Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Photorefractive Keratectomy: A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.Angioplasty, Balloon, Laser-Assisted: Techniques using laser energy in combination with a balloon catheter to perform angioplasty. These procedures can take several forms including: 1, laser fiber delivering the energy while the inflated balloon centers the fiber and occludes the blood flow; 2, balloon angioplasty immediately following laser angioplasty; or 3, laser energy transmitted through angioplasty balloons that contain an internal fiber.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Angioplasty, Laser: A technique utilizing a laser coupled to a catheter which is used in the dilatation of occluded blood vessels. This includes laser thermal angioplasty where the laser energy heats up a metal tip, and direct laser angioplasty where the laser energy directly ablates the occlusion. One form of the latter approach uses an EXCIMER LASER which creates microscopically precise cuts without thermal injury. When laser angioplasty is performed in combination with balloon angioplasty it is called laser-assisted balloon angioplasty (ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, LASER-ASSISTED).Laser Therapy: The use of photothermal effects of LASERS to coagulate, incise, vaporize, resect, dissect, or resurface tissue.Laser Therapy, Low-Level: Treatment using irradiation with LASER light of low power intensity so that the effects are not due to heat, as they are in LASER THERAPY.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Corneal Opacity: Disorder occurring in the central or peripheral area of the cornea. The usual degree of transparency becomes relatively opaque.Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Laser Coagulation: The use of green light-producing LASERS to stop bleeding. The green light is selectively absorbed by HEMOGLOBIN, thus triggering BLOOD COAGULATION.Myopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the EYE parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus in front of the RETINA when accommodation (ACCOMMODATION, OCULAR) is relaxed. This results from an overly curved CORNEA or from the eyeball being too long from front to back. It is also called nearsightedness.Corneal Stroma: The lamellated connective tissue constituting the thickest layer of the cornea between the Bowman and Descemet membranes.Refractive Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures employed to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS such as MYOPIA; HYPEROPIA; or ASTIGMATISM. These may involve altering the curvature of the CORNEA; removal or replacement of the CRYSTALLINE LENS; or modification of the SCLERA to change the axial length of the eye.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Corneal Surgery, Laser: Surgical techniques on the CORNEA employing LASERS, especially for reshaping the CORNEA to correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS.Chemical EngineeringCorneal Topography: The measurement of curvature and shape of the anterior surface of the cornea using techniques such as keratometry, keratoscopy, photokeratoscopy, profile photography, computer-assisted image processing and videokeratography. This measurement is often applied in the fitting of contact lenses and in diagnosing corneal diseases or corneal changes including keratoconus, which occur after keratotomy and keratoplasty.Ultraviolet Therapy: The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Keratotomy, Radial: A procedure to surgically correct REFRACTIVE ERRORS by cutting radial slits into the CORNEA to change its refractive properties.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Corneal Diseases: Diseases of the cornea.Lasers, Dye: Tunable liquid lasers with organic compounds (i.e., dye) which have a strong absorption band, used as the active medium. During emission, the dye has to be optically excited by another light source (e.g., another laser or flash lamp). The range of the emission wavelength may be anywhere from the ultraviolet to the near infrared (i.e., from 180 to 1100nm). These lasers are operated in continuous wave and pulsed modes. (UMDNS, 2005)Eye Banks: Centers for storing various parts of the eye for future use.Retinal Pigments: Photosensitive protein complexes of varied light absorption properties which are expressed in the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are OPSINS conjugated with VITAMIN A-based chromophores. Chromophores capture photons of light, leading to the activation of opsins and a biochemical cascade that ultimately excites the photoreceptor cells.Refraction, Ocular: Refraction of LIGHT effected by the media of the EYE.Laser Scanning Cytometry: A scanning microscope-based, cytofluorimetry technique for making fluorescence measurements and topographic analysis on individual cells. Lasers are used to excite fluorochromes in labeled cellular specimens. Fluorescence is detected in multiple discrete wavelengths and the locational data is processed to quantitatively assess APOPTOSIS; PLOIDIES; cell proliferation; GENE EXPRESSION; PROTEIN TRANSPORT; and other cellular processes.PhotochemistrySpectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Light Coagulation: The coagulation of tissue by an intense beam of light, including laser (LASER COAGULATION). In the eye it is used in the treatment of retinal detachments, retinal holes, aneurysms, hemorrhages, and malignant and benign neoplasms. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Atherectomy, Coronary: Percutaneous transluminal procedure for removing atheromatous plaque from the coronary arteries. Both directional (for removing focal atheromas) and rotational (for removing concentric atheromatous plaque) atherectomy devices have been used.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.MaleimidesOptical Phenomena: LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Astigmatism: Unequal curvature of the refractive surfaces of the eye. Thus a point source of light cannot be brought to a point focus on the retina but is spread over a more or less diffuse area. This results from the radius of curvature in one plane being longer or shorter than the radius at right angles to it. (Dorland, 27th ed)Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Epithelium, Corneal: Stratified squamous epithelium that covers the outer surface of the CORNEA. It is smooth and contains many free nerve endings.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Optical Processes: Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Vitiligo: A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.Photochemotherapy: Therapy using oral or topical photosensitizing agents with subsequent exposure to light.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Iodoacetamide: An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.Hyperopia: A refractive error in which rays of light entering the eye parallel to the optic axis are brought to a focus behind the retina, as a result of the eyeball being too short from front to back. It is also called farsightedness because the near point is more distant than it is in emmetropia with an equal amplitude of accommodation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Photoreceptor Cells: Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Photosensitizing Agents: Drugs that are pharmacologically inactive but when exposed to ultraviolet radiation or sunlight are converted to their active metabolite to produce a beneficial reaction affecting the diseased tissue. These compounds can be administered topically or systemically and have been used therapeutically to treat psoriasis and various types of neoplasms.Rod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Photoacoustic Techniques: Investigative and diagnostic methods and procedures based on the photoacoustic effect, which is the generation of SOUND WAVES from the absorption of ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty: A surgical procedure or KERATOPLASTY involving selective stripping and replacement of diseased host DESCEMET MEMBRANE and CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM with a suitable and healthy donor posterior lamella. The advantage to this procedure is that the normal corneal surface of the recipient is retained, thereby avoiding corneal surface incisions and sutures.Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Carbon Footprint: A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Ophthalmoscopes: Devices for examining the interior of the eye, permitting the clear visualization of the structures of the eye at any depth. (UMDNS, 1999)Photochemical Processes: Chemical reactions effected by light.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Corneal Transplantation: Partial or total replacement of the CORNEA from one human or animal to another.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Photolysis: Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Laser Capture Microdissection: Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Color Vision Defects: Defects of color vision are mainly hereditary traits but can be secondary to acquired or developmental abnormalities in the CONES (RETINA). Severity of hereditary defects of color vision depends on the degree of mutation of the ROD OPSINS genes (on X CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME 3) that code the photopigments for red, green and blue.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Argon: Argon. A noble gas with the atomic symbol Ar, atomic number 18, and atomic weight 39.948. It is used in fluorescent tubes and wherever an inert atmosphere is desired and nitrogen cannot be used.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Interferometry: Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials: The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Endothelium, Corneal: Single layer of large flattened cells covering the surface of the cornea.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.p-Dimethylaminoazobenzene: A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Opsins: Photosensitive proteins in the membranes of PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS such as the rods and the cones. Opsins have varied light absorption properties and are members of the G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS family. Their ligands are VITAMIN A-based chromophores.Fundus Oculi: The concave interior of the eye, consisting of the retina, the choroid, the sclera, the optic disk, and blood vessels, seen by means of the ophthalmoscope. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Color Perception Tests: Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Optical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Pentanes: Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Tears: The fluid secreted by the lacrimal glands. This fluid moistens the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Laser-Doppler Flowmetry: A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Jupiter: The fifth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its sixteen natural satellites include Callisto, Europa, Ganymede, and Io.Phycoerythrin: The metal-free red phycobilin pigment in a conjugated chromoprotein of red algae. It functions as a light-absorbing substance together with chlorophylls.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Silver: Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Rhodopsin: A purplish-red, light-sensitive pigment found in RETINAL ROD CELLS of most vertebrates. It is a complex consisting of a molecule of ROD OPSIN and a molecule of 11-cis retinal (RETINALDEHYDE). Rhodopsin exhibits peak absorption wavelength at about 500 nm.
... to extract a very short pulse at its peak intensity. Laser construction Principles of Lasers by Orazio Svelto -- Springer 1998 ... The medium amplifies the light by stimulated emission. For lasing to occur, the gain of the active medium must be larger than ... Typically, a laser output coupler will be manufactured to tolerances within λ/10 (one tenth of the wavelength of the light) or ... In others, such as an excimer laser, the 4% reflectivity of uncoated glass provides enough of a mirror, transmitting nearly 96 ...
The light generated by stimulated emission is very similar to the input signal in terms of wavelength, phase, and polarization ... Lasers that produce pulses can also be characterized based on the peak power of each pulse. The peak power of a pulsed laser is ... Excimer lasers are a special sort of gas laser powered by an electric discharge in which the lasing medium is an excimer, or ... Laser beam profiler Laser bonding Laser converting Laser cooling Laser engraving Laser medicine Laser scalpel 3D scanner Laser ...
The current wavelength limit of production of coherent UV is about 126 nm, characteristic of the Ar2* excimer laser. ... Many insects use the ultraviolet wavelength emissions from celestial objects as references for flight navigation. A local ... with 265 nm being the peak germicidal effectiveness curve. UV at these germicidal wavelengths damage a microorganism's DNA so ... In some types of nondestructive testing UV stimulates fluorescent dyes to highlight defects in a broad range of materials. ...
The current wavelength limit of production of coherent UV is about 126 nm, characteristic of the Ar2* excimer laser. ... Many insects use the ultraviolet wavelength emissions from celestial objects as references for flight navigation. A local ... with 265 nm being the peak germicidal effectiveness curve. UV at these germicidal wavelengths damage a microorganism's DNA so ... In some types of nondestructive testing UV stimulates fluorescent dyes to highlight defects in a broad range of materials. ...
... and Risk Management at Radford University provides detailed information regarding Radiation Safety including the laser safety ... Laser Safety Program. 1.0 Introduction. The term laser is an acronym for light amplification by the stimulated emission of ... Classification of pulsed lasers requires the following information: wavelength, total energy per pulse (or peak power), pulse ... Excimer. The excimer laser is another example of a gaseous laser. An excimer is a molecule that can exist only in an ...
The light generated by stimulated emission is very similar to the input signal in terms of wavelength, phase, and polarization ... Excimer lasers. Excimer lasers are powered by a chemical reaction involving an excited dimer, or excimer, which is a short- ... Different uses need lasers with different output powers. Many lasers are designed for a higher peak output with an extremely ... Some types of lasers, such as dye lasers and vibronic solid-state lasers can produce light over a broad range of wavelengths; ...
IDENTIFY what the acronym LASER means and briefly DESCRIBE how a laser performs it function. (LST.OBJ.001) LIST the ... characteristics of a laser beam. (LST.OBJ.002) Slideshow 519845 by zeal ... LASER SAFETY. Texas State University , San Marcos. Objectives. ... stimulating emission of additional photons of same wavelength ... Laser Types*Excimer. *Uses reactive gas with inert gas. Dimer produced which when lased produce UV ...
This can be accomplished by vaporizing part of the reflective backing with the laser beam. Multi-colored laser-enhanced images ... or decorated with a laser beam to produce a decorative display assembly with a laser-enhanced image thereon. ... The decorative display assembly can also be backlit or back colored to further enhance the attractiveness of the laser-enhanced ... During the period that the RF signal is applied to the Q switch and stimulated emission is suspended, the population of the ...
Superpulsed lasers and combination superpulsed and CW lasers are regularly used in chiropractic offices for their therapeutic ... The wavelength of superpulsed lasers (904- 910 nm) and the high peak power drive energy deep into the body. By using ... Laser emission is either "on" or "off." If the laser is constantly on and emitting light, then it is in continuous mode. If ... And there are many types of lasers that various medical specialties use. Lasers such as Excimer, Nd:YAG, and CO2 are not ...
... to extract a very short pulse at its peak intensity. Laser construction Principles of Lasers by Orazio Svelto -- Springer 1998 ... The medium amplifies the light by stimulated emission. For lasing to occur, the gain of the active medium must be larger than ... Typically, a laser output coupler will be manufactured to tolerances within λ/10 (one tenth of the wavelength of the light) or ... In others, such as an excimer laser, the 4% reflectivity of uncoated glass provides enough of a mirror, transmitting nearly 96 ...
... a second peak appears within the range of the red color band of the graphic presentation it is a characteristic peak of ... If the graphic presentation displayed includes a single peak within the range of the blue color band, it indicates that the ... to stimulate it, which then generates a specific intrinsic fluorescence spectrum. The intrinsic fluorescence spectrum reflected ... rather than an argon-ion laser. Since the energy of the stimulating beam is greatly increased and the emitted wavelength of the ...
... subnanosecond lasers may be just the answer for emerging ind ... Peak powers in excess of 200 kW are readily available at 1 kHz ... providing a drastic maintenance cost reduction compared with excimer lasers.. Beyond materials processing. Subnanosecond lasers ... TEM00-grade Gaussian beam quality and the availability of deep-UV wavelengths ensure tight focusing. And the reduced energy ... The nanosecond range is a favored temporal zone where nonlinear effects (stimulated Brillouin scattering, self-phase modulation ...
The light generated by stimulated emission is very similar to the input signal in terms of wavelength, phase, and polarization ... Lasers that produce pulses can also be characterized based on the peak power of each pulse. The peak power of a pulsed laser is ... Excimer lasers are a special sort of gas laser powered by an electric discharge in which the lasing medium is an excimer, or ... Laser beam profiler Laser bonding Laser converting Laser cooling Laser engraving Laser medicine Laser scalpel 3D scanner Laser ...
J equals 57 have been investigated using stimulated emission pumping techniques. Inelastic collisions with O2, H2O, Cl2, and Ar ... We achieved excellent pulse energy stability at all important laser wavelength with our new high repetition rate laser module, ... For a given laser fluence coupled into the fiber, the low peak power long pulses reduce the probability of intensity dependent ... Recent results on long-life 1-kHz excimer laser development Author(s): Ulrich Rebhan; Igor Bragin; Frank Voss; Uwe Stamm Show ...
... band peaking near 1 eV which has intensity-dependent dynamics which match the stimulated emission dynamics exactly over two ... The regime of laser emission at the transition between the lowest levels of size quantization was achieved.. ... Wavelength-dependent studies show that the OL response improves monotonically at longer wavelengths, demonstrating broadband ... KEYWORDS: Ultrafast phenomena, Thin films, Polymers, Solids, Photoacoustic tomography, Excimers, Excitons, Picosecond phenomena ...
... a website for laser marker application information such as laser principles and mechanisms, marking and processing applications ... Laser oscillator. Equipment that amplifies and oscillates a laser beam through stimulated emission from an excited state.. ... Laser Principles. What Is Laser Processing?. Safety and Standards. Glossary. Laser Marker Selection. Wavelength Types. Metal. ... the peak energy of a pulse laser is +10 kW (kilowatts). This gives pulse lasers energy to mark and process metals. ...
The wavelength selection optics of a second preferred embodiment include are at least partially within the laser active volume ... excimer laser has multiple closely-spaced spectral lines of interest around 157 nm, and one of the lines is selected by ... The wavelength selection optics of a first preferred embodiment include a birefringent Brewster window enclosing the laser gas ... The wavelength selection unit preferably includes a prism having a front surface oriented at Brewsters angle and a back ...
... suspect the population of the concerning state densities to be low although they have very high absorption/stimulated emission ... Hg laser. The laser is optically pumped by a Hg arc lamp at 2 different wavelengths and N2 is used both to link the pump stages ... in their excimer lasers. So, while not knowing the answer to the fellows question, I guess Im saying that I dont agree with ... There was even a low cost ($500) "educational version" of such a laser. It had a peak output power of less than 1 mW but at the ...
Sapphire laser is converted to UV wavelengths using third and fourth harmonic generation systems. The resulting output is ... Saapphire laser and harmonic generation system includes feedback mechanisms for improved power and wavelength stability. The ... Infrared laser light generated by a solid state diode pumped transform-limited Ti: ... H01S3/00-Lasers, i.e. devices using stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared, visible or ultraviolet ...
... precision pulse to pulse wavelength controls with high speed and extreme speed wavelength tuning (3) fast response gas ... In preferred embodiments, the laser is a production line machine with a master oscillator producing a very narrow band seed ... Novel control features specially adapted for a two-chamber gas discharge laser system include: (1) pulse energy controls, with ... invention provides a control system for a modular high repetition rate two discharge chamber ultraviolet gas discharge laser. ...
... the effective size of the excitation is made smaller than the size of the spot by providing a beam of light of wavelength ... In scanned optical systems such as confocal laser microscopes wherein a beam of light is focused to a spot in a specimen to ... Quenching laser 11, which emits light of a wavelength adapted to quench, by means of stimulated emission, the fluorescent ... One solution to this problem is to employ as quenching laser 11 or 71, a laser with inherently low coherency. The excimer laser ...
The emission maximum is usually about 376 nm with a subsidiary peak at 396 nm. Excimer emission at about 470 nm may be observed ... Reactions were incubated at room temperature for 60 minutes and fluorescence was measured using excitation/emission wavelengths ... inflammatory responses and pathological disorders related to these processes has stimulated demand for fluorescence-based ... designed to allow continuous monitoring of phospholipase A action and to be spectrally compatible with argon-ion laser ...
Collection of atoms or molecules capable of undergoing stimulated emission at a given wavelength. ... Such a device also serves as a basic laser resonant cavity.. EXCIMER "EXCITED DIMER.". A gas mixture used as the active medium ... A discontinuous burst of laser, light or energy, as opposed to a continuous beam. A true pulse achieves higher peak powers than ... LASER DEVICE. Either a laser or a laser system.. LASER MEDIUM. (Active Medium) material used to emit the laser light and for ...
Laser medical device "Maria" on the basis of KrF excimer laser with the wavelength 248 nm was made for fiber-cavernous lung ... The films have been formed by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) employing the 532 nm emission of a YAG:Nd laser (6 ns, 10 Hz). ... At this condition and the mean power of the generation about 20 mW (pulse duration about 10ns) the peak power was about 1 kW. ... Phase control of backward stimulated Brillouin scattering wave by a self-generated density modulation Author(s): Seong Ku Lee; ...
Laser emission in a single transverse mode, or laser emission at a single primary wavelength.. Solid angle. The ratio of the ... Such pulses are many times the peak power of the CW mode (also called "superpulse").. Excimer. "Excited Dimer." A gas mixture ... Laser. An acronymn for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. A cavity with mirrors at the ends, filled with ... the laser can emit a very high peak power pulse.. Q-switched laser. A laser that stores energy in the laser media to produce ...
... whose emission can be distinguished from other fluorophores like Atto532 and mOrange stimulated with a 532 nm laser. This way, ... Wavelength-stabilized, tunable, and dual-wavelength lasers are also well applicable for the measurement of molecular absorption ... However, currently available UV lightsources such as discharge lamps and excimer lasers are either bulky, expensive, or require ... and the Raman intensity showed a peak-to-peak variation less than ± 2 %. A quartz glass window protects the inner parts of the ...
A laser is basically an intense beam of light. ... Laser Laser technologies are used for a wide range of purposes ... in laser-based products, including CD players, DNA screening machines, forensic tools, missile guiding devices, mapping and ... Laser. █ LARRY GILMAN. "Laser" is an acronym for lightwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. Lasers exploit ... Second, laser light is composed of a single color or wavelength. Third, laser light is coherent, meaning all its light waves ...
Generally, the process utilizes wavelengths from about one light second to about ten electron volts, or wavelengths with energy ... Energies are applied to cause wavelength-dependent reactions resulting from differential absorption; this additional applied ... The present invention relates to the process of selectively exposing matter to a specific wavelength of electromagnetic energy ... in sufficient flux density per wavelength to cause or promote a desired effect. The process includes, but is not limited to, ...
The emission spectra reflect BODIPY-labeled lipid surface concentration and lateral mixing with different nonfluorescent lipid ... constituent monolayers consisting of fluorescent and nonfluorescent lipids has been investigated by acquiring multiple emission ... Fluorescence emission intensity of BODIPY-labeled PC is plotted against emission wavelength. (a) Me4BODIPY-PC/POPC monolayers ... In addition to formation of the emission shoulder, intensity decreases occur in the ~510 nm emission peaks at 20 mole% compared ...
  • 10-14, 1990, "Frequency up-conversion of a discharge pumped molecular fluorine laser by stimulated Raman scattering in H.sub.2," Masayuki Kakehata, Etsu Hashimoto, Fumihiko Kannari, and Minoru Obara,16 pgs. (patentgenius.com)
  • The FBH has developed particularly capable two-wavelength diode lasers enabling shifted excitation Raman difference measurements (SERDS). (fbh-berlin.de)
  • This way, the Raman signals are shifted by the amount of the spectral distance between both emission lines, whereas the background signals remain unchanged. (fbh-berlin.de)
  • 3. An optical fiber as claimed in claim 2 wherein said two regions are comprised of materials having substantially different Raman scattering properties, and said converted light of wavelengths λ E is Raman-scattered light. (google.com.au)
  • 8. An arrangement as claimed in claim 6 wherein said fiber includes two light-guiding regions comprised of materials having substantially different Raman scattering coefficients and one of said two regions is capable of stimulated Raman scattering at said wavelengths λ E . (google.com.au)
  • and ex vivo coherent anti‐stokes raman scattering microscopy to study the effect of obesity to fibroblast cell function using an Yb‐fiber laser‐based CARS extension … D Haluszka, K Lőrincz, G Molnár, G Tamás, A Kolonics… - Microscopy Research and …, 2015 ABSTRACT Nonlinear microscopy techniques are being increasingly used to perform in vivo studies in dermatology. (laseris.ru)
  • 17. The wave generator of claim 1 wherein the gain element is selected from the group consisting of: a semiconductor optical amplifier, a fiber amplifier, a dye amplifier, an excimer amplifier, a solid state amplifier, a Raman amplifier, a gas amplifier, a Brillouin amplifier, and a parametric amplifier. (google.co.uk)
  • A dielectric mirror may have a tuning range as low as a 10 nm when designed for a specific wavelength, or can be designed with a wide range, spanning as much as 100 nm, for tunable lasers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tunable Multi-wavelength Fiber Laser Using Polarization and Wavelength Dependent Loss N Chandra, A Jain - Photonic Networks and Devices, 2015 Continuously tunable multi-wavelength pulsed fiber lasers are attractive for several applications like wavelength divi- sion multiplexed (WDM) systems, fiber sensors, and as optical clocks . (laseris.ru)
  • Schematic of the passively mode locking optical fiber laser using a feedback ring configuration, including an EDFA, a tunable filter, a polarization controller, a 11-order microring resonator and a 99:1 ratio coupler. (laseris.ru)
  • a time varying tunable wavelength selective filter element in communication with the gain element, the tunable filter element adapted to selectively. (google.co.uk)
  • and a feedback element in communication with the tunable filter element and the gain element, wherein the tunable wavelength selective filter element, the gain element and the feedback element define a circuit such that the roundtrip time for the wave to propagate through the circuit is substantially equal to a non-zero integer multiple of the period T. (google.co.uk)
  • 10. The wave generator of claim 1 wherein the wavelength is optical and the tunable filter element is selected from the group consisting of: an acoustic-optical filter, an electro-optical filter, a Bragg filter, a graded interferometric filter, a prismatic filter, and a grating filter. (google.co.uk)
  • A laser in which an axial flow of gas is maintained through the tube to replace those gas molecules depleted by the electrical discharge used to excite the gas molecules to the lasing. (vumc.org)
  • As excimer lasers use molecules as the gain medium, they can also be called molecular lasers . (rp-photonics.com)
  • The formation of structural excimers occurs with increasing pressure involving molecules on equivalent crystal sites that are favorably arranged in a parallel configuration. (pnas.org)
  • The discovery of new transformations, including insulator-to-metal transitions, and the search for superhard materials have stimulated great interest in the high-pressure behavior of molecules consisting of light elements, which has subsequently resulted in the merging of different disciplines such as chemistry, physics, geoscience, and material science. (pnas.org)
  • Although the main goal in modern cataracts treatment comprises the substitution of the human lens by an artificial one, femtosecond lasers can play an important role in key steps of the process. (monocrom.com)
  • PDF] Incoherently pumped high-power linearly-polarized single-mode random fiber laser: experimental investigations and theoretical prospects J Xu, Z Lou, J Ye, J Wu, J Leng, H Xiao, H Zhang… - arXiv preprint arXiv: …, 2017 Abstract: We present a hundred-watt-level linearly-polarized random fiber laser (RFL) pumped by incoherent broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) source and prospect the power scaling potential theoretically. (laseris.ru)
  • The key component in making the laser operate properly is the optical cavity. (radford.edu)
  • A laser consists of a "gain medium" inside an optical cavity, with a means to supply energy to the gain medium. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For this reason the spectral properties of the OC are important to consider when a laser cavity is being assembled. (wikipedia.org)
  • Passively Q-switched laser optical architecture: telecom-grade pump diode, coupling optics and the monolithic microchip cavity (from left to right). (photonics.com)
  • Their monolithic laser cavity is made of a double-sliced sandwich of gain medium (Nd:YAG) and saturable absorber (Cr:YAG), with dielectric mirrors deposited on the outer faces. (photonics.com)
  • Unlike other laser technologies, the microchip cavity design fixes the optical pulse characteristics. (photonics.com)
  • This is due both to the short length of the cavity (and the corresponding Fresnel number of the resonator 2 ) and some soft aperturing effect occurring in the saturable absorber during pulse emission. (photonics.com)
  • 1992, "Influence of Cavity Configuration on the Pulse Energy of a High-Pressure Molecular Fluorine Laser," S.M. Hooker, A.M. Haxell, and C.E. Webb, 6 pgs. (patentgenius.com)
  • Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other high energy density physics experiments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • WALT recommends one-fourth to one-half of the treatment time when using super- pulsed lasers, compared to CW pulsed lasers, for the same clinical conditions.Diode lasers of 904 nm to 910 nm are technically capable of producing much higher peak power to maximum average power ratios than other therapeutic wavelength diodes. (chiroeco.com)
  • The FBH develops and realizes diode lasers in a great variety of designs and packages . (fbh-berlin.de)
  • Diode lasers are key devices not only for treatment but also in diagnostics. (fbh-berlin.de)
  • Since diode lasers are very compact and reliable they open up mobile applications, enabling in situ measurements that deliver instant results without detour via the laboratory. (fbh-berlin.de)
  • Helium-neon lasers require around a 99% reflective mirror to lase, while nitrogen lasers have an extremely high gain (they are "superradiant") and do not require any OC (0% reflective). (wikipedia.org)
  • The smallest of these look a lot like helium-neon lasers and also used 'brick' type power supplies. (repairfaq.org)
  • Laser therapy has beneficial photobiomodulation effects for relieving pain, resolving inflammation, and increasing the speed, quality, and tensile strength of tissue repair. (chiroeco.com)
  • It has also been shown to stimulate the immune system, reduce infection, and improve the function of neurological tissue. (chiroeco.com)
  • The World Association for Laser Therapy (WALT) suggests a dosage at the target tissue of 4 to 10 joules per cm2. (chiroeco.com)
  • However, the deep tissue penetration and minimal-to-no thermal effects of superpulsed lasers are advantages when compared to CW pulsed lasers. (chiroeco.com)
  • If you want your patients to have minimal to no thermal effects or risk of tissue injury, and you want to treat deep tissues, consider a superpulsed laser solution. (chiroeco.com)
  • The disclosed method involves the use of pulsed laser energy from an argon-ion laser to destroy the tissue of luminal occlusions, such as atheromatous plaque and the like, with substantially. (google.es)
  • While continuous wave (CW) and standard pulsed lasers (PW) are limited to less than 1 to 2 cm of therapeutically effective depth of penetration, the Theralase superpulsed (SP) NIR laser technology is able to demonstrate therapeutic effect at up to 10 cm below the tissue surface. (theralase.com)
  • A source of high power ultraviolet laser energy directed through an optical fiber at the section of tissue is fired only when the fluorometric analysis indicates that it is directed at abnormal tissue. (google.com.au)
  • This invention relates to laser ablation of human tissue. (google.com.au)
  • Lasers have been used to evaporate (ablate) atherosclerotic and cancerous tissue in humans. (google.com.au)
  • It is a further object of the invention to provide a laser angioplasty system in which the likelihood of damage to normal arterial tissue is greatly reduced. (google.com.au)
  • A low power laser is used to cause the tissue at which the high power laser is directed to fluoresce. (google.com.au)
  • The invention relates generally to optical nerve stimulation, and more particularly to methods and miniature and/or handheld apparatus to generate, direct, and control the optical signal used to stimulate nerves and other animal tissue, and in particular, neural tissue. (justia.com)
  • Excimer laser technology provides the capacity for tissue ablation with a high degree of precision and minimal damage to adjacent structures. (arvojournals.org)
  • Laser interaction with eye tissue (and all biological tissues, indeed) can be divided into photothermal, photochemical and photoionizing (see figure 1). (monocrom.com)
  • Ultrashort pulsed lasers appear well-suited to replace these traditional tools as they have the ability to efficiently remove bone tissue while causing only minimal collateral thermal damage. (scribd.com)
  • In this thesis work, we experimentally investigated a few key aspects of ultrashort laser ablation of bone tissue and presented the results as well as conclusions. (scribd.com)
  • First, the laser ablation threshold of unaltered bone tissue was determined using the D2 technique. (scribd.com)
  • 1 mm3) of bone tissue was examined by experimenting with different laser scanning procedures. (scribd.com)
  • This laser waveform may be used to numerically generate range-Doppler images (inverse synthetic aperture radar images) of a target wherein the Doppler spread of a spinning target is used to create a synthetic cross-range target dimension. (spie.org)
  • And yet another, the Helium-Selenium (HeSe) laser, can generate wavelengths all the way from red to UV depending on the mirrors used. (repairfaq.org)
  • In the configuration described herein, the metal vapor jet produced by the source is axially injected into a fast (up to 15 kA/ ns), high current (up to 200 kA peak) capillary discharge to generate highly ionized cadmium plasma columns. (courtfield.ml)
  • Early excimer lasers had limited lifetimes due to a variety of problems, arising e.g. from the corrosive nature of the gases used and from contamination of the gas with chemical byproducts and dust created by the electric discharge. (rp-photonics.com)
  • Modifications on the ancillary ligand containing pyrene drastically affect the emission lifetimes observed (2 μs to 104 μs). (ubc.ca)
  • Extended emission lifetimes in these complexes compared to model complexes result from reversible electronic energy transfer or the observation of pyrene (³LC) phosphorescence. (ubc.ca)
  • CTUH15 Experimental Study of Tunability of a Discharge Pumped Molecular Fluorine Laser," CLEO90/Tuesday Poster, pp.106-108. (patentgenius.com)
  • 25, 1990, No. 26, "High specific output energy operation of a vacuum ultraviolet molecular fluorine laser excited at 66 MW/cm .sup.3 by an electric discharge," Masayuki Kakehata, Etsu Hashimoto, FumihikoKannari and Minoru Obara, 6 pgs. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1979, No. 6, "Novel neutral atomic fluorine laser lines in a high-pressure mixture of F.sub.2 and He," Shin Sumida, Minoru Obara, and Tomoo Fujioka, 10 pgs. (patentgenius.com)
  • IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics, Nov. 1991, vol. 27, No. 11, "Efficiency Characterization of Vacuum Ultraviolet Molecular Fluorine (F.sub.2) Laser (157 nm) Excited by an Intense Electric Discharge," Masayuki Kakehata, Tatsuya Uematsu, FumihikoKannari, and Minoru Obara, 10 pgs. (patentgenius.com)
  • IDENTIFY what the acronym LASER means and briefly DESCRIBE how a laser performs it function. (slideserve.com)
  • With the widespread use of the original acronym as a common noun, optical amplifiers have come to be referred to as "laser amplifiers", notwithstanding the apparent redundancy in that designation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the graphic presentation displayed includes a single peak within the range of the blue color band, it indicates that the tumor being tested is benign. (google.es)
  • If however, a second peak appears within the range of the red color band of the graphic presentation it is a characteristic peak of malignancy, indicating the existence of a malignant tumor. (google.es)
  • Passively Q-switched microchip technology for industrial lasers covers the range of hundreds of picoseconds down to 300 ps in the offerings of Teem Photonics. (photonics.com)
  • The chemometric models were used to analyze in near real time the field DIAL data acquired over this exact wavelength range at round trip distances of 7 and 13 km. (spie.org)
  • Laser technologies are used for a wide range of purposes in laser-based products, including CD players, DNA screening machines, forensic tools, missile guiding devices, mapping and topographic instruments, and surgical devices. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This review categorizes the types of DE according to the spin multiplicity and time range of the emission, with emphasis on recent experimental advances. (rsc.org)
  • Due to the spatial decoupling of the laser as main plasma energy source and the growth chamber, the PLD parameters such as the background gas partial pressure and the growth temperature can be varied in a uniquely wide range. (hindawi.com)
  • 2. The wave generator of claim 1 wherein the waves are electromagnetic waves and have wavelengths in the range of about 600 nm to about 2000 nm. (google.co.uk)
  • Pulsed laser ablation deposition (PLD) was used as an appropriate technique to fabricate thin films preserving the stoichiomeUy ofthe complex bulk materials. (spie.org)
  • The main object of this invention is to provide an improved laser ablation process and apparatus. (google.com.au)
  • Some embodiments include a unit operable to sense a response of nerve stimulation and to suppress a laser-ablation surgery operation. (justia.com)
  • 2 3 4 5 6 Other methods of corneal epithelial removal include mechanical debridement, 7 laser transepithelial ablation, 8 9 and a rotating brush. (arvojournals.org)
  • Emigh, Brent J., 'Experimental Evaluation of Bone Drilling using Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Ablation' (2011). (scribd.com)
  • TITLE: Experimental evaluation of bone drilling using ultrashort pulsed laser ablation AUTHOR: Brent J. Emigh, B.Sc. (scribd.com)
  • The original procedure was described using argon laser (major peaks at 488 nm and 514 nm). (aao.org)
  • If the angle is repeatedly treated with argon laser it will eventually lead to synechial angle closure and a decrease in outflow facility. (aao.org)
  • But if we go back to the beginnings of laser in Ophthalmology, the first laser-assisted therapy clinically tested and validated was retinal photocoagulation (in the early 70s), driven by the discovery of the argon ion laser in 1964. (monocrom.com)
  • As a result, NCs exhibit important physical properties which, in combination with the chemical stability and solution processability, make this class of functional materials particularly appealing for several technological fields, such as solid-state lighting, lasers, photovoltaics, and electronics. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • There is some evidence suggesting that EECP can help induce the formation of collateral vessels in the coronary artery tree, by stimulating the release of nitric oxide and other growth factors in within the coronary arteries. (findmeacure.com)
  • mitochondria produce and consume nitric oxide (NO) and NO stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, apparently via the upregulation of nucleotides like ATP and transcriptional factors like nuclear factor kappa B (Nf-kB). (theralase.com)
  • Lasers are also used in a variety of other fields including, medicine, communications, energy production, and national defense. (radford.edu)
  • In gas lasers, electrons are pumped to higher energy states by a voltage generator. (radford.edu)
  • In addition to optical and electrical energy, some lasers are also pumped by chemical and nuclear energy. (radford.edu)
  • Because the source of energy usually contains many wavelengths, the electrons can be excited to several energy levels. (radford.edu)
  • The amount of laser energy (joules) applied will vary dramatically between a CW pulsed laser and a superpulsed laser. (chiroeco.com)
  • Peak power drives laser energy deep into tissues, with little to no thermal effects. (chiroeco.com)
  • Superpulsed and CW lasers that have same average power (watts) deliver the same amount of energy (joules). (chiroeco.com)
  • Novel control features specially adapted for a two-chamber gas discharge laser system include: (1) pulse energy controls, with nanosecond timing precision (2) precision pulse to pulse wavelength controls with high speed and extreme speed wavelength tuning (3) fast response gas temperature control and (4) F 2 injection controls with novel learning algorithm. (google.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1 wherein said electromagnetic energy is obtained from a source selected from the group consisting of an excimer laser, a diode-pumped solid state laser, a semiconductor laser, and a flash lamp. (google.ca)
  • At last, we successfully laser-printed thermoelectric materials and realized microgenerators for energy harvesting applications. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • I have no doubt that the Martians in H. G. Wells' "The War of the Worlds" used CO2 lasers powered by cold fusion generators (probably with superconducting electrical backup storage) for their directed energy weapons. (repairfaq.org)
  • A laser microsurgical method and apparatus are disclosed for safely treating occluded body lumens with laser energy. (google.es)
  • A further embodiment of the catheter of the invention provides an array of laser fibers which are optically scanned with laser energy to cover the cross-sectional area of the lumen. (google.es)
  • High-energy harmonic mode-locked 2 μm dissipative soliton fiber lasers N Yang, Y Tang, J Xu - Laser Physics Letters, 2015 Abstract High-pulse-energy harmonic mode-locking in 2 μm Tm-doped fiber lasers (TDFLs) is realized, for the first time, by using a short piece of anomalous dispersion gain fiber and the dissipative soliton mode-locking mechanism. (laseris.ru)
  • 2. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein said source of high power laser energy comprises a pulsed laser, the output of which has a wavelength between 280 nm and 400 nm, a pluse duration between 10 and 500 ns and wherein the pulse energy per unit area is greater than 20 mJ/mm 2 . (google.com.au)
  • In accordance with the invention, high power ultraviolet laser energy is directed at an area to be ablated by means of an optical fiber. (google.com.au)
  • Hence cost-effectiveness, energy-efficiency or long lifetime gain sense as main drivers for present and future R&D strategies concerning ophthalmological lasers. (monocrom.com)
  • Reversible electronic energy transfer as well as 3pyrene emission is observed and characterized in a PMMA film. (ubc.ca)
  • Lasers are characterized according to their wavelength in a vacuum. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-power efficient vacuum ultraviolet F.sub.2 laser excited by an electric discharge," V.N. Ishchenko, S.A. Kochubei, and A.M. Razhev, 3 pgs. (patentgenius.com)
  • Soviet Journal of Quantum Electronics, 16(5) May 1986, "High-power efficient vacuum ultraviolet F.sub.2 laser excited by an electric discharge," V.N. Ishchenko, S.A. Kochubei, and A.M. Razhev, 9 pgs. (patentgenius.com)
  • 28, 1997, "Theoretical evaluation of high-efficiency operation of discharge-pumped vacuum-ultraviolet F.sub.2 lasers," Mieko Ohwa and Minoru Obara, 6 pgs. (patentgenius.com)
  • Where the laser tube is not sealed gaseous and liquid mercury, or gaseous cadmium or selenium (depending on what you are using) may be sucked up by the vacuum system so a trap must be provided on its inlet port. (repairfaq.org)
  • While not much is really used in a laser, metallic Hg and its compounds will get on all the interior surfaces of your laser tube, gas manifold, and up to or past the filter in your vacuum system. (repairfaq.org)
  • Ordinary glass is partially transparent to UVA but is opaque to shorter wavelengths while Silica or quartz glass , depending on quality, can be transparent even to vacuum UV wavelengths. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The onset of vacuum UV, 200 nm, is defined by the fact that ordinary air is opaque at shorter wavelengths. (thefullwiki.org)
  • When G captures a epub the nuclear the walls are investigated to collect a excimer ve been by the outside Einstein polymers - cortex. (dge-mv.de)
  • Advanced Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) processes allow the growth of oxide thin film heterostructures on large area substrates up to 4-inch diameter, with flexible and controlled doping, low dislocation density, and abrupt interfaces. (hindawi.com)
  • This has wide practical significance now that semiconductor manufacturing processes are using wavelengths shorter than 200 nm. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The first laser was built by Theodore Maiman in 1960 using a synthetic ruby crystal as the lasing medium. (radford.edu)
  • The first working laser was demonstrated in May 1960 by Theodore Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow. (wikipedia.org)