biologists.org)
  • Mating takes place during molting with the male carrying the female beneath him. (aces.edu)