Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.
A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The use of specifically placed small electrodes to deliver electrical impulses across the SKIN to relieve PAIN. It is used less frequently to produce ANESTHESIA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
An acquired disorder characterized by recurrent symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, occurring in response to demonstrable exposure to many chemically unrelated compounds at doses below those established in the general population to cause harmful effects. (Cullen MR. The worker with multiple chemical sensitivities: an overview. Occup Med 1987;2(4):655-61)
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Lens-shaped structure on the inner aspect of the INTERNAL CAPSULE. The SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS and pathways traversing this region are concerned with the integration of somatic motor function.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Neurons which send impulses peripherally to activate muscles or secretory cells.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
A subclass of phospholipases that hydrolyze the phosphoester bond found in the third position of GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS. Although the singular term phospholipase C specifically refers to an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE (EC, it is commonly used in the literature to refer to broad variety of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.

Extra-vesicular binding of noradrenaline and guanethidine in the adrenergic neurones of the rat heart: a proposed site of action of adrenergic neurone blocking agents. (1/4793)

1 The binding and efflux characteristics of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline were studied in heart slices from rats which were pretreated with reserpine and nialamide. 2 Binding of both compounds occurred at extra-vesicular sites within the adrenergic neurone. After a brief period of rapid washout, the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline proceeded at a steady rate. The efflux of both compounds appeared to occur from a single intraneuronal compartment. 3 (+)-Amphetamine accelerated the efflux of [14C]-noradrenaline; this effect was inhibited by desipramine. 4 Unlabelled guanethidine and amantadine also increased the efflux of labelled compounds. Cocaine in high concentrations increased slightly the efflux of [14C]-guanethidine but not that of [3H]-noradrenaline. 5 Heart slices labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline became refractory to successive exposures to releasing agents although an appreciable amount of labelled compound was still present in in these slices. 6 It is suggested that [14C]-guanethidine and [3H]-noradrenaline are bound at a common extravesicular site within the adrenergic neurone. Binding of guanethidine to the extra-vesicular site may be relevant to its pharmacological action, i.e., the blockade of adrenergic transmission.  (+info)

Myocardial uptake of digoxin in chronically digitalized dogs. (2/4793)

1 The time course of myocardial uptake of digoxin, increase in contractility and changes in myocardial potassium concentration was studied for 90 min following an intravenous digoxin dose to long-term digitalized dogs. 2 Nineteen dogs were investigated by the use of a biopsy technique which allowed sampling before and after administration of digoxin. 3 Ten minutes after administration of digoxin the myocardial concentration increased from 60 to 306 nmol/kg tissue, the myocardial concentration of digoxin was significantly lower (250 nmol/kg tissue) after 30 min and then increased again. 4 The transmural myocardial distribution of digoxin was uniform before and 90 min after administration of digoxin in long-term digitalized dogs but at 10 min after administration, both the subepicardial and the subendocardial concentration of digoxin were significantly lower than that of the mesocardial layer. 5 During the first 10 min the dp/dtmax increased to 135% of the control level. The increase remained unchanged during the rest of the study. 6 Myocardial potassium decreased throughout the study. 7 The M-configuration of the myocardial uptake curve and the non-uniformity of myocardial distribution of digoxin observed at 10 min after administrating digoxin to long-term digitalized dogs indicate that the distribution of myocardial blood flow may be changed during chronic digitalization.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (3/4793)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

Evaluation of the force-frequency relationship as a descriptor of the inotropic state of canine left ventricular myocardium. (4/4793)

The short-term force-frequency characteristics of canine left ventricular myocardium were examined in both isolated and intact preparations by briefly pertubing the frequency of contraction with early extrasystoles. The maximum rate of rise of isometric tension (Fmas) of the isolated trabeculae carneae was potentiated by the introduction of extrasystoles. The ratio of Fmas of potentiated to control beats (force-frequency ratio) was not altered significantly by a change in muscle length. However, exposure of the trabeculae to isoproterenol (10(-7)M) significantly changed the force-frequency ratio obtained in response to a constant frequency perturbation. Similar experiments were performed on chronically instrumented conscious dogs. Left ventricular minor axis diameter was measured with implanted pulse-transit ultrasonic dimension transducers, and intracavitary pressure was measured with a high fidelity micromanometer. Atrial pacing was performed so that the end-diastolic diameters of the beats preceding and following the extrasystole could be made identical. Large increases in the maximum rate of rise of pressure (Pmas) were seen in the contraction after the extrasystole. The ratio of Pmax of the potentiated beat to that of the control beat was not changed by a 9% increase in the end-diastolic diameter, produced by saline infusion. Conversely, isoproterenol significantly altered this relationship in the same manner as in the isolated muscle. Thus, either in vitro or in situ, left ventricular myocardium exhibits large functional changes in response to brief perturbations in rate. The isoproterenol and length data indicate that the force-frequency ratio reflects frequency-dependent changes in the inotropic state, independent of changes in length.  (+info)

Acquisition of nicotine discrimination and discriminative stimulus effects of nicotine in rats chronically exposed to caffeine. (5/4793)

Caffeine and nicotine are the main psychoactive ingredients of coffee and tobacco, with a high frequency of concurrent use in humans. This study examined the effects of chronic caffeine exposure on 1) rates of acquisition of a nicotine discrimination (0.1 or 0.4 mg/kg, s.c., training doses) and 2) the pharmacological characteristics of the established nicotine discrimination in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Once rats learned to lever-press reliably under a fixed ratio of 10 schedule for food pellets, they were randomly divided into two groups; 12 animals were maintained continuously on caffeine added to the drinking water (3 mg/ml) and another 12 control rats continued to drink tap water. In each group of water- and caffeine-drinking rats, there were six rats trained to discriminate 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine from saline and six rats trained to discriminate 0.4 mg/kg of nicotine from saline. Regardless of the training dose of nicotine, both water- and caffeine-drinking groups required a comparable number of training sessions to attain reliable stimulus control, although there was a trend for a slower acquisition in the caffeine-drinking group trained with 0.1 mg/kg of nicotine. Tests for generalization to different doses of nicotine revealed no significant differences in potency of nicotine between water- and caffeine-drinking groups. The nicotinic-receptor antagonist mecamylamine blocked the discriminative effects of 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine with comparable potency and efficacy in water- and caffeine-drinking groups. There was a dose-related generalization to both the 0.1 and 0.4 mg/kg nicotine cue (maximum average of 51-83%) in water-drinking rats after i.p. treatment with d-amphetamine, cocaine, the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909, apomorphine, and the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958, but not in caffeine-drinking rats (0-22%). There was no generalization to the nicotine cues after i.p. treatment with caffeine or the selective D2 (NPA) and D3 (PD 128,907) dopamine-receptor agonists in water- and caffeine-drinking rats. The dopamine-release inhibitor CGS 10746B reduced the discriminative effects of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine in water-drinking rats, but not in caffeine-drinking rats. There was no evidence of development of tolerance or sensitization to nicotine's effects throughout the study. In conclusion, chronic caffeine exposure (average, 135 mg/kg/day) did not affect the rate of acquisition of the nicotine discrimination, but it did reduce the dopaminergic component of the nicotine-discriminative cue. The reduction of the dopaminergic component of the nicotine cue was permanent, as this effect was still evident after the caffeine solution was replaced with water in caffeine-drinking rats. That nicotine could reliably serve as a discriminative stimulus in the absence of the dopaminergic component of its discriminative cue may differentiate nicotine from "classical dopaminergic" drugs of abuse such as cocaine and amphetamine.  (+info)

Cardiovascular and neuronal responses to head stimulation reflect central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. (6/4793)

Reduction of the threshold of cardiovascular and neuronal responses to facial and intracranial stimulation reflects central sensitization and cutaneous allodynia in a rat model of migraine. Current theories propose that migraine pain is caused by chemical activation of meningeal perivascular fibers. We previously found that chemical irritation of the dura causes trigeminovascular fibers innervating the dura and central trigeminal neurons receiving convergent input from the dura and skin to respond to low-intensity mechanical and thermal stimuli that previously induced minimal or no responses. One conclusion of these studies was that when low- and high-intensity stimuli induce responses of similar magnitude in nociceptive neurons, low-intensity stimuli must be as painful as the high-intensity stimuli. The present study investigates in anesthetized rats the significance of the changes in the responses of central trigeminal neurons (i.e., in nucleus caudalis) by correlating them with the occurrence and type of the simultaneously recorded cardiovascular responses. Before chemical stimulation of the dura, simultaneous increases in neuronal firing rates and blood pressure were induced by dural indentation with forces >/= 2.35 g and by noxious cutaneous stimuli such as pinching the skin and warming > 46 degrees C. After chemical stimulation, similar neuronal responses and blood pressure increases were evoked by much smaller forces for dural indentation and by innocuous cutaneous stimuli such as brushing the skin and warming it to >/= 43 degrees C. The onsets of neuronal responses preceded the onsets of depressor responses by 1.7 s and pressor responses by 4.0 s. The duration of neuronal responses was 15 s, whereas the duration of depressor responses was shorter (5.8 s) and pressor responses longer (22.7 s) than the neuronal responses. We conclude that the facilitated cardiovascular and central trigeminal neuronal responses to innocuous stimulation of the skin indicate that when dural stimulation induces central sensitization, innocuous stimuli are as nociceptive as noxious stimuli had been before dural stimulation and that a similar process might occur during the development of cutaneous allodynia during migraine.  (+info)

Variability of neurotransmitter concentration and nonsaturation of postsynaptic AMPA receptors at synapses in hippocampal cultures and slices. (7/4793)

To understand the elementary unit of synaptic communication between CNS neurons, one must know what causes the variability of quantal postsynaptic currents and whether unitary packets of transmitter saturate postsynaptic receptors. We studied single excitatory synapses between hippocampal neurons in culture. Focal glutamate application at individual postsynaptic sites evoked currents (I(glu)) with little variability compared with quantal excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The maximal I(glu) was >2-fold larger than the median EPSC. Thus, variations in [glu]cleft are the main source of variability in EPSC size, and glutamate receptors are generally far from saturation during quantal transmission. This conclusion was verified by molecular antagonism experiments in hippocampal cultures and slices. The general lack of glutamate receptor saturation leaves room for increases in [glu]cleft as a mechanism for synaptic plasticity.  (+info)

Reproductive experience and opioid regulation of luteinizing hormone release in female rats. (8/4793)

The objective of the present study was to determine whether reproductive experience that produces shifts in opioid regulation of prolactin secretion and behavioural functions also alters opioid regulation of LH during the oestrous cycle or lactation. In Expt 1 the effect of naloxone administration (i.v.) on LH was compared between age-matched, nulliparous and primiparous, catheterized female rats on dioestrus II. In Expt 2, the effects of multiple reproductive experiences on opiate control of LH were investigated using cyclic, nulliparous and multiparous (three litters) rats. In both experiments, no differences in naloxone-stimulated LH release were found between groups even though multiple reproductive experiences resulted in the prolongation of oestrous cyclicity. In Expt 3, day 8 lactating primiparous rats were administered 2, 5, 10 or 25 mg naloxone kg-1 i.v. The three lowest naloxone doses, but not the 25 mg kg-1 dose, significantly increased LH concentrations. The possible effects of prior reproductive experience on opioid control of LH during lactation were then investigated. Naloxone at 0.5 mg kg-1, but not at 2 mg kg-1 or 10 mg kg-1, stimulated a significantly greater rise in LH in multiparous (two litters) than in primiparous females. Overall, these data indicate that while modest differences were found in naloxone-induced LH responses between multiparous and primiparous animals during lactation, reproductive experience did not significantly alter opioid regulation of LH during subsequent oestrous cycles at the naloxone doses examined. Hence, the effects of reproductive experience on opioid regulation of LH are less pronounced than those previously found for opioid regulation of prolactin and behaviour.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Tension-compression loading with chemical stimulation results in additive increases to functional properties of anatomic meniscal constructs. AU - Huey, Daniel J.. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. PY - 2011/11/16. Y1 - 2011/11/16. N2 - Objective: This study aimed to improve the functional properties of anatomically-shaped meniscus constructs through simultaneous tension and compression mechanical stimulation in conjunction with chemical stimulation. Methods: Scaffoldless meniscal constructs were subjected to simultaneous tension and compressive stimulation and chemical stimulation. The temporal aspect of mechanical loadingwas studied by employing two separate five day stimulation periods. Chemical stimulation consisted of the application of a catabolic GAG-depleting enzyme, chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC), and an anabolic growth factor, TGF-β1. Mechanical and chemical stimulation combinations were studied through a full-factorial experimental design and assessed for histological, ...
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.. All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system. For .
Hagen Test Kit - Phosphate A-7840 Water test kits, Welcome to our friendly aquarium forum. We are happy to talk fish, answer your questions and help solve your problems. Join today. Its free!
Systems of techniques for controlling charge flow during the electrical stimulation of tissue. In one aspect, a method includes receiving a charge setting describing an amount of charge that is to flow during a stimulation pulse that electrically stimulates a tissue, and generating and delivering the stimulation pulse in a manner such that an amount of charge delivered to the tissue during the stimulation pulse accords with the charge setting.
Buy Aneros Prostate Massagers - a super soft touch, firm silicone for maximum stimulation, designed to produce exciting and different effects. Get the best one!
This line was derived from the Ramos (RA-1) cell line (see ATCC CRL-1596) by repetitive cloning with selection for low constitutive expression of CD23 and maximum stimulation of CD23 expression by IL-4.
stimulation digestion / bloating contains many products you can buy at the lowest price at VitaZita. Ordering from the category stimulation digestion / bloating is quick and easy.
There are some product types that are the same or similar between Drilling/Completions and Stimulation groups as can be seen. There are also some product types that are unique to the group.. ...
Cyclic 3,5-adenosine monophosphate modulates vascular endothelial cell migration in vitro.: Using a modified Boyden chamber assay, we have examined the effect
15731-72-3 - UEUPTUCWIHOIMK-RRKCRQDMSA-N - 2-Deoxy-3-adenosine monophosphate - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Choate, J.K.; Paterson, D.J., 1998: Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase increases the positive chronotropic response to sympathetic nerve stimulation in the isolated guinea-pig atria
Experiments with selective agonists and antagonists of purinoceptors allowed us to evaluate the subtype of P2X receptors. We showed that the myocardium of 14-100-day-old rats contains functionally active P2X1 receptors. These receptors are involved in the realization of the positive inotropic effect of the atria and ventricles. Selective P2X1 receptor agonist β,γ-methylene-ATP induced a dose-dependent increase in the strength of atrial and ventricular contractions. P2X1 receptor antagonist TNP-ATP abolished the effect of the agonist in rats of all age groups.
An implantable heart stimulator includes a unit for setting a maximum allowable stimulation rate and an ischemia detector. An analysis unit and control unit and connected to the ischemia detector and to the setting unit for controlling the setting unit so as to lower the maximum allowable stimulation rate in response to the detection of an ischemic state.
Chemical stimulation of the aged oocyte. The NTD Drug Discovery Booster viermi plate Cancerul ochilor detoxifiere gemoterapie, medicament vierme vechi hemilphage vindecă paraziții. This is a number of diseases that arise due to ectoparasites, helminths wormsprotozoans.
Inotropic mechanisms of dopexamine hydrochloride in horses.: Mechanisms responsible for the positive inotropic effects of dopexamine were investigated in 8 halo
Theory can be very beautiful - of course she is most beautiful when she helps people. Our target is to apply our knowledge and our medical and technological expertise for the benefit of patients. In addition to initial clinical studies with the external trail device for the application of CR®-Stimulation, we have performed a systematic study on the efficacy and safety of acoustic CR®-Stimulation stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus.
词根: stimulus adj. stimulating 刺激的;有刺激性的 stimulated 受激的 stimulant 激励的;使人兴奋的 stimulative 促进的;刺激的;激励的 n. stimulus 刺激;激励;刺激物 stimulation 刺激;激励,鼓舞 stimulant [药] 兴奋剂;刺激物;酒精饮料 stimulative 刺激;促进因素 v. stimulating 刺激;激励;促进(stimulate的ing形式) stimulated 刺激(stimulate的过去式和过去分词) ...
Yabana H.; Sugimoto T.; Nagao T., 1990: Demonstration of beta 2 mediated positive chronotropic action of isoproterenol in anesthetized dogs comparison with selective beta 1 agonist t 0509
BioAssay record AID 218832 submitted by ChEMBL: Tested for beta-1-adrenergic blocking effect by measuring the ability to inhibit the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol on the isolated right atrium of guinea pigs.
Looking for gustatory? Find out information about gustatory. response to chemical stimulation that enables an organism to detect flavors. In humans and most vertebrate animals, taste is produced by the stimulation by... Explanation of gustatory
Astonishing developments are on the horizon for those paralyzed due to spinal cord injuries. Scientists at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), a research institution in Switzerland, developed e-Dura, a spinal cord implant that could help paralyzed individuals walk on their own again, through electrical and chemical stimulation.. In a study, EPFL scientists successfully managed to get rats to walk on their own with the use of the technology. But for humans, there could still be an issue. The multi-functional device would be a long-term implant on the spinal cord, which could cause tissue damage.. The implant was designed to mimic living tissue, so that when it is implanted on the surface of the spinal cord-beneath the nervous systems protective envelope known as the dura mater-its elasticity and potential for deformation would limit any inflammation. So far, the tests on rats revealed neither tissue damage nor rejection after two months.. The researchers are planning to move ...
Nitroglycerin was shown to induce significant positive inotropic effect in adequate oxygen supply in isolated papillary muscles of the rat heart left ventricle. The effect depended upon inotropic reserve of the myocardium. The decrease in oxygen supply of papillary muscles inhibited their contractile activity. In these conditions, nitroglycerin exerted no positive inotropic influence on papillary muscles. Positive inotropic action of nitroglycerin became weaker after preliminary perfusion of papillary muscles with propranolol. Calcium antagonist verapamil completely abolished the positive inotropic action of nitroglycerin. The data suggest that positive inotropic action of nitroglycerin depends upon transsarcolemmal influx of calcium ions and is partially associated with the stimulation of myocardiac beta-receptors.
A therapeutic brain stimulation system comprises at least two stimulation signal emitters generating stimulation signals from different positions towards a common target region in a patients brain. While the signal intensity of each stimulation signal is much too low to cause stimulation, the accumulated stimulation signals cause a stimulation and, thus, a therapeutic effect in the neuronal brain cells of the target region. The stimulation signals accumulating in the target region are adjustable so as not to negatively affect the anatomic structure of neuronal brain cells in the target region.
Summary Measurement of rheotactic responses of Australorbis glabratus indicated that stream velocities above 35 cm/sec prevent any degree of upstream progression, but that below this flow rate snails show increasing ability for positive rheotactic orientation movement. When chemical attractants were applied, A. glabratus increased its rate of upstream migration. Persistence of increased progression rates after the cessation of chemical stimulation suggests a behavioral pattern similar to that known to exist in insects subjected to pheromonal stimulation.
A system and method for stimulating a human heart including a sensing module coupled through a lead to an electrode associated with a tissue of the human heart for sensing electrical activity of the heart. A controller module may be coupled to the sensing module. The controller module may select between a temporary stimulation therapy and a chronic stimulation therapy. Also included is a therapy module coupled to the controller, the therapy module communicating a plurality of anodic pulses to the heart through the lead when providing the temporary stimulation therapy. The amplitude, frequency, and duration of the anodic pulses may be varied, and biphasic pacing may also be used. The electrode may be a drug-eluting electrode for delivery of a drug. After an event occurs, the controller module may transition to the chronic stimulation therapy that may include cathodic stimulation.
Our Stimulation Probes are developed to minimize the risk of negative postoperative neurological effects on patients without interfering with the purpose of the procedure. The Concentric Stimulation Probe has a bipolar tip for direct stimulation in a small area. The Probe can be bent 30° for use under a microscope.
Quadripulse stimulation (QPS) is a newly developed stimulation method to induce neural plasticity in humans. One stimulation burst consisting of four monophasic pulses is given every 5 s for 30 min. A total of 360 bursts (1440 pulses) are given in one session. Short-interval QPS potentiates the targ …
A system and method for delivering coupled burst and tonic stimulation of nervous tissue is provided. The system and method includes providing a lead with at least one stimulation electrode configured
Applying electrical stimulation to the brain and/or introducing one or more stimulating drugs to the brain is used to treat autism. At least one implan...
Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation, called CES in short, is a non-drug treatment for a wide range of health issues such as depression, insomnia, and anxiety.
In addition, bamiphylline had little effect on anginal pain, suggesting that this cannot be mediated exclusively by A1-receptor stimulation in these patients ...
Chemical stimulation[edit]. Crustaceans are known to respond to acids in ways that indicate nociception and/or pain.[46] The ... Autotomy can occur in response to chemical, thermal and electrical stimulation, but is perhaps most frequently a response to ... chemical and thermal stimulation motivated researchers to write "These properties are typical of mammalian polymodal ... Electrical stimulation[edit]. The sea-slug, Tritonia diomedia, possesses a group of sensory cells, "S-cells", situated in the ...
A detailed database of all such chemical modifications is manually curated as siRNAmod in scientific literature. Chemical ... Whitehead KA, Dahlman JE, Langer RS, Anderson DG (17 June 2011). "Silencing or stimulation? siRNA delivery and the immune ... Chemical modification of siRNA is employed to reduce in the activation of the innate immune response for gene function and ... Chemical modifications of siRNA may alter the thermodynamic properties that also result in a loss of single nucleotide ...
Whitehead KA, Dahlman JE, Langer RS, Anderson DG (2011). "Silencing or stimulation? siRNA delivery and the immune system". ... Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. 2: 77-96. doi:10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-061010-114133. PMID 22432611. ...
The chemical structure of RNA is very similar to that of DNA, but differs in three primary ways: Unlike double-stranded DNA, ... Whitehead KA, Dahlman JE, Langer RS, Anderson DG (2011). "Silencing or stimulation? siRNA delivery and the immune system". ... Certain RNAs are able to catalyse chemical reactions such as cutting and ligating other RNA molecules, and the catalysis of ... In this fashion, RNAs can achieve chemical catalysis (like enzymes). For instance, determination of the structure of the ...
Whitehead, Kathryn; James E. Dahlman; Robert S. Langer; Daniel G. Anderson (2011). "Silencing or Stimulation? siRNA Delivery ... Journal of the American Chemical Society. 134 (28): 11652-11658. doi:10.1021/ja302930b. PMID 22694262. "Protiva's MacLachlan ... and the Immune System". Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. 2: 77-96. doi:10.1146/annurev-chembioeng-061010 ...
ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and ... Stimulation, Suppression, and Detection. Lippincott. pp. 243-253. Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological ... These medications can be grouped into different types based on origin and chemical structure. Estrogens are available widely ... ISBN 0-471-89980-1. Djerassi, Carl (January 2006). "Chemical birth of the pill". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ...
ISBN 978-1-4200-5872-7. Steroid deprivation, for instance, can have a major impact on the growth stimulation by E2. Estrogen ... Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and Biological Aspects of ... Herr, F.; Revesz, C.; Manson, A. J.; Jewell, J. B. (1970). "Biological Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and ... although this is due primarily to stimulation of uterine growth. Estrogens have been reported to downregulate androgen receptor ...
J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp ... Stimulation, Suppression, and Detection. Lippincott. pp. 243-253. Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological ... Shoham Z, Kopernik G ( ... Richard J. Lewis (13 June 2008). Hazardous Chemicals Desk Reference. John ...
J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. p. ... Stimulation, Suppression, and Detection. Lippincott. pp. 243-253. Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological ... Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and Biological Aspects of Steroid Conjugation. pp. 368-408. doi:10.1007/978-3-642- ...
J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp ... Stimulation, Suppression, and Detection. Lippincott. pp. 243-253. Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological ... ISBN 978-1-4831-6361-1. Chemical Contraception. Macmillan International Higher Education. 18 June 1974. pp. 61-. ISBN 978-1-349 ... Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and Biological Aspects of Steroid Conjugation. pp. 368-408. doi:10.1007/978-3-642- ...
Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. ... Stimulation, Suppression, and Detection. Lippincott. pp. 243-253. Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological ... Because it was not patented, DES was produced by more than 200 pharmaceutical and chemical companies worldwide. DES was first ... Diethylstilbestrol], differing distinctly in chemical structure from the previously known estrogens, has been shown to produce ...
Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. p. 390. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Lauritzen C (September ... Stimulation, Suppression, and Detection. Lippincott. pp. 243-253. Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological ... Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and Biological Aspects of Steroid Conjugation. pp. 368-408. doi:10.1007/978-3-642- ...
J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp ... Girgert, Rainer; Emons, Günter; Gründker, Carsten (2014). "Inhibition of GPR30 by estriol prevents growth stimulation of triple ... The name estriol and the abbreviation E3 were derived from the chemical terms estrin (estra-1,3,5(10)-triene) and triol (three ... Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and Biological Aspects of ...
Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. p. 397. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Index Nominum 2000: ... Stimulation, Suppression, and Detection. Lippincott. pp. 243-253. Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological ... Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and Biological Aspects of Steroid Conjugation. pp. 368-408. doi:10.1007/978-3-642- ...
She was the first woman to be employed as a chemist at Dow Chemical Company. During her time at Dow, she made a number of major ... ISBN 978-0-87013-426-5. Kalfayan, Leonard (December 31, 2008). Production enhancement with acid stimulation (2nd ed.). Pennwell ... Dow Chemical Company. August 9, 1991. Bohning, James J. (August 21, 1986). Ray M. Boundy, Transcript of an Interview Conducted ... In 2017, at the opening of the Global Dow Center in Midland, Michigan, the Dow Chemical Company announced that its Employee ...
Uchida J.Y.; Aragaki M. (1980). "Chemical Stimulation of oospore formation in Phytophthoracapsici". Mycologia 72, 1103-1108. ... Kinetic studies have indicated that turnover appears to be limited by a chemical step after the initial loss of pyrophosphate. ...
Non-chemical remedies include cooling, warming, soft stimulation. Topical antipruritics in the form of creams and sprays are ... chemical, thermal, and electrical stimulation. The primary afferent neurons responsible for histamine-induced itch are ... Photodermatitis - sunlight reacts with chemicals in the skin, leading to the formation of irritant metabolites Urticaria (also ... noxious chemicals, and electric shock. Body louse, found in substandard living conditions Cutaneous larva migrans, a skin ...
Uchida, J. Y.; Aragaki, M. (1980). "Chemical Stimulation of Oospore Formation in Phytophthora capsici". Mycologia. 72 (6): 1103 ... They are believed to have evolved either through the fusion of two species or the chemically-induced stimulation of mycelia, ...
"Current Opinion in Chemical Biology. 14 (3): 347-61. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2010.02.018. PMC 2908274. PMID 20303320.. ... "Gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation of luteinizing hormone release: A ligand-receptor-effector model". Proceedings of ... "Journal of the American Chemical Society. 132 (34): 12091-7. doi:10.1021/ja1050082. PMC 2933114. PMID 20695475.. ... "ACS Chemical Neuroscience. 8: 1262-1278. doi:10.1021/acschemneuro.6b00399. PMC 5679024. PMID 28128928.. ...
Upon stimulation activated by pheromones, IP3 production has been shown to increase in VNO membranes in many animals, while ... Odors are chemicals detected by the sensory cells in the nasal epithelium through the process of olfaction. Vomodors are ... For example, the snakes use the organ to detect the presence of prey or predator by gathering the chemical cues in the ... The VNO triggers the flehmen response in some mammals, which helps direct liquid organic chemicals to the organ. The VNO was ...
T helper cell stimulation[edit]. For more details on this topic, see T helper cell. ... At this time though the chemical nature of what exactly in the blood conferred this protection was not known. In a few decades ... Complete stimulation of T helper cells requires the B7 molecule present on the antigen presenting cell to bind with CD28 ... However, another important function that they carry out is the stimulation of B cell by establishing direct physical contact ...
Chemicals may also be used to induce seizures. The seizure that occurs after the first such electrical stimulation lasts a ... Even if animals are left unstimulated for as long as 12 weeks, the effect remains; the response to stimulation remains higher ... It has been reported that repeated seizure stimulation can result in spontaneous seizures, but studies have had conflicting ... Already in the 1950s and 1960s, numerous authors recognized the seizure-inducing potential of focal stimulation. Here, Delgado ...
The stimulation is part of the biosynthesis pathway of queuosine. The enzyme from Escherichia coli can also convert 6-pyruvoyl- ... This enzyme catalyses the following reversible chemical reaction. 7,8-dihydroneopterin 3'-triphosphate + H2O ⇌ 6-carboxy-5,6,7, ...
When the chemical cues responsible for the fear response were purified from cat saliva and rat urine, two homologous protein ... Marchlewska-koj A, Caretta A, Mucignat-Caretta C, Olejniczak, P (2000). "Stimulation of estrus in female mice by male urinary ... In addition to serving as social cues between members of the same species, Mups can act as kairomones-chemical signals that ... Hurst J, Beynon RJ, Roberts SC, Wyatt TD (2007). Urinary Lipocalins in Rodenta:is there a Generic Model?. Chemical Signals in ...
Itch sensations are caused by stimulation of free nerve ending from chemicals.[5] ... They have small receptive fields and produce transient responses to the onset and offset of stimulation. ... They also produce sustained responses to static stimulation, but have large receptive fields. ... They have small receptive fields and produce sustained responses to static stimulation. ...
Past EGS projects around the world have used combinations of hydraulic, chemical, thermal, and explosive stimulation methods. ... Barrios, L. A. (2002). "Enhanced Permeability by Chemical Stimulation at the Berlín Geothermal field" (PDF). Geothermal ... Hydro-shear stimulation methods seek to expand and extend the connectivity of the rock's existing fractures to create a better ... EGS technologies enhance and/or create geothermal resources in this hot dry rock (HDR) through a variety of stimulation methods ...
Chemoresponsive Materials /Stimulation by Chemical and Biological Signals, Schneider, H.-J.; Ed:, (2015)The Royal Society of ... Chemoresponsive materials change size or volume under the influence of external chemical or biological compound. Smart ... or chemical compounds. This change is reversible and can be repeated many times. There is a wide range of different smart ... or chemical compounds. Smart materials are the basis of many applications, including sensors and actuators, or artificial ...
"Silencing or stimulation? siRNA delivery and the immune system". Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. 2: 77 ... Stimulation of immune responseEdit. The human immune system is divided into two separate branches: the innate immune system and ...
Elks J (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Springer. pp. ... "Oestrogen pre-treatment abolishes luteinising hormone-releasing hormone testosterone stimulation". Br J Urol. 62 (4): 352-4. ... Chemical structures of estradiol and DES.[82] Note the preservation of the two hydroxyl groups in DES and the similar distance ... Herr, F.; Revesz, C.; Manson, A. J.; Jewell, J. B. (1970). "Biological Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and ...
The analyses showed the reality of interferon activity by chemical verification.[53][54][55][56] The purification of human ... Whitehead KA, Dahlman JE, Langer RS, Anderson DG (2011). "Silencing or stimulation? siRNA delivery and the immune system". ... Berthold W, Tan C, Tan YH (June 1978). "Chemical modifications of tyrosyl residue(s) and action of human-fibroblast interferon ... Cantell's and Tan's methods of making large amounts of natural interferon were critical for chemical characterisation, clinical ...
Differentiation through a T cell-independent antigen stimulation (stimulation of a B cell that does not require the involvement ... Federico Caligaris-Cappio; Manlio Ferrarini (1997). Human B Cell Populations (Chemical Immunology) (v. 67). S. Karger AG ( ... Upon stimulation by a T cell, which usually occurs in germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs like the spleen and lymph ...
Dilworth, Jonathan R.; Pascu, Sofia I. (2018). "The chemistry of PET imaging with zirconium-89". Chemical Society Reviews. 47 ( ... Khan, FR; Henderson, JM (2013). "Deep Brain Stimulation Surgical Techniques". In Lozano, AM; Hallet, M (eds.). Brain ... Stimulation: Handbook of Clinical Neurology. 116. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp. 28-30. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-53497-2.00003-6.. ... cyclotrons needed to produce the short-lived radionuclides for PET scanning and the need for specially adapted on-site chemical ...
Electrical or chemical stimulation of the rat hippocampus causes strengthening of synaptic signals, a process known as long- ... In "kindling", repeated stimulation of hippocampal or amygdaloid neurons in the limbic system eventually leads to seizures in ... Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type ( ... After sensitization, very little stimulation may be required to produce seizures. ...
Stimulation of interleukin-2 production by substance p". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 37 (1-2): 65-74. doi:10.1016/0165-5728(92) ... "Blood chemicals link' to eczema". Health. BBC NEWS. 2007-08-26. Retrieved 2008-11-01.. ... SP initiates expression of almost all known immunological chemical messengers (cytokines).[19][20][21] Also, most of the ... Substance P coexists with the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in primary afferents that respond to painful stimulation.[ ...
One major pathway being through stimulation of the nociceptin receptor,[8][9][10] and blocking this receptor may therefore be a ... This seems to occur via immune cells interacting with the peripheral nervous system and releasing pain-producing chemicals ( ... Stimulation of nociceptive fibers in a pattern consistent with that from inflammation switches on a form of amplification in ... The use of a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation device has been shown to alleviate hyperalgesia.[28][29] ...
The rods are narrower than the cones and distributed differently across the retina, but the chemical process in each that ... and stimulation by light causes its structure to change to all-trans-retinal. This structural change causes it to activate a ...
Electrophysiological recording and stimulation can take place either across the network or locally via an MEA, and the network ... Moreover, chemical analysis of the neurons and their environment is more easily accomplished than in an in vivo setting. ... They employ approximately sixty electrodes for recording and stimulation in varying patterns in a dish with a typical culture ... Other studies have attempted to imprint signal patterns onto the networks via artificial stimulation. This can be done by ...
Androsterone is a chemical byproduct created during the breakdown of androgens, or derived from progesterone, that also exerts ... this is a measure of epithelial cell function stimulation). Whereas DHT was equally potent as testosterone at preventing ...
which does not achieve its primary intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and ... The electrodes contact the heart directly through the chest, allowing stimulation pulses to pass through the body. Recipients ...
Formica JV, Regelson W (1995). "Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoids". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 33 ... van der Woude H, Ter Veld MG, Jacobs N, van der Saag PT, Murk AJ, Rietjens IM (2005). "The stimulation of cell proliferation by ... Quercetin contains a polyphenolic chemical substructure that stops oxidation by acting as a scavenger of free radicals that are ...
McKewan, Jaclyn (2009). "Evolution, Chemical". In H. James Birx". Predeterminism. Encyclopedia of Time: Science, Philosophy, ... "might be brought about by direct stimulation of someone's brain, in the absence of any relevant desire or intention on the part ...
When khat leaves dry, the more potent chemical, cathinone, decomposes within 48 hours, leaving behind the milder chemical, ... to achieve a state of euphoria and stimulation; it also has anorectic (appetite-reducing) side effects. The leaves or the soft ... These chemicals belong to the PPA (phenylpropanolamine) family, a subset of the phenethylamines related to amphetamines and the ... Receptors for serotonin show a high affinity for cathinone, suggesting this chemical is responsible for feelings of euphoria ...
Andersen KF, Vulpius T (1999). "Urinary volatile constituents of the lion, Panthera leo". Chemical Senses. 24 (2): 179-189. doi ... However, stimulation experiments in animals indicate that other cortical areas also affect the process. ... Dietland Müller-Schwarze; Robert Milton Silverstein (1980). Chemical signals: vertebrates and aquatic invertebrates. Plenum ... Jorgenson JW, Novotny M, Carmack M, Copland GB, Wilson SR, Katona S, Whitten WK (1978). "Chemical Scent Constituents in the ...
Chebili S, Abaoub A, Mezouane B, Le Goff JF (1998). "[Antidepressants and sexual stimulation: the correlation]". Encephale (in ... Chemical and physical data. Formula. C13H17ClN2O2. ... which results in increased monoamine receptor stimulation and ...
For example, moderate stimulation of a medium-wavelength cone cell could mean that it is being stimulated by very bright red ( ... For the chemical ion species, see trichromate.. Close-up of a trichromatic in-line shadow mask CRT display, which creates most ...
Chemical Weapons Convention: Schedule 1 Archived 2013-06-07 at the Wayback Machine Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical ... Stimulation of these receptors causes a muscular contraction. The anatoxin-a molecule is shaped so it fits this receptor, and ... who assigned it the chemical weapon designation "TZ". Saxitoxin is listed in schedule 1 of the Chemical Weapons Convention.[45] ... Chemical structure[edit]. Cyanotoxins usually target the nervous system (neurotoxins), the liver (hepatotoxins) or the skin ( ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ... 2001). "Activation and mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase Cdelta are necessary for insulin stimulation of pyruvate ...
D1 receptor stimulation activates adenylyl cyclase and raises intracellular cyclic AMP, resulting in vasodilation of most ... Chemical and physical data. Formula. C16H16ClNO3. ...
"Journal of the Chemical Society, Transactions. 107: 1025. doi:10.1039/CT9150701025.. *^ Allen AH, Sadler SS, Lathrop EC, ... norepinephrine is the major vasoconstrictor through stimulation of α1 receptors on the corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. Under ... Lewis RA, Hawley GG (2016). Larrañaga MD, Lewis RJ, Lewis R (eds.). Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary. John Wiley & Sons. ... This article is about the chemical compound. For the plant and its medicinal bark preparation, see yohimbe. ...
VSTs have been produced primarily by ex-vivo cultures and by the expansion of T-lymphocytes after stimulation with viral ... and destroy them with chemicals. Monocytes/macrophages as well as granulocytes are capable of this process. In certain ...
Sulfur mustard was used as a chemical weapon in World War I and more recently in the Iran-Iraq War. Sulfur mustard is a ... Potential tissue reparative agents can be evaluated in vitro by determining their effects on stimulation of pulmonary and ... Some chemicals generate metabolic byproducts that could be used for diagnosis, but detection of these byproducts may not be ... 143:74-9. [1] "Chemical Warfare in World War I". Archived from the original on 2004-10-17. Retrieved 2016-06-13 ...
Lifestyle factors such as smoking may also increase the chances of developing OSA as the chemical irritants in smoke tend to ... Neurostimulation is currently being studied as a method of treatment;[63] an implanted hypoglossal nerve stimulation system ... FDA "Premarket Approval (PMA) Inspire II Upper Airway Stimulation System" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. April 30, 2014. ... Decreased muscle tone is also temporarily caused by chemical depressants; alcoholic drinks and sedative medications being the ...
"Blood chemicals link' to eczema". BBC News. 26 August 2007.. *^ Shu XQ, Mendell LM (July 1999). "Neurotrophins and hyperalgesia ... The increased visual, physical, and cognitive stimulation all translates into more neuronal activity and synaptic communication ... modulation of chemical synaptic transmission. • positive regulation of neuron projection development. • negative regulation of ... intellectual stimulation, and various treatments for depression such as antidepressants[83] increase expression of BDNF in the ...
Veterinary medicine (assisted reproduction; chemical castration). Implant; Injection. 2005a. 9,190 Buserelin. Suprefact. Breast ... continued stimulation with GnRH agonists desensitizes the pituitary gland (by causing GnRH receptor downregulation) to GnRH. ... Veterinary medicine (assisted reproduction; chemical castration). Implant; Injection. 1994. 85,100 Fertirelin. Ovalyse. ... Chemical castration for paraphilias and sex offenders. ...
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia and psychosis suggests that an increase in dopaminergic stimulation or sensitivity in ... Chemical and physical data. Formula. C20H28O2. Molar mass. 300.44 g/mol g·mol−1. ...
Autocrine signaling is a form of cell signaling in which a cell secretes a hormone or chemical messenger (called the autocrine ... The cell then releases IL-2, which binds to its own new IL-2 receptors, causing self-stimulation and ultimately a monoclonal ...
It is thought that people who suffer from this disorder, suffer from a dysfunction in the release of the chemical dopamine in ... the effects of autonomic stimulation". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 5 (12): 2935-41. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.00844.x. ... Upon reaching a climax, chemicals are released in the brain and motor signals are activated that will cause quick cycles of ...
An axon reflex may be responsible for uveitis formation-stimulation of pain receptors in the cornea results in release ... They are caused by trauma, particularly with vegetable matter, as well as chemical injury, contact lenses and infections. Other ...
Chemical structure of riluzole, a medication that prolongs survival by 2-3 months[6] ... Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation had been studied in ALS in small and poorly designed clinical trials; as of 2013[ ... Fang J, Zhou M, Yang M, Zhu C, He L (May 2013). "Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of amyotrophic ... Excitotoxicity, or nerve cell death caused by high levels of intracellular calcium due to excessive stimulation by the ...
... 2023: BASF, Halliburton, Schlumberger, Baker Hughes, a GE company, ... 6 Europe Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals by Countries. 7 Asia-Pacific Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals by Countries. 8 South ... 10 Global Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Market Segment by Type. 11 Global Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Market Segment by ... 4 Global Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Market Analysis by Regions. 5 North America Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals by Countries ...
The oilfield stimulation chemicals market is a consumer-driven market and new product launches are paving the way for ... China is the key market in Asia-Pacific, accounting for more than half of the demand for the oilfield stimulation chemicals in ... Browse 76 market data tables and 67 figures spread through 176 pages and in-depth TOC on Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Market ... North America The biggest market for oilfield stimulation chemicals. The rapid expansion in exploration of shale gas and oil ...
Constitutive Activity at the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Is Required for Behavioral Response to Noxious Chemical Stimulation of ... Constitutive Activity at the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Is Required for Behavioral Response to Noxious Chemical Stimulation of ... Constitutive Activity at the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Is Required for Behavioral Response to Noxious Chemical Stimulation of ... Constitutive Activity at the Cannabinoid CB1 Receptor Is Required for Behavioral Response to Noxious Chemical Stimulation of ...
1999) Patterns of phrenic motor output evoked by chemical stimulation of neurons located in the pre-Bötzinger complex in vivo. ... The drop in blood pressure caused by chemical stimulation of the CVLM is attributed to the depolarization of GABAergic ... 1999) Phrenic nerve responses to chemical stimulation of the subregions of ventral medullary respiratory neuronal group in the ... Depressor and Tachypneic Responses to Chemical Stimulation of the Ventral Respiratory Group Are Reduced by Ablation of ...
Skills: Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Instrumentation, Mechanical Engineering, Piping See more: enhanced oil ... Plastic PET chemical recycling ($750-1500 USD). *I need mathematical model for cooling system by using Desiccant Wheel . I need ... I´m a Chemical engineer please tell me more details about the job, you can check my profile.......... ... I am a chemical engineer with 7+ years of experience in research & development in multiphase reactors, fluid mechanics, ...
chemical deep brain stimulation at midbrain sites on micturition in anaesthetized rats. ... Chemical stimulation over the same area using microinjection of D,L-homocysteic acid (DLH) to preferentially activate ... In contrast, chemical stimulation within the caudal ventrolateral periaqueductal grey, in the area where critical synapses in ... The effect of electrical (0.1-2.0 ms pulses, 5-180 Hz, 0.5-2.5 V) compared to chemical stimulation (microinjection of D,L- ...
Novel parameter describing restriction endonucleases: Secondary-Cognate-Specificity and chemical stimulation of TsoI leading to ... Chemical synthesis of SAC. The chemical synthesis of SAC was performed as described in the electronic supplementary material. ... EW and FK designed the chemical synthesis of SAC. JZ, EW and FK conducted the chemical synthesis of SAC. PMS and AZS ... does not require additional chemical stimulation. Interestingly, the SAC stimulatory effect was not observed for other Thermus- ...
150000001875 compounds Chemical class 0.000 description 8 * LFQSCWFLJHTTHZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N ethanol Chemical compound data:image/ ... Chemistrode, a plug-based microfluidic device and method for stimulation and sampling with high temporal, spatial, and chemical ... CTERCLHSWSQHSD-UHFFFAOYSA-N 8-methoxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid Chemical compound data:image/svg+xml;base64, ... US8622987B2 - Chemistrode, a plug-based microfluidic device and method for stimulation and sampling with high temporal, spatial ...
Scaffoldless meniscal constructs were subjected to simultaneous tension and compressive stimulation and chemical stimulation. ... Scaffoldless meniscal constructs were subjected to simultaneous tension and compressive stimulation and chemical stimulation. ... Scaffoldless meniscal constructs were subjected to simultaneous tension and compressive stimulation and chemical stimulation. ... Scaffoldless meniscal constructs were subjected to simultaneous tension and compressive stimulation and chemical stimulation. ...
Chemical stimulation[edit]. Crustaceans are known to respond to acids in ways that indicate nociception and/or pain.[46] The ... Autotomy can occur in response to chemical, thermal and electrical stimulation, but is perhaps most frequently a response to ... chemical and thermal stimulation motivated researchers to write "These properties are typical of mammalian polymodal ... Electrical stimulation[edit]. The sea-slug, Tritonia diomedia, possesses a group of sensory cells, "S-cells", situated in the ...
Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Market report categorizes global market by product type, and application - Global Industry ... Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Market Analysis. Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Market - Global Industry Insights, Trends, ... Global players operating in the oilfield stimulation chemicals market include BASF, Dow Chemicals, Chevron Philips Chemical ... Global oilfield stimulation chemicals market is majorly driven by increasing application of chemicals in deeper penetration ...
Drilling/Completions & Stimulation. The Oilfield Drilling/Completions & Stimulation division at Aegis has robust product lines ... There are some product types that are the same or similar between Drilling/Completions and Stimulation groups as can be seen. ...
Chemicals. Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM), horse serum, cytosine arabinoside, L-glutamate, glycine, Nω-nitro-L- ... Next article in issue: Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Stimulation of Dopamine Release in the Posterior but Not Anterior Nucleus ... Next article in issue: Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Stimulation of Dopamine Release in the Posterior but Not Anterior Nucleus ... D-Glucose Prevents Glutathione Oxidation and Mitochondrial Damage After Glutamate Receptor Stimulation in Rat Cortical Primary ...
Chemical Stimulation of the Brain. When certain substances are injected into localized regions in the brain of an experimental ...
a) Chemical structures of FFN-511 and FC-CO2−. (b,c) mRNA levels of IFN-(α, β, γ, λ1, λ2/3) (b) ISG56, IP-10, iNOS and IL-(6, 8 ... Viral stimulation and infection. PBMC were seeded at 1.106 per 1 ml or purified pDC were seeded at 5.104 per 100 μl and then ... b) Chemical structures of histamine (HA) and clobenpropit (CB). (c) Isolated pDC were pretreated with histamine or with CB at ... e) Chemical structures of histamine, dopamine and serotonin. (f) Levels of membrane TRAIL were assessed by flow cytometry on ...
... of the deepest areas of the brain currently hampers the possibility of a more specific and controlled therapeutic stimulation, ... of the deepest areas of the brain currently hampers the possibility of a more specific and controlled therapeutic stimulation, ... Chemical and Mechanical Stimulation. The use of organic and inorganic low-dimensionality systems for controlled photo- and ... Magnetic stimulation in the macro-scale is in fact a common tool in neurophysiology thanks to the possibility to reach deep ...
Chemicals. ET-1 was obtained from Peninsula. Indomethacin, LPA, and pertussis toxin (PT) were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. ... All other chemicals and supplies were obtained from Fisher Scientific and Sigma Chemical Co. ... Src and Rac Mediate Endothelin-1 and Lysophosphatidic Acid Stimulation of the Human Brain Natriuretic Peptide Promoter. Quan He ... The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src and the small GTPase Rac mediate the effects of both ET and LPA in stimulation of the hBNP ...
Chemical Engineering. The art of manufacturing molecules. *. Working Life. From parade ground to PI ... Steroid Stimulation of Beating of Cultured Rat-Heart Cells Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Chemical Engineering. The art of manufacturing molecules. *. Working Life. From parade ground to PI ... Rats were trained to press a lever for electrical stimulation of the brain. After extinction of the habit, fear-producing ... This suggests that electrical self-stimulation in some sites may be caused by an activation of mechanisms underlying normal ... Evocation by Fear of a Habit Learned for Electrical Stimulation of the Brain ...
Research was undertaken which was devoted to an understanding of the fundamental neurochemical mechanisms in specific regions of the brain that control vital physiological and behavioral processes. The neurohumoral factors within the diencephalon that are responsible for body temperature, feeding, drinking and other vegetative functions were investigated.
Chemicals, Enzymes and Antibodies. Dulbeccos Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM, Gibco Cell Culture Media) and peroxidase ... Among protoberberines, berberine caused the most-potent AhR activation and CYP1A1 mRNA stimulation in MCF-7 cells, but not in ... Scheme 1. The chemical structures of the protoberberines berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine. The area within the dashed ... Scheme 1. The chemical structures of the protoberberines berberine, palmatine and jatrorrhizine. The area within the dashed ...
Further, all of the analyzed cell models displayed increased hormone release upon chemical stimulation with forskolin56, 57, ... Secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin and sensitivity towards chemical stimulation using forskolin. To assess the apical ... It plays a crucial role in placental as well as fetal growth and development including stimulation of the maternal thyroid ... Azizkhan, J. C., Speeg, K. V. Jr., Stromberg, K. & Goode, D. Stimulation of human chorionic gonadotropin by JAr line ...
... develop and demonstrate methods for the chemical stimulation of candidate EGS reservoirs as well as the chemical treatment of ... Chemical Stimulation of Engineered Geothermal Systems Description: The objective of this project is to design, ... A chemical system consisting of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H+, CO2(aq), and CI-is considered. The fluid flow, advection and diHusion of ... First, a set of candidate chemical compounds capable of dissolving calcite was identified. A series of tests was then performed ...
The stimulation was maximal at 10−10 m 5α-DHT and was equivalent to that observed in the presence of normal FBS. There was a ... Chemicals.. Synthetic dodecapeptide substrate (Arg-Arg-Arg-Ala-Asp-Asp-Ser-Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp-Asp) for assay of CK2 activity was ... CK2 activity in NM and cytosol in response to growth factor stimulation of LNCaP cells. The cells were treated with growth ... These results indicate that CK2 signaling to NM is a common downstream response to androgen and growth factor stimulation of ...
The global market size of Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals is $XX million in 2018 with XX CAGR from 2014 to 2018, and it ... Stimulation Chemicals Report Figure Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Picture Table Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals ... 9.1 Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Supply 9.2 Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Demand by End Use 9.3 Competition by ... 10.1 Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Supply 10.2 Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Demand by End Use 10.3 Competition ...
Nevertheless, the possibility remains that a more targeted thermal or chemical stimulation approach-or hybrid thereof-could ... the GPK-4 well-has been proposed as a target for chemical stimulation under the DESTRESS Horizon-2020 framework. With a ... by means of acid stimulation. In the batch reaction experiments, we find that the propensity for increase or decrease in ... porosity and permeability depends on the physico-chemical properties of the starting material: unaltered granite underwent a ...
Chemical and Electrical Stimulation of Hippocampus in Unrestrained Animals , MacLEAN, PAUL D. , download , BookSC. Download ... Comment Spread of Chemicals in Brain.-Objec¬ made to the use of chemical stimu¬ lation in the study of functional localization ... With chemical \s=dd\E. I. du Pont deNemours & Co., Inc., sup- stimulation, a corresponding problem is to estimate plied this ... Spread of Chemicals in Brain.·-In employing electrical stimulation, one is concerned with the extent of spread of the current. ...
Chemoresponsive Materials: Stimulation by Chemical and Biological Signals Chemoresponsive Materials: Stimulation by Chemical ... Chemoresponsive Materials: Stimulation by Chemical and Biological Signals Chemoresponsive Materials: Stimulation by Chemical ... Chemical Modelling: Volume 12 Chemical Modelling: Volume 12 Chemical Modelling: Volume 12 18 Nov 2015 ... Chemical Modelling: Volume 12 Chemical Modelling: Volume 12 Editor(s): Michael Springborg, Jan-Ole Joswig ...
Chemoresponsive Materials: Stimulation by Chemical and Biological Signals Chemoresponsive Materials: Stimulation by Chemical ... Chemoresponsive Materials: Stimulation by Chemical and Biological Signals Chemoresponsive Materials: Stimulation by Chemical ...
Johns Hopkins researchers reveal why deep brain stimulation improves Parkinsons symptoms In a new study of seven people with ... Your chances of getting a nasty migraine increase following a spinal cord injury, thanks to a chemical messenger in the brain ... A study in cocaine-addicted rats reports long-lasting increases in the number of neurons that produce orexin-a chemical ... report evidence that deep brain stimulation using electrical impulses jumpstarts the nerve cells that produce the chemical ...
  • Hydraulic fracturing is the largest application segment in the global oilfield stimulation chemicals market, owing to the increased shale gas exploration activities in the green as well as brown fields of the North American region and in some parts of China. (
  • Asia-Pacific represents the fastest-growing regional market for the global oilfield stimulation chemicals market. (
  • The leading players of the market include BASF SE (Germany), Chevron Philips (U.S.), E.I. Dupont (U.S.), Clariant AG (Switzerland), Albemarle Corp(U.S.), Flotek Industries (U.S.), Dow Chemical (U.S.), and Ashland Inc.(U.S.). New product launch is the key strategy adopted by industry players in order to maintain growth in the global oilfield stimulation chemicals market. (
  • Global oilfield stimulation chemicals market is majorly driven by increasing application of chemicals in deeper penetration into the earth's crust and exploring new oil basins, especially under the sea. (
  • Owing to various advantages of oilfield stimulation chemicals such as reduction in consumption of water and low energy consumption during fracturing process, the global oilfield stimulation chemicals industry is projected gain traction during the forecast period. (
  • The geographical segmentation for the global oilfield stimulation chemicals market includes North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle East, and Africa. (
  • North America holds the largest market share in the global oilfield stimulation chemicals market owing to the major demand generated by countries such as the U.S. and Canada. (
  • Global Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Market Report 2019 - Market Size, Share, Price, Trend and Forecast is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals industry. (
  • 5.The report estimates 2019-2024 market development trends of Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals industry. (
  • 6.Analysis of upstream raw materials, downstream demand, and current market dynamics is also carried out 7.The report makes some important proposals for a new project of Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Industry before evaluating its feasibility. (
  • To understand how deep brain stimulation of the midbrain influences control of the urinary bladder. (
  • Electrical deep brain stimulation within the midbrain can inhibit reflex micturition. (
  • Further experiments to record neuronal firing in the midbrain during the deep brain stimulation will be necessary to test this hypothesis. (
  • In a new study of seven people with Parkinson's disease, Johns Hopkins Medicine researchers report evidence that deep brain stimulation using electrical impulses jumpstarts the nerve cells that produce the chemical messenger dopamine to reduce tremors and muscle rigidity that are the hallmark of Parkinson's disease, and increases feelings of well-being. (
  • A new device could help with deep brain stimulation. (
  • Single unit activity of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons and high threshold cells were recorded extracellularly from the lumbosacral enlargement of cat spinal cord before and after chemical stimulation to its receptive field (RF). (
  • In the 2012 edition of Multiphysics Simulation , we featured an article about modeling spinal cord stimulation to determine the effect that scar tissue can have on electrical current distribution during the treatment of chronic pain. (
  • Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is used to relieve chronic back and leg pain by surgically implanting electrodes that apply an electrical potential directly to the spine. (
  • Delivering electrical stimulation via the spinal cord could help ease symptoms of the disease. (
  • Eu (GdWEu) nanoparticles exposed to X-rays can be used for the noninvasive transcranial stimulation of brain neurons. (
  • One hour after injection of each chemical ( formalin , capsaicin , or ATP ), the responses of the dorsal horn neurons to mechanical stimuli increased at large and the RFs were expended, suggesting development of hypersensitization ( formalin 6/10, capsaicin 8/11, and ATP 15/19, respectively). (
  • Karmos-Varszegi, M , Karmos, G & Brudzynsky, S 1976, ' Autonomic correlates of emotional reactions elicited by local chemical stimulation of the hypothalamus ', Acta Physiologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae , vol. 48, no. 2-3, pp. 214. (
  • Phenotypic chemical and mutant screening of zebrafish larvae using an on-demand response to electric stimulation. (
  • Decompression of the facial nerve is an established technique for treating Bell's palsy, and electric stimulation is an established technique used in other surgeries involving the nerve. (
  • The effect of electrical (0.1-2.0 ms pulses, 5-180 Hz, 0.5-2.5 V) compared to chemical stimulation (microinjection of D,L-homocysteic acid, 50 nL 0.1 m solution) at the same midbrain sites was tested. (
  • Electrical stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter and surrounding midbrain disrupted normal coordinated voiding activity in detrusor and sphincters muscles and suppressed urine output. (
  • In 1939 it was reported that " Nervous messages are invariably associated with an electrical change known as the action potential ," representing day-one of electrophysiology and the dawning of neural stimulation ( Hodgkin and Hukley, 1939 ). (
  • Rats were trained to press a lever for electrical stimulation of the brain. (
  • After extinction of the habit, fear-producing stimuli (a buzzer or electrical shock to the feet) recalled the rat to the lever, although its lever pressing on these occasions never produced further intracranial stimulation. (
  • This suggests that electrical self-stimulation in some sites may be caused by an activation of mechanisms underlying normal fear and escape. (
  • Masserman employed a method that allowed the comparison of the effects of electrical and chemical stimulation of the same locus in the brain.43 Downloaded From: by a New York University User on 05/28/2015 in which the foregoing method was devised and put to test. (
  • The rGOSH/PMASH microcapsules with microscale topography function not only as an adhesive coating to promote the adhesion of PC12 cells but also as electroactive NGF-releasing electrodes that stimulate NGF release and accelerate the differentiation of PC12 cells during electrical stimulation. (
  • A combination of surface topography, chemical cues, and electrical stimulation not only has positive effects on cell viability but also strongly enhances the neurite outgrowth of PC12 cells. (
  • The implantable system delivers electrical stimulation to the nerves which control the bladder, sphincter, and pelvic floor muscles. (
  • A Loyola University Medical Center surgeon is using electrical stimulation as part of an advanced surgical technique to treat Bell's palsy . (
  • Leonetti said some patients who have received electrical stimulation have seen muscle movement return to their face after one or two months - rather than the four-to-six months it typically takes for movement to return following surgery. (
  • So Audrey's mother did further research and made an appointment with Leonetti, and he recommended surgery with electrical stimulation, followed by physical therapy. (
  • Sex difference in urethral response to electrical stimulation of efferent nerves in the pudendal sensory branch of rats. (
  • BACKGROUND: We reported sex difference in the urethral pressure (UP) response to electrical stimulation (ES) of the hypogastric nerve in rats. (
  • If you want to improve your child's academic performance, there are better ways of doing it than DIY electrical brain stimulation. (
  • Baxter , B.L.: Comparison of the behavioral effects of electrical or chemical stimulation applied at the same brain loci. (
  • These drives were not distinguished as forms of physical energy (mechanical, thermal, electrical, chemical, photic) but, rather, in terms of the external and bodily conditions that underlie and regulate behavior. (
  • New approaches to modeling the brain could improve electrical-stimulation therapies. (
  • The treatment device may be an electrical stimulation device, a magnetic stimulation device, a heat transfer device, or a medication delivery device. (
  • 36 . The method of claim 35 , wherein the one or more treatments comprise pulses of electrical stimulation. (
  • 37 . The method of claim 35 , wherein the pulses of electrical stimulation are administered so as to maintain charge balance. (
  • The study will use a multimodal therapeutic lifestyle intervention consisting of a study diet, stressing more vegetables and fruit, elimination of foods at greatest risk for food allergy, meditation, self massage, progressive exercise and neuromuscular electrical stimulation for rehabilitation of gait and fatigue disability in the setting of secondary and primary progressive multiple sclerosis with gait disability. (
  • A recent case report of a patient with secondary progressive MS documented a transition from scooter dependence to mild gait disability following the initiation of electrotherapy in the form of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and nutritional interventions aimed increasing the nutrient density and decreasing the risk of food sensitivity and food allergies. (
  • Multiple studies of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in athletes, cerebral palsy and stroke patients have demonstrated gains in strength and coordination. (
  • There is significant increase in the activity level across all oilfield chemical sectors such as drilling fluids, cementing, stimulation, and production chemicals. (
  • When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. (
  • A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. (
  • Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling, Completion, and Workover Fluids effectively delivers all the background and infrastructure needed for an oil and gas engineer to utilize more water-based products that benefit the whole spectrum of the well's life cycle. (
  • Concise and comprehensive, Water-Based Chemicals and Technology for Drilling, Completion, and Workover Fluids details all the necessary educational content and handy references to elevate your well's performance while lowering your environmental impact. (
  • The friction reducers type is the fastest-growing among the various segments of oilfield stimulation chemicals market. (
  • A team led by Dr. Robert Rennaker and Dr. Michael Kilgard looked at whether repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation with a specific movement would change neural activity within the laboratory rats' primary motor cortex. (
  • To test the hypothesis, they paired the vagus nerve stimulation with movements of the forelimb in two groups of rats. (
  • The rats who received the training along with the stimulation displayed large changes in the organization of the brain's movement control system. (
  • In another paper in the journal Experimental Neurology, Kilgard led a team that paired vagus nerve stimulation with audio tones of varying speeds to alter the rate of activity within the rats' brains. (
  • It also stimulated the hBNP promoter, an effect completely inhibited by actinomycin D. To test the involvement of different PLA 2 isoforms, transfected cells were treated with various PLA 2 inhibitors before stimulation with ET. (
  • The noninvasive stimulation, which involves placing electrodes on the scalp for various time periods, is being investigated in clinical trials for a variety of neurologic and psychiatric conditions. (
  • We previously found that cannabinoid receptor-2 (CB2R) stimulation attenuated microglial accumulation and brain injury following experimental GMH. (
  • Although, effective in reducing the symptoms or the progression of brain disorders, the poor accessibility of the deepest areas of the brain currently hampers the possibility of a more specific and controlled therapeutic stimulation, depending on invasive surgical approaches and long-term stability, and biocompatibility issues. (
  • In a study published in ACS Nano, researchers demonstrated that radioluminescent nanoparticles implanted in the brain and exposed to X-rays might be used for direct brain stimulation to treat neurological conditions. (
  • This noninvasive method could use X-ray machines such as those in the dentist's office for direct brain stimulation to treat neurological conditions. (
  • The company's Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation system is used to deliver magnetic field pulses to the front of the brain, altering brain activity in the process. (
  • UT Dallas researchers recently demonstrated how nerve stimulation paired with specific experiences, such as movements or sounds, can reorganize the brain. (
  • In a related paper, UT Dallas neuroscientists showed that they could alter the speed at which the brain works in laboratory animals by pairing stimulation of the vagus nerve with fast or slow sounds. (
  • After five days of stimulation and movement pairing, the researchers examined the brain activity in response to the stimulation. (
  • The animals receiving identical motor training without stimulation pairing did not exhibit any brain changes, or plasticity. (
  • Since vagus nerve stimulation has an excellent safety record in human patients with epilepsy, the technique provides a new method to treat brain conditions in which the timing of brain responses is abnormal, including dyslexia and schizophrenia. (
  • There are even reports of some parents using DIY brain stimulation on their children to try to boost their academic performance. (
  • Coauthor of the letter, Michael D. Fox, MD, PhD, assistant professor at Harvard Medical School and associate director of the Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, explained to Medscape Medical News that the purpose of the letter was to share information about the high level of unknowns about the technique. (
  • There is so little that we understand about what happens with transcranial brain stimulation, and we wanted to try and communicate that to the wider community. (
  • Those using DIY brain stimulation may be using protocols that have never been tested, and they cannot be monitored properly in a home environment. (
  • But there are reports of people using DIY brain stimulation for hours at a time. (
  • On the reports of parents using DIY brain stimulation on their children to try to boost their performance at school and in exams, he was more blunt. (
  • Cite this: Experts Warn Against DIY Brain Stimulation - Medscape - Jul 14, 2016. (
  • In over 400 micro-injection experiments involving 70 loci within the brain stem of the conscious rhesus monkey ( M. mulatta ), the diencephalon was mapped in relation to changes in ingestive and other responses to chemical stimulation. (
  • Companies hope that brain stimulation will work where drugs have failed. (
  • Synaptic responses of lumbar alpha-motoneurones to chemical algesic stimulation of skeletal muscle in spinal cats. (
  • Responses of human motoneurons to corticospinal stimulation during maximal voluntary contractions and ischemia. (
  • Electrophysiological responses of nociceptive sensory afferent fibres in the skeletal muscle of the chicken (Gallus domesticus) were examined using mechanical and chemical stimulation. (
  • Each chemical substance - formalin (20 microliter, 4%), capsaicin (33 mM) or Mg- ATP (5 mM)- was injected intradermally into the RFs and then the changes in the spontaneous activity, mechanical threshold and responses to the peripheral mechanical stimuli were observed. (
  • Methods: Scaffoldless meniscal constructs were subjected to simultaneous tension and compressive stimulation and chemical stimulation. (
  • Seventeen putative nociceptive fibres were identified by mechanical stimulation (muscle compression). (
  • The global market size of Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals is $XX million in 2018 with XX CAGR from 2014 to 2018, and it is expected to reach $XX million by the end of 2024 with a CAGR of XX% from 2019 to 2024. (
  • We performed a series of experiments to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms as to chemical stimuli such as formalin , capsaicin and ATP . (
  • This increasing activity in shale oil & gas reserves has also resulted in consumption of higher volumes of drilling and cementing chemicals. (
  • The process of oilfield stimulation is primarily used for recovery and improvement in the flow of hydrocarbons from drilling wells. (
  • The technique of acid stimulation is frequently adopted in oil extraction for the purpose of cleaning the existing ruptures by the process of dissolving filling materials such as drilling mud or secondary minerals and molding them for efficient removal. (
  • The Oilfield Drilling/Completions & Stimulation division at Aegis has robust product lines for the drilling/completions and stimulation service companies. (
  • There are some product types that are the same or similar between Drilling/Completions and Stimulation groups as can be seen. (
  • The pulses can be increased or decreased, or the patterns of stimulation can be changed by an external programmer and accessed by the patient. (
  • Responsive to signals from the one or more sensor elements, mathematical algorithms of the management unit use wavelet crosscorrelation analysis to prompt delivery of at least one treatment modality, such heat transfer, current pulses, magnetic stimulation or medication. (
  • A group of neuroscience experts have issued a warning about the dangers of trying "do-it-yourself" transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). (
  • features the paper "Modeling Effects of Scar on Patterns of Dorsal Column Stimulation" by Jeffrey Arle et al. (
  • The simulations created by the team were used to determine which axons in the dorsal columns would become activated when exposed to stimulation, and how particular stimulation patterns would change in response to scar tissue. (
  • The market size of oilfield stimulation chemicals is projected to reach $2.97 Billion by 2020, signifying a firm annualized growth rate of 10.1% between 2015 and 2020. (
  • Brainsway , Israel's leading magnetic stimulation company, won FDA de novo clearance for its system to be used to treat obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in the United States. (
  • Moreover, addition of neutralizing monoclonal anti-IL-10 antibody to the in vitro stimulation cultures of cells from the tumor infiltrated spleens of mice bearing a large MOPC-315 tumor resulted in the generation of enhanced anti-MOPC-315 cytotoxicity. (
  • Consistent with the enhancing capacity of Nef for viral replication in T cells, previous T cell murine hybridoma work demonstrated that Nef introduced by retroviral transduction increased IL-2 secretion, a definitive measure of T cell activation, after stimulation of the T cell receptor ( 12 ). (
  • The time course of the stimulation of proliferation and the increase in enzyme activity of sparse, quiescent cells after exposure to HDLs are parallel. (
  • A hormone is a chemical messenger produced by a cell that effects specific change in the cellular activity of other cells (target cells). (
  • Both influence other cells with chemicals (hormones and neurotransmitters). (
  • Often, this means that the stimulation must be reprogrammed in order to deliver the correct stimulus to the intended target cells, a process that is generally done through trial and error. (
  • This research explores the role of cranial nerve stimulation and how it impacts your sense of smell. (
  • MicroTransponder currently is testing a vagus nerve stimulation therapy on human patients in Europe in hopes of reducing or eliminating the symptoms of tinnitus, the debilitating disorder often described as "ringing in the ears. (
  • A nerve-stimulation device and method using light to provide a source of precise stimulation on one or more nerve fibers. (
  • In addition to understanding the types, special additives, and chemical compatibilities of the products available, the reader will also learn proper waste disposal techniques, including management of produced water, a component mandatory to hydraulic fracturing operations. (
  • Reservoir management for an economically successful chemical EOR project involves maintaining high injectivity to improve processing rates. (
  • A cold stimulation test involves placing your fingers in an ice water bath to find out if you have Raynaud's syndrome. (
  • The Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals Market report analyses the general market conditions such as product price, profit, capacity, production, supply, demand, and market growth rate which supports businesses on deciding upon several strategies. (
  • This is driving the growth of oilfield stimulation chemicals market. (
  • Heavy oilfield stimulation activity undergoing in the region is driving the growth for the market. (
  • Chemical stimulation consisted of the application of a catabolic GAG-depleting enzyme, chondroitinase ABC (C-ABC), and an anabolic growth factor, TGF-β1. (
  • Owing to its vast usage in oilfields, stimulation chemicals market is expected to witness robust growth in the near future. (
  • Oilfield stimulation chemicals is regarded as an essential element of oil extraction and thus, the market is expected to witness steady growth in the foreseeable future. (
  • Moreover increasing production of crude oil is also a major factor contributing to the increased growth of global oilfields stimulation chemicals market. (
  • However, oilfield stimulation chemicals market growth is hampered by few restraints such as increase in production cost associated with use of oilfield stimulation chemicals, limitations in terms of operating at extreme depths, specific concerns about personnel safety from health hazards or accidents and environmental impact such as contamination of underground drinking water by the chemicals used during fracturing process. (
  • Increase in demand for stimulation products is driving the market whereas factors such as increase in competition and more market competitors are hampering the market growth. (
  • Stimulation of plant growth and biocontrol by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. (
  • During the last decade, the use of plant-root colonizing bacteria with plant growth-promoting activity has been proven as an efficient and environmental-friendly alternative to chemical pesticides and fertilizers. (
  • Glucagon stimulation test-for growth hormone (GH) deficiency. (
  • But they say there is growing evidence linking endocrine-disrupting chemicals to neurobehavioral problems, obesity and cancer cell growth. (
  • You don't need any special preparations for a cold stimulation test. (
  • This report focuses on the Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals in global market, especially in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa. (
  • The rapid expansion in exploration of shale gas and oil reserves in North America is leading to significant changes in the oil field chemicals market recently. (
  • Mechanical and chemical stimulation combinations were studied through a full-factorial experimental design and assessed for histological, biochemical, and biomechanical properties following 4 wks of culture. (
  • When mechanical and chemical stimuliwere combined significant additive increases in collagen per wet weight (4-fold), compressive instantaneous (3-fold) and relaxation (2-fold) moduli, and tensile moduli in the circumferential (4-fold) and radial (6-fold) directions were obtained. (
  • This work included chemical relaxation of specificities towards very frequent cleavage of DNA by Tsp GWI (Zylicz-Stachula et al. (
  • This gene encodes one of three subunits which combine to form cleavage stimulation factor (CSTF). (
  • Pentagastrin stimulation test-for gastric acid secretion. (
  • meal stimulation, tubeless tests, and other tests of gastric secretion are no longer used clinically. (
  • The Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals report offer actionable market insights with which businesses can make out sustainable and lucrative strategies. (
  • The key insights of the report: 1.The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Brazil Oilfield Stimulation Chemicals manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry. (
  • Herein, we investigated the effects of CB2R stimulation on neuroinflammation after experimental GMH and the potential mechanisms that mediate M1/M2 microglial phenotype regulation. (
  • Chemical stimulation over the same area using microinjection of D,L-homocysteic acid (DLH) to preferentially activate somatodendritic receptors decreased the frequency of micturition but did not disrupt the coordinated pattern of voiding. (
  • Ultra-pure sulfuric acid (UPSA) is a microelectronic chemical reagent that is used for removing particles, inorganic content, and carbon deposited in the water. (
  • Considering the overall historical timeline, neural stimulation has developed at the pace of silicon technology and its progressively cutting-edge miniaturization. (
  • I am a chemical engineer with 7+ years of experience in research & development in multiphase reactors, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics & compressible flow, and design & simulation of chemical processes. (
  • Increasing demand for well stimulation processes offer a major boost to the global market. (
  • Even though dsRNAs are more stable than single-stranded RNAs (ssRNAs), siRNAs are still rapidly degraded in serum and can benefit from chemical modification. (
  • The nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Src and the small GTPase Rac mediate the effects of both ET and LPA in stimulation of the hBNP promoter. (
  • Moreover, the student should be prepared to answer questions related to the following topics, that is a) the effects of orthosympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation on the tracheobronchial tree, b) carbon dioxide transfer through the alveolar capillary membrane, and c) reabsorption of gases from a corporeal cavity. (
  • The temporal aspect of mechanical loadingwas studied by employing two separate five day stimulation periods. (
  • Search chemical reactions in Rhea for this molecule. (
  • These data suggest that constitutive activity at the CB 1 receptor maintains the TRPV1 channel in a sensitized state responsive to noxious chemical stimuli. (
  • Glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity was accompanied by a D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoate (100 μ M ) and N ω -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 m M )-inhibitable, time-dependent ATP depletion (55% at 24 h), confirming the involvement of NMDA receptor stimulation followed by nitric oxide synthesis in this process. (
  • Objective: This study aimed to improve the functional properties of anatomically-shaped meniscus constructs through simultaneous tension and compression mechanical stimulation in conjunction with chemical stimulation. (
  • Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a stimulation regimen of simultaneous tension and compression mechanical stimulation, C-ABC, and TGF-β1 is able to create anatomic meniscus constructs replicating the compressive mechanical properties, and collagen and GAG content of native tissue. (
  • In addition, this study significantly advances meniscus tissue engineering by being the first to apply simultaneous tension and compression mechanical stimulation and observe enhancement of tensile and compressive properties following mechanical stimulation. (
  • You may qualify for a scientific study, performed by the Monell Chemical Senses Center, about the sense of smell and how the flu/COVID affects it. (
  • The Monell Chemical Senses Center is looking for volunteers for a smell study to be conducted at the Center. (
  • Adults between the ages of 18 - 55 may qualify for a research study looking at the effect of exposure to ethylene, a compound commonly used in the chemical and agricultural industries. (
  • Chemical structures of the crosslinkers used in the study. (
  • According to a new study out of Hong Kong, China, the chemicals most commonly included in e-cigarettes contain more cancer-causing substances than polluted air. (
  • A study led by researchers at UC Berkeley and Clinica de Salud del Valle de Salinas demonstrates how even a short break from certain kinds of makeup, shampoos and lotions leads to a large drop in levels of hormone-disrupting chemicals in the body. (
  • A study led by researchers at UC Berkeley and Clinica de Salud del Valle Salinas has demonstrated how taking even a short break from various cosmetics, shampoos, and other personal care products can lead to a substantial drop in the levels of hormone-disrupting chemicals present within the body. (
  • Because women are the primary consumers of many personal care products, they may be disproportionately exposed to these chemicals," said study lead author Kim Harley, associate director of the UC Berkeley Center for Environmental Research and Children's Health. (
  • One of the goals of our study was to create awareness among the participants of the chemicals found in everyday products, to help make people more conscious about what they're using," said Cárdenas. (
  • A further study of polydipsia evoked by hypothalamic stimulation in the goat. (
  • We have investigated SAC as a new compound for the stimulation of enzymes from the Thermus -family of REases-methyltransferases (MTases) (Skowron et al. (
  • Secrete enzymes for digestion - chemical digestion. (
  • The enzymes are a part of chemical digestion by acting as a catalyst to breakdown food within the gut. (
  • Oilfield stimulation chemicals include an extensive range of specialty chemicals intended to augment and support the stimulation process. (
  • Huey, DJ & Athanasiou, KA 2011, ' Tension-compression loading with chemical stimulation results in additive increases to functional properties of anatomic meniscal constructs ', PLoS One , vol. 6, no. 11, e27857. (
  • Demulsifiers segment is expected to be the largest chemical type market owing to the additional features it includes, i.e when added to the oil they tend to migrate oil-water interface and break the stabilizing film present in crude oil. (