Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Duodenal Ulcer: A PEPTIC ULCER located in the DUODENUM.Peptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Leg Ulcer: Ulceration of the skin and underlying structures of the lower extremity. About 90% of the cases are due to venous insufficiency (VARICOSE ULCER), 5% to arterial disease, and the remaining 5% to other causes.Pressure Ulcer: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.Skin UlcerStomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Peptic Ulcer Hemorrhage: Bleeding from a PEPTIC ULCER that can be located in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Peptic Ulcer Perforation: Penetration of a PEPTIC ULCER through the wall of DUODENUM or STOMACH allowing the leakage of luminal contents into the PERITONEAL CAVITY.Acupuncture Therapy: Treatment of disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians. The placement varies with the disease being treated. It is sometimes used in conjunction with heat, moxibustion, acupressure, or electric stimulation.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Acupuncture Points: Designated locations along nerves or organ meridians for inserting acupuncture needles.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Helicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.AustriaNeuroendocrinology: The study of the anatomical and functional relationships between the nervous system and the endocrine system.Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Prevotella intermedia: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium is a common commensal in the gingival crevice and is often isolated from cases of gingivitis and other purulent lesions related to the mouth.Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Prevotella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods. Organisms of this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings in 1990 indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was established.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Naproxen: An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Vaccinium macrocarpon: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM known for the sour fruit which is sometimes used for urinary tract infections.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Skin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Influence of a new antiulcer agent, ammonium 7-oxobicyclo (2, 2, 1) hept-5-ene-3-carbamoyl-2-carboxylate (KF-392) on gastric lesions and gastric mucosal barrier in rats. (1/1534)

Antiulcer effects of KF-392 were studied in several experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. It was found that KF-392 given orally at 1.0 to 5.0 mg/kg had a marked suppression on the developments of Shay ulcer as well as the aspirin-, stress-, and reserpine-induced gastric lesions. The influence of KF-392 on gastric mucosal barrier was also studied. A back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa and a fall of transmucosal potential difference were induced with KF-392 given orally at the above mentioned doses. KF-392 given s.c. at 5.0 mg/kg showed no inhibition of Shay ulcer and no induction of back diffusion of H+ into the gastric mucosa.  (+info)

Anti-ulcer effects of 4'-(2-carboxyetyl) phenyl trans-4-aminomethyl cyclohexanecarboxylate hydrochloride (cetraxate) on various experimental gastric ulcers in rats. (2/1534)

Anti-ulcer effects of cetraxate, a new compound possessing anti-plasmin, anti-casein and anti-trypsin actions were investigated by using experimental gastric ulcer models in rats. Cetraxate, 300 mg/kg p.o. showed significant inhibitory effects of 65.3%, 70.0%, 30.2%, and 67.1% against aucte types of ulcers producing by aspirin, phenylbutazone, indomethacin, and pyloric ligature (Shay's ulcer), respectively. These effects were greater than those obtained by gefarnate and aluminum sucrose sulfate may be mainly attributed to the protecting action of this drug on gastric mucosa. Ctraxate further revealed remarkable inhibitory effects on chronic types of ulcers produced by acetic acid, clamping, and clamping-cortisone. In acetic acid ulcer in particular, cetraxate was found to have a dose-dependent inhibitory effect at doses over 50 mg/kg. Of test drugs including L-glutamine and methylmethionine sulfonium chloride, cetraxate showed the most remarkable inhibitory effect on beta-glucuronidase activity in ulcer tissue of these three types of ulcers. These findings suggest that cetraxate may prevent the connective tissue in the ulcer location from decomposition due to lysosomal enzymes such as beta-glucuronidase, thereby accelerating the recovery from ulcer.  (+info)

Anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic effects of 3-(N,N-diethylamino) propylindometacin HCl. (3/1534)

AIM: To study anti-inflammatory effects of a novel indometacin ester, 3-(N,N-diethylamino) propyl-indometacin HCl (prodrug) and its ulcerogenicity in fats. METHODS: Carrageenin (Car)-induced paw edema and ulcer index were examined. RESULTS: Car-induced paw edema was inhibited by 36.6% (P < 0.01) at 3 h and 34.6% (P < 0.01) at 5 h after a single i.p. injection of the prodrug 7.09 On the same molar basis, indometacin (Ind) 5 i.p. inhibited edema by 45.6% at 3 h and 39.2% at 5 h, however, there was no statistical significant difference (P > 0.05) between the edema-inhibitory effect of the prodrug and that of Ind. The dose 10 micrograms/paw exhibited 64% inhibition of the swelling, the prodrug > 10 micrograms/paw showed no additional inhibition of swelling; the acute gastric lesion properties of the prodrug were much lower than those of Ind 6 h after p.o. CONCLUSION: The prodrug is a potent anti-inflammatory agent with lower ulcerogenicity in the stomach.  (+info)

Role of apoptosis induced by Helicobacter pylori infection in the development of duodenal ulcer. (4/1534)

BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori affects gastric epithelium integrity by acceleration of apoptosis. However, it remains unclear what product of the bacteria causes apoptosis, or whether or not the apoptosis is involved in the development of ulcers. AIMS: To elucidate the factor from H pylori that causes acceleration of apoptosis and the role of apoptosis in the development of duodenal ulcer in H pylori infection. PATIENTS: Five H pylori negative healthy volunteers, 47 H pylori positive patients with duodenal ulcer, and 35 H pylori positive patients with gastric ulcer. METHODS: An endoscopic examination was carried out to diagnose ulcers and determine their clinical stage. To analyse apoptosis, a cell cycle analysis was performed using biopsy specimens. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the urease activity of the H pylori strain and the level of apoptosis induced by this bacterial strain. Moreover, in duodenal ulcer patients infected with H pylori, the patients with an active ulcer exhibited a significantly higher level of apoptosis than those with ulcers at both the healing and scarring stages. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that acceleration of apoptosis in the antral mucosa caused by the urease of H pylori plays a crucial role in the development of ulcers in the duodenum.  (+info)

Helicobacter pylori-induced chronic active gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric ulcer in Mongolian gerbils. (5/1534)

The establishment of persisting Helicobacter pylori infection in laboratory animals has been difficult, but in 1996 Hirayama reported the development of a successful Mongolian gerbil model. The present study was undertaken with two aims: to better characterize the normal histological structure and histochemical properties of the gastric mucosa of the Mongolian gerbil; and to evaluate the progression of the histopathological features of H. pylori-induced gastritis in this animal model for one year after the experimental infection. Seventy-five Mongolian gerbils were used. Mongolian gerbils were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, 12, 26, 38, and 52 weeks after H. pylori inoculation. Sections prepared from stomachs immediately fixed in Carnoy's solution were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Alcian blue at pH 2.5/periodic acid-Schiff, a dual staining consisting of the galactose oxidase-cold thionin Schiff reaction and paradoxical Concanavalin A staining, and with immunostaining for H. pylori and BrdU. H. pylori infection induced in the Mongolian gerbil a chronic active gastritis, in which a marked mucosal infiltration of neutrophils on a background of chronic inflammation became detectable 4 weeks after inoculation and continued up to 52 weeks. Intestinal metaplasia and gastric ulcers appeared after 26 weeks in some of the animals, whereas others developed multiple hyperplastic polyps. The Mongolian gerbil represents a novel and useful model for the study of H. pylori-induced chronic active gastritis and may lend itself to the investigation of the epithelial alterations that lead to intestinal metaplasia and gastric neoplasia.  (+info)

Effects of nicorandil on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats: a possible role of K(ATP) channels. (6/1534)

The anti-ulcer effects of nicorandil [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nicotinamide nitrate ester] were examined on water-immersion plus restraint stress-induced and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats, compared with those of cimetidine. Nicorandil (3 and 10 mg/kg) given orally to rats dose-dependently inhibited the development of acid-related damage (water-immersion- and aspirin-induced gastric lesions) in the models. Cimetidine (50 mg/kg, p.o.) also had anti-ulcer effects in the same models. However, in the presence of glibenclamide (20 mg/kg, i.v.), an antagonist of K(ATP) channels, nicorandil did not inhibit the formation of gastric lesions. Nicorandil (10 mg/kg) given intraduodenally (i.d.), like cimetidine (50 mg/kg), significantly reduced the volume of the gastric content, total acidity and total acid output in the pylorus ligation model. Glibenclamide reversed the changes caused by i.d. nicorandil. I.v. infusion of nicorandil (20 microg/kg per min) significantly increased gastric mucosal blood flow, without affecting blood pressure and heart rate, but the increase in the blood flow was not observed after i.v. treatment with glibenclamide (20 mg/kg). These results indicate that nicorandil administered orally to rats produces the anti-ulcer effect by reducing the aggressive factors and by enhancing the defensive process in the mucosa through its K(ATP)-channel-opening property.  (+info)

Role of thromboxane A2 in healing of gastric ulcers in rats. (7/1534)

We investigated the role of thromboxane (TX) A2 in gastric ulcer healing in rats. Acetic acid ulcers were produced in male Donryu rats. TXA2 synthesis in the stomachs with ulcers was significantly elevated in ulcerated tissue, but not in intact tissue, compared with that in the gastric mucosa of normal rats. Indomethacin inhibited both TXA2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in ulcerated tissue, while NS-398 (selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) reduced only PGE2 synthesis. OKY-046 (TXA2 synthase inhibitor) dose-relatedly inhibited only TXA2 synthesis. The maximal effect of OKY-046 (80% inhibition) was found at more than 30 mg/kg. When OKY-046 was administered for 14 days, the drug at more than 30 mg/kg significantly accelerated ulcer healing without affecting acid secretion. The maximal reduction of ulcerated area by OKY-046 was about 30%, compared with the area in the control. Histological studies revealed that regeneration of the mucosa was significantly promoted by OKY-046, but neither maturation of the ulcer base nor angiogenesis in the base were affected. OKY-046 and TXB2 had no effect on proliferation of cultured rat gastric epithelial cells, but U-46619 (TXA2 mimetic) dose-relatedly prevented the proliferation without reducing cell viability. These results indicate that the increased TXA2, probably derived from cyclooxygenase-1 in ulcerated tissue, exerts a weak inhibitory effect on ulcer healing in rats. The effect of TXA2 might be due partly to prevention of gastric epithelial cell proliferation at the ulcer margin.  (+info)

Lateralized effects of medial prefrontal cortex lesions on neuroendocrine and autonomic stress responses in rats. (8/1534)

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is highly activated by stress and modulates neuroendocrine and autonomic function. Dopaminergic inputs to mPFC facilitate coping ability and demonstrate considerable hemispheric functional lateralization. The present study investigated the potentially lateralized regulation of stress responses at the level of mPFC output neurons, using ibotenic acid lesions. Neuroendocrine function was assessed by plasma corticosterone increases in response to acute or repeated 20 min restraint stress. The primary index of autonomic activation was gastric ulcer development during a separate cold restraint stress. Restraint-induced defecation was also monitored. Plasma corticosterone levels were markedly lower in response to repeated versus acute restraint stress. In acutely restrained animals, right or bilateral, but not left mPFC lesions, decreased prestress corticosterone levels, whereas in repeatedly restrained rats, the same lesions significantly reduced the peak stress-induced corticosterone response. Stress ulcer development (after a single cold restraint stress) was greatly reduced by either right or bilateral mPFC lesions but was unaffected by left lesions. Restraint-induced defecation was elevated in animals with left mPFC lesions. Finally, a left-biased asymmetry in adrenal gland weights was observed across animals, which was unaffected by mPFC lesions. The results suggest that mPFC output neurons demonstrate an intrinsic right brain specialization in both neuroendocrine and autonomic activation. Such findings may be particularly relevant to clinical depression which is associated with both disturbances in stress regulatory systems and hemispheric imbalances in prefrontal function.  (+info)

  • According to Mayo's entry for cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) in the Drugs and Supplements section, "Cranberry has been investigated for numerous other medicinal uses (besides preventing urinary tract infections), and promising areas of investigation include prevention of H. pylori infection, which causes gastrointestinal ulcers and dental plaque. (
  • Fortunately, according to an article published in The Lancet , prevalence of H. pylori infection and peptic ulcer diseases have become substantially less prevalent than they were two decades ago. (
  • Peptic ulcers are caused by an infection with H. pylori or certain medications. (
  • In many cases it is aggravated by eating and persists until the stomach is emptied, either by vomiting or by the food passing into the intestine. (
  • There is a mucus lining that protects the intestine and there is a natural balance maintained by the body in the acid levels and the mucus, which when disturbed could lead to an ulcer causing damage to the stomach or the intestines. (
  • To prevent ulcers, if possible quit using the medications that arouse this disease or limit the intake of these medications. (
  • Although the most common symptom of a stomach ulcer is a burning or gnawing pain in the centre of the abdomen (tummy). (
  • The most common sign and symptom of a stomach ulcer is burning abdominal pain that extends from the navel to the chest, which can range from mild to severe. (
  • Service: The article „Characterization of mucosa-associated bacterial communities in abomasal ulcers by pyrosequencing", by Alexandra Hund, Monika Dzieciol, Stephan Schmitz-Esser and Thomas Wittek was published in the journal Veterinary Microbiology . (
  • Stomach ulcer brings with it a shooting pain in the upper abdominal region, just a little below the breastbone. (