Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
Vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus
Viral Envelope Proteins
Viral Matrix Proteins
L Cells (Cell Line)
Viral Plaque Assay
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
Interferon Type I
Myxovirus Resistance Proteins
Viral Core Proteins
Viral Structural Proteins
Molecular Sequence Data
Centrifugation, Density Gradient
Newcastle disease virus
Denture, Complete, Upper
Amino Acid Sequence
Viral Fusion Proteins
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Drug Administration Schedule
Genetic Complementation Test
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Cell Transformation, Viral
Marburg Virus Disease
A phase I study of the lipophilic thymidylate synthase inhibitor Thymitaq (nolatrexed dihydrochloride) given by 10-day oral administration. (1/422)2-Amino-3,4-dihydro-6-methyl-4-oxo-5-(4-pyridylthio)-quinazoline dihydrochloride (nolatrexed dihydrochloride, Thymitaq, AG337), a specific inhibitor of thymidylate synthase, was developed using protein structure-based drug design. Intravenously administered nolatrexed is active clinically. As oral bioavailability is high (70-100%), nolatrexed was administered orally, 6 hourly for 10 days, at 3-week intervals, and dose escalated from 80 to 572 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 23 patients. Common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 3 toxicities included nausea, vomiting, stomatitis and liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Thrombocytopenia (grade 1 or 2) occurred at doses > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) and neutropenia (grade 2) at 429 and 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). An erythematous maculopapular rash occurred at dosages > or = 318 mg m(-2) day(-1) (7 out of 19 patients). LFT abnormalities occurred in two out of six patients (grade 3 or 4 bilirubin and grade 3 alanine transaminase) at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nolatrexed plasma concentrations 1 h after dosing were 6-16 microg ml(-1), and trough 3-8 microg ml(-1), at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Inhibition of thymidylate synthase was demonstrated by elevation of plasma deoxyuridine. Six-hourly oral nolatrexed for 10 days was associated with antiproliferative effects, but nausea and vomiting was dose limiting at 572 mg m(-2) day(-1). Nine patients were treated at 429 mg m(-2) day(-1); three out of nine experienced grade 3 nausea, but 17 out of 22 treatment courses were completed (with the co-administration of prophylactic antiemetics) and this dose level could be considered for phase II testing. (+info)
Phase I study of transforming growth factor-beta3 mouthwashes for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. (2/422)The purpose of this study was to establish the safety and tolerability of recombinant transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3; CGP 46614) mouthwashes intended for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Local effects were especially analyzed by objective and subjective measurements of mucositis. Secondary aims were analysis of potential systemic exposure and development of anti-TGF-beta3-antibodies. Eleven breast cancer patients received chemotherapy with 1.5 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v., 80 mg/m2 epirubicin i.v., and 1.0 g/m2 5-fluorouracil i.v. (n = 8) or 1.6 g/m2 carboplatin i.v., 480 mg/m2 thiotepa i.v., and 6 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v. divided over 4 days (n = 3). TGF-beta3 mouthwashes (10 ml; provided by Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) were administered for 4 days, four times a day, starting 1 day before chemotherapy. The dose was escalated in following patients from 25 microg/ml (n = 3) to 50 microg/ml (n = 3) and 100 microg/ml (n = 5). Clinically, the mucosa was scored objectively and according to WHO criteria. The percentage of viable oral epithelial cells was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion. Morphology of cells was assessed in buccal smears. Plasma samples were collected for determination of TGF-beta3 levels and anti-TGF-beta3-antibodies. Adverse events were recorded by the patient in a diary. Mouthwashes with TGF-beta3 were well tolerated. Three patients scored for mucositis > grade 0 (WHO grading criteria). The percentage of viable oral epithelial cells in patients treated with 1.5 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v., 80 mg/m2 epirubicin i.v., and 1.0 g/m2 5-fluorouracil i.v. was stable, whereas in patients treated with 1.6 g/m2 carboplatin i.v., 480 mg/m2 thiotepa i.v., and 6 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v. divided over 4 days, an increase was observed. The morphology of buccal cells showed a transient shift from mature to immature cells in the first week. Neither systemic absorption of TGF-beta3 nor development of TGF-beta3-antibodies was observed. TGF-beta3 mouthwashes were well tolerated and deserve further study in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis. (+info)
Cytokine mRNA expression in lesions in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis. (3/422)Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays were developed to measure feline interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-12 (p35 & p40); gamma interferon (IFN-gamma); and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA concentrations in biopsies of feline oral mucosa. Biopsies were collected from 30 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis (diseased) prior to each cat receiving one of four treatments. In 23 cases replicate biopsies were collected 3 months after treatment commenced. Biopsies were also analyzed from 11 cats without clinical disease (nondiseased). Expression of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), and IFN-gamma was detected in most nondiseased biopsies, while IL-6 was detected in a minority, and IL-4 and IL-5 were both undetectable. Compared to nondiseased cats, the diseased population showed a significant increase in the relative mRNA expression of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (p35 and p40), and IFN-gamma. In contrast, IL-5 mRNA expression was unchanged and was only detected in one case. No significant relationship was demonstrable between the change in relative expression of specific cytokine mRNA and the change in clinical severity of the local mucosal lesions over the treatment period. The results demonstrate that the normal feline oral mucosa is biased towards a predominantly (Th) type 1 profile of cytokine expression and that during the development of lesions seen in feline chronic gingivostomatitis there is a shift in the cytokine profile from a type 1 to a mixed type 1 and type 2 response. (+info)
Phase II trial of docetaxel, cisplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin as induction for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. (4/422)PURPOSE: To evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of a 4-day regimen of docetaxel, cisplatin, fluorouracil, and leucovorin (TPFL4) in patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty previously untreated patients with stage III or IV SCCHN and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group functional status of 2 or less were treated with TPFL4. Postchemotherapy support included prophylactic growth factors and antibiotics. Patients who achieved a complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) to three cycles of TPFL4 received definitive twice-daily radiation therapy. The primary end points were toxicity and response to TPFL4. RESULTS: Eighty-five cycles were administered to 30 patients. The major acute toxicities to TPFL4 were mucositis and nausea. One patient died of neutropenic sepsis during therapy. Additional major toxicities were neutropenia, anorexia, nephropathy, neuropathy, and diarrhea. Fourteen percent of all cycles were associated with hospitalization for toxicity. The overall clinical response rate to TPFL4 was 93%, with 63% CRs and 30% PRs. Primary tumor site clinical and pathologic response rates were 93% and 68%, respectively. CONCLUSION: TPFL4 has an acceptable toxicity profile in good-performance-status patients. Modification of the 5-day TPFL regimen (TPFL5: shorter chemotherapy infusion time, earlier intervention with growth factors and antibiotics) led to fewer episodes of febrile neutropenia and hospitalization. Response rates to TPFL justify further evaluation of combinations of these agents in the context of formal clinical trials. (+info)
Analysis of factors that correlate with mucositis in recipients of autologous and allogeneic stem-cell transplants. (5/422)PURPOSE: To identify predictors of oral mucositis and gastrointestinal toxicity after high-dose therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Mucositis and gastrointestinal toxicity were prospectively evaluated in 202 recipients of high-dose therapy and autologous or allogeneic stem-cell rescue. Of 10 outcome variables, three were selected as end points: the peak value for the University of Nebraska Oral Assessment Score (MUCPEAK), the duration of parenteral nutritional support, and the peak daily output of diarrhea. Potential covariates included patient age, sex, diagnosis, treatment protocol, transplantation type, stem-cell source, and rate of neutrophil recovery. The three selected end points were also examined for correlation with blood infections and transplant-related mortality. RESULTS: A diagnosis of leukemia, use of total body irradiation, allogeneic transplantation, and delayed neutrophil recovery were associated with increased oral mucositis and longer parenteral nutritional support. No factors were associated with diarrhea. Also, moderate to severe oral mucositis (MUCPEAK > or = 18 on a scale of 8 to 24) was correlated with blood infections and transplant-related mortality: 60% of patients with MUCPEAK > or = 18 had positive blood cultures versus 30% of patients with MUCPEAK less than 18 (P =.001); 24% of patients with MUCPEAK > or = 8 died during the transplantation procedure versus 4% of patients with MUCPEAK less than 18 (P =.001). CONCLUSION: Gastrointestinal toxicity is a major cause of transplant-related morbidity and mortality, emphasizing the need for corrective strategies. The peak oral mucositis score and the duration of parenteral nutritional support are useful indices of gastrointestinal toxicity because these end points are correlated with clinically significant events, including blood infections and treatment-related mortality. (+info)
Prophylaxis and treatment of chemo- and radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis - are there new strategies? (6/422)Oral mucositis is a major dose-limiting toxic effect of intensive cancer chemotherapy. Oral complications may lead to dose reduction or delay in further cancer treatment. Mucositis can be caused directly by cytotoxic effects and indirectly by sustained neutropenia after cytostatic therapy. An impaired mucosal barrier predisposes to life-threatening septic complications during aplasia. The prevalence of an oral focus in febrile neutropenia has been reported in up to 30% of cases and also reduces quality of life. The basic strategies aim at pain relief and prevention of bacterial and fungal infectious complications. However, no effective causal prophylaxis or treatment of oral mucositis is widely accepted. The introduction of cytokines, eg granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) for oral mucositis may be particularly effective and offer a new and hopeful approach. At present, the optimal growth factor, best schedule, effective dosage and best mode of application is not known. (+info)
Outbreak of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia in allogenic bone marrow transplant patients: role of severe neutropenia and mucositis. (7/422)From March 1997 through November 1997, 8 allogenic bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients developed Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bacteremia on the hematology service at UCLA Medical Center (Los Angeles). Five of these patients had undergone transplantation during the same hospitalization that S. maltophilia bacteremia was detected (case patients). Compared with 7 concurrently hospitalized allogenic BMT patients (control patients), the 5 case patients were more likely to have been hospitalized in room A (P=.045), to have severe neutropenia on the culture date (P=.028), to have a longer duration of severe neutropenia (P=.05), to have severe mucositis (P=. 028), and to have received total parenteral nutrition (P=.028). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that 2 of 3 isolates from case patients hospitalized in room A were identical. In allogenic BMT patients, severe neutropenia and severe mucositis may promote infection with S. maltophilia by impairing host defenses. (+info)
Sex differences in fluorouracil-induced stomatitis. (8/422)PURPOSE: A meta-analysis of six North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) trials involving patients receiving their first ever fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy was undertaken to explore the association of sex with reports of the incidence and severity of stomatitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were obtained on a total of 731 patients (402 men and 329 women). Comparisons of incidence and severity rates and average stomatitis across sex were performed using standard binomial testing and t tests, respectively. Logistic regression analysis and a weighted analysis using data summarized to study level served as evidence of cross-validation. RESULTS: Women reported stomatitis both more often and with greater severity than did men. The incidence of any stomatitis for women was 63% versus 52% for men (P =.002). The incidence of severe or very severe stomatitis for men and women was 22% and 12%, respectively (P =. 0006). On average, women reported stomatitis of roughly 0.4 points higher than men on a 0 to 4 ordinal scale (P <.00001). Comparison of results across treatment and placebo arms was carried out to validate the initial findings. Logistic regression modelling further confirmed the results conditional on the presence of a number of potentially confounding covariates. Women were also 11% more likely than men to experience leukopenia of common toxicity criteria grade >/= 1, (70% v 59%, respectively; P <.00001) and grade 3+ (18% v 11%, respectively; P =.004). CONCLUSION: More women than men reported 5-FU-induced stomatitis. The precise mechanism resulting in different degrees of stomatitis across sex is not evident. (+info)
Stomatitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation or irritation of the mouth, including the gums, tongue, lips, and inner lining of the cheeks. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, allergies, irritants, medications, and certain diseases. Symptoms of stomatitis may include pain, swelling, redness, sores, and difficulty swallowing or speaking. Treatment for stomatitis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or other therapies.
Stomatitis, Aphthous is a medical condition that refers to the inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth, commonly known as canker sores. These sores are usually small, round, and shallow ulcers that can be painful and may affect the tongue, lips, gums, and roof of the mouth. Aphthous stomatitis is a common condition that affects people of all ages, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, vitamin deficiencies, and certain medications. The exact cause of aphthous stomatitis is not always clear, and it can be difficult to treat, although over-the-counter pain relievers and mouthwashes can help to alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, a doctor may prescribe stronger medications or recommend lifestyle changes to help prevent future outbreaks.
Vesicular Stomatitis (VS) is a viral disease that affects horses, cattle, and other animals. It is caused by the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), which is a member of the family Rhabdoviridae. The virus is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected insects, such as flies and mosquitoes. The symptoms of VS include fever, loss of appetite, and a painful, blistering rash on the mouth, tongue, and feet. The rash typically appears as small, fluid-filled blisters that can be painful and itchy. In severe cases, the virus can spread to other parts of the body, including the respiratory system, and can be fatal. VS is not contagious to humans, but it can be a serious disease for animals, particularly horses and cattle. Treatment for VS typically involves supportive care, such as providing fluids and pain relief, and allowing the animal's immune system to fight off the virus. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccination is available to prevent VS in animals that are at risk of exposure to the virus.
Stomatitis, denture refers to an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the mouth, often caused by wearing dentures that do not fit properly or are not cleaned regularly. The condition can cause discomfort, soreness, and redness in the mouth, as well as difficulty eating and speaking. Treatment typically involves adjusting the dentures to fit more comfortably, improving oral hygiene, and using over-the-counter pain relievers or prescription medications to manage symptoms. In severe cases, a dentist may recommend removing the dentures temporarily or permanently.
Rhabdoviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae. These viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that are enveloped and have a bullet-shaped or bullet-nosed appearance. They are known to infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. Some of the most well-known rhabdoviruses that can cause infections in humans include rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and respiratory syncytial virus. These viruses can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific virus and the location of the infection. For example, rabies virus can cause a progressive encephalitis that can be fatal if left untreated, while vesicular stomatitis virus can cause fever, mouth ulcers, and swelling of the salivary glands. Rhabdoviridae infections can be diagnosed through a variety of methods, including viral culture, serological testing, and molecular testing. Treatment for these infections typically involves antiviral medications, supportive care, and, in some cases, vaccination. Prevention of rhabdovirus infections involves avoiding contact with infected animals or humans, practicing good hygiene, and getting vaccinated when appropriate.
Viral envelope proteins are proteins that are found on the surface of enveloped viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, as they are involved in the attachment of the virus to host cells, entry into the host cell, and release of new virus particles from the host cell. There are several different types of viral envelope proteins, including glycoproteins, which are proteins that have attached carbohydrates, and matrix proteins, which help to stabilize the viral envelope. These proteins can be important targets for antiviral drugs, as they are often essential for the virus to infect host cells. In addition to their role in viral infection, viral envelope proteins can also play a role in the pathogenesis of viral diseases. For example, some viral envelope proteins can trigger an immune response in the host, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Other viral envelope proteins can help the virus evade the host immune system, allowing the virus to persist and cause disease. Overall, viral envelope proteins are important components of enveloped viruses and play a critical role in the viral life cycle and pathogenesis of viral diseases.
Viral proteins are proteins that are synthesized by viruses during their replication cycle within a host cell. These proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication of the viral genome, assembly of new viral particles, and release of the virus from the host cell. Viral proteins can be classified into several categories based on their function, including structural proteins, non-structural proteins, and regulatory proteins. Structural proteins are the building blocks of the viral particle, such as capsid proteins that form the viral coat. Non-structural proteins are proteins that are not part of the viral particle but are essential for viral replication, such as proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual proteins. Regulatory proteins are proteins that control the expression of viral genes or the activity of viral enzymes. Viral proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for viral replication and survival. Understanding the structure and function of viral proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.
Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, voles, and lemmings. These animals are typically small to medium-sized and have a broad, flat head and a short, thick body. They are found in a variety of habitats around the world, including grasslands, forests, and deserts. In the medical field, Cricetinae are often used as laboratory animals for research purposes, as they are easy to care for and breed, and have a relatively short lifespan. They are also used in studies of genetics, physiology, and behavior.
RNA, Viral refers to the genetic material of viruses that are composed of RNA instead of DNA. Viral RNA is typically single-stranded and can be either positive-sense or negative-sense. Positive-sense RNA viruses can be directly translated into proteins by the host cell's ribosomes, while negative-sense RNA viruses require a complementary positive-sense RNA intermediate before protein synthesis can occur. Viral RNA is often encapsidated within a viral capsid and can be further protected by an envelope made of lipids and proteins derived from the host cell. RNA viruses include a wide range of pathogens that can cause diseases in humans and other organisms, such as influenza, hepatitis C, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus responsible for COVID-19).
In the medical field, a cell line refers to a group of cells that have been derived from a single parent cell and have the ability to divide and grow indefinitely in culture. These cells are typically grown in a laboratory setting and are used for research purposes, such as studying the effects of drugs or investigating the underlying mechanisms of diseases. Cell lines are often derived from cancerous cells, as these cells tend to divide and grow more rapidly than normal cells. However, they can also be derived from normal cells, such as fibroblasts or epithelial cells. Cell lines are characterized by their unique genetic makeup, which can be used to identify them and compare them to other cell lines. Because cell lines can be grown in large quantities and are relatively easy to maintain, they are a valuable tool in medical research. They allow researchers to study the effects of drugs and other treatments on specific cell types, and to investigate the underlying mechanisms of diseases at the cellular level.
In the medical field, "defective viruses" refer to viruses that are unable to replicate or cause disease due to mutations or other defects in their genetic material. These viruses are often referred to as "non-infectious" or "non-pathogenic" viruses. Defective viruses can arise spontaneously during the normal process of viral replication, or they can be intentionally created through laboratory manipulation. They are often used as vaccines or as tools for gene therapy. While defective viruses are not infectious, they can still be detected in the body through various diagnostic tests. In some cases, the presence of defective viruses may indicate a previous infection with a functional virus or a weakened immune system.
Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that are attached to the cell membrane through a glycosyl group, which is a complex carbohydrate. These proteins play important roles in cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell recognition. They are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including immune response, cell growth and differentiation, and nerve transmission. Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types: transmembrane glycoproteins, which span the entire cell membrane, and peripheral glycoproteins, which are located on one side of the membrane.
In the medical field, viral matrix proteins refer to a group of proteins that are produced by viruses and play a crucial role in the assembly and release of new virus particles from infected cells. These proteins are typically synthesized as precursor proteins that are cleaved into smaller, functional units during or after virus assembly. The viral matrix proteins are often involved in the organization of the viral components, including the viral genome, envelope proteins, and other structural proteins, into a stable structure that can be released from the host cell. They may also play a role in protecting the virus from host immune defenses and facilitating the entry of new virus particles into neighboring cells. Examples of viral matrix proteins include the matrix protein of influenza virus, the matrix protein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the matrix protein of herpes simplex virus (HSV). Understanding the function of viral matrix proteins is important for the development of antiviral therapies and vaccines.
Interferons are a group of signaling proteins that are produced and released by cells in response to viral infections, cancer, and other types of cellular stress. They play a critical role in the body's immune response by activating immune cells and inhibiting the growth and spread of viruses and cancer cells. There are three main types of interferons: Type I interferons (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta), Type II interferon (IFN-gamma), and Type III interferons (IFN-lambda). Type I interferons are the most well-studied and are produced by most cells in response to viral infections. They bind to receptors on the surface of nearby cells and trigger a signaling cascade that leads to the production of antiviral proteins and the activation of immune cells. Type II interferons are primarily produced by immune cells and are important for the immune response to intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. Type III interferons are produced by immune cells and some non-immune cells and are important for the immune response to viruses and cancer. Interferons are used in the treatment of several viral infections, including hepatitis B and C, and some types of cancer, such as melanoma and kidney cancer. They are also being studied for their potential use in the treatment of other diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and certain types of viral infections.
Glycoproteins are a type of protein that contains one or more carbohydrate chains covalently attached to the protein molecule. These carbohydrate chains are made up of sugars and are often referred to as glycans. Glycoproteins play important roles in many biological processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and immune response. They are found in many different types of cells and tissues throughout the body, and are often used as markers for various diseases and conditions. In the medical field, glycoproteins are often studied as potential targets for the development of new drugs and therapies.
In the medical field, a virus disease is a condition caused by a virus, which is a tiny infectious agent that can only replicate inside living cells. Viruses can infect a wide range of organisms, including humans, animals, plants, and even bacteria. When a virus enters the body, it attaches to and invades host cells, taking over the cell's machinery to produce more copies of itself. This can cause damage to the host cells and trigger an immune response, which can lead to symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and fatigue. Some common examples of virus diseases in humans include the common cold, influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can be treated with antiviral medications, vaccines, or supportive care.
Cytopathogenic effect (CPE) refers to the morphological changes that occur in host cells as a result of viral infection. These changes can be observed under a microscope and are often used as a diagnostic tool to identify viral infections. In the case of viral cytopathogenic effect, the virus infects and replicates within the host cell, causing damage to the cell membrane, organelles, and ultimately leading to cell death. This can result in the formation of characteristic changes in the cell, such as rounding up, swelling, and the appearance of vacuoles or blebs. The cytopathogenic effect of a virus can also be used to assess the virulence of a particular strain of the virus, as more virulent strains tend to cause more severe cytopathic changes in host cells. Additionally, the presence of cytopathic changes can be used to confirm the presence of a viral infection in a clinical sample, as many viruses are known to cause cytopathic effects in infected cells.
DNA-directed RNA polymerases are a group of enzymes that synthesize RNA molecules from a DNA template. These enzymes are responsible for the transcription process, which is the first step in gene expression. During transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence, which can then be translated into a protein. There are several different types of DNA-directed RNA polymerases, each with its own specific function and characteristics. For example, RNA polymerase I is primarily responsible for synthesizing ribosomal RNA (rRNA), which is a key component of ribosomes. RNA polymerase II is responsible for synthesizing messenger RNA (mRNA), which carries the genetic information from the DNA to the ribosomes for protein synthesis. RNA polymerase III is responsible for synthesizing small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small Cajal body RNA (scaRNA), which play important roles in gene regulation and splicing. DNA-directed RNA polymerases are essential for the proper functioning of cells and are involved in many different biological processes, including growth, development, and response to environmental stimuli. Mutations in the genes that encode these enzymes can lead to a variety of genetic disorders and diseases.
Interferon Type I is a group of signaling proteins produced by the body's immune system in response to viral infections. These proteins are also known as cytokines and are released by cells that have been infected with a virus. Interferon Type I helps to activate other immune cells and proteins, such as natural killer cells and macrophages, which can help to destroy the virus and prevent it from spreading to other cells. Interferon Type I also has antiviral effects on the infected cells themselves, which can help to limit the severity of the infection. In the medical field, interferon Type I is often used as a treatment for viral infections, such as hepatitis B and C, and certain types of cancer.
Uridine is a nucleoside that is a component of RNA (ribonucleic acid). It is composed of a uracil base attached to a ribose sugar through a glycosidic bond. In RNA, uridine is one of the four nitrogenous bases, along with adenine, cytosine, and guanine. Uridine plays a crucial role in RNA metabolism, including transcription and translation. It is also involved in various cellular processes, such as energy metabolism and signal transduction. In the medical field, uridine is sometimes used as a supplement or medication to treat certain conditions, such as liver disease, depression, and nerve damage.
RNA replicase is an enzyme that is responsible for replicating RNA molecules. In the context of the medical field, RNA replicases are particularly important in the replication of viruses that use RNA as their genetic material. These enzymes are responsible for copying the viral RNA genome, which is then used to produce new viral particles. RNA replicases are also involved in the replication of certain types of retroviruses, which are viruses that use RNA as their genetic material but reverse transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, which is then integrated into the host cell's genome. In this process, the RNA replicase enzyme is responsible for copying the viral RNA genome and producing a complementary DNA strand, which is then used to produce new viral particles. RNA replicases are also important in the replication of certain types of bacteria, such as the bacteria that cause the disease Q fever. In these bacteria, the RNA replicase enzyme is responsible for copying the bacterial RNA genome and producing new bacterial particles. Overall, RNA replicases play a critical role in the replication of viruses and certain types of bacteria, and understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is important for the development of new treatments for viral and bacterial infections.
In the medical field, a capsid refers to the protein shell that surrounds and encloses the genetic material (either DNA or RNA) of a virus. The capsid is responsible for protecting the viral genome and facilitating its entry into host cells. Viruses can have different types of capsids, which can be classified based on their shape and structure. For example, some viruses have simple spherical capsids, while others have more complex shapes such as helical or polyhedral capsids. The capsid can also play a role in viral pathogenesis, as it can interact with host cell receptors and trigger immune responses. In some cases, the capsid can be modified or altered by the virus to evade the host immune system and enhance its ability to infect cells.
Myxovirus resistance proteins (Mx proteins) are a family of antiviral proteins that are found in a wide range of organisms, including mammals, birds, fish, and insects. These proteins are encoded by genes that are induced in response to viral infections, and they play a key role in the host's defense against viruses. Mx proteins are thought to function by inhibiting the replication of certain types of viruses, including influenza viruses, by interfering with the viral replication cycle. They do this by binding to viral nucleoproteins and preventing them from assembling into viral particles. Mx proteins also have the ability to activate immune cells and stimulate the production of antiviral cytokines, which help to coordinate the host's immune response to the virus. In the medical field, Mx proteins are of interest because of their potential as targets for the development of antiviral therapies. For example, researchers are exploring the use of Mx proteins as a way to enhance the effectiveness of existing antiviral drugs, or as a way to develop new antiviral drugs that target specific viruses. Additionally, Mx proteins are being studied as a way to prevent or treat viral infections, such as influenza, in humans and animals.
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with the atomic number 3 and the symbol T. It is a beta emitter with a half-life of approximately 12.3 years. In the medical field, tritium is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Medical imaging: Tritium is used in nuclear medicine to label molecules and track their movement within the body. For example, tritium can be used to label antibodies, which can then be injected into the body to track the movement of specific cells or tissues. 2. Radiation therapy: Tritium is used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. It is typically combined with other isotopes, such as carbon-14 or phosphorus-32, to create a radioactive tracer that can be injected into the body and targeted to specific areas of cancerous tissue. 3. Research: Tritium is also used in research to study the behavior of molecules and cells. For example, tritium can be used to label DNA, which can then be used to study the process of DNA replication and repair. It is important to note that tritium is a highly radioactive isotope and requires careful handling to minimize the risk of exposure to radiation.
Cercopithecus aethiops, commonly known as the vervet monkey, is a species of Old World monkey that is native to Africa. In the medical field, Cercopithecus aethiops is often used in research studies as a model organism to study a variety of diseases and conditions, including infectious diseases, neurological disorders, and cancer. This is because vervet monkeys share many genetic and physiological similarities with humans, making them useful for studying human health and disease.
In the medical field, viral core proteins refer to the internal proteins that are essential for the replication and survival of a virus. These proteins are typically found within the viral capsid, which is the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome. The viral core proteins play a crucial role in the viral life cycle by facilitating the replication of the viral genome and the assembly of new virus particles. They may also be involved in protecting the viral genome from degradation or preventing the host immune system from recognizing and eliminating the virus. Examples of viral core proteins include the core protein of the hepatitis B virus, which is essential for the replication of the viral genome, and the core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which plays a role in the assembly of new virus particles. Understanding the structure and function of viral core proteins is important for the development of antiviral drugs and vaccines, as well as for understanding the pathogenesis of viral infections.
In the medical field, a "cell-free system" refers to a biological system that does not contain living cells. This can include isolated enzymes, proteins, or other biological molecules that are studied in a laboratory setting outside of a living cell. Cell-free systems are often used to study the function of specific biological molecules or to investigate the mechanisms of various cellular processes. They can also be used to produce proteins or other biological molecules for therapeutic or research purposes. One example of a cell-free system is the "cell-free protein synthesis" system, which involves the use of purified enzymes and other biological molecules to synthesize proteins in vitro. This system has been used to produce a variety of proteins for research and therapeutic purposes, including vaccines and enzymes for industrial applications.
In the medical field, a base sequence refers to the specific order of nucleotides (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) that make up the genetic material (DNA or RNA) of an organism. The base sequence determines the genetic information encoded within the DNA molecule and ultimately determines the traits and characteristics of an individual. The base sequence can be analyzed using various techniques, such as DNA sequencing, to identify genetic variations or mutations that may be associated with certain diseases or conditions.
Nucleocapsid proteins are a group of proteins that are found in the core of the virus particle, specifically in the nucleocapsid. They play a crucial role in the replication and transcription of the viral genome. In the context of medical research, nucleocapsid proteins are often studied as potential targets for antiviral drugs, as well as for the development of diagnostic tests for viral infections. They are also used as markers for the presence of the virus in infected cells.
In the medical field, RNA, Messenger (mRNA) refers to a type of RNA molecule that carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus of a cell to the ribosomes, where proteins are synthesized. During the process of transcription, the DNA sequence of a gene is copied into a complementary RNA sequence called messenger RNA (mRNA). This mRNA molecule then leaves the nucleus and travels to the cytoplasm of the cell, where it binds to ribosomes and serves as a template for the synthesis of a specific protein. The sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein that is synthesized. Therefore, changes in the sequence of nucleotides in the mRNA molecule can result in changes in the amino acid sequence of the protein, which can affect the function of the protein and potentially lead to disease. mRNA molecules are often used in medical research and therapy as a way to introduce new genetic information into cells. For example, mRNA vaccines work by introducing a small piece of mRNA that encodes for a specific protein, which triggers an immune response in the body.
The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds and encloses the cell. It is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which consists of two layers of phospholipid molecules arranged tail-to-tail. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids face inward, while the hydrophilic heads face outward, forming a barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. The cell membrane also contains various proteins, including channels, receptors, and transporters, which allow the cell to communicate with its environment and regulate the movement of substances in and out of the cell. In addition, the cell membrane is studded with cholesterol molecules, which help to maintain the fluidity and stability of the membrane. The cell membrane plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity and function of the cell, and it is involved in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell signaling, cell adhesion, and cell division.
Viral structural proteins are proteins that make up the physical structure of a virus. They are essential for the virus to function properly and are involved in various stages of the viral life cycle, including attachment to host cells, entry into the cell, replication, and assembly of new virus particles. There are several types of viral structural proteins, including capsid proteins, envelope proteins, and matrix proteins. Capsid proteins form the protective shell around the viral genetic material, while envelope proteins are found on the surface of enveloped viruses and help the virus enter host cells. Matrix proteins are found in the interior of the viral particle and help to stabilize the structure of the virus. Viral structural proteins are important targets for antiviral drugs and vaccines, as they are essential for the virus to infect host cells and cause disease. Understanding the structure and function of viral structural proteins is crucial for the development of effective antiviral therapies and vaccines.
Centrifugation, density gradient is a laboratory technique used to separate cells, particles, or molecules based on their density. The sample is placed in a centrifuge tube and spun at high speeds, causing the particles to separate into layers based on their density. The heaviest particles settle at the bottom of the tube, while the lightest particles float to the top. This technique is commonly used in medical research to isolate specific cells or particles for further analysis or study. It is also used in the diagnosis of certain diseases, such as blood disorders, and in the purification of biological samples for use in medical treatments.
Antiviral agents are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by inhibiting the replication of viruses within host cells, thereby reducing the severity and duration of the infection. Antiviral agents can be classified into several categories, including nucleoside analogues, protease inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, and entry inhibitors. They are commonly used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and hepatitis B and C. Antiviral agents are an important tool in the management of viral infections and have been instrumental in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases.
Poxviridae infections refer to a group of viral infections caused by viruses belonging to the family Poxviridae. These viruses are large, complex, and enveloped, and are known to cause a wide range of diseases in humans and animals. Some of the most well-known diseases caused by poxviruses include smallpox, cowpox, monkeypox, and chickenpox. These viruses are highly contagious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected individuals or contaminated objects, as well as through the air. Symptoms of poxvirus infections can vary depending on the specific virus and the severity of the infection. Common symptoms include fever, headache, body aches, and a characteristic rash or vesicles on the skin. In severe cases, poxvirus infections can lead to complications such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and organ failure. Treatment for poxvirus infections typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, antiviral medications may be used to help control the infection. Vaccination is also an important tool for preventing poxvirus infections, particularly smallpox, which has been eradicated through a global vaccination campaign.
Nucleoproteins are complex molecules that consist of a protein and a nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA. In the medical field, nucleoproteins play important roles in various biological processes, including gene expression, DNA replication, and DNA repair. One example of a nucleoprotein is histone, which is a protein that helps package DNA into a compact structure called chromatin. Histones are important for regulating gene expression, as they can affect the accessibility of DNA to transcription factors and other regulatory proteins. Another example of a nucleoprotein is ribonucleoprotein (RNP), which is a complex molecule that consists of RNA and one or more proteins. RNPs play important roles in various cellular processes, including mRNA processing, translation, and RNA interference. In the context of viral infections, nucleoproteins are often found in viral particles and play important roles in viral replication and pathogenesis. For example, the nucleoprotein of influenza virus is involved in the packaging of viral RNA into viral particles, while the nucleoprotein of HIV is involved in the regulation of viral gene expression. Overall, nucleoproteins are important molecules in the medical field, and their study can provide insights into various biological processes and diseases.
Fluorouracil is a chemotherapy drug that is commonly used to treat various types of cancer, including colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and head and neck cancer. It works by interfering with the production of DNA in cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Fluorouracil is usually given intravenously or orally, and it can cause a range of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and fatigue. In some cases, it can also cause more serious side effects, such as mouth sores, skin reactions, and anemia.
In the medical field, an amino acid sequence refers to the linear order of amino acids in a protein molecule. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids, and the specific sequence of these amino acids determines the protein's structure and function. The amino acid sequence is determined by the genetic code, which is a set of rules that specifies how the sequence of nucleotides in DNA is translated into the sequence of amino acids in a protein. Each amino acid is represented by a three-letter code, and the sequence of these codes is the amino acid sequence of the protein. The amino acid sequence is important because it determines the protein's three-dimensional structure, which in turn determines its function. Small changes in the amino acid sequence can have significant effects on the protein's structure and function, and this can lead to diseases or disorders. For example, mutations in the amino acid sequence of a protein involved in blood clotting can lead to bleeding disorders.
Central America is a region located in the Americas, bordered by Mexico to the north, Colombia to the south, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. In the medical field, Central America is often referred to in the context of public health and infectious diseases. Central America has a high burden of infectious diseases such as dengue fever, Zika virus, chikungunya, and malaria. These diseases are primarily transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes, and their incidence is influenced by factors such as climate, population density, and access to healthcare. In addition to infectious diseases, Central America also faces challenges related to non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. These conditions are often linked to lifestyle factors such as poor diet, lack of physical activity, and tobacco and alcohol use. Overall, the medical field in Central America focuses on addressing the health needs of the region's population, including the prevention and control of infectious and non-communicable diseases, as well as improving access to healthcare services and promoting healthy behaviors.
Antibodies, viral, are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a viral infection. They are also known as immunoglobulins or antibodies. Viral antibodies are specific to a particular virus and can help to neutralize and eliminate the virus from the body. They are typically detected in the blood or other bodily fluids using laboratory tests, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) or immunofluorescence assays. The presence of viral antibodies can be used as a diagnostic tool to confirm a viral infection or to determine the immune status of an individual.
Glucosamine is a naturally occurring amino sugar that is found in the shells of crustaceans and in the cartilage of animals. It is also synthesized in the human body from the amino acid glutamine and the sugar glucose. In the medical field, glucosamine is often used as a dietary supplement to support joint health and reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease that affects millions of people worldwide. It is believed to work by stimulating the production of proteoglycans, which are essential components of cartilage that help to cushion and lubricate joints. There is some evidence to suggest that glucosamine may be effective in reducing joint pain and stiffness, improving joint function, and slowing the progression of osteoarthritis. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and to determine the optimal dosage and duration of treatment. It is important to note that glucosamine supplements are not regulated by the FDA and may contain varying amounts of the active ingredient. Therefore, it is important to choose a high-quality supplement from a reputable manufacturer and to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.
Ebola vaccines are medical products that are designed to protect individuals from the Ebola virus. These vaccines work by stimulating the immune system to produce antibodies that can recognize and neutralize the Ebola virus. There are currently two Ebola vaccines that have been approved for use in humans: rVSV-ZEBOV and Ad26.ZEBOV. rVSV-ZEBOV is a replication-competent vaccine that uses a modified vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as the delivery vehicle for the Ebola virus glycoprotein. The vaccine is given as a single dose and has been shown to be highly effective in preventing Ebola virus disease (EVD) in clinical trials. Ad26.ZEBOV is a replication-incompetent vaccine that uses a modified adenovirus as the delivery vehicle for the Ebola virus glycoprotein. The vaccine is given as a single dose and has also been shown to be highly effective in preventing EVD in clinical trials. Both vaccines have been used in large-scale vaccination campaigns in West Africa during the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak, and have been shown to be safe and effective in preventing EVD. However, it is important to note that no vaccine is 100% effective, and individuals who receive the vaccine may still be at risk of contracting Ebola if they are exposed to the virus.
Viral fusion proteins are a class of proteins that are expressed on the surface of enveloped viruses, such as influenza, HIV, and Ebola. These proteins play a critical role in the viral life cycle by facilitating the fusion of the viral envelope with the host cell membrane, allowing the virus to enter the cell and initiate infection. Viral fusion proteins are typically composed of two subunits, a highly conserved heptad repeat region (HR) and a variable ectodomain. The HR region is responsible for mediating the interaction between the viral and host cell membranes, while the ectodomain is responsible for recognizing and binding to specific receptors on the host cell surface. The process of viral fusion involves the conformational change of the viral fusion protein, which leads to the formation of a six-helix bundle structure that brings the viral and host cell membranes into close proximity. This allows the viral envelope to fuse with the host cell membrane, creating a pore through which the viral genome can enter the cell. Viral fusion proteins are a target for antiviral drugs, as they are essential for viral entry and infection. Inhibitors of viral fusion proteins can prevent the virus from entering the cell and can be effective in treating a wide range of viral infections.
Dactinomycin is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including Wilms' tumor, Ewing's sarcoma, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. It works by interfering with the production of DNA and RNA, which are essential for the growth and division of cancer cells. Dactinomycin is usually given intravenously or intramuscularly, and it can also be administered as a cream or ointment to treat skin cancer. Common side effects of dactinomycin include nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and damage to the lining of the mouth and throat.
Hemorrhagic fever, Ebola is a severe and often fatal viral disease caused by the Ebola virus. It is characterized by high fever, headache, muscle pain, weakness, and fatigue, which can progress to vomiting, diarrhea, and internal and external bleeding. The disease is transmitted through contact with bodily fluids of infected animals or humans, and can be spread through contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. There is currently no specific treatment for Ebola, and supportive care is the mainstay of treatment. The disease has a high mortality rate, with death rates ranging from 25% to 90% depending on the strain of the virus and the availability of medical care.
In the medical field, "culture techniques" refer to the methods used to grow and isolate microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, from clinical samples. These techniques are essential for diagnosing infectious diseases and determining the most effective treatment options. Culture techniques typically involve collecting a sample from a patient, such as blood, urine, or sputum, and then transferring it to a nutrient-rich medium where the microorganisms can grow. The medium is incubated in a controlled environment, and the growth of the microorganisms is monitored over time. There are several types of culture techniques, including: 1. Direct microscopy: This technique involves examining a sample under a microscope to identify microorganisms without the need for culturing. 2. Culture on solid media: This technique involves growing microorganisms on a solid surface, such as agar, where they can be observed and identified. 3. Culture in liquid media: This technique involves growing microorganisms in a liquid medium, where they can be observed and identified using various techniques, such as spectrophotometry or enzyme assays. 4. Molecular techniques: This technique involves using DNA or RNA analysis to identify microorganisms without the need for culturing. Overall, culture techniques are a critical part of medical diagnosis and treatment, allowing healthcare providers to identify and treat infectious diseases effectively.
In the medical field, RNA caps refer to the modified 7-methylguanosine (m7G) nucleotide that is added to the 5' end of a eukaryotic messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule during transcription. This modification, known as 5' capping, serves several important functions in the regulation of gene expression. First, the RNA cap helps to protect the mRNA molecule from degradation by exonucleases, which are enzymes that degrade RNA molecules from the ends. The cap also serves as a recognition site for various cellular factors that are involved in the processing and transport of mRNA molecules. In addition, the RNA cap plays a role in the initiation of translation, which is the process by which the genetic information encoded in mRNA is used to synthesize proteins. The cap interacts with specific proteins on the ribosome, which helps to recruit the ribosome to the mRNA molecule and initiate the process of translation. Overall, RNA caps are an important feature of eukaryotic mRNA molecules and play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression and protein synthesis.
Candidiasis, oral, also known as oral thrush, is a fungal infection caused by the Candida species of yeast. It is a common condition that affects the mouth and throat, and can cause white patches or sores on the tongue, inner cheeks, roof of the mouth, and throat. The symptoms of oral candidiasis can include white patches or plaques on the tongue or inside the mouth, redness or soreness of the mouth or throat, difficulty swallowing, and a burning sensation in the mouth. Oral candidiasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including a weakened immune system, certain medications, stress, and poor oral hygiene. It is usually treated with antifungal medications, such as oral fluconazole or nystatin, which can be taken as tablets or applied topically to the affected areas of the mouth. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Interferon-beta (IFN-beta) is a type of cytokine that is naturally produced by the body's immune system in response to viral infections. It is also used as a medication to treat certain autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), by reducing inflammation and slowing the progression of the disease. IFN-beta is typically administered as an injection or infusion, and its effects can last for several days. It works by activating immune cells and inhibiting the growth of virus-infected cells. In MS, IFN-beta is thought to reduce the frequency and severity of relapses by modulating the immune response and reducing inflammation in the central nervous system. There are several different types of IFN-beta available, including beta-1a, beta-1b, and beta-2a. These different forms of IFN-beta have slightly different mechanisms of action and are used in different ways to treat MS and other autoimmune diseases.
Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, such as nutrients, waste products, and signaling molecules, across cell membranes and through the body's various transport systems. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, which is the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment. There are several mechanisms of biological transport, including passive transport, active transport, facilitated diffusion, and endocytosis. Passive transport occurs when molecules move down a concentration gradient, from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Active transport, on the other hand, requires energy to move molecules against a concentration gradient. Facilitated diffusion involves the use of transport proteins to move molecules across the cell membrane. Endocytosis is a process by which cells take in molecules from the extracellular environment by engulfing them in vesicles. In the medical field, understanding the mechanisms of biological transport is important for understanding how drugs and other therapeutic agents are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body. This knowledge can be used to design drugs that are more effective and have fewer side effects. It is also important for understanding how diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, affect the body's transport systems and how this can be targeted for treatment.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been modified by the addition of a phosphate group to one or more of their amino acid residues. This modification is known as phosphorylation, and it is a common post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating many cellular processes, including signal transduction, metabolism, and gene expression. Phosphoproteins are involved in a wide range of biological functions, including cell growth and division, cell migration and differentiation, and the regulation of gene expression. They are also involved in many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Phosphoproteins can be detected and studied using a variety of techniques, including mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and immunoprecipitation. These techniques allow researchers to identify and quantify the phosphorylation status of specific proteins in cells and tissues, and to study the effects of changes in phosphorylation on protein function and cellular processes.
Ribonucleases (RNases) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of RNA molecules. They are found in all living organisms and play important roles in various biological processes, including gene expression, RNA processing, and cellular signaling. In the medical field, RNases are used as research tools to study RNA biology and as therapeutic agents to treat various diseases. For example, RNases have been used to degrade viral RNA, which can help to prevent viral replication and infection. They have also been used to degrade abnormal RNA molecules that are associated with certain diseases, such as cancer and neurological disorders. In addition, RNases have been developed as diagnostic tools for detecting and monitoring various diseases. For example, some RNases can bind specifically to RNA molecules that are associated with certain diseases, allowing for the detection of these molecules in biological samples. Overall, RNases are important tools in the medical field, with applications in research, diagnosis, and therapy.
Uracil nucleotides are a type of nucleotide that contains the nitrogenous base uracil. They are one of the four types of nitrogenous bases found in RNA (ribonucleic acid), along with adenine, guanine, and cytosine. In RNA, uracil is paired with adenine through hydrogen bonding, similar to the way that thymine is paired with adenine in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Uracil nucleotides play important roles in various biological processes, including transcription, translation, and regulation of gene expression. They are also involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids and the repair of DNA damage. In the medical field, uracil nucleotides are used as components of various drugs and therapies. For example, they are used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as bladder cancer, by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. They are also used in the treatment of viral infections, such as hepatitis B and C, by inhibiting the replication of the virus.
In the medical field, antigens are substances that can trigger an immune response in the body. Antigens can be found in various forms, including proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, and they can be produced by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Viral antigens are specific proteins or other molecules that are produced by viruses and can be recognized by the immune system as foreign. When a virus enters the body, it produces viral antigens, which are then recognized by the immune system as a threat and trigger an immune response. The immune response to viral antigens involves the production of antibodies, which are proteins that can bind to and neutralize the virus. The immune system also produces immune cells, such as T cells and B cells, which can recognize and destroy infected cells. Understanding the properties and behavior of viral antigens is important in the development of vaccines and other treatments for viral infections. By stimulating the immune system to recognize and respond to viral antigens, vaccines can help protect against viral infections and prevent the spread of disease.
Viral nonstructural proteins (NSPs) are proteins that are not part of the viral capsid or envelope, but are instead synthesized by the virus after it has entered a host cell. These proteins play important roles in the replication and assembly of the virus, as well as in evading the host immune system. NSPs can be classified into several functional groups, including proteases, helicases, polymerases, and methyltransferases. For example, the NSP1 protein of the influenza virus is a protease that cleaves host cell proteins to create a favorable environment for viral replication. The NSP3 protein of the hepatitis C virus is a helicase that unwinds the viral RNA genome to allow for transcription and replication. NSPs can also be targeted by antiviral drugs, as they are often essential for viral replication. For example, the protease inhibitors used to treat HIV target the viral protease enzyme, which is an NSP. Similarly, the NS5B polymerase inhibitors used to treat hepatitis C target the viral polymerase enzyme, which is also an NSP. Overall, NSPs play important roles in the life cycle of viruses and are an important target for antiviral therapy.
Hemagglutinins, viral are a type of protein found on the surface of certain viruses, such as influenza viruses. These proteins have the ability to bind to and agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells, which is why they are called hemagglutinins. This property is important for the virus to infect host cells, as it allows the virus to attach to and enter the cells. Hemagglutinins are also used as diagnostic tools in the laboratory to detect the presence of certain viruses.
An oral ulcer, also known as a canker sore, is a painful open sore that develops on the inside of the mouth. They are common and usually heal on their own within a week or two, but can be uncomfortable and affect eating and speaking. There are several types of oral ulcers, including simple ulcers, herpetiform ulcers, and traumatic ulcers. Simple ulcers are the most common and are usually caused by minor trauma to the mouth, such as biting the cheek or tongue. Herpetiform ulcers are larger and more painful, and are often associated with conditions such as Behçet's disease or HIV/AIDS. Traumatic ulcers are caused by a burn or chemical injury to the mouth. Treatment for oral ulcers may include over-the-counter pain relievers, mouthwashes, or prescription medications, depending on the cause and severity of the ulcer.
Ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are complexes of RNA molecules and proteins that play important roles in various biological processes, including gene expression, RNA processing, and RNA transport. In the medical field, RNPs are often studied in the context of diseases such as cancer, viral infections, and neurological disorders, as they can be involved in the pathogenesis of these conditions. For example, some viruses use RNPs to replicate their genetic material, and mutations in RNPs can lead to the development of certain types of cancer. Additionally, RNPs are being investigated as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these diseases.
2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase (2',5'-OAS) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the innate immune system of the body. It is responsible for synthesizing short chains of nucleotides called 2',5'-oligoadenylates (2',5'-OA) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 2',5'-OA is a powerful activator of the RNase L enzyme, which is involved in the degradation of viral RNA and the inhibition of protein synthesis. This helps to prevent the replication and spread of viruses within the body. 2',5'-OAS is activated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is a common feature of viral infections. When dsRNA is detected, 2',5'-OAS is activated and synthesizes 2',5'-OA, which in turn activates RNase L. In addition to its role in antiviral defense, 2',5'-OAS has also been implicated in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation, as well as in the pathogenesis of certain diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.
In the medical field, "Cells, Cultured" refers to cells that have been grown and maintained in a controlled environment outside of their natural biological context, typically in a laboratory setting. This process is known as cell culture and involves the isolation of cells from a tissue or organism, followed by their growth and proliferation in a nutrient-rich medium. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including human or animal tissues, and can be used for a wide range of applications in medicine and research. For example, cultured cells can be used to study the behavior and function of specific cell types, to develop new drugs and therapies, and to test the safety and efficacy of medical products. Cultured cells can be grown in various types of containers, such as flasks or Petri dishes, and can be maintained at different temperatures and humidity levels to optimize their growth and survival. The medium used to culture cells typically contains a combination of nutrients, growth factors, and other substances that support cell growth and proliferation. Overall, the use of cultured cells has revolutionized medical research and has led to many important discoveries and advancements in the field of medicine.
Lymphadenitis is an inflammation of the lymph nodes, which are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. The lymph nodes are located throughout the body and help to filter out harmful substances, such as bacteria and viruses, from the lymph fluid that flows through them. There are several different types of lymphadenitis, including bacterial lymphadenitis, viral lymphadenitis, and fungal lymphadenitis. Bacterial lymphadenitis is usually caused by a bacterial infection, such as strep throat or a skin infection. Viral lymphadenitis is usually caused by a viral infection, such as the common cold or the flu. Fungal lymphadenitis is less common and is usually caused by a fungal infection, such as candidiasis. Symptoms of lymphadenitis may include swelling of the lymph nodes, tenderness or pain in the affected area, fever, and fatigue. Treatment for lymphadenitis depends on the underlying cause of the inflammation. In most cases, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial lymphadenitis, while antiviral medications are used to treat viral lymphadenitis. Fungal lymphadenitis may be treated with antifungal medications. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected lymph nodes.
Cattle diseases refer to any illness or condition that affects cattle, which are domesticated animals commonly raised for meat, milk, and other products. These diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and environmental conditions. In the medical field, cattle diseases are typically studied and treated by veterinarians who specialize in animal health. Some common cattle diseases include bovine respiratory disease (BRD), Johne's disease, foot-and-mouth disease, and mastitis. These diseases can have significant economic impacts on farmers and the cattle industry, as they can lead to decreased productivity, increased mortality rates, and the need for costly treatments. To prevent and control cattle diseases, veterinarians and farmers may use a variety of strategies, including vaccination, proper nutrition and hygiene, and the use of antibiotics and other medications when necessary. Additionally, monitoring and surveillance efforts are often implemented to detect and respond to outbreaks of new or emerging diseases.
Cell fusion is a process in which two or more cells combine to form a single cell. This process can occur naturally in the body, such as during fertilization, or it can be induced artificially for research or therapeutic purposes. In the medical field, cell fusion is often used to create hybrid cells that have the properties of both parent cells. For example, researchers may fuse a cancer cell with a normal cell to create a hybrid cell that has the ability to detect and destroy cancer cells. This technique is known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and has been used to create cloned animals. Cell fusion can also be used to create stem cells, which are cells that have the ability to differentiate into any type of cell in the body. Researchers may fuse two different types of stem cells to create a hybrid stem cell that has the ability to differentiate into a wider range of cell types. Overall, cell fusion is a powerful tool in the medical field that has the potential to revolutionize the way we treat diseases and injuries.
Viral vaccines are a type of vaccine that use a weakened or inactivated form of a virus to stimulate the immune system to produce an immune response against the virus. This immune response can provide protection against future infections with the virus. There are several different types of viral vaccines, including live attenuated vaccines, inactivated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. Live attenuated vaccines use a weakened form of the virus that is still able to replicate, but is not strong enough to cause disease. Inactivated vaccines use a killed form of the virus that is no longer able to replicate. Subunit vaccines use only a small part of the virus, such as a protein or a piece of genetic material, to stimulate an immune response. Viral vaccines are used to prevent a wide range of viral diseases, including influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, and human papillomavirus (HPV). They are typically given by injection, but can also be given by mouth or nose in some cases. Viral vaccines are an important tool in preventing the spread of viral diseases and reducing the number of cases and deaths caused by these diseases. They are generally safe and effective, and are an important part of public health efforts to control the spread of viral diseases.
In the medical field, cytoplasm refers to the gel-like substance that fills the cell membrane of a living cell. It is composed of various organelles, such as mitochondria, ribosomes, and the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as various dissolved molecules, including proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. The cytoplasm plays a crucial role in many cellular processes, including metabolism, protein synthesis, and cell division. It also serves as a site for various cellular activities, such as the movement of organelles within the cell and the transport of molecules across the cell membrane. In addition, the cytoplasm is involved in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell and protecting it from external stressors, such as toxins and pathogens. Overall, the cytoplasm is a vital component of the cell and plays a critical role in its function and survival.
Cycloheximide is a synthetic antibiotic that is used in the medical field as an antifungal agent. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of proteins in fungal cells, which ultimately leads to their death. Cycloheximide is commonly used to treat fungal infections of the skin, nails, and hair, as well as systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. It is usually administered orally or topically, and its effectiveness can be enhanced by combining it with other antifungal medications. However, cycloheximide can also have side effects, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and allergic reactions, and it may interact with other medications, so it should be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols (ACCP) are a type of chemotherapy treatment used to treat cancer. They involve the use of multiple drugs in combination to target and destroy cancer cells. The drugs used in an ACCP are chosen based on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the patient's overall health. The goal of an ACCP is to shrink the tumor, slow the growth of cancer cells, and improve the patient's quality of life.
Leucovorin, also known as folic acid or folinic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is important for the synthesis of DNA and RNA. It is used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as methotrexate-induced myelosuppression, and in the prevention of side effects from chemotherapy. Leucovorin is also used to treat vitamin B12 deficiency and to prevent neural tube defects in pregnant women. It is available as a medication and can be taken by mouth or given intravenously.
Recombinant fusion proteins are proteins that are produced by combining two or more genes in a single molecule. These proteins are typically created using genetic engineering techniques, such as recombinant DNA technology, to insert one or more genes into a host organism, such as bacteria or yeast, which then produces the fusion protein. Fusion proteins are often used in medical research and drug development because they can have unique properties that are not present in the individual proteins that make up the fusion. For example, a fusion protein might be designed to have increased stability, improved solubility, or enhanced targeting to specific cells or tissues. Recombinant fusion proteins have a wide range of applications in medicine, including as therapeutic agents, diagnostic tools, and research reagents. Some examples of recombinant fusion proteins used in medicine include antibodies, growth factors, and cytokines.
Cell compartmentation refers to the physical separation of different cellular components and organelles within a cell. This separation allows for the efficient functioning of various cellular processes and helps to maintain cellular homeostasis. Each organelle has a specific function and is compartmentalized to allow for the proper execution of that function. For example, the mitochondria are responsible for energy production and are located in the cytoplasm, while the nucleus contains the genetic material and is located in the center of the cell. Cell compartmentation also plays a role in the regulation of cellular processes. For example, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is responsible for protein synthesis and folding, and its compartmentalization allows for the proper processing and transport of proteins within the cell. Disruptions in cell compartmentation can lead to various diseases and disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer.
Receptors, Virus are proteins on the surface of host cells that recognize and bind to specific viral proteins, allowing the virus to enter and infect the cell. These receptors play a crucial role in the viral life cycle and are often targeted by antiviral drugs and vaccines. Examples of viral receptors include the ACE2 receptor for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) and the CD4 receptor for HIV.
Membrane proteins are proteins that are embedded within the lipid bilayer of a cell membrane. They play a crucial role in regulating the movement of substances across the membrane, as well as in cell signaling and communication. There are several types of membrane proteins, including integral membrane proteins, which span the entire membrane, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are only in contact with one or both sides of the membrane. Membrane proteins can be classified based on their function, such as transporters, receptors, channels, and enzymes. They are important for many physiological processes, including nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and cell growth and division.
Brefeldin A (BFA) is a naturally occurring macrolide compound that was first isolated from the fungus Brefeldia nivea. It is a potent inhibitor of the Golgi apparatus, a organelle in eukaryotic cells responsible for sorting, packaging, and transporting proteins and lipids to their final destinations within the cell or for secretion outside the cell. In the medical field, BFA is used as a tool to study the function and dynamics of the Golgi apparatus and other intracellular organelles. It is often used in cell biology research to visualize and analyze the transport of proteins and lipids through the Golgi apparatus and to study the role of the Golgi apparatus in various cellular processes, such as cell growth, differentiation, and signaling. BFA is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic effects and to develop safe and effective treatments based on BFA.
In the medical field, "Vaccines, Synthetic" refers to vaccines that are made using synthetic or man-made methods, rather than being derived from natural sources such as live or attenuated viruses or bacteria. These vaccines are typically made using recombinant DNA technology, which involves inserting a small piece of genetic material from the pathogen into a harmless host cell, such as a yeast or bacteria, that is then grown in large quantities. The resulting protein is then purified and used to make the vaccine. Synthetic vaccines have several advantages over traditional vaccines, including the ability to produce vaccines quickly and efficiently, the ability to produce vaccines for diseases that are difficult to grow in the laboratory, and the ability to produce vaccines that are safe and effective for people with weakened immune systems or other health conditions. Some examples of synthetic vaccines include the hepatitis B vaccine, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, and the influenza vaccine.
Hemagglutinin glycoproteins, also known as HA glycoproteins, are a type of protein found on the surface of influenza viruses. These proteins play a crucial role in the ability of the virus to infect host cells. HA glycoproteins are responsible for binding to receptors on the surface of host cells, allowing the virus to enter the cell and replicate. There are 18 different subtypes of HA glycoproteins, which are classified based on their antigenic properties. Each subtype has a unique structure, which allows the immune system to recognize and respond to the virus. HA glycoproteins are also the target of the influenza vaccine, which is designed to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the virus. By recognizing and binding to the HA glycoproteins, these antibodies can prevent the virus from infecting host cells and protect against influenza. In summary, HA glycoproteins are a key component of the influenza virus and play a critical role in its ability to infect host cells. They are also the target of the influenza vaccine and are an important area of research in the development of new treatments for influenza.
Fish venoms are toxic substances produced by certain species of fish that can cause harm to humans and other animals. These venoms are typically found in the spines, fins, or teeth of the fish and are used for defense or hunting. Fish venoms can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the species of fish and the amount of venom injected. Some common symptoms include pain, swelling, redness, and numbness at the site of the bite, as well as more serious symptoms such as respiratory distress, cardiac arrhythmias, and even death in severe cases. In the medical field, fish venoms are studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in the development of new pain medications or as a source of bioactive compounds for use in drug discovery. However, they are also a significant health concern for people who work with or consume fish, and efforts are made to educate the public about the risks associated with fish bites and stings.
Arboviruses are a group of viruses that are transmitted to humans and animals by arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas. These viruses can cause a wide range of diseases, including mild fevers, encephalitis, meningitis, and hemorrhagic fever. Arboviruses are classified into several different families, including Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Reoviridae. Some well-known examples of arboviruses include West Nile virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, chikungunya virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. In the medical field, arboviruses are a significant public health concern, as they can cause widespread outbreaks and epidemics, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Diagnosis and treatment of arboviral infections often involve supportive care, such as hydration and pain management, as well as antiviral medications in some cases. Prevention measures include avoiding exposure to arthropod vectors through the use of insect repellent, wearing protective clothing, and eliminating breeding sites for mosquitoes and ticks.
Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by genetically engineering bacteria, yeast, or other organisms to express a specific gene. These proteins are typically used in medical research and drug development because they can be produced in large quantities and are often more pure and consistent than proteins that are extracted from natural sources. Recombinant proteins can be used for a variety of purposes in medicine, including as diagnostic tools, therapeutic agents, and research tools. For example, recombinant versions of human proteins such as insulin, growth hormones, and clotting factors are used to treat a variety of medical conditions. Recombinant proteins can also be used to study the function of specific genes and proteins, which can help researchers understand the underlying causes of diseases and develop new treatments.
Neuraminic acids are a group of nine related organic compounds that are important in the structure and function of the human body. They are also known as sialic acids and are found in many different types of cells, including neurons, immune cells, and red blood cells. Neuraminic acids are synthesized from the amino acid aspartic acid and are involved in a number of important biological processes, including the formation of glycoproteins and glycolipids, which are complex carbohydrates that are found on the surface of cells. These molecules play a role in cell recognition and communication, and are also involved in the immune response. Neuraminic acids are also important for the function of the nervous system. They are found in high concentrations in the brain and spinal cord, and are thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of neural connections. In addition, they are involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release and the formation of synapses, which are the connections between neurons. Neuraminic acids are also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, including influenza, cancer, and neurological disorders. They are available as dietary supplements and are sometimes used to enhance the immune system or improve cognitive function. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using neuraminic acids for these purposes.
Cell transformation by viruses refers to the process by which viruses alter the normal functioning of host cells, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. This can result in the development of cancerous tumors. Viruses can cause cell transformation by introducing genetic material into the host cell, which can disrupt normal cellular processes and lead to the activation of oncogenes (genes that promote cell growth) or the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (genes that prevent uncontrolled cell growth). There are several types of viruses that can cause cell transformation, including retroviruses (such as HIV), oncoviruses (such as hepatitis B and C viruses), and papillomaviruses (such as the human papillomavirus, which can cause cervical cancer). Cell transformation by viruses is an important area of research in the field of cancer biology, as it helps to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer development and can lead to the development of new treatments for cancer.
Sulfur radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of sulfur, which are used in various medical applications. These isotopes are typically produced by bombarding stable sulfur atoms with high-energy particles, such as protons or neutrons. One commonly used sulfur radioisotope in medicine is sulfur-35 (35S), which has a half-life of approximately 87 days. It is used in a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications, including: * Radiolabeling of biomolecules: 35S can be used to label proteins, peptides, and other biomolecules, allowing researchers to study their structure, function, and interactions with other molecules. * Imaging of tumors: 35S-labeled compounds can be used to image tumors in animals or humans, allowing doctors to monitor the growth and spread of tumors. * Radioimmunotherapy: 35S can be used to label antibodies, which can then be targeted to specific cells or tissues in the body, delivering a dose of radiation to kill cancer cells or other diseased cells. Other sulfur radioisotopes, such as sulfur-32 (32S) and sulfur-33 (33S), are also used in medical applications, although they are less commonly used than 35S.
In the medical field, a chick embryo refers to a fertilized egg of a chicken that has been incubated for a certain period of time, typically between 4 and 21 days, until it has developed into an embryo. Chick embryos are commonly used in scientific research as a model system for studying developmental biology, genetics, and other areas of biology. They are particularly useful for studying the early stages of development, as they can be easily manipulated and observed under a microscope. Chick embryos are also used in some medical treatments, such as in the development of new drugs and therapies.
Marburg virus disease (MVD) is a severe and often fatal viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Marburg virus. It is a member of the Filoviridae family, which also includes Ebola virus. The disease was first identified in 1967 in Marburg, Germany, and has since been responsible for several outbreaks in Africa and Europe. Symptoms of MVD typically include fever, headache, muscle aches, weakness, and fatigue. As the disease progresses, patients may develop vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and bleeding from the nose, mouth, and other mucous membranes. In severe cases, bleeding may also occur from the skin and other organs, leading to shock and death. MVD is transmitted to humans through contact with bodily fluids or tissues of infected animals, such as monkeys, or through contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. There is no specific treatment for MVD, and supportive care is the mainstay of therapy. Vaccines are currently being developed, but none are yet available for widespread use.
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- Aphthous stomatitis, also known as recurrent aphthous ulcers or canker sores, is among the most common oral mucosal lesion physicians and dentists observe. (medscape.com)
- Aphthous stomatitis is a disorder of unknown etiology that may cause significant morbidity. (medscape.com)
- Aphthous Stomatitis as an Uninvited Guest after Dental Implant Surgery: A Case Series. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Objectives - Aphthous stomatitis is one of the most common ulcerative lesions in the oral cavity. (physiciansweekly.com)
- The aim of this study was to report the characteristics of patients with aphthous stomatitis after dental implantation. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Patients and Method - The study included 14 patients who were diagnosed with aphthous stomatitis. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Genetic factors, especially those related to immune system functioning, have been intensively studied to determine their role in the development of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). (muni.cz)
- Herpetic stomatitis is a viral infection of the mouth that causes sores and ulcers. (medlineplus.gov)
- Herpetic stomatitis is an infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), or oral herpes . (medlineplus.gov)
- If you or another adult in the family has a cold sore, it could have spread to your child and caused herpetic stomatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Your child should also avoid other children with herpetic stomatitis. (medlineplus.gov)
- If your child has herpetic stomatitis, avoid spreading the virus to other children. (medlineplus.gov)
- It usually occurs as acute herpetic stomatitis (or gingivostomatitis), an oral manifestation of primary herpes simplex seen primarily in children and adolescents. (wakehealth.edu)
- which may not always be cleared by the feline host, could induce the lymphocytic-plasmacytic lesions indicative of stomatitis and other immune-reactive diseases. (dvm360.com)
- If you or your veterinarian recognizes symptoms of stomatitis during an oral exam, he will need to confirm the diagnosis using dental x-rays, blood tests, bacterial culture, or an oral biopsy or histology of tissues or lesions. (petdoctoraz.com)
- Conclusion The cleaning protocol for dentures was effective in both controlling the prosthesis biofilm as contributing to the reduction of clinical signs of denture stomatitis lesions. (bvsalud.org)
- Denture stomatitis can range from mild to severe, with symptoms varying from redness and inflammation to the development of painful sores. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- Stomatitis in cats, also known as feline stomatitis or feline chronic gingivostomatitis, refers to inflammation in a cat's mouth. (hillspet.ca)
- Stomatitis in cats is a blanket term for extensive, chronic and painful inflammation in the mouth. (hillspet.ca)
- Signs of stomatitis are associated with inflammation - think really red gums. (hillspet.ca)
- Even with dental care, many cats with stomatitis require long-term anti-inflammatory medicine and occasional antibiotic therapy to control inflammation. (hillspet.ca)
- Feline stomatitis (also known as caudal oral stomatitis) is a painful disease that causes considerable inflammation within a cat's mouth, including around the mucous membranes and the gingiva (gum tissue). (meowwiki.com)
- Stomatitis causes inflammation in a cat's mouth. (meowwiki.com)
- A biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis of plasma cell stomatitis, but the inflammation around the fauce area is often used as the sole diagnostic criterion. (vin.com)
- No single treatment seems to be appropriate for every patient but the basic principles in treating feline caudal stomatitis involve plaque control, inflammation control, pain control, and nutritional support. (vin.com)
- In one study of cats with plasma cell stomatitis that had their molars and premolars extracted, 20% were improved to a point where medication could control the pain and inflammation, and 60% were cured outright with no further treatment needed. (vin.com)
- Stomatitis is a painful medical condition that causes inflammation and irritation in the soft tissues inside a pet's mouth. (petdoctoraz.com)
- Oral inflammation and ulcers, known as stomatitis, may be mild and localized or severe and widespread. (msdmanuals.com)
- A strain of Vesicular Stomatitis virus, serotype Indiana (VSV), was compared after a single in vitro passage and after 16 in vitro passages in human white blood cells from patients suffering mostly from acute myeloid leukemia. (karger.com)
- Among the most promising filovirus vaccines under development is a system based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) that expresses an individual filovirus glycoprotein (GP) in place of the VSV glycoprotein (G). The main concern with all replication-competent vaccines, including the rVSV filovirus GP vectors, is their safety. (nih.gov)
- Kaplan-Meier survival plot of patients with Ebola virus disease, stratified by vaccination status, for study of effect of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-Zaire Ebola virus vaccination on Ebola virus disease illness and death, Democratic Republic of the Congo. (cdc.gov)
- Processing of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of secreted and intracellular forms of the vesicular stomatitis virus G protein: in vivo evidence of Golgi apparatus compartmentalization. (rupress.org)
- The structures of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharides of several variant forms of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein transiently expressed from cloned cDNAs have been determined. (rupress.org)
- The vaccine consists of a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), which is an animal virus that causes flulike illness in humans. (who.int)
- The diagnosis of stomatitis in cats is based on a cat's health history and a physical examination. (hillspet.ca)
- Denture stomatitis, also known as denture-related candidiasis or denture sore mouth, is a prevalent condition that affects individuals who wear dentures. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- [ 1 , 2 ] Although patient age and denture quality alone do not predispose individuals this mucosal condition, the odds of developing stomatitis, denture-related hyperplasia, and angular cheilitis are increased almost 3-fold in denture wearers. (medscape.com)
- Denture stomatitis is a condition in which the mucosa underneath a denture becomes inflamed and sometimes painful. (scienceblog.com)
- Because stomatitis is often painful, affected cats may refuse to eat and groom, or they may chatter their teeth or paw at their faces. (hillspet.ca)
- Because stomatitis is so painful, the first step of treatment is to control pain with medicine. (hillspet.ca)
- Stomatitis symptoms might affect your pet's appetite, as eating can be painful. (petdoctoraz.com)
- Stomatitis may involve swelling and redness of the oral mucosa or discrete, painful ulcers (single or multiple). (msdmanuals.com)
- The presence of C. albicans was confirmed by cytology and cultivable methods and the clinical severity of the stomatitis and denture fit evaluated by the Newton and Kapur Classifications. (scienceblog.com)
- Treatment of feline stomatitis depends on many factors, including the severity of the disease and a cat's response to therapy. (hillspet.ca)
- After diagnosing stomatitis and evaluating the severity of the symptoms, progression of the disease, and your pet's age, weight, and overall health, our veterinarians can design a customized stomatitis treatment plan. (petdoctoraz.com)
- The severity of denture stomatitis as related to risk factors and different Candida spp. (bvsalud.org)
- 1) To select patients with Candida -related denture stomatitis (DS) and to study possible risk factors associated with DS, 2) to evaluate the severity of DS according to Newton's classification , and 3) to investigate the association between the presence of non-albicans Candida spp. (bvsalud.org)
- What Causes Stomatitis in Cats? (hillspet.ca)
- Researchers haven't yet discovered the cause of stomatitis in cats. (hillspet.ca)
- According to dvm360 , some studies suggest a link between stomatitis and calicivirus, a virus that causes upper respiratory disease in cats. (hillspet.ca)
- What Are the Signs of Stomatitis in Cats? (hillspet.ca)
- Cats with stomatitis may be thin, look scruffy, have matted hair and be underweight. (hillspet.ca)
- How Is Stomatitis in Cats Diagnosed? (hillspet.ca)
- How Is Stomatitis in Cats Treated? (hillspet.ca)
- Because periodontal disease is associated with stomatitis, your vet will likely recommend your cat has yearly dental care, including dental X-rays and a thorough cleaning, which is a good idea even for cats that aren't currently experiencing oral health issues. (hillspet.ca)
- What Is the Role of Nutrition in Managing Stomatitis in Cats? (hillspet.ca)
- Stomatitis in cats may be caused by the immune system's reaction to the accumulation of plaque bacteria on the teeth. (meowwiki.com)
- Stomatitis in cats can present with several symptoms. (meowwiki.com)
- Cats that experience stomatitis will often have periodontal disease, a condition that affects the gum. (meowwiki.com)
- Older cats and Siamaese, Persian, and Abyssinians are at increased risk of stomatitis. (meowwiki.com)
- For some cats affected by stomatitis, the formation of plaque on the teeth can spark an allergic reaction. (meowwiki.com)
- Cats that exhibit any of the symptoms of stomatitis should be taken to a veterinarian for a full examination. (meowwiki.com)
- We offer safe, effective stomatitis treatment for cats and dogs at Pet Doctor of Chandler, in Arizona. (petdoctoraz.com)
- Both cats and dogs can develop stomatitis, but it is more common in cats. (petdoctoraz.com)
- Stomatitis symptoms are similar in dogs and cats. (petdoctoraz.com)
- Our compassionate, experienced veterinary care team has years of experience diagnosing, treating, managing, and preventing stomatitis in cats and dogs. (petdoctoraz.com)
- This article looks at stomatitis, a condition that can affect cats. (santabarbarasounds.com)
- Cats with stomatitis may exhibit behavioural changes, including overgrooming (especially around the face), excessive rubbing on furniture or walls and hiding in dark places. (santabarbarasounds.com)
- The treatment of denture stomatitis involves both managing the fungal infection and addressing the underlying causes. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- Because of the presence of the stomatitis infection, examination of the mouth can be challenging for the veterinarian as the cat will not be likely to allow its mouth to be opened. (meowwiki.com)
- Our treatment options can slow and eliminate uncomfortable stomatitis symptoms and reduce the risk of ulcers, infection, and tooth loss. (petdoctoraz.com)
- If you don't seek stomatitis treatment quickly enough, your pet may need to have one or more teeth extracted to reduce symptoms and prevent serious infection. (petdoctoraz.com)
- Barcelona, Spain - Today during the 88th General Session & Exhibition of the International Association for Dental Research, in Barcelona, Spain, S. Offenbacher will present an abstract titled "Mucosal Gene Expression and Salivary Proteomic Analysis of Candidiasis-Associated Denture-Stomatitis. (scienceblog.com)
- The goal of the study was to compare whole-transcriptome, mucosal gene expression in Candida albicans (a parasitic fungus that can infect the mouth) associated chronic denture stomatitis to that of healthy oral mucosa and perform proteomic analyses of potential salivary biomarkers. (scienceblog.com)
- This is a summary of abstract #2012, "Mucosal Gene Expression and Salivary Proteomic Analysis of Candidiasis-Associated Denture-Stomatitis," to be presented by S. Offenbacher at 9 a.m., Friday, July 16, 2010 in Room 117 of the Centre Convencions Internacional Barcelona, Spain during the 88th General Session & Exhibition of the International Association for Dental Research. (scienceblog.com)
- Nicotine stomatitis is a mucosal change of the palate more commonly associated with pipe or, less commonly, cigar smoking. (logicalimages.com)
- Denture stomatitis is a common oral mucosal lesion in the United States and Western Europe. (medscape.com)
- This article will delve into the various aspects of denture stomatitis, including its causes, symptoms, treatment options, and prevention techniques. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- Denture stomatitis presents with several common symptoms. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- If you are experiencing symptoms of denture stomatitis or require expert denture services, schedule an appointment with Shelby Dental for expert personalized treatment. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- Call or contact us online if your pet is showing stomatitis symptoms in Chandler, AZ. (petdoctoraz.com)
- What are some symptoms of stomatitis? (santabarbarasounds.com)
- Use of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in the treatment of postmenopausal HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer can be hampered by the development of stomatitis/mouth ulcers, which can lead to dose reductions and discontinuations. (medscape.com)
- Maintaining good oral hygiene, including brushing the remaining natural teeth and gums, is essential in preventing the development of stomatitis. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- Zoey's condition was diagnosed as canine chronic ulcerative stomatitis (CCUS). (fearfreehappyhomes.com)
- The primary cause of denture stomatitis is the overgrowth of Candida albicans, a fungus that naturally resides in the oral cavity. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- The exact prevalence of denture stomatitis is unknown, but it appears to be 2.5-18.3% among adults. (medscape.com)
- Denture stomatitis is a common condition that affects individuals who wear dentures, but with proper oral hygiene and regular dental appointments, you can prevent this disease. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- If your cat has been diagnosed with feline stomatitis, getting them regular veterinary and dental care gives them the best chance at successfully managing the disease. (hillspet.ca)
- Regular follow-up visits and dental check-ups with your veterinarian are necessary to monitor the progress of stomatitis, manage any potential recurrences, and maintain your pet's overall health and oral health. (petdoctoraz.com)
- It is estimated that denture stomatitis affects up to 65% of denture wearers. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- Once your pet receives effective, aggressive stomatitis treatment, the prognosis for a full recovery is excellent. (petdoctoraz.com)
- Stomatitis can usually be diagnosed through the identification of clinical signs, along with the findings of additional tests. (meowwiki.com)
- A full exam by a vet is required to determine the cause and treatment for stomatitis. (meowwiki.com)
- There is also an indication of a link between conditions such as diabetes mellitus and kidney disease with sufferers more prone to developing stomatitis. (meowwiki.com)
- Denture stomatitis is a condition that occurs when the oral tissues underneath a denture become inflamed and irritated. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- The sooner your veterinarian diagnoses a health condition like stomatitis, the more likely treatment will be effective, and your pet will fully recover. (petdoctoraz.com)
- As stomatitis is a common side-effect of targeted therapies for breast cancer, it may be worthwhile to investigate if the use of escalating dose regimens might improve the tolerability of other new targeted agents," they add. (medscape.com)
- The DESIREE study met its primary endpoint and demonstrated that a dose-escalation schema of everolimus over 3 weeks can be successfully implemented to reduce the incidence of high-grade stomatitis in the first 12 weeks of treatment, the authors write. (medscape.com)
Reduce the risk2
- This is slightly concerning as it brings up the question of whether we lose precious time to control metastatic breast cancer by starting at lower doses to reduce the risk of stomatitis," and further investigation is needed, said Siddhartha Yadav, MBBS, MD , a medical oncologist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. (medscape.com)
- Apart from proper denture care, certain lifestyle changes can help reduce the risk of denture stomatitis. (shelbydentalcenter.com)
- This could be an alternative strategy for reduction of everolimus-related stomatitis as the use of a steroid-based mouthwash has a small but real risk of developing oral candidiasis," say investigators led by Prof Marcus Schmidt , an oncology professor at Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany. (medscape.com)
- The reduction in stomatitis seen in this trial was comparable to some past reports regarding dexamethasone mouthwashes, but it was not quite as robust as described in other reports, they comment. (medscape.com)
- A dose-escalation schema of everolimus over 3 weeks can be successfully implemented to reduce the incidence of high-grade stomatitis in the first 12 weeks of treatment. (medscape.com)
- Because no one knows what actually causes feline stomatitis, there's no specific treatment. (hillspet.ca)
- We carefully consider each pet's specific needs before recommending specific stomatitis treatment options. (petdoctoraz.com)
- It is important to remember, though, that some underlying causes - such as feline leukaemia - will persist even if stomatitis is cured and may require more time and treatment to resolve. (santabarbarasounds.com)
- Nicotine stomatitis is found more commonly in men older than 45 years of age with the additional risk factor of pipe or cigar smoking. (logicalimages.com)
- however, the presence of candidal organisms within the overall biofilm lends credence to its role in the development and maintenance of denture stomatitis. (medscape.com)
- Objective To assess the denture hygiene for denture stomatitis control and establish a protocol for the cleaning these appliances. (bvsalud.org)
- [ 7 ] Trauma has been shown to have a role in the production of basement membrane alterations involving expression of type IV collagen and laminin (alpha 1), thus indicating a possible relationship between these elements and denture stomatitis. (medscape.com)