Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery. Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by laser is LITHOTRIPSY, LASER.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Ureteral Calculi: Stones in the URETER that are formed in the KIDNEY. They are rarely more than 5 mm in diameter for larger renal stones cannot enter ureters. They are often lodged at the ureteral narrowing and can cause excruciating renal colic.Calcium Oxalate: The calcium salt of oxalic acid, occurring in the urine as crystals and in certain calculi.Calculi: An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.Urinary Bladder Calculi: Stones in the URINARY BLADDER; also known as vesical calculi, bladder stones, or cystoliths.Urolithiasis: Formation of stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT, usually in the KIDNEY; URINARY BLADDER; or the URETER.Hyperuricemia: Excessive URIC ACID or urate in blood as defined by its solubility in plasma at 37 degrees C; greater than 0.42mmol per liter (7.0mg/dL) in men or 0.36mmol per liter (6.0mg/dL) in women. This condition is caused by overproduction of uric acid or impaired renal clearance. Hyperuricemia can be acquired, drug-induced or genetically determined (LESCH-NYHAN SYNDROME). It is associated with HYPERTENSION and GOUT.Nephrolithiasis: Formation of stones in the KIDNEY.Ureteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the ureter.Urate Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC 1.7.3.3.Nephrostomy, Percutaneous: The insertion of a catheter through the skin and body wall into the kidney pelvis, mainly to provide urine drainage where the ureter is not functional. It is used also to remove or dissolve renal calculi and to diagnose ureteral obstruction.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Sphincterotomy, Endoscopic: Incision of Oddi's sphincter or Vater's ampulla performed by inserting a sphincterotome through an endoscope (DUODENOSCOPE) often following retrograde cholangiography (CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY, ENDOSCOPIC RETROGRADE). Endoscopic treatment by sphincterotomy is the preferred method of treatment for patients with retained or recurrent bile duct stones post-cholecystectomy, and for poor-surgical-risk patients that have the gallbladder still present.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Choledocholithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the COMMON BILE DUCT.Cholangiography: An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.Cholecystography: Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.Bile Duct Diseases: Diseases in any part of the ductal system of the BILIARY TRACT from the smallest BILE CANALICULI to the largest COMMON BILE DUCT.Common Bile Duct: The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Hypercalciuria: Excretion of abnormally high level of CALCIUM in the URINE, greater than 4 mg/kg/day.Allopurinol: A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Hyperoxaluria: Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Sphincterotomy, Transhepatic: Surgery of the smooth muscle sphincter of the hepatopancreatic ampulla to relieve blocked biliary or pancreatic ducts.Dental Pulp CalcificationColic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Bile Pigments: Linear TETRAPYRROLES that give a characteristic color to BILE including: BILIRUBIN; BILIVERDIN; and bilicyanin.Lithiasis: A condition characterized by the formation of CALCULI and concretions in the hollow organs or ducts of the body. They occur most often in the gallbladder, kidney, and lower urinary tract.Ureteroscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the ureter.Lithostathine: The proteinaceous component of the pancreatic stone in patients with PANCREATITIS.Uricosuric Agents: Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Ursodeoxycholic Acid: An epimer of chenodeoxycholic acid. It is a mammalian bile acid found first in the bear and is apparently either a precursor or a product of chenodeoxycholate. Its administration changes the composition of bile and may dissolve gallstones. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Lithium Carbonate: A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Antimanic Agents: Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
... kidney stones, idiopathic gout; uric acid lithiasis; acute uric acid nephropathy; neoplastic disease and myeloproliferative ... Common side effects when used by mouth include itchiness and rash. Common side effects when used by injection include vomiting ... resulting in the production of uric acid, the product of human purine metabolism. In addition to blocking uric acid production ... It is specifically used to prevent gout, prevent specific types of kidney stones, and for the high uric acid levels that can ...
High blood calcium, oxalate, or uric acid, can contribute to the risk of stone formation. In males, an enlarged prostate gland ... Failure of kidney function, which can have multiple causes including medications or toxins (e.g., antifreeze, cephalosporins, ... Stones or tumours in the urinary tract can also cause it by creating an obstruction to urinary flow. ... It may also occur because of some severe obstruction like kidney stones or tumours. It may occur with end stage renal disease. ...
Urate bladder stones may form because of increased amounts of uric acid in circulation and excreted by the kidneys. Initial ... Symptoms of congenital PSS usually appear by six months of age and include failure to gain weight, vomiting, and signs of ... These methods include ameroid ring constrictors, cellophane banding, intravascular or percutaneous silicone hydraulic occluders ... Gerritzen-Bruning M, van den Ingh T, Rothuizen J (2006). "Diagnostic value of fasting plasma ammonia and bile acid ...
Xanthine oxidase will degrade hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid. Xanthine is not very soluble in water; therefore ... But there is a body of evidence that several factors including apoptosis-induction seem to play a role. The long-term use of ... an increase in xanthine forms crystals (which can lead to kidney stones) and result in damage of the kidney. Xanthine oxidase ... This may be because sources of animal protein, animal fat, and cholesterol, and sweets are more acid-producing, while fruits, ...
Overproduction of uric acid may lead to the development of uric acid crystals or stones in the kidneys, ureters, or bladder. ... Neurological symptoms include facial grimacing, involuntary writhing, and repetitive movements of the arms and legs similar to ... other than the kidney stones caused by accumulation of insoluble xanthine in lieu of uric acid. Similarly, uric acid does not ... which is caused by low uric acid renal clearance rather than uric acid overproduction, is not associated with neuropathology. ...
... like Fiona who have two normal genes have low uric acid levels and all of their offspring will have low levels of uric acid, ... This condition can lead to a variety of complications, including urate crystal arthropathy, bladder stones, obstruction of the ... Dogs with a single normal gene will have low levels of uric acid, but their offspring can have either high or low levels of ... She became the first low uric acid Dalmatian to compete at Crufts in the United Kingdom in 2011. Dr. Robert Schaible started a ...
... on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones ... For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: - 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in ... For his Experiments towards the Discovery of Medicines for dissolving the Stone; and Preservatives for keeping Meat in long ... In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction ...
Gout is from high levels of uric acid that is in the blood. Gout can cause urate crystals to settle in tissues of joints. Gout ... Animals, including dogs and cats, can also get arthritis.[3] References[change , change source]. *↑ "Arthritis". Student ... The stone-like shapes build in joints, ligaments and tendons.[2] Arthritis is more common in older people. Both osteoarthritis ... Other kinds of arthritis include psoriatic arthritis and septic arthritis (when an area is invaded by bacteria). ...
Antiuricosuric drugs raise serum uric acid levels and lower urine uric acid levels. These drugs include all diuretics,[citation ... However, the increased uric acid levels in urine can contribute to kidney stones. Thus, use of these drugs is contraindicated ... Drugs that reduce blood uric acid are not all uricosurics; blood uric acid can be reduced by other mechanisms (see other ... are substances that increase the excretion of uric acid in the urine, thus reducing the concentration of uric acid in blood ...
Other possible adverse effects include increased oxalate excretion and kidney stones, increased uric-acid excretion, systemic ... Food portal Ascorbic acid Micronutrient Macronutrient Megavitamin therapy Orthomolecular medicine Uric acid Vitamin Institute ... Ioannides C, Stone AN, Breacker PJ & Basu TK (1982). "Impairment of absorption of ascorbic acid following ingestion of aspirin ... Certain animal species, including haplorhine primates (which includes humans), members of the Caviidae family of rodents ( ...
Kidney stones of uric acid (uric acid nephrolithiasis) Acute uric acid nephropathy Acute renal failure Tumor lysis syndrome ... cure or amelioration of hyperuricosuria include allopurinol which acts by inhibiting xanthine oxidase and reducing uric acid ... Hyperuricosuria is a medical term referring to the presence of excessive amounts of uric acid in the urine. For men this is at ... If neither hyperuricemia nor gout is present, then the risk of uric acid nephrolithiasis can be reduced by the use of ...
Long-standing elevated uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) may result in other symptoms, including hard, painless deposits of uric ... Elevated levels of uric acid may also lead to crystals precipitating in the kidneys, resulting in stone formation and ... Probenecid may be used if undersecretion of uric acid is present (24-hour urine uric acid less than 800 mg). It is, however, ... Levels of uric acid in serum in patients with metabolic syndrome]" [Levels of uric acid in serum in patients with metabolic ...
About 5-10% of all stones are formed from uric acid.[18] People with certain metabolic abnormalities, including obesity,[17] ... The mainstay for medical management of uric acid stones is alkalinization (increasing the pH) of the urine. Uric acid stones ... high serum uric acid levels).[83] Dosage is adjusted to maintain a reduced urinary excretion of uric acid. Serum uric acid ... The formation of uric acid stones requires a combination of hyperuricosuria (high urine uric acid levels) and low urine pH; ...
It is approved only for patients who have not achieved target uric acid levels with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor alone. The ... For kidney stones, the frequencies were 1.7%, 0.6% and 2.5%, respectively. Other common side effects were influenza (5.1% vs. ... including kidney transplant and hemodialysis patients. In clinical trials, serum creatinine (an important marker for kidney ... "FDA approves Zurampic to treat high blood uric acid levels associated with gout". Food and Drug Administration. December 22, ...
... gout and are associated with other medical conditions including diabetes and the formation of ammonium acid urate kidney stones ... Uric acid levels in saliva may be associated with blood uric acid levels. Hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid), which ... These uric acid stones are radiolucent and so do not appear on an abdominal plain X-ray.[citation needed] Uric acid crystals ... Uric acid is released in hypoxic conditions. In humans and higher primates, uric acid (actually hydrogen urate ion) is the ...
Uric acid stones have similar characteristics as the calcium oxalate stones, but occur much more rarely (approximately 5% of ... Other possible causes include: increased urinary pH history of or predisposition to stone formation inflight food stability ... and an increased risk for calcium oxalate and uric acid stones immediately after flight. This post-flight stone development ... risk factors on short and long duration Shuttle missions showed that an increased risk of calcium oxalate and uric acid stone ...
They are usually small, yellow-brown, smooth stones. Urate stones form due to an increased excretion of uric acid in the urine ... Reasons for treatment of bladder stones include recurring symptoms and risk of urinary tract obstruction. Some stones can be ... Urate stones make up about six percent of all stones in the cat. Urate stones can be dissolved using a diet with reduced ... shunts or endstage liver disease also have increased uric acid excretion in the urine due to reduced conversion of uric acid to ...
... compounds this problem by increasing the collision of uric acid particles, the process by which uric acid stones are formed. ... Symptoms can include: Frequent urinary tract infections Pyelonephritis Obstructive voiding symptoms Urinary retention Failure ... Duplex-system ureterocele: treatment options vary with the individual and include: endoscopic incision of the corresponding ... and predispose the patient to impassable kidney stones. The effective "bladder within a bladder" ...
... formation of uric acid kidney stones due to increased uric acid in the urine (see Nephrolithiasis). Dietary supplements that ... increased production of uric acid, decreased excretion of uric acid, and mixed type. Causes of increased production include ... Hyperuricemia is an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood. In the pH conditions of body fluid, uric acid exists ... Starvation also impairs the ability of the kidney to excrete uric acid, due to competition for transport between uric acid and ...
The starting material for the reaction sequence was uric acid (8), which had been isolated from kidney stones by Carl Wilhelm ... They include the nucleobases adenine (2) and guanine (3). In DNA, these bases form hydrogen bonds with their complementary ... Uric acid (8) was reacted with PCl5 to give 2,6,8-trichloropurine (10), which was converted with HI and PH4I to give 2,6- ... I" [On uric acid. I.]. Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 17: 328-338. doi:10.1002/cber.18840170196. From p. 329 ...
Uric acid and its salts (urates) Cystine Xanthine Indigotin (rare) Urostealith (rare) Sulfonamide (rare) Jackstone calculi are ... Other individuals who develop bladder stones include those who have had spinal cord injury, paralysis, or some type of nerve ... A bladder stone is a stone found in the urinary bladder. Bladder stones are small mineral deposits that can form in the bladder ... Complications of this treatment include infection and damage to the bladder. Some stones are too large even for cystoscopic ...
The result of the analyses showed the calculi were composed of melamine and uric acid, and the molecular ratio of uric acid to ... Melamine is known to cause kidney failure and kidney stones in humans and animals when it reacts with cyanuric acid inside the ... Three hundred kg of suspicious chemicals, including 223 kg of melamine, were confiscated.[66] Among those arrested were two ... "More kidney stone cases found". The Standard. Hong Kong. 17 October 2008. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved ...
... excessive amounts of uric acid in the urine) Impaired urinary acidification Rickets In a study of 25 patients with Dent's ... "Dent's disease" is often used to describe an entire group of familial disorders, including X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis ... kidney stones) Hypercalciuria (high urine calcium - >300 mg/d or >4 mg/kg per d) with normal levels blood/serum calcium) ... and supersaturation for uric acid was consequently lower (P < 0.03)." For patients with osteomalacia, vitamin D or derivatives ...
Uric acid is the second most common mineral type, but an in vitro study showed uric acid stones and crystals can promote the ... Calculi in the urinary system are called urinary calculi and include kidney stones (also called renal calculi or nephroliths) ... Some common principles (below) apply to stones at any location, but for specifics see the particular stone type in question. ... and bladder stones (also called vesical calculi or cystoliths). They can have any of several compositions, including mixed. ...
... a drug that helps to prevent the formation of uric acid and used in treating gout and kidney stones. While at Mount Sinai ... This charitable organization is a philanthropy, voluntarism, and grantmaking foundation serving purposes including religious, ... drug which causes the removal of excess uric acid by being excreted with urine. In addition, Yu helped to establish a ... NIH for 26 years and she helped to establish the understanding a metabolic relationship between elevated levels of uric acid ...
... (ESWL) is a non-invasive treatment of kidney stones (urinary calculosis) and biliary calculi (stones in the gallbladder or in the liver) using an acoustic pulse. It is also reported to be used for salivary stones and pancreatic stones. Beginning in 1969 and funded by the German Ministry of Defense, Dornier began a study of the effects of shock waves on tissue.In 1972, on the basis of preliminary studies performed by Dornier Medical Systems, an agreement was reached with Egbert Schmiedt, director of the urologic clinic at the University of Munich. The development of the Dornier lithotripter progressed through several prototypes, ultimately culminating in February 1980 with the first treatment of a human by SWL.The production and distribution of the Dornier HM3 lithotripter began in late 1983, and SWL was ...
Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a noninvasive technique for the removal of kidney stones. Most ESWL is carried out when the stone is present near the renal pelvis. ESWL involves the use of a lithotriptor machine to deliver externally applied, focused, high-intensity pulses of ultrasonic energy to cause fragmentation of a stone over a period of around 30-60 minutes. Following its introduction in the United States in February 1984, ESWL was rapidly and widely accepted as a treatment alternative for renal and ureteral stones.[89] It is currently used in the treatment of uncomplicated stones located in the kidney and upper ureter, provided the aggregate stone burden (stone size and number) is less than 20 mm (0.8 in) and the anatomy of the involved kidney is normal.[90][91] For a stone greater than 10 mm (0.4 in), ESWL may not help break the ...
... (or Dent disease) is a rare X-linked recessive inherited condition that affects the proximal renal tubules of the kidney. It is one cause of Fanconi syndrome, and is characterized by tubular proteinuria, excess calcium in the urine, formation of calcium kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis, and chronic kidney failure. "Dent's disease" is often used to describe an entire group of familial disorders, including X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with kidney failure, X-linked recessive hypophosphatemic rickets, and both Japanese and idiopathic low-molecular-weight proteinuria. About 60% of patients have mutations in the CLCN5 gene (Dent 1), which encodes a kidney-specific chloride/proton antiporter, and 15% of patients have mutations in the OCRL1 gene (Dent 2). Dent's disease often produces the following signs and symptoms: Extreme thirst combined with dehydration, which leads to frequent urination Nephrolithiasis (kidney ...
Ang prosesong ito ay gumagamit ng isang makina na kung tawagin ay lithotriptor kung saan ito ay naglalayong sirain ang bato nang mag-iiwan lamang ng kakaunting pinsala sa pamamagitan ng acoustic pulse na naka-pokus, may mataas na antas ng puwersa, at inilalapat mula sa labas (dahilan upang tawagin ang prosesong ito bilang extracorporeal). Ang pasyenteng tulog o di kaya ay nalapatan ng anesthesia ay pinahihiga sa isang aparato na suportado sa gawing likuran ng isang kargamentong naglalaman ng kaunting tubig. Ang nasabing kagamitan ay inilalapat sa lugar kung saan nakapuwesto ang bato (kidney) ng pasyente. Ginagamit ang fluoroscopic na sistema ng x-ray, o kaya minsan ay ultrasound upang matagpuan ang kidney at maitutok ng maayos ang makina kung saan magmumula ang bugso ng shockwaves. Ang unang henerasyon ng lithotriptor, na kilala sa tawag na HM3, ay mayroong sipi na hugis-ellipsoid na binubuksan patungo sa pasyente. Ang acoustic pulse ay nanggagaling mula sa pokus ng ellipsoid na pinakamalayo ...
A calculus (plural calculi), often called a stone, is a concretion of material, usually mineral salts, that forms in an organ or duct of the body. Formation of calculi is known as lithiasis (/ˌlɪˈθaɪəsɪs/). Stones can cause a number of medical conditions. Some common principles (below) apply to stones at any location, but for specifics see the particular stone type in question. Calculi are not to be confused with gastroliths. ...
... is used in every branch of the physical sciences, actuarial science, computer science, statistics, engineering, economics, business, medicine, demography, and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa, and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. Physics makes particular use of calculus; all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are related through calculus. The mass of an object of known density, the moment of inertia of objects, as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "change of motion" which implies the derivative saying The change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on ...
... is used in every branch of the physical sciences, actuarial science, computer science, statistics, engineering, economics, business, medicine, demography, and in other fields wherever a problem can be mathematically modeled and an optimal solution is desired. It allows one to go from (non-constant) rates of change to the total change or vice versa, and many times in studying a problem we know one and are trying to find the other. Physics makes particular use of calculus; all concepts in classical mechanics and electromagnetism are related through calculus. The mass of an object of known density, the moment of inertia of objects, as well as the total energy of an object within a conservative field can be found by the use of calculus. An example of the use of calculus in mechanics is Newton's second law of motion: historically stated it expressly uses the term "change of motion" which implies the derivative saying The change of momentum of a body is equal to the resultant force acting on ...
Many results concerning differential equations carry over quite easily to corresponding results for difference equations, while other results seem to be completely different from their continuous counterparts.[2] The study of dynamic equations on time scales reveals such discrepancies, and helps avoid proving results twice-once for differential equations and once again for difference equations. The general idea is to prove a result for a dynamic equation where the domain of the unknown function is a so-called time scale (also known as a time-set), which may be an arbitrary closed subset of the reals. In this way, results apply not only to the set of real numbers or set of integers but to more general time scales such as a Cantor set. The three most popular examples of calculus on time scales are differential calculus, difference calculus, and quantum calculus. Dynamic equations on a time scale have a potential for applications, such as in population dynamics. For example, they can model insect ...
Most small stones are passed spontaneously and only pain management is required. Above 5 mm the rate of spontaneous stone passage decreases.[3] NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), such as diclofenac[4] or ibuprofen, and antispasmodics like butylscopolamine are used. Although morphine may be administered to assist with emergency pain management, it is often not recommended as morphine is very addictive and raises ureteral pressure, worsening the condition. Vomiting as well is considered an important adverse effect of opioids, mainly with pethidine.[5] Oral narcotic medications are also often used. There is typically no antalgic position for the patient (lying down on the non-aching side and applying a hot bottle or towel to the area affected may help). Larger stones may require surgical intervention for their removal, such as shockwave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy. ...
... is natural stone or rock that has been selected and finished (i.e., trimmed, cut, drilled, ground, or other) to specific sizes or shapes. Color, texture and pattern, and surface finish of the stone are also normal requirements. Another important selection criterion is durability: the time measure of the ability of dimension stone to endure and to maintain its essential and distinctive characteristics of strength, resistance to decay, and appearance. Quarries that produce dimension stone or crushed stone (used as construction aggregate) are interconvertible. Since most quarries can produce either one, a crushed stone quarry can be converted to dimension stone production. However, first the stone shattered by heavy and indiscriminate blasting must be removed. Dimension stone is separated by more precise and delicate techniques, such as diamond wire saws, diamond belt saws, burners (jet-piercers), or light and selective blasting with Primacord, a weak explosive. A variety of ...
A reading stone was an approximately hemispherical lens that was placed on top of text to magnify the letters so that people with presbyopia could read it more easily. Reading stones were among the earliest common uses of lenses. Reading stones were developed in the 9th century, following the development by Abbas Ibn Firnas of a process for converting sand into glass.[citation needed] Glass could be shaped and polished into stones used for viewing. The function of reading stones was replaced by the use of spectacles from the late 13th century onwards, but modern implementations are still used. In their modern form, they can be found as rod-shaped magnifiers, flat on one side, that magnify a line of text at a time; or as a sheet in the form of a Fresnel lens placed over an entire page. The modern forms are ...
In March 1986, the Rolling Stones' cover of "Harlem Shuffle" (their first lead single from a studio album not to be a Jagger/Richards original since the band's earliest days) was released to a receptive audience, reaching #13 in the UK and #5 in the US. The follow-up single "One Hit (To the Body)" was a US top 30 hit and featured a revealing video of Jagger and Richards seeming to trade blows.. Dirty Work was released a week after "Harlem Shuffle", reaching #4 in the UK and US (going platinum there), but the critical reaction was less than enthusiastic. Some reviewers felt the album was slight in places, with weak, generic songwriting from Richards and Wood and puzzlingly abrasive vocals from Jagger. Some felt Jagger was saving his best material for his solo records, though the critical reaction to those releases was muted as well. People named it one of the worst albums of 1986, denoting "The worst fears of the Baby Boomers come true: If the ...
O Göppingen Gö 9 foi uma aeronave experimental[2] alemã de patrulha e reconhecimento que serviu para investigar o desempenho do uso de hélices atrás da aeronave. Após muitos testes no solo, o Go 9 iniciou uma série de testes de voo por volta de 1940.[3] Após diversos testes, uma aeronave foi desenvolvida com dois motores a pistão, um à frente e outro atrás, o Dornier Do 335.[4] O destino do Gö 9 é desde então desconhecido. ...
The possibilities of local dissolution of uric acid calculi with Na hydrocarbonate, K carbonate and lithium carbonate were ... Tyktynsky, I. F., Novikov, N.: Conservative therapy of uric acid stones.Urologija i Nefrologija, 6, 17 (1978).Google Scholar ... Frang, D.: Uric acid stones: formation, clinical manifestations, oral litholysis. Candidates Thesis, Budapest 1972.Google ... Atsmon, A., de Vries, A., Lazebnik, J., Salinger, H.: Dissolution of renal uric acid stone by oral alkalinisation and large ...
Potassium citrate is used as an aid in the prevention of urinary stone formation by increasing urinary pH. Potassium citrate is ... These stones may sometimes form due to high levels of calcium or uric acid in the urine of your dog or cat. Potassium Citrate ... Because is intended as a general reference, this information may not include all possible uses, precautions, directions, ... Urinary stone preventative for dogs and cats. Use Potassium Citrate 10 mEq, 100 Tablets to help prevent kidney stones in dogs ...
My vet also wants to start allopurinol which apparently binds/removes the uric acid. Now that I have my crystals straight any ... However, short-term changes may help speed the dissolution of stones.". "Low-protein diets do not prevent stone formation. A ... including dietary changes. If the dog does have a urinary tract infection, a prescription dog food will not cure it." ... After a month of waiting on the results of stone diagnosis, he was put on Royal Canin Urinary SO dog food. I am looking for a ...
Lithotripsy uses shock waves or laser to break down kidney stones, gallstones, or stones in the ureter. ... Lithotripsy is a medical procedure that helps to break larger stones down into small pieces to allow them to pass out in the ... Uric Acid Kidney Stones What are uric acid stones? Uric acid kidney stones are one of the major forms of kidney stones found in ... These include such as diapers, plastic-coated underwear, incontinence pads, or panty. . . . ...
Stone is how to form? Why repeated attacks? Uric acid stones in metabolic stones ... is the use of shock waves produced by the impact of the impact of the crushing of the stones in the body, including the urinary ... ESWL positioning, is to use the relevant equipment to determine the location of the stone in the human body, and the stone ... Lithotriptors all the two basic parts, the accurate positioning system of shock wave that can crush stones and stones, is the ...
... pebble-sized objects that grow in your kidneys are known as kidney stones. Understanding how they form and how theyre treated ... Uric acid stones: Eating large amounts of animal proteins can cause uric acid to build up in the urine and eventually form a ... They include:. Calcium stones: These are the most common ones. Even just eating some foods very high in oxalates, such as ... What Are Kidney Stones?. Articles OnKidney Stones. Kidney Stones Kidney Stones - What Are Kidney Stones? * What Is a Kidney ...
One or more stones can be in the kidney or ureter at the same time. ... A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. ... These medicines can include:. *Allopurinol (for uric acid ... Renal calculi; Nephrolithiasis; Stones - kidney; Calcium oxalate - stones; Cystine - stones; Struvite - stones; Uric acid - ... Uric acid stones are more common in men than in women. They can occur with gout or chemotherapy. ...
For patient education information, see Diet and Gout and Uric Acid in Blood. ... Kidney stones: uric acid stones. Nephrology (Carlton). 2007 Feb. 12 Suppl 1:S21-5. [Medline]. ... The epidemiology of uric acid and fructose. Semin Nephrol. 2011 Sep. 31(5):410-9. [Medline]. [Full Text]. ... Lin F, Zhang H, Huang F, Chen H, Lin C, Zhu P. Influence of changes in serum uric acid levels on renal function in elderly ...
Testing may include:. *Blood and 24-hour urine tests for calcium, uric acid, creatinine, and sometimes oxalate, citrate, ... Uric acid stone, then it is likely that the person is producing and excreting excess uric acid due to conditions such as gout ... Kidney Stone Analysis Related tests:. Urinalysis, Kidney Stone Risk Panel, Uric Acid, Calcium, Phosphorus, Creatinine, Oxalate ... About 75% of stones will contain calcium. Less common stones include:. *Cystine-stones associated with an inherited excess of ...
... are the most common cause of radiolucent kidney stones in children. Several products of purine metabolism are relatively ... These include 2- or 8-dihydroxyadenine, adenine, xanthine, and uric acid. The crystals of uric acid may initiate calcium ... The incidence of uric acid stones in most parts of the world is not known. Uric acid stones tend to be more frequently reported ... Uric acid urolithiasis or uric acid kidney stones refer to development of a stone or calculus composed of significant amounts ...
Your health care provider may ask you to take self-care steps to treat kidney stones or prevent them from returning. ... A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. ... to form the stone.. *A uric acid stone may form when your urine ... Which steps you take depend on the type of stone you have, but they may include:. *Drinking extra water and other liquids ... Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate stones and self-care; Uric acid stones and self-care ...
Other less common types of stones include uric acid stones and stones made of the amino acid cystine. ... Uric acid stones may be the result of hyperuricosuria, a disorder of uric acid metabolism or of gout, which also causes uric ... These medications may include: *Allopurinol (uric acid stones) *Antibiotics (struvite stones) *Thiazide Diuretics reduce the ... If the stone is found to be uric acid, avoid organ meats, sardines, anchovies, and brewers yeast. All of these are high in ...
Learn here about the types and causes of kidney stones and about some foods that may help prevent kidney stones from developing ... Learn about which dietary choices may help treat and prevent kidney stones, and which foods to avoid. ... Kidney stones can develop when concentrated minerals accumulate in the kidneys. ... Including extra water in the diet can help prevent the formation of both uric acid and cystine stones. Including other liquids ...
... but the level of uric acid in your urine is increased. Side effects include a rash, stomach pain and kidney stones. Lesinurad ... medications to lower your bodys level of uric acid may be recommended. Options include:. * Medications that block uric acid ... ability to remove uric acid from your body. This may lower your uric acid levels and reduce your risk of gout, ... limit the amount of uric acid your body makes. This may lower your bloods uric acid level and reduce your risk of gout. ...
Kidney stone types include:. *Calcium oxalate. *Uric acid. *Cystine stones. *Struvite stones ... Once the type of stone has been discovered, the cause of the stone formation must be identified. Kidney stones are frequently ... Kidney Stones Kidney stones in children are far less common than in adults. The first step in treatment is to find out what ... Epispadias - Epispadias includes a severe dorsal curvature of the penis up towards the abdominal wall as well as the urethral ...
Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate stones and self-care; Uric a... ... A uric acid stone may form when your urine contains too much acid. ... Which steps you take depend on the type of stone you have, but they may include: *Drinking extra water and other liquids ... What is a Kidney Stone?. A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. A stone can get stuck as it leaves ...
Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals. ... Uncommon (0.1% to 1%): Elevated uric acid, gout, renal stones. Postmarketing reports: Peripheral edema, hyponatremia[Ref] ... Data sources include IBM Watson Micromedex (updated Dec 6th, 2018), Cerner Multum™ (updated Dec 7th, 2018), Wolters Kluwer™ ( ... Postmarketing reports: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (including Stevens Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis)[ ...
Other examples include oranges, limes, yuzu, tangerines and pomelo. Have a read through all the health benefits of lemons and ... Lemons reduce calcium deposits and prevents kidney stones. It also reduced uric acid levels. ... Other examples include oranges, limes, yuzu, tangerines and pomelo. Have a read through all the health benefits of lemons and ... Lemons can destroy intestinal parasites and bacteria including typhoid and cholera.. Lemons contain vitamin P which is a ...
Build-up of uric acid, which can cause kidney stones. or gout. ... These include: *Stunted growth due to nutrient deficiencies. * ...
Kidney stones are a common and painful health problem. However, these 8 dietary strategies can help make sure you dont get ... Four main types exist, but about 80% of all stones are calcium oxalate stones. Less common forms include struvite, uric acid, ... These compounds are broken down into uric acid and may increase the risk of forming uric acid stones (. 48. , 49. ). ... What are kidney stones?. Also known as renal stones or nephrolithiasis, kidney stones are composed of hard, solid waste ...
Shed like to be secretly famous like Hannah Montana is--but NOT for having kidney stones. And I have no proof that giving ... and I certainly wouldnt want to embarrass my wonderful six-year-old neighbor who now has to undergo kidney stone surgery. ... A rise in pediatric kidney stones is NOT connected with an increase in infant vaccines...or is it? - I shouldnt be writing ... Other common types include calcium phosphate stones and uric acid stones.) And the two biggest risk factors for this binding ...
This MNT Knowledge Center article looks at 11 ways to prevent kidney stones, including staying hydrating, reduce the amount of ... Kidney stones are crystalized minerals that form in the kidneys. They can cause a lot of pain and discomfort. ... Kidney stones can consist of many different compounds, including uric acid, struvite, and cysteine. The most common type of ... Monitoring the intake of high-acid foods. Highly acidic urine can increase the risk of kidney stones and make passing the ...
Hyperuricemia happens if theres too much uric acid in your blood. Its tied to gout. Learn why it occurs, what the symptoms ... Kidney stones. Uric acid crystals can cause a buildup of stones in your kidneys. Often, the stones are small and are passed in ... High uric acid levels can lead to several diseases, including a painful type of arthritis called gout. Elevated uric acid ... your body rids itself of uric acid when you urinate. Hyperuricemia occurs when your body either makes too much uric acid or is ...
Purine-containing foods include dried beans, peas, and liver. When the body breaks down purines, it produces uric acid. The ... Uric Acid Stones. Uric acid is responsible for almost 10% of kidney stones. It is the breakdown product of purines, nitrogen ... Often, uric acid stones occur with calcium stones.. Struvite Stones. Struvite stones are made of magnesium ammonium phosphate. ... Medications for Uric Acid Stones. Sodium Bicarbonate. Patients whose persistently acidic urine causes uric acid stones may take ...
Uric acid stones. Medicines that make you more likely to develop uric acid stones include:. *Thiazides, such as ... Calcium stones. Medicines that make you more likely to develop calcium stones include:. *Loop diuretics, such as furosemide and ... Medicines that actually make stones. Some medicines will result in your body making kidney stones. These include:. *Potassium- ... Kidney Stones: Medicines That Increase Your Risk. Topic Overview. Some medicines make it more likely that you will develop a ...
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