The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.
Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).
Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.
Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
The practice of assisting women in childbirth.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
Care of infants in the home or institution.

Threshold-linear estimation of genetic parameters for farrowing mortality, litter size, and test performance of Large White sows. (1/412)

Up to 109,447 records of 49,656 Large White sows were used to evaluate the genetic relationship between number of pigs born dead (BD) and number born alive (BA) in first and later parities. Performance data (n = 30,832) for ultrasound backfat (BF) at the end of the test and days to reach 113.5 kg (AD) were used to estimate their relationships with BD and BA at first parity in a four-trait threshold-linear analysis (TL). Effects were year-farm, contemporary group (CG: farm-farrowing year-farrowing month) and animal additive genetic. At first parity, estimates of heritability were 0.09, 0.09, 0.37, and 0.31 for BA, BD, AD, and BF, respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between BD and litter size was -0.04 (BD-BA). Corresponding values with test traits were both -0.14 (BD-AD, BD-BF). Estimates of genetic correlation between BA and performance traits were 0.08 (BA-AD) and 0.05 (BA-BF). The two test traits were moderately negatively correlated (-0.22). For later parities, a six-trait (BD, BA in three parities) TL model was implemented. The estimates of additive genetic variances and heritability increased with parity for BD and BA. Estimates of heritabilities were: 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 for BD, and 0.09, 0.12, and 0.12 for BA in parities one to three, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between different parities were high (0.91 to 0.96) for BD, and slightly lower (0.74 to 0.95) for BA. Genetic correlations between BD and BA were low and positive (0.02 to 0.17) for BA in Parities 1 and 2, but negative (-0.04 to -0.10) for BA in Parity 3. Selection for increased litter size should have little effect on farrowing piglet mortality. Intense selection for faster growth and increased leanness should increase farrowing piglet mortality of first-parity sows. A repeatability model with a simple correction for the heterogeneity of variances over parities could be implemented to select against farrowing mortality. The genetic components of perinatal piglet mortality are independent of the ones for litter size in the first parity, and they show an undesirable, but not strong, genetic association in second parity.  (+info)

The placental RCAS1 expression during stillbirth. (2/412)

BACKGROUND: Independently of the fetal death cause the beginning and course of stillbirth is closely related with the growing cytotoxic activity at the maternal-fetal interface. RCAS1 participates in the inhibition of maternal immune response during pregnancy. The alterations of RCAS1 protein expression in placental cells seem to determine the beginning of the labor and participate in the placental abruption. The aim of the present study was to investigate RCAS1 expression in placentas obtained following stillbirths or normal term births. METHODS: RCAS1 expression was evaluated by Western blot method with the use of monoclonal anti-RCAS1 antibody in 67 placental tissue samples. Pregnant women were divided into four groups according to the mode of labor onset--spontaneous or induced, and the type of labor, stillbirth or labor at term. Placental beta-Actin expression was chosen as a control protein. Relative amounts of placental RCAS1 were compared with the use of Student's t-test, whereas beta-Actin control data were compared with the use of Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The average relative amount of RCAS1 was significantly lower in women with induced stillbirths than in women with induced labor at term. Similarly, significantly lower RCAS1 placental levels were observed in patients with spontaneous stillbirths than in women with spontaneous labor at term. Significant differences in RCAS1 expression were also observed with the respect to the beginning of the stillbirth: spontaneous and induced. Lowest RCAS1 placental levels were observed in women with spontaneous stillbirth. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results indicate that the alterations of RCAS1 expression in the human placenta may be involved in the changes of maternal immune system that take place during stillbirth.  (+info)

Minor physical anomalies are not increased in the offspring of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus. (3/412)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and type of minor physical anomalies (MPAs) in infants born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Each trimester, pregnant women with SLE were assessed for disease activity, prescribed drug use, and exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs through a self reported questionnaire. Infant examinations were performed on 30/39 (77%) live births in women with SLE and the incidence of MPAs determined. RESULTS: 2/30 (7%) patients had three or more MPAs; 4 (13%) had two; 7 (23%) had one; and 17 (57%) had none. One in three women reported alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. Facial anomalies were the most common MPAs. The relative risk and 95% confidence interval for any MPA were 2.05 (0.99 to 4.26) for tobacco use; 1.95 (0.92 to 4.11) for alcohol use; 1.36 (0.165 to 11.23) for maternal disease flare; 0.63 (0.27 to 1.47) for prednisone use; and 0.72 (0.21 to 2.44) for aspirin use. CONCLUSION: 13/30 (43%) infants had minor anomalies-a similar incidence to that of the general population. Counselling for preventable self reported exposure is advisable in addition to counselling specifically for lupus management during pregnancy.  (+info)

Can all neonatal resuscitation be managed by nurse practitioners? (4/412)

AIM: To assess the ability of nurse practitioners to manage the care of all babies requiring resuscitation at birth in a unit without on site medical assistance. METHOD: A prospective review, and selective external audit, of the case records of all 14 572 babies born in a maternity unit in the north of England during the first eight years after nurse practitioners replaced resident paediatric staff in 1996. RESULTS: Every non-malformed baby with an audible heart beat at the start of delivery was successfully resuscitated. Twenty term babies and 41 preterm babies were intubated at birth. Eight term babies only responded after acidosis or hypovolaemia was corrected following umbilical vein catheterisation; in each case the catheter was in place within six minutes of birth. Early grade 2-3 neonatal encephalopathy occurred with much the same frequency (0.12%) as in other recent studies. Independent external cross validated review found no case of substandard care during the first hour of life. CONCLUSION: The practitioners successfully managed all the problems coming their way from the time of appointment. There was no evidence that their skill decreased over time even though, on average, they only found themselves undertaking laryngeal intubation once a year. It remains to be shown that this level of competence can be replicated in other settings.  (+info)

The distribution of apolipoprotein E alleles in Scottish perinatal deaths. (5/412)

BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism has been well studied in the adult human population, in part because the e4 allele is a known risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Little is known of the distribution of ApoE alleles in newborns, and their association with perinatal brain damage has not been investigated. METHODS: ApoE genotyping was undertaken in a Scottish cohort of perinatal deaths (n = 261), some of whom had prenatal brain damage. The distribution of ApoE alleles in perinatal deaths was compared with that in healthy liveborn infants and in adults in Scotland. RESULTS: ApoE e2 was over-represented in 251 perinatal deaths (13% v 8% in healthy newborns, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13 to 2.36 and 13% v 8% in adults, OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.41), both in liveborn and stillborn perinatal deaths. In contrast, the prevalence of ApoE e4 was raised in healthy liveborn infants (19%) compared with stillbirths (13%, OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.26) and with adults (15%, OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.76). However, no correlation was found between ApoE genotype and the presence or absence of perinatal brain damage. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a shift in ApoE allelic distribution in early life compared with adults. The raised prevalence of ApoE e2 associated with perinatal death suggests that this allele is detrimental to pregnancy outcome, whereas ApoE e4 may be less so. However, ApoE genotype did not appear to influence the vulnerability for perinatal hypoxic/ischaemic brain damage, in agreement with findings in adult brains and in animal models.  (+info)

Uterine artery Doppler at 11-14 weeks of gestation to screen for hypertensive disorders and associated complications in an unselected population. (6/412)

OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for the first-trimester uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) and to investigate the role of UtA Doppler in the early prediction of hypertensive disorders and their associated complications in an unselected Mediterranean population. METHODS: A prospective study including 1091 consecutive singleton pregnancies undergoing routine early ultrasound screening at 11-14 weeks of gestation was performed. The left and right UtA were examined by color and pulsed Doppler transvaginally. The mean PI and the presence of bilateral protodiastolic notching were cross-sectionally recorded. Reference ranges were calculated and the pregnancies were followed for occurrence of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction, placental abruption and stillbirth. The sensitivity and predictive values of a mean UtA-PI>95th percentile and the presence of bilateral notching in the prediction of these pregnancy complications were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 999 women were finally included. Both the mean UtA-PI and the prevalence of bilateral notches showed a significant linear decrease between 11 and 14 weeks' gestation. Sixty-seven (6.7%) pregnancies developed at least one of the formerly described complications, including 22 (2.2%) cases of pre-eclampsia and 37 (3.7%) cases with intrauterine growth restriction. Compared with women with a normal outcome, complicated pregnancies showed a significantly higher mean PI (2.04 vs. 1.75; P<0.05, t-test) and a higher prevalence of bilateral notching (58% vs. 41%; P<0.05, Chi-square test). Using the 95th percentile in mean UtA-PI as a cut-off, 23.9% (95% CI, 13.7-34.1) of complicated pregnancies and 30.8% (95% CI, 5.68-55.85) of severe cases were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that pregnancies with an increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders and related complications already have an abnormally increased UtA-PI in early pregnancy. However, the use of a single uterine Doppler measurement for screening purposes in unselected early pregnancy populations has limited clinical value. The use of UtA-PI combined with other screening tests needs to be determined by further investigation.  (+info)

Validity of maternal and perinatal risk factors reported on fetal death certificates. (7/412)

We sought to estimate the accuracy, relative to maternal medical records, of perinatal risk factors recorded on fetal death certificates. We conducted a validation study of fetal death certificates among women who experienced fetal deaths between 1996 and 2001. The number of previous births, established diabetes, chronic hypertension, maternal fever, performance of autopsy, anencephaly, and Down syndrome had very high accuracy, while placental cord conditions and other chromosomal abnormalities were reported inaccurately. Additional population-based studies are needed to identify strategies to improve fetal death certificate data.  (+info)

Coffee and fetal death: a cohort study with prospective data. (8/412)

The authors conducted a cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort to determine whether coffee consumption during pregnancy is associated with late fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth). A total of 88,482 pregnant women recruited from March 1996 to November 2002 participated in a comprehensive interview on coffee consumption and potentially confounding factors in pregnancy. Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register and medical records. The authors detected 1,102 fetal deaths. High levels of coffee consumption were associated with an increased risk of fetal death. Relative to nonconsumers of coffee, the adjusted hazard ratios for fetal death associated with coffee consumption of 1/2-3, 4-7, and > or =8 cups of coffee per day were 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 1.19), 1.33 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.63), and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.13), respectively. Reverse causation due to unrecognized fetal demise may explain the association between coffee intake and risk of fetal death prior to 20 completed weeks' gestation but not the association with fetal loss following 20 completed weeks' gestation. Consumption of coffee during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of fetal death, especially losses occurring after 20 completed weeks of gestation.  (+info)

There are different types of fetal death, including:

1. Stillbirth: This refers to the death of a fetus after the 20th week of gestation. It can be caused by various factors, such as infections, placental problems, or umbilical cord compression.
2. Miscarriage: This occurs before the 20th week of gestation and is usually due to chromosomal abnormalities or hormonal imbalances.
3. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a rare condition where the fertilized egg implants outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. It can cause fetal death and is often diagnosed in the early stages of pregnancy.
4. Intrafamilial stillbirth: This refers to the death of two or more fetuses in a multiple pregnancy, usually due to genetic abnormalities or placental problems.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound examination or other imaging tests, such as MRI or CT scans. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may be unknown, and further testing and investigation may be required to determine the underlying cause.

There are various ways to manage fetal death, depending on the stage of pregnancy and the cause of the death. In some cases, a vaginal delivery may be necessary, while in others, a cesarean section may be performed. In cases where the fetus has died due to a genetic abnormality, couples may choose to undergo genetic counseling and testing to assess their risk of having another affected pregnancy.

Overall, fetal death is a tragic event that can have significant emotional and psychological impact on parents and families. It is essential to provide compassionate support and care to those affected by this loss, while also ensuring appropriate medical management and follow-up.

1. Preeclampsia: A condition characterized by high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as stroke or premature birth.
2. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can cause complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated.
3. Placenta previa: A condition in which the placenta is located low in the uterus, covering the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
4. Premature labor: Labor that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
5. Fetal distress: A condition in which the fetus is not getting enough oxygen, which can lead to serious health problems or even death.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery, which can be life-threatening if left untreated.
7. Cesarean section (C-section) complications: Complications that may arise during a C-section, such as infection or bleeding.
8. Maternal infections: Infections that the mother may contract during pregnancy or childbirth, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections.
9. Preterm birth: Birth that occurs before 37 weeks of gestation, which can increase the risk of health problems for the baby.
10. Chromosomal abnormalities: Genetic disorders that may affect the baby's growth and development, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome.

It is important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for any potential complications and ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. In some cases, pregnancy complications may require medical interventions, such as hospitalization or surgery, to ensure the safety of both the mother and the baby.

Congenital Abnormalities are relatively common, and they affect approximately 1 in every 30 children born worldwide. Some of the most common types of Congenital Abnormalities include:

Heart Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the structure or function of the heart. They can range from mild to severe and can be caused by genetics, viral infections, or other factors. Examples include holes in the heart, narrowed valves, and enlarged heart chambers.

Neural Tube Defects: These are abnormalities that affect the brain and spine. They occur when the neural tube, which forms the brain and spine, does not close properly during fetal development. Examples include anencephaly (absence of a major portion of the brain), spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spine), and encephalocele (protrusion of the brain or meninges through a skull defect).

Chromosomal Abnormalities: These are changes in the number or structure of chromosomes that can affect physical and mental development. Examples include Down syndrome (an extra copy of chromosome 21), Turner syndrome (a missing or partially deleted X chromosome), and Klinefelter syndrome (an extra X chromosome).

Other types of Congenital Abnormalities include cleft lip and palate, clubfoot, and polydactyly (extra fingers or toes).

Congenital Abnormalities can be diagnosed before birth through prenatal testing such as ultrasound, blood tests, and amniocentesis. After birth, they can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment for Congenital Abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medication, and other forms of therapy. In some cases, the abnormality may be minor and may not require any treatment, while in other cases, it may be more severe and may require ongoing medical care throughout the person's life.

Definition:

Veterinary abortion refers to the intentional termination of a pregnancy in an animal, typically a farm or domesticated animal such as a dog, cat, horse, cow, or pig. The procedure is performed by a veterinarian and is usually done for reasons such as unwanted breeding, disease or genetic disorders in the fetus, or to prevent overpopulation of certain species.

Types of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage): This occurs naturally when the pregnancy is terminated by natural causes such as infection or trauma.
2. Induced Abortion: This is performed by a veterinarian using various methods such as injection of drugs or surgical procedures to terminate the pregnancy.

Methods of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Drug-induced abortion: This method involves administering medication to the animal to cause uterine contractions and expulsion of the fetus.
2. Surgical abortion: This method involves surgical intervention to remove the fetus from the uterus, usually through a small incision in the abdomen.
3. Non-surgical abortion: This method uses a device to remove the fetus from the uterus without making an incision.

Complications and Risks of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection.
2. Hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding can occur during or after the procedure.
3. Uterine rupture: In rare cases, the uterus may rupture during the procedure.
4. Incomplete abortion: In some cases, not all of the fetus may be removed, leading to complications later on.
5. Scarring: Scars may form in the uterus or abdomen after the procedure, which can lead to reproductive problems in the future.

Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancies in Animals:

1. Spaying/neutering: This is the most effective way to prevent unwanted pregnancies in animals.
2. Breeding management: Proper breeding management, including selecting healthy and fertile breeding animals, can help reduce the risk of unwanted pregnancies.
3. Use of contraceptives: Hormonal contraceptives, such as injection or implants, can be used in some species to prevent pregnancy.
4. Behavioral management: In some cases, behavioral management techniques, such as separation or rehoming of animals, may be necessary to prevent unwanted breeding.

Ethical Considerations of Veterinary Abortion:

1. Animal welfare: The procedure should only be performed when necessary and with the intention of improving the animal's welfare.
2. Owner consent: Owners must provide informed consent before the procedure can be performed.
3. Veterinarian expertise: The procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure.
4. Alternative options: All alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should be considered before performing an abortion.

Conclusion:

Veterinary abortion is a complex issue that requires careful consideration of ethical and practical factors. While it may be necessary in some cases to prevent the suffering of unwanted litters, it is important to approach the procedure with caution and respect for animal welfare. Owners must provide informed consent, and the procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure. Alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should also be considered before performing an abortion. Ultimately, the decision to perform a veterinary abortion should be made with the intention of improving the animal's welfare and quality of life.

Premature birth can be classified into several categories based on gestational age at birth:

1. Extreme prematurity: Born before 24 weeks of gestation.
2. Very preterm: Born between 24-27 weeks of gestation.
3. Moderate to severe preterm: Born between 28-32 weeks of gestation.
4. Late preterm: Born between 34-36 weeks of gestation.

The causes of premature birth are not fully understood, but several factors have been identified as increasing the risk of premature birth. These include:

1. Previous premature birth
2. Multiple gestations (twins, triplets etc.)
3. History of cervical surgery or cervical incompetence
4. Chronic medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes
5. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
6. Pregnancy-related complications such as preeclampsia and placenta previa
7. Stress and poor social support
8. Smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy
9. Poor nutrition and lack of prenatal care.

Premature birth can have significant short-term and long-term health consequences for the baby, including respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis. Children who are born prematurely may also have developmental delays, learning disabilities and behavioral problems later in life.

There is no single test that can predict premature birth with certainty, but several screening tests are available to identify women at risk. These include ultrasound examination, maternal serum screening for estriol and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), and cervical length measurement.

While there is no proven way to prevent premature birth entirely, several strategies have been shown to reduce the risk, including:

1. Progesterone supplementation: Progesterone appears to help prevent preterm labor in some women with a history of previous preterm birth or other risk factors.
2. Corticosteroids: Corticosteroids given to mothers at risk of preterm birth can help mature the baby's lungs and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome.
3. Calcium supplementation: Calcium may help improve fetal bone development and reduce the risk of premature birth.
4. Good prenatal care: Regular prenatal check-ups, proper nutrition and avoiding smoking, alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can help reduce the risk of premature birth.
5. Avoiding stress: Stress can increase the risk of premature birth, so finding ways to manage stress during pregnancy is important.
6. Preventing infections: Infections such as group B strep and urinary tract infections can increase the risk of premature birth, so it's important to take steps to prevent them.
7. Maintaining a healthy weight gain during pregnancy: Excessive weight gain during pregnancy can increase the risk of premature birth.
8. Avoiding preterm contractions: Preterm contractions can be a sign of impending preterm labor, so it's important to be aware of them and seek medical attention if they occur.
9. Prolonged gestation: Prolonging pregnancy beyond 37 weeks may reduce the risk of premature birth.
10. Cervical cerclage: A cervical cerclage is a stitch used to close the cervix and prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix or other risk factors.

It's important to note that not all of these strategies will be appropriate or effective for every woman, so it's important to discuss your individual risk factors and any concerns you may have with your healthcare provider.

1. Group B streptococcus (GBS): This type of bacterial infection is the leading cause of infections in newborns. GBS can cause a range of complications, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are common during pregnancy and can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. UTIs can lead to complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
3. HIV: Pregnant women who are infected with HIV can pass the virus to their baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
4. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by a parasite that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. Toxoplasmosis can cause a range of complications, including birth defects and stillbirth.
5. Listeriosis: This is a rare infection caused by eating contaminated food, such as soft cheeses or hot dogs. Listeriosis can cause complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature labor.
6. Influenza: Pregnant women who contract the flu can be at higher risk for complications such as pneumonia and hospitalization.
7. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and neonatal herpes.
8. Human parvovirus (HPV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and stillbirth.
9. Syphilis: This is a sexually transmitted infection that can be passed to the fetus during pregnancy, leading to complications such as stillbirth, premature birth, and congenital syphilis.
10. Chickenpox: Pregnant women who contract chickenpox can be at higher risk for complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.

It's important to note that the risks associated with these infections are relatively low, and many pregnant women who contract them will have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. However, it's still important to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect yourself and your baby.

Here are some ways to reduce your risk of infection during pregnancy:

1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands frequently, especially before preparing or eating food.
2. Avoid certain foods: Avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, eggs, and dairy products, as well as unpasteurized juices and soft cheeses.
3. Get vaccinated: Get vaccinated against infections such as the flu and HPV.
4. Practice safe sex: Use condoms or other forms of barrier protection to prevent the spread of STIs.
5. Avoid close contact with people who are sick: If someone in your household is sick, try to avoid close contact with them if possible.
6. Keep your environment clean: Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with germs.
7. Manage stress: High levels of stress can weaken your immune system and make you more susceptible to infection.
8. Get enough rest: Adequate sleep is essential for maintaining a healthy immune system.
9. Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day to help flush out harmful bacteria and viruses.
10. Consider taking prenatal vitamins: Prenatal vitamins can help support your immune system and overall health during pregnancy.

Remember, it's always better to be safe than sorry, so if you suspect that you may have been exposed to an infection or are experiencing symptoms of an infection during pregnancy, contact your healthcare provider right away. They can help determine the appropriate course of action and ensure that you and your baby stay healthy.

Some common examples of obstetric labor complications include:

1. Prolonged labor: When labor lasts for an extended period, it can increase the risk of infection, bleeding, or other complications.
2. Fetal distress: If the baby is not getting enough oxygen, it can lead to fetal distress, which can cause a range of symptoms, including abnormal heart rate and decreased muscle tone.
3. Placental abruption: This occurs when the placenta separates from the uterus, which can cause bleeding, deprive the baby of oxygen, and lead to premature delivery.
4. Cephalopelvic disproportion: When the baby's head or pelvis is larger than the mother's, it can make delivery difficult or impossible, leading to complications such as prolonged labor or a cesarean section.
5. Dystocia: This refers to abnormal or difficult labor, which can be caused by various factors, including fetal size or position, maternal weight, or abnormalities in the pelvis or cervix.
6. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery can be a life-threatening complication for both mothers and babies.
7. Infection: Bacterial infections, such as endometritis or sepsis, can occur during labor and delivery and can pose serious health risks to both the mother and the baby.
8. Preeclampsia: A pregnancy-related condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the kidneys and liver.
9. Gestational diabetes: A type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy, which can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.
10. Cholestasis of pregnancy: A condition in which the gallbladder becomes inflamed, leading to abdominal pain and liver dysfunction.

It is important to note that not all large babies will experience these complications, and many can be delivered safely with proper medical care and attention. However, the risk of these complications does increase as the baby's size increases.

In some cases, doctors may recommend delivery by cesarean section (C-section) if they suspect that the baby is too large to pass through the birth canal safely. This decision will be based on a variety of factors, including the mother's health, the baby's size and position, and any other medical conditions or complications that may be present.

Overall, while a big baby can pose some risks during delivery, modern medicine and obstetric care have made it possible to deliver most babies safely, even if they are larger than average. If you have any concerns about your baby's size or your own health during pregnancy, be sure to discuss them with your healthcare provider.

Symptoms of congenital syphilis may include:

* Deformities of the face, skull, or bones
* Developmental delays or intellectual disability
* Seizures, blindness, or hearing loss
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Rash, fever, or other signs of syphilis infection

Diagnosis of congenital syphilis is typically made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical imaging studies. Treatment involves antibiotics to clear the infection and manage symptoms. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can help prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes for infected babies.

Preventive measures include screening pregnant women for syphilis and treating those who test positive promptly to prevent transmission of the infection to their developing fetuses. Safe sexual practices, such as using condoms, can also help reduce the risk of acquiring syphilis during pregnancy.

This can happen for various reasons, such as:

1. Prolonged labor or difficult delivery
2. Umbilical cord compression or knotting
3. Fetal distress or heart rate abnormalities during delivery
4. Maternal hypertension or pre-eclampsia
5. Placental abruption or placental insufficiency
6. Infection in the mother or baby during pregnancy or delivery
7. Drug or alcohol exposure during pregnancy
8. Maternal trauma or shock during delivery
9. Fetal growth restriction or small for gestational age
10. Congenital anomalies or birth defects

The symptoms of asphyxia neonatorum can vary depending on the severity and duration of the oxygen deprivation, but may include:

1. Cyanosis (blue skin color)
2. Apnea (pauses in breathing)
3. Bradycardia (slow heart rate)
4. Hypotonia (low muscle tone)
5. Poor reflexes
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Gradual decline in muscle tone and organ function over time
8. Increased risk of infection or sepsis
9. Neurological damage, including cerebral palsy or cognitive impairment
10. Mortality (death)

Asphyxia neonatorum is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention and treatment. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and other supportive care to help the baby recover from the asphyxial event. In severe cases, asphyxia neonatorum can lead to long-term disabilities or death, so it is crucial to identify and treat the underlying causes promptly and effectively.

Low birth weight is defined as less than 2500 grams (5 pounds 8 ounces) and is associated with a higher risk of health problems, including respiratory distress, infection, and developmental delays. Premature birth is also a risk factor for low birth weight, as premature infants may not have had enough time to grow to a healthy weight before delivery.

On the other hand, high birth weight is associated with an increased risk of macrosomia, a condition in which the baby is significantly larger than average and may require a cesarean section (C-section) or assisted delivery. Macrosomia can also increase the risk of injury to the mother during delivery.

Birth weight can be influenced by various factors during pregnancy, including maternal nutrition, prenatal care, and fetal growth patterns. However, it is important to note that birth weight alone is not a definitive indicator of a baby's health or future development. Other factors, such as the baby's overall physical condition, Apgar score (a measure of the baby's well-being at birth), and postnatal care, are also important indicators of long-term health outcomes.

Symptoms of PIH can include:

* Headaches
* Blurred vision
* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Swelling of the hands and feet
* Shortness of breath
* Seizures (in severe cases)

PIH can be diagnosed through blood pressure readings, urine tests, and imaging studies such as ultrasound. Treatment for PIH usually involves bed rest, medication to lower blood pressure, and close monitoring by a healthcare provider. In severe cases, delivery may be necessary.

Preventive measures for PIH include:

* Regular prenatal care to monitor blood pressure and detect any changes early
* Avoiding excessive weight gain during pregnancy
* Eating a healthy diet low in salt and fat
* Getting regular exercise as recommended by a healthcare provider

PIH can be a serious condition for both the mother and the baby. If left untreated, it can lead to complications such as stroke, placental abruption (separation of the placenta from the uterus), and premature birth. In severe cases, it can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby.

Overall, PIH is a condition that requires close monitoring and careful management to ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome.

Eclampsia can occur at any time after the 20th week of pregnancy, but it is more common in the third trimester. It can also occur after delivery, especially in women who have a history of preeclampsia during pregnancy.

Symptoms of eclampsia can include:

1. Seizures or convulsions
2. Loss of consciousness or coma
3. Confusion or disorientation
4. Muscle weakness or paralysis
5. Vision problems or blurred vision
6. Numbness or tingling sensations in the hands and feet
7. Headaches or severe head pain
8. Abdominal pain or discomfort
9. Bladder or bowel incontinence
10. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat.

Eclampsia is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Treatment typically involves delivery of the baby, either by cesarean section or vaginal birth, and management of the high blood pressure and any other complications that may have arisen. In some cases, medication may be given to help lower the blood pressure and prevent further seizures.

Preventive measures for eclampsia include regular prenatal care, careful monitoring of blood pressure during pregnancy, and early detection and treatment of preeclampsia. Women who have had preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy or who are at high risk for the condition may be advised to take aspirin or other medications to reduce their risk of developing eclampsia.

In summary, eclampsia is a serious medical condition that can occur during pregnancy and is characterized by seizures or coma caused by high blood pressure. It is a life-threatening complication of preeclampsia and requires immediate medical attention.

Dystocia is a term used to describe abnormal or difficult labor, which can be caused by a variety of factors such as fetal size, position, or gestational age. It is characterized by slow progress of labor, prolonged labor, or failure of the cervix to dilate adequately. Dystocia can lead to complications such as fetal distress, infection, or excessive maternal bleeding.

There are several types of dystocia, including:

1. Prolonged latent phase dystocia: This is a type of dystocia where the early stages of labor are prolonged, often due to the fetus being in an unfavorable position or having a slower than average rate of growth.
2. Arrest of descent dystocia: In this type of dystocia, the fetus's head is dilated but fails to progress further down the birth canal, often due to fetal distress or abnormal fetal positioning.
3. Cervical dystocia: This type of dystocia occurs when the cervix does not dilate adequately during labor, making it difficult for the baby to pass through the birth canal.
4. Fetal dystocia: This is a type of dystocia where the fetus is unable to move down the birth canal due to its size or position, often causing fetal distress.
5. Maternal dystocia: This type of dystocia occurs when the mother experiences difficulty during labor, such as a narrow pelvis or excessive fatigue.

Dystocia can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Fetal size or position: The fetus may be too large or in an abnormal position, making it difficult to pass through the birth canal.
2. Maternal factors: The mother may have a narrow pelvis, excessive fatigue, or other medical conditions that can cause difficulty during labor.
3. Infection: Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections can cause dystocia.
4. Previous uterine surgery: Scar tissue from previous surgeries can make it difficult for the fetus to pass through the birth canal.
5. Placental problems: Abnormalities with the placenta, such as placenta previa or placental abruption, can cause dystocia.

Dystocia can be treated in several ways, depending on the underlying cause. These may include:

1. Prostaglandin: This medication is used to stimulate contractions and soften the cervix, making it easier for the fetus to pass through the birth canal.
2. Oxytocin: This hormone can be used to stimulate uterine contractions and help the baby move down the birth canal.
3. Forceps or vacuum extraction: These instruments may be used to assist with delivery, especially if the baby is experiencing fetal distress.
4. Cesarean section: In some cases, a C-section may be necessary if dystocia cannot be resolved through other means.
5. Fetal monitoring: Close monitoring of the fetus's heart rate and other vital signs can help identify any issues that may arise during labor.

It is important to note that dystocia can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and baby, such as fetal distress, infection, and postpartum hemorrhage. Therefore, it is crucial to seek medical attention immediately if signs of dystocia are present or if labor is not progressing as expected.

1. Growth restriction: The baby may be smaller than expected due to limited growth potential.
2. Premature birth: The baby may be born prematurely due to the stress of placental insufficiency on the maternal body.
3. Low birth weight: The baby may have a low birth weight, which can increase the risk of health problems after birth.
4. Increased risk of stillbirth: Placental insufficiency can increase the risk of stillbirth, particularly in cases where the condition is severe or untreated.
5. Preeclampsia: This is a serious pregnancy complication that can cause high blood pressure, protein in the urine, and other symptoms.
6. Gestational diabetes: Women with placental insufficiency may be at increased risk of developing gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy.
7. Hypertension: Placental insufficiency can cause high blood pressure in the mother, which can lead to other complications such as preeclampsia.
8. Preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM): This is a condition where the amniotic sac surrounding the baby ruptures before 37 weeks of gestation.
9. Fetal distress: The baby may experience stress and difficulty adapting to the womb environment, leading to fetal distress.
10. Increased risk of cognitive and behavioral problems: Children born with placental insufficiency may be at increased risk of developmental delays, learning disabilities, and behavioral problems.

Placental insufficiency can be caused by a range of factors, including:

1. Maternal hypertension or preeclampsia
2. Gestational diabetes
3. Fetal growth restriction
4. Multiple gestations (twins or triplets)
5. Uterine abnormalities or anomalies
6. Infections such as group B strep or urinary tract infections
7. Maternal age over 35 years
8. Obesity or overweight
9. Family history of placental insufficiency or other pregnancy complications
10. Other medical conditions, such as thyroid disorders or autoimmune diseases.

There are several methods for diagnosing placental insufficiency, including:

1. Ultrasound examination to assess fetal growth and well-being
2. Non-stress test (NST) to monitor fetal heart rate
3. Biophysical profile (BPP) to evaluate fetal movement and breathing movements
4. Doppler ultrasound to assess blood flow through the placenta
5. Placental growth factor (PGF) testing to measure the levels of this protein, which is produced by the placenta and can indicate placental insufficiency.

There are several treatment options for placental insufficiency, including:

1. Bed rest or hospitalization to monitor the mother and baby
2. Medications to stimulate fetal movement and improve blood flow to the placenta
3. Corticosteroids to promote fetal maturity and reduce the risk of preterm birth
4. Antibiotics to treat any underlying infections
5. Planned delivery, either vaginal or cesarean, if the condition is severe or if there are other complications present.

It's important for pregnant women to be aware of the risk factors and signs of placental insufficiency, as early detection and treatment can improve outcomes for both the mother and baby. Regular prenatal care and close monitoring by a healthcare provider can help identify any potential issues and ensure appropriate management.

Prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby. Some potential risks include:

1. Preterm labor: As the pregnancy extends beyond 42 weeks, the risk of preterm labor increases, which can lead to premature birth and related health issues.
2. Gestational diabetes: Prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes, a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy.
3. Hypertension: Prolonged pregnancy can lead to high blood pressure, which can be dangerous for both the mother and the baby.
4. Preeclampsia: This is a condition characterized by high blood pressure, swelling, and protein in the urine, which can be life-threatening for both the mother and the baby.
5. Placenta previa: This is a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
6. Fetal growth restriction: The baby may not grow at a normal rate, leading to low birth weight and other health issues.
7. Stillbirth: In rare cases, prolonged pregnancy can increase the risk of stillbirth.

To monitor the progression of a prolonged pregnancy, healthcare providers may use various techniques such as ultrasound, non-stress tests, and biophysical profiles to assess fetal well-being and determine if delivery is necessary. In some cases, labor may be induced or cesarean section may be performed to avoid potential complications.

Prolonged pregnancy can be a challenging and stressful experience for expectant mothers, but with proper medical care and monitoring, the risks can be minimized, and a healthy baby can be delivered safely.

Some common examples of drug-induced abnormalities include:

1. Allergic reactions: Some drugs can cause an allergic reaction, which can lead to symptoms such as hives, itching, swelling, and difficulty breathing.
2. Side effects: Many drugs can cause side effects, such as nausea, dizziness, and fatigue, which can be mild or severe.
3. Toxic reactions: Some drugs can cause toxic reactions, which can damage the body's organs and tissues.
4. Autoimmune disorders: Certain drugs can trigger autoimmune disorders, such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis, which can cause a range of symptoms including joint pain, fatigue, and skin rashes.
5. Gastrointestinal problems: Some drugs can cause gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach ulcers, diarrhea, or constipation.
6. Neurological disorders: Certain drugs can cause neurological disorders, such as seizures, tremors, and changes in mood or behavior.
7. Cardiovascular problems: Some drugs can increase the risk of cardiovascular problems, such as heart attack or stroke.
8. Metabolic changes: Certain drugs can cause metabolic changes, such as weight gain or loss, and changes in blood sugar levels.
9. Endocrine disorders: Some drugs can affect the body's endocrine system, leading to hormonal imbalances and a range of symptoms including changes in mood, energy levels, and sexual function.
10. Kidney damage: Certain drugs can cause kidney damage or failure, especially in people with pre-existing kidney problems.

It's important to note that not all drugs will cause side effects, and the severity of side effects can vary depending on the individual and the specific drug being taken. However, it's important to be aware of the potential risks associated with any medication you are taking, and to discuss any concerns or questions you have with your healthcare provider.

There are several types of placenta diseases that can occur during pregnancy, including:

1. Placenta previa: This is a condition in which the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and other complications.
2. Placental abruption: This is a condition in which the placenta separates from the uterus, which can cause bleeding and can lead to premature delivery.
3. Placental invasion: This is a condition in which the placenta grows into the muscle of the uterus, which can cause complications during delivery.
4. Placental insufficiency: This is a condition in which the placenta does not function properly, which can lead to growth restriction and other complications.
5. Chorioamnionitis: This is an infection of the placenta and amniotic fluid, which can cause fever, chills, and other symptoms.
6. Placental tumors: These are rare growths that can occur on the placenta during pregnancy.
7. Placental blood clots: These are blood clots that can form in the placenta, which can cause complications such as preterm labor and delivery.
8. Preeclampsia: This is a condition that causes high blood pressure and other symptoms during pregnancy, which can lead to complications such as placental abruption and preterm delivery.
9. Gestational diabetes: This is a type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy, which can increase the risk of placenta diseases.
10. Hypertension: This is high blood pressure during pregnancy, which can increase the risk of placenta diseases such as preeclampsia and placental abruption.
11. Multiple births: Women who are carrying multiple babies (twins, triplets, etc.) may be at higher risk for placenta diseases due to the increased demands on the placenta.
12. Age: Women who are over 35 years old may be at higher risk for placenta diseases due to age-related changes in the placenta and other factors.
13. Obesity: Women who are obese may be at higher risk for placenta diseases due to increased inflammation and other factors.
14. Smoking: Smoking during pregnancy can increase the risk of placenta diseases due to the harmful effects of smoking on the placenta and other organs.
15. Poor prenatal care: Women who do not receive adequate prenatal care may be at higher risk for placenta diseases due to lack of monitoring and treatment.
16. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, and kidney disease, can increase the risk of placenta diseases.
17. Infections: Women who develop infections during pregnancy, such as group B strep or urinary tract infections, may be at higher risk for placenta diseases.
18. Previous history of placenta problems: Women who have had previous complications with the placenta, such as placenta previa or placental abruption, may be at higher risk for placenta diseases in future pregnancies.

It's important to note that many women who experience one or more of these risk factors will not develop placenta diseases, and some women who do develop placenta diseases may not have any known risk factors. If you have any concerns about your health or your baby's health during pregnancy, it is important to discuss them with your healthcare provider.

Pregnancy in diabetics is typically classified into three categories:

1. Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): This type of diabetes develops during pregnancy, typically after 24 weeks of gestation. It is caused by hormonal changes that interfere with insulin's ability to regulate blood sugar levels.
2. Pre-existing diabetes: Women who have already been diagnosed with diabetes before becoming pregnant are considered to have pre-existing diabetes. This type of diabetes can be either type 1 or type 2.
3. Type 1 diabetes in pregnancy: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that typically develops in childhood or young adulthood. Women who have type 1 diabetes and become pregnant require careful management of their blood sugar levels to ensure the health of both themselves and their baby.

Pregnancy in diabetics requires close monitoring and careful management throughout the pregnancy. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are essential to identify any potential complications early on and prevent them from becoming more serious. Some of the common complications associated with pregnancy in diabetics include:

1. Gestational hypertension: This is a type of high blood pressure that develops during pregnancy, particularly in women who have gestational diabetes. It can increase the risk of preeclampsia and other complications.
2. Preeclampsia: This is a serious condition that can cause damage to organs such as the liver, kidneys, and brain. Women with pre-existing diabetes are at higher risk of developing preeclampsia.
3. Macrosomia: As mentioned earlier, this is a condition where the baby grows larger than average, which can increase the risk of complications during delivery.
4. Hypoglycemia: This is a condition where the blood sugar levels become too low, which can be dangerous for both the mother and the baby.
5. Jaundice: This is a condition that causes yellowing of the skin and eyes due to high bilirubin levels in the blood. It is more common in newborns of diabetic mothers.
6. Respiratory distress syndrome: This is a condition where the baby's lungs are not fully developed, which can lead to breathing difficulties.
7. Type 2 diabetes: Women who develop gestational diabetes during pregnancy are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
8. Cholestasis of pregnancy: This is a condition where the liver produces too much bile, which can cause itching and liver damage. It is more common in women with gestational diabetes.
9. Premature birth: Babies born to mothers with diabetes are at higher risk of being born prematurely, which can increase the risk of complications.
10. Congenital anomalies: There is an increased risk of certain birth defects in babies born to mothers with diabetes, such as heart and brain defects.

It's important for pregnant women who have been diagnosed with gestational diabetes to work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition and reduce the risks associated with it. This may involve monitoring blood sugar levels regularly, taking insulin or other medications as prescribed, and making any necessary lifestyle changes.

Examples of pregnancy complications, parasitic include:

1. Toxoplasmosis: This is a condition caused by the Toxoplasma gondii parasite, which can infect the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include fever, headache, and fatigue. In severe cases, toxoplasmosis can cause birth defects, such as intellectual disability, blindness, and deafness.
2. Malaria: This is a condition caused by the Plasmodium spp. parasite, which can be transmitted to the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include fever, chills, and flu-like symptoms. In severe cases, malaria can cause anemia, organ failure, and death.
3. Schistosomiasis: This is a condition caused by the Schistosoma spp. parasite, which can infect the mother and/or the fetus during pregnancy. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fatigue. In severe cases, schistosomiasis can cause organ damage and infertility.

Pregnancy complications, parasitic can be diagnosed through blood tests, imaging studies, and other medical procedures. Treatment depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. In some cases, treatment may involve antibiotics, antimalarial drugs, or anti-parasitic medications.

Preventive measures for pregnancy complications, parasitic include:

1. Avoiding contact with cat feces, as Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted through contaminated soil and food.
2. Avoiding travel to areas where malaria and other parasitic infections are common.
3. Taking antimalarial medications before and during pregnancy if living in an area where malaria is common.
4. Using insecticide-treated bed nets and wearing protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites.
5. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after handling food or coming into contact with cats.
6. Avoiding drinking unpasteurized dairy products and undercooked meat, as these can increase the risk of infection.
7. Ensuring that any water used for cooking or drinking is safe and free from parasites.

Preventive measures for pregnancy complications, parasitic are important for women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, as well as for their partners and healthcare providers. By taking these preventive measures, the risk of infection and complications can be significantly reduced.

In conclusion, pregnancy complications, parasitic are a serious issue that can have severe consequences for both the mother and the fetus. However, by understanding the causes, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures, women can take steps to protect themselves and their unborn babies from these infections. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of these issues and provide appropriate education and care to pregnant women to reduce the risk of complications.

FAQs
1. What are some common parasitic infections that can occur during pregnancy?
Ans: Some common parasitic infections that can occur during pregnancy include malaria, toxoplasmosis, and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
2. How do parasitic infections during pregnancy affect the baby?
Ans: Parasitic infections during pregnancy can have serious consequences for the developing fetus, including birth defects, growth restriction, and stillbirth.
3. Can parasitic infections during pregnancy be treated?
Ans: Yes, parasitic infections during pregnancy can be treated with antibiotics and other medications. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications.
4. How can I prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Preventive measures include avoiding areas where parasites are common, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and practicing good hygiene. Pregnant women should also avoid undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products.
5. Do all pregnant women need to be tested for parasitic infections?
Ans: No, not all pregnant women need to be tested for parasitic infections. However, certain groups of women, such as those who live in areas where parasites are common or have a history of previous parasitic infections, may need to be tested and monitored more closely.
6. Can I prevent my baby from getting a parasitic infection during pregnancy?
Ans: Yes, there are several steps you can take to reduce the risk of your baby getting a parasitic infection during pregnancy, such as avoiding certain foods and taking antibiotics if necessary. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on how to prevent and treat parasitic infections during pregnancy.
7. How are parasitic infections diagnosed during pregnancy?
Ans: Parasitic infections can be diagnosed through blood tests, stool samples, or imaging tests such as ultrasound or MRI. Your healthcare provider may also perform a physical exam and take a medical history to determine the likelihood of a parasitic infection.
8. Can parasitic infections cause long-term health problems for my baby?
Ans: Yes, some parasitic infections can cause long-term health problems for your baby, such as developmental delays or learning disabilities. In rare cases, parasitic infections can also lead to more serious complications, such as organ damage or death.
9. How are parasitic infections treated during pregnancy?
Ans: Treatment for parasitic infections during pregnancy may involve antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, or other supportive care. Your healthcare provider will determine the best course of treatment based on the severity and type of infection, as well as your individual circumstances.
10. Can I take steps to prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Yes, there are several steps you can take to prevent parasitic infections during pregnancy, such as avoiding undercooked meat and fish, washing fruits and vegetables thoroughly, and practicing good hygiene. Additionally, if you have a higher risk of parasitic infections due to travel or other factors, your healthcare provider may recommend preventative medications or screening tests.
11. I'm pregnant and have been exposed to a parasitic infection. What should I do?
Ans: If you suspect that you have been exposed to a parasitic infection during pregnancy, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider can perform tests to determine if you have an infection and provide appropriate treatment to prevent any potential complications for your baby.
12. Can I breastfeed while taking medication for a parasitic infection?
Ans: It may be safe to breastfeed while taking medication for a parasitic infection, but it is important to consult with your healthcare provider before doing so. Some medications may not be safe for your baby and could potentially be passed through your milk. Your healthcare provider can provide guidance on the safest treatment options for you and your baby.
13. What are some common complications of parasitic infections during pregnancy?
Ans: Complications of parasitic infections during pregnancy can include miscarriage, preterm labor, low birth weight, and congenital anomalies. In rare cases, parasitic infections can also be transmitted to the baby during pregnancy or childbirth, which can lead to serious health problems for the baby.
14. Can I get a parasitic infection from my pet?
Ans: Yes, it is possible to get a parasitic infection from your pet if you come into contact with their feces or other bodily fluids. For example, toxoplasmosis can be transmitted through contact with cat feces, while hookworm infections can be spread through contact with contaminated soil or feces. It is important to practice good hygiene and take precautions when handling pets or coming into contact with potentially contaminated areas.
15. How can I prevent parasitic infections?
Ans: Preventing parasitic infections involves taking steps to avoid exposure to parasites and their vectors, as well as practicing good hygiene and taking precautions when traveling or engaging in activities that may put you at risk. Some ways to prevent parasitic infections include:
* Avoiding undercooked meat, especially pork and wild game
* Avoiding raw or unpasteurized dairy products
* Avoiding contaminated water and food
* Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food
* Avoiding contact with cat feces, as toxoplasmosis can be transmitted through contact with cat feces
* Using protective clothing and insect repellent when outdoors in areas where parasites are common
* Keeping your home clean and free of clutter to reduce the risk of parasite infestations
* Avoiding touching or eating wild animals or plants that may be contaminated with parasites
16. What are some common misconceptions about parasitic infections?
Ans: There are several common misconceptions about parasitic infections, including:
* All parasites are the same and have similar symptoms
* Parasitic infections are only a problem for people who live in developing countries or have poor hygiene
* Only certain groups of people, such as children or pregnant women, are at risk for parasitic infections
* Parasitic infections are rare in developed countries
* All parasites can be treated with antibiotics
* Parasitic infections are not serious and do not require medical attention
17. How can I diagnose a parasitic infection?
Ans: Diagnosing a parasitic infection typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Some common methods for diagnosing parasitic infections include:
* Physical examination to look for signs such as skin lesions or abdominal pain
* Blood tests to check for the presence of parasites or their waste products
* Stool tests to detect the presence of parasite eggs or larvae
* Imaging tests, such as X-rays or CT scans, to look for signs of parasite infection in internal organs
* Endoscopy, which involves inserting a flexible tube with a camera into the body to visualize the inside of the digestive tract and other organs.
18. How are parasitic infections treated?
Ans: Treatment for parasitic infections depends on the type of parasite and the severity of the infection. Some common methods for treating parasitic infections include:
* Antiparasitic drugs, such as antibiotics or antimalarials, to kill the parasites
* Supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes, to manage symptoms and prevent complications
* Surgery to remove parasites or repair damaged tissues
* Antibiotics to treat secondary bacterial infections that may have developed as a result of the parasitic infection.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have a parasitic infection, as untreated infections can lead to serious complications and can be difficult to diagnose.
19. How can I prevent parasitic infections?
Ans: Preventing parasitic infections involves taking steps to avoid contact with parasites and their vectors, as well as maintaining good hygiene practices. Some ways to prevent parasitic infections include:
* Avoiding undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products, which can contain harmful parasites such as Trichinella spiralis and Toxoplasma gondii
* Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before eating
* Avoiding contact with contaminated water or soil, which can harbor parasites such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium
* Using insecticides and repellents to prevent mosquito bites, which can transmit diseases such as malaria and dengue fever
* Wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent when outdoors in areas where ticks and other vectors are common
* Avoiding contact with animals that may carry parasites, such as dogs and cats that can transmit Toxoplasma gondii
* Using clean water and proper sanitation to prevent the spread of parasitic infections in communities and developing countries.
It is also important to be aware of the risks of parasitic infections when traveling to areas where they are common, and to take appropriate precautions such as avoiding undercooked meat and unpasteurized dairy products, and using insecticides and repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
20. What is the prognosis for parasitic infections?
Ans: The prognosis for parasitic infections varies depending on the specific type of infection and the severity of symptoms. Some parasitic infections can be easily treated with antiparasitic medications, while others may require more extensive treatment and management.
In general, the prognosis for parasitic infections is good if the infection is detected early and properly treated. However, some parasitic infections can cause long-term health problems or death if left untreated. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
It is also important to note that some parasitic infections can be prevented through public health measures such as using clean water and proper sanitation, and controlling the spread of insect vectors. Prevention is key to avoiding the negative outcomes associated with these types of infections.
21. What are some common complications of parasitic infections?
Ans: Some common complications of parasitic infections include:
* Anemia and other blood disorders, such as thrombocytopenia and leukopenia
* Allergic reactions to parasite antigens
* Inflammation and damage to organs and tissues, such as the liver, kidneys, and brain
* Increased risk of infections with other microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses
* Malnutrition and deficiencies in essential nutrients
* Organ failure and death.
22. Can parasitic infections be prevented? If so, how?
Ans: Yes, some parasitic infections can be prevented through public health measures such as:
* Using clean water and proper sanitation to reduce the risk of ingesting infected parasites.
* Avoiding contact with insect vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, by using repellents, wearing protective clothing, and staying indoors during peak biting hours.
* Properly cooking and storing food to kill parasites that may be present.
* Avoiding consuming undercooked or raw meat, especially pork and wild game.
* Practicing safe sex to prevent the transmission of parasitic infections through sexual contact.
* Keeping children away from areas where they may come into contact with contaminated soil or water.
* Using antiparasitic drugs and other treatments as recommended by healthcare providers.
* Implementing control measures for insect vectors, such as spraying insecticides and removing breeding sites.
30. Can parasitic infections be treated with antibiotics? If so, which ones and why?
Ans: No, antibiotics are not effective against parasitic infections caused by protozoa, such as giardiasis and amoebiasis, because these organisms are not bacteria. However, antibiotics may be used to treat secondary bacterial infections that can develop as a complication of parasitic infections.
32. What is the difference between a parasite and a pathogen?
Ans: A parasite is an organism that lives on or in another organism, called the host, and feeds on the host's tissues or fluids without providing any benefits. A pathogen, on the other hand, is an organism that causes disease. While all parasites are pathogens, not all pathogens are parasites. For example, bacteria and viruses can cause diseases but are not considered parasites because they do not live within the host's body.

The exact cause of abruption placentae is not always known, but it can be triggered by several factors such as:

1. Previous uterine surgery or trauma
2. Placenta previa (when the placenta covers the cervix)
3. Abnormal blood vessel development in the placenta
4. Infections such as Group B strep or urinary tract infections
5. High blood pressure or preeclampsia
6. Smoking, alcohol and drug use
7. Maternal age over 35 years
8. Multiple gestations (twins or triplets)
9. Fetal growth restriction
10. Previous history of abruption placentae

Symptoms of abruption placentae may include:

1. Severe pain in the abdomen or back
2. Vaginal bleeding, which may be heavy and rapid or light and intermittent
3. Uterine tenderness and swelling
4. Fetal distress, as detected by fetal monitoring
5. Premature rupture of membranes (water breaking)
6. Decreased fetal movement
7. Maternal fever

If you suspect that you or someone you know is experiencing abruption placentae, it is essential to seek immediate medical attention. Treatment options may include:

1. Bed rest or hospitalization
2. Close monitoring of the mother and baby with fetal heart rate monitoring
3. Intravenous fluids and blood transfusions as needed
4. Medication to help control bleeding and prevent further complications
5. Delivery, either vaginal or cesarean section, depending on the severity of the condition and the stage of pregnancy

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes for both the mother and the baby. If you have any concerns or questions, consult your healthcare provider for guidance.

Some common types of birth injuries include:

1. Brain damage: This can occur due to a lack of oxygen to the baby's brain during delivery, resulting in conditions such as cerebral palsy or hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE).
2. Nerve damage: This can result from prolonged labor, use of forceps or vacuum extraction, or improper handling of the baby during delivery, leading to conditions such as brachial plexus injuries or Erb's palsy.
3. Fractures: These can occur due to improper use of forceps or vacuum extraction, or from the baby being dropped or handled roughly during delivery.
4. Cutaneous injuries: These can result from rough handling or excessive pressure during delivery, leading to conditions such as caput succedaneum (swelling of the scalp) or cephalohematoma (bleeding under the skin of the head).
5. Infections: These can occur if the baby is exposed to bacteria during delivery, leading to conditions such as sepsis or meningitis.
6. Respiratory distress syndrome: This can occur if the baby does not breathe properly after birth, resulting in difficulty breathing and low oxygen levels.
7. Shoulder dystocia: This occurs when the baby's shoulder becomes stuck during delivery, leading to injury or damage to the baby's shoulder or neck.
8. Umbilical cord prolapse: This occurs when the umbilical cord comes out of the birth canal before the baby, leading to compression or strangulation of the cord and potentially causing injury to the baby.
9. Meconium aspiration: This occurs when the baby inhales a mixture of meconium (bowel movement) and amniotic fluid during delivery, leading to respiratory distress and other complications.
10. Brachial plexus injuries: These occur when the nerves in the baby's neck and shoulder are damaged during delivery, leading to weakness or paralysis of the arm and hand.

It is important to note that not all birth injuries can be prevented, but proper medical care and attention during pregnancy, labor, and delivery can help minimize the risk of complications. If you suspect that your baby has been injured during delivery, it is important to seek prompt medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

After a stillbirth there is a 2.5% risk of another stillbirth in the next pregnancy (an increase from 0.4%). In the United ... Rates of stillbirth in the United States have decreased by about two-thirds since the 1950s. The vast majority of stillbirths ... Registration of stillbirths can be made by a relative or certain other persons involved with the stillbirth but it is not ... The average stillbirth rate in the United States is approximately 1 in 160 births, which is roughly 26,000 stillbirths each ...
Stillbirth is the debut album by Oneiroid Psychosis, released in 1995. Included were a few tracks from their previous effort, ...
Stillbirth may also refer to: Stillbirth (album), by Oneiroid Psychosis, 1995 "Stillbirth" (song), by Alice Glass, 2015 ... A stillbirth is the death of a fetus before or during delivery, resulting in the delivery of a dead baby. ... Stillborn (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Stillbirth. If an internal link ...
"Stillbirth" - 2:47 "Stillbirth (Zola Jesus Remix) - 2:50 Credits adapted from the liner notes of "Stillbirth". Alice Glass - ... "Stillbirth - Single by Alice Glass on Apple Music". Apple Music. 17 July 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2018. "STILLBIRTH (Zola Jesus ... With 'Stillbirth', she's finally got the new start that she's been fighting for." Alt Citizen described the song as "a dark, ... "Stillbirth" is the debut solo single by Canadian singer-songwriter Alice Glass, released on 17 July 2015. It is Glass' first ...
It is the only charity in Australia dedicated to stillbirth research. Victoria Bowring, general manager Still Aware Stillbirth ... Stillbirth Foundation Australia is an organization which aims to improve care and conditions for people who have experienced ... the stillbirth of a child as well as preventing stillbirth. Their main work is funding research on why stillbirth happens. They ... "Raising money for Stillbirth Foundation in London Marathon". Langdale, Liz (26 July 2018). "New addition warms hearts after ...
The Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS) was founded in 2007 as an initiative of Seattle Children's, ... The Preventing Preterm Birth initiative focuses on finding new interventions to prevent premature birth and stillbirth by ... "Our Partnerships". Global Alliance to Prevent Prematurity and Stillbirth (GAPPS). 2022. Archived from the original on 2022-08- ... with a focus on preterm birth and stillbirth. GAPPS is a member of the Washington Global Health Alliance, and collaborates with ...
Stillbirth. The loss of the developing fetus after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Can be due to a variety of reasons including ...
Stillbirth. Mustafa II had at least twelve daughters, of which one, among the three eldest, with Afife Kadin: Ayşe Sultan (30 ...
buried in Murad III Mausoleum, Hagia Sophia Mosque). Stillbirth. Şehzade Cihangir (February 1585, Topkapi Palace, ...
She bore her husband four sons and a stillbirth daughter. Fatma had an elementary school, or mektep, as well as a religious ... Stillbirth. Fatma died in childbirth. Peirce 1993, p. 92. Tezcan 2010, p. 97. Uluçay 1992, p. 71. Tezcan, Baki (2001). ...
A rainbow baby is a term for a child born to a family that has previously lost one or more children due to stillbirth, ... "Stillbirth". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-29. Chertoff, Jane (December 6, 2018). "What Is a Rainbow Baby?". Healthline. ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Family, Childbirth, Stillbirth, Miscarriage, Grief ... born after a stillbirth, or neonatal death, are something beautiful after a scary and dark experience". Parents. Retrieved ...
Smith, GC; Fretts, RC (Nov 17, 2007). "Stillbirth". Lancet. 370 (9600): 1715-25. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61723-1. PMID ... "Reducing stillbirths: screening and monitoring during pregnancy and labour". BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 9 (Suppl 1): S5. doi ...
Still births are more common in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Stillbirth rates have declined, though more slowly since the ... About half of stillbirths occur during childbirth, and stillbirth is more common in the developing than developed world. ... "Stillbirths and stillbirth rates". UNICEF DATA. Retrieved 24 June 2022. Draper, Elizabeth S.; Manktelow, Bradley N.; Smith, ... Stillbirth is typically defined as fetal death at or after 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy. It results in a baby born without signs ...
2014; Another stillbirth. Karta's caring skills as a mother were adequate. She had already been trained in mothering skills ...
Some use the cutoff of 20 weeks of gestation, after which fetal death is known as a stillbirth. The death of the fetus or ... "Stillbirth: Overview". NICHD. September 23, 2014. Archived from the original on October 5, 2016. Retrieved October 4, 2016. " ...
A fetus that died before birth after this gestational age may be referred to as a stillbirth. Under UK law, all stillbirths ... Some use the cutoff of 20 weeks of gestation, after which fetal death is known as a stillbirth. The most common symptom of a ... "Register a stillbirth - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Archived from the original on September 5, 2017. Retrieved September 5, 2017. ... "Stillbirth: Overview". NICHD. September 23, 2014. Archived from the original on October 5, 2016. Retrieved October 4, 2016. ...
"About". Stillbirth stories. Retrieved 29 May 2022. Borland, Sophie. " Bel Mooney to wed man 16 years her junior" The Daily ... "About Sands , Sands - Stillbirth and neonatal death charity". Sands. 7 August 2013. Archived from the original on 7 January ... "Our History , Sands - Stillbirth and neonatal death charity". Sands. 25 November 2016. Archived from the original on 20 May ... She has written a number of fiction and non-fiction books and was instrumental in the foundation of the Stillbirth Society, now ...
Stillbirth turned out. Kaedehama (Fuhin) Female ・ Born at Adventure World on November 22, 2020 (Father: Eimei, Mother: ...
Pregnancy Stillbirth "Kick Chart". National Childbirth Trust. 2006. Archived from the original on 24 December 2007. "#7. The ... Importance of Counting Kicks". The National Stillbirth Society. 10 September 2007. Archived from the original on 8 November ...
Stillbirth (8 February 1635). Luise (5 November 1636 - 6 January 1638). Stillbirth (28 May 1637). "Hesse-Cassel" . Encyclopædia ...
Stillbirth (8 February 1635). Luise (5 November 1636 - 6 January 1638). Stillbirth (28 May 1637). Veröffentlichungen der ...
"On Photographing a Stillbirth". Edwards, Steve. "Simply the best work on the subject". Mill Swamp Indian Horses. Retrieved ...
13.7%; stillbirth, 8.9% vs. 2.6%; early menopause, 5.1% vs. 1.7%; grade 2 or higher cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, 6.9% vs ...
"Stillbirths". World Health Organization. Retrieved 2018-11-03. García-Enguídanos A, Calle ME, Valero J, Luna S, Domínguez-Rojas ... WHO estimated an annual occurrence of 2.6 million stillbirths and between 17 and 22 percent of pregnancies that result in ... According to the registered charity the Stillbirth and Neonatal Death Society (Sands), the first Baby Loss Awareness Day was ... Human M, Green S, Groenewald C, Goldstein RD, Kinney HC, Odendaal HJ (2014). "Psychosocial Implications of Stillbirth for the ...
Anne's pregnancy ends in stillbirth. As Corbeck and Turner open the mummy's sarcophagus, the stillborn infant is restored to ...
"Stillbirth risk 4 times higher if women sleep on their backs in late pregnancy". Stuff. "Sleeping on back increases stillbirth ... "Obesity, smoking lift stillbirth risk". Stuff. "Healthy mums, healthy babies". Stuff. "New Year Honours List 2011". Department ... "Report finds too little has changed to combat still birth". 21 January 2016. "New discovery could help prevent preterm birth in ... awarded the Health Research Council of New Zealand's Beaven Medal in recognition of her and her team's finding that stillbirths ...
Lancet's Stillbirths Series steering committee (2011). "Stillbirths: Where? When? Why? How to make the data count?". The Lancet ... Lancet Stillbirth Epidemiology investigator group (2016). "Stillbirths: Rates, risk factors, and acceleration towards 2030". ... The report found that over 98% of the stillbirths worldwide were in middle and low-income families. Lawn presented a Lancet TV ... She was awarded a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award to improve data on stillbirths and newborns. With the London ...
A 2011 study published in The Lancet medical journal found that Finland had the lowest stillbirth rate out of 193 countries, ... "Stillbirths: Where? When? Why? How to make the data count?". The Lancet. 377 (9775): 1448-1463. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62187 ...
Logullo was a bereaved father and advocate for stillbirth research and legislation in the United States and worldwide. In 2005 ... with state stillbirth lobbying. Since 2007 he has assisted dozens of parents to help them effectively pass birth certificate ... States with Stillbirth Legislation - MISSing Angels Bill State Chart Archived July 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine " ... " "Birth Resulting in Stillbirth , Florida Department of Health". Katherine's Law - Florida Department of Health Katherine's ...
It is also known as stillbirth. It is an unfortunate scenario that the largest number of stillbirths, more than 330,000 every ... Frequently, "cold" foods such as fruit are avoided during pregnancy for fear of causing sickness or stillbirth. In some ...
A stillbirth is when a mothers baby dies in the womb after the 20th week of pregnancy. Read more on how to cope or support ... If a woman loses a pregnancy after shes past her 20th week, its called a stillbirth. Stillbirths are due to natural causes. ... If stillbirth happens before delivery, your health care provider may induce labor or perform a Cesarean section to deliver the ... This usually happens within two weeks of stillbirth.. Counseling may help you cope with your grief. Later, if you do decide to ...
What Increases the Risk of Stillbirth?. Stillbirth with an unknown cause is called "unexplained stillbirth." The further along ... Stillbirth is further classified as either early, late, or term.. *An early stillbirth is a fetal death occurring between 20 ... A late stillbirth occurs between 28 and 36 completed pregnancy weeks.. *A term stillbirth occurs between 37 or more completed ... A stillbirth is the death or loss of a baby before or during delivery. Both miscarriage and stillbirth describe pregnancy loss ...
A stillbirth is when a mothers baby dies in the womb after the 20th week of pregnancy. Read more on how to cope or support ... If a woman loses a pregnancy after shes past her 20th week, its called a stillbirth. Stillbirths are due to natural causes. ... If stillbirth happens before delivery, your health care provider may induce labor or perform a Cesarean section to deliver the ... This usually happens within two weeks of stillbirth.. Counseling may help you cope with your grief. Later, if you do decide to ...
Stillbirth is a risk for any birth, the majority of stillbirths are either for random reasons (cord accidents, for example) or ... Have any of you found any great resources for stillbirth, and life after stillbirth? Im not interested in support groups who ... Birthplan after VBAC stillbirth. 1513 Views 9 Replies 5 Participants Last post by XM, Jul 7, 2005. ... And stillbirth is a KNOWN risk for any birth.. To me, your comment suggested that Nammymom had put her child at (KNOWN) risk by ...
Weʼre raising money to Research into miscarriage and stillbirth prevention. Support this JustGiving Crowdfunding Page. ...
Maya Vander revealed she had a stillbirth at 38 weeks. The real estate agent spoke exclusively to Parents.com about her ... Selling Sunset Star Maya Vander Opens Up About Having a Stillbirth. Maya Vander revealed she had a stillbirth at 38 weeks. The ... I had a still birth at 38 weeks. I always heard of it but never imagined Ill be part of the statistics. Instead of delivering ... As far as the cause for her sons stillbirth, Vander is still in the dark. We are still waiting to hear back, she says. My ...
Does a Stillbirth certificate show whether the child was a boy or a girl, please ?. When my cousin had a stillborn baby in the ... In Joneys cousins case who would have registered the stillbirth? Did the staff do it in the 1960s, if the father didnt want ... Can anyone look up in the national stillbirth register for my father Derek Bedford born 23/06/1932. His twin was stillborn but ... Re: National Stillbirth register « Reply #1 on: Sunday 05 July 15 16:26 BST (UK) » ...
Stillbirth occurs when a fetus dies at or after 20 weeks of gestation. While the U.S. stillbirth rate decreased from 18 per ... "Smoking is a known risk factor for stillbirth, but this analysis gives us a much clearer picture of the risks than before," ... Women who experienced a stillbirth and those who gave birth to a live infant participated in the study. The researchers tested ... Among the women who had experienced a stillbirth, more than 80 percent showed no traces of cotinine and 93 percent tested ...
Learn about stillbirth risk factors, causes, diagnosis, and care. ... Stillbirth is the death of a fetus at or after 20 weeks of ... What is stillbirth? Stillbirth refers to the death of a fetus at or after 20 weeks of pregnancy. It can occur in the womb or ... How is stillbirth diagnosed? Health care providers use different methods to diagnose stillbirth, depending on the stage of ... Some stillbirths may be preventable, but most are not.. NICHD supports and conducts research on many aspects of stillbirth, ...
The Stillbirth of Capital makes its case by examining every work about British India written by a major author from 1670 to ... The Stillbirth of Capital makes its case by examining every work about British India written by a major author from 1670 to ...
... a non-profit coalition of organizations dedicated to understanding the causes and prevention of stillbirth. ... Bereaved parents silence reduces the quality of care post-stillbirth and perpetuates the stigma associated with stillbirth. ... The Parents Toolkit was developed with stillbirth parents and a parent support organization in Kenya, and aims to increase ... The premise of the Health Providers Toolkit is that by raising awareness among providers about stillbirth and about the needs ...
... for explained stillbirths and an OR of 1.27 [95% CI 0.95, 1.70] for antepartum stillbirths. Only one study reported adjusted ... Among women with a previous Caesarean an increase in odds of 1.23 [95% CI 1.08, 1.40] for stillbirth was yielded. Subgroup ... Data synthesis 11 articles were included for stillbirth, totalling 1,961,829 pregnancies and 7,308 events. Eight eligible ... Pooled estimates across the stillbirth studies were obtained using random-effect models. ...
... communities at higher risk of stillbirth, the psychological impact and treatment for mothers following stillbirth, and known ... NICHD Stillbirth Working Group of Council - December 2022. Download VideoCast. You can download this VideoCast and play it on ... The NICHD Stillbirth Working Group of Council is charged with providing a report to the National Advisory Child Health and ... NICHD Stillbirth Working Group of Council - October 2022. [National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ]. 10/20/ ...
RESEARCH ON THE SCOPE AND CAUSES OF STILLBIRTH IN THE UNITED STATES RFA-HD-02-025. NICHD ... In addition, the cause of about half of all stillbirths is undetermined. The stillbirth rate has been reduced dramatically ... NICHD Program Official: The NICHD will appoint a Stillbirth Program Official, apart from the Stillbirth Project Scientist, who ... stillbirths in the U.S. These include: (1) the fetal death report is voluntary and under-reporting of stillbirths is as high as ...
Stillbirth and newborn death. Support after the death of a baby through stillbirth or newborn death ... SANDS - MISCARRIAGE STILLBIRTH NEWBORN DEATH SUPPORT 24hr Support: 1300 308 307 *Search ... Hospital to Home is a program funded by the federal government and designed to support bereaved parents following stillbirth ...
PUSH for Empowered Pregnancy presents The Big PUSH to End Preventable Stillbirth -Nationwide Empty Stroller March - Saturday, ... The Big PUSH to End Preventable Stillbirth -Nationwide Empty Stroller March. View details. ...
data). The panel concluded that the immediate cause of this stillbirth could be attributed to a congenital pneumonia, caused by ... Sneathia amnii and Maternal Chorioamnionitis and Stillbirth, Mozambique. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2019;25(8):1614-1616. ... This rare, fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus has been reported to infrequently cause abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal ... Sneathia amnii and Maternal Chorioamnionitis and Stillbirth, Mozambique. Volume 25, Number 8-August 2019 ...
... dc.contributor.author. Xiong, Tao. ... Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and stillbirth rates: a facility-based study in China. ...
b,Zeshan Qureshi and colleagues,/b, argue that stillbirth should be higher on the global health agenda. ... Stillbirths are largely excluded from international measures of mortality and morbidity. , ... Fig 1 Regional variation in stillbirth rates and the proportion of intrapartum stillbirths using data from 195 countries. Error ... Fig 1 Regional variation in stillbirth rates and the proportion of intrapartum stillbirths using data… ...
PCE exposure linked to stillbirth risk, NIEHS grantee saysPCE exposure linked to stillbirth risk, NIEHS grantee says ... were up to twice as likely to have a stillbirth because of placental dysfunction, according to a NIEHS-funded study published ...
Over the same time period stillbirths have fallen by 20 per cent, meaning 161 fewer stillbirths in the participating units. ... We know more can be done to avoid the tragedy of stillbirth and as we develop the 10 year plan for the NHS, we want to build on ... NHS action plan can prevent over 600 still births a year says NHS England. 30 July 2018 *Maternity ... An estimated 600 stillbirths annually could be prevented if maternity units adopt national best practice says NHS England. ...
Home , Food Poisoning Watch , North Carolina: Listeriosis results in stillbirths, premature birth. North Carolina: Listeriosis ... The three cases, which included a stillbirth in Mecklenberg County and a premature birth in Moore County, are considered ... Two North Carolina women, including one in Durham County, suffered stillbirths and a third delivered prematurely after ... or even stillbirth. The perinatal and neonatal mortality rate is 80%. ...
It is also focused on remembering those who have suffered a miscarriage and/or a stillbirth. So this month, I will wear my ... Women in my family have experienced stillbirth, and I cant imagine the pain. Saying a prayer for you, and your boys tonight. ... This is a startlingly high statistic, especially considering how little I hear about stillbirths and the women who survive them ... Thanks for making us aware of stillbirth/miscarriage awareness month with your story. ...
A third study found that stillbirth and birth defects occurred in pregnant rats exposed to 3 percent CO2 (equal to 0.8 percent ... Alluding to the surge in stillbirths during the pandemic, the German researchers said: Circumstantial evidence exists that ... Explosive new research reveals that using a face mask during pregnancy may increase the chance of stillbirth, testicular ... New Study Suggests Carbon Dioxide Buildup from Wearing Face Masks Increase Risk of Stillbirths, Testicular Dysfunction, & ...
Keywords: Stillbirth, incidence, determinants, risk factors, protective factors, Ethiopia Abstract. Introduction: Worldwide ... Incidence and determinants of stillbirth among women who gave birth in Jimma University specialized hospital, Ethiopia * Dejene ... Therefore the aim of this study was to assess incidence and determinants of stillbirth among women who gave birth in Jimma ... Results: The incidence rate of stillbirth in the Hospital during a month period was 8% or 80 per 1000 total births. The ...
Statistics on Stillbirths, Preterm Labour, Malformations and Adverse Health Outcomes pre and post Pfizer Vaccination roll out. ... Is there any correlation between these outcomes and vaccinated mothers? -- Has there been a increase in stillbirths, preterm ...
Background: Although stillbirth rates are declining, US black women experience two-fold higher rates of stillbirth compared to ... Stillbirth was fetal death =23 weeks gestation reported in medical records. Hierarchical logistic regression models estimated ... Racial Residential Segregation and Racial Disparities in Stillbirth in the United States. Wednesday, September 12, 2018. - ... It is unclear whether current and/or persistent racial residential segregation is associated with black-white stillbirth ...
stillbirth. Visualizing The Placenta, a Critical but Poorly Understood Organ Posted on May 31st, 2022. by Diana W. Bianchi, M.D ... Problems with the placenta can lead to preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, poor fetal growth, preterm birth, and stillbirth. ...
Use tab to navigate through the menu items ...
Access Syphilitic Stillbirth case definitions; uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ...
  • Both miscarriage and stillbirth describe pregnancy loss, but they differ according to when the loss occurs. (cdc.gov)
  • An early stillbirth is a fetal death occurring between 20 and 27 completed weeks of pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Stillbirth was fetal death =23 weeks gestation reported in medical records. (nih.gov)
  • Knowledge about the potential causes of stillbirth can be used to develop recommendations, policies, and services to help prevent stillbirth. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers from University College Dublin (UCD) and Imperial College London have developed a wearable baby movement monitor that may help prevent stillbirth. (healtheuropa.com)
  • Gestational syphilis and stillbirth in the Americas: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported estimates of the association between gestational syphilis (GS) and stillbirth in the Americas region. (bvsalud.org)
  • We must make a global push to eliminate the tragedy of the millions of mostly preventable stillbirth deaths that occur every year. (sapeople.com)
  • Stillbirth affects about 1 in 175 births, and each year about 21,000 babies are stillborn in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • There are currently around 665,000 babies born in England each year, but despite falling to its lowest rate in 20 years, there are around 3,000 stillbirths, with one in every 200 babies stillborn. (england.nhs.uk)
  • We still have more to do but these results demonstrate really positive progress towards our ambition to halve the rates of stillbirth, neonatal death and maternal death by 2025. (england.nhs.uk)
  • It's where I honor Quinn and other babies who are gone too soon from stillbirth, miscarriage, or neonatal death. (rememberquinn.com)
  • If a woman loses a pregnancy after she's past her 20th week, it's called a stillbirth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the United States, a miscarriage is usually defined as loss of a baby before the 20th week of pregnancy, and a stillbirth is loss of a baby at or after 20 weeks of pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • Stillbirth refers to the death of a fetus at or after the 20th week of pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Some factors that might contribute to these stillbirth disparities include differences in maternal preconception health, socioeconomic status, access to quality health care, and stress. (cdc.gov)
  • It is unclear whether current and/or persistent racial residential segregation is associated with black-white stillbirth disparities. (nih.gov)
  • Pregnant women who drank water contaminated with the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) were up to twice as likely to have a stillbirth because of placental dysfunction, according to a NIEHS-funded study published July 3 in the journal Environmental Health. (nih.gov)
  • They focused on stillbirth cases attributed to placental abruption or placental insufficiency because, in a smaller group of women, they discovered an association between the risk of placental-related stillbirth and prenatal PCE exposure. (nih.gov)
  • In today's press release the Lancet says its extensive research shows maternal and child deaths have halved while stillbirths (in the third trimester of pregnancy) remains a neglected global epidemic…even though the majority are preventable. (sapeople.com)
  • A cumulative meta-analysis plus four subgroup meta-analyses of study data on the association between maternal syphilis during pregnancy and stillbirth were conducted. (bvsalud.org)
  • NICHD supports and conducts research on many aspects of stillbirth, including mechanisms, causes, risk factors, possible prevention and intervention approaches, and how often it happens. (nih.gov)
  • NICHD conducts and supports research on many aspects of stillbirth, including its mechanisms, risk factors, prevention, and immediate and long-term care for families that experience stillbirth. (nih.gov)
  • One of the many gaps in stillbirth prevention and care is the absence of parent voices. (stillbirthalliance.org)
  • As part of Mozambique's Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance (CHAMPS), after obtaining written, informed consent, we conducted MITS by biopsy needle of tissues and body fluids, in addition to placenta, to ascertain the cause of the stillbirth ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The publication claims 3,287 lives are lost each day due to preventable stillbirths, and that the slow progress on the prevention of stillbirth leaves the parents of 2.6 million babies worldwide suffering in silence each year, particularly in Africa. (sapeople.com)
  • Additionally, results from the latest findings also showed that likely exposure to secondhand smoke can elevate the risk of stillbirth. (nih.gov)
  • Random-effects metaanalyses were used to calculate pooled estimates of stillbirth with exposure to GS, and each subgroup analysis was tested for heterogeneity. (bvsalud.org)
  • The researchers observed that the odds of stillbirth increased as a woman's level of exposure to PCE increased. (nih.gov)
  • It is surprising to see this association between stillbirths and PCE at low exposure levels. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers found that, after adjusting for other variables, pregnant women with any level of PCE exposure had 1.7 times the odds of having a placenta-related stillbirth compared with unexposed mothers. (nih.gov)
  • Even women with exposure estimates below the EPA suggested action guideline of 40 parts per billion had 1.5 times the odds of having a placenta-related stillbirth compared with unexposed women, whereas those above the threshold had 2.6 times the odds. (nih.gov)
  • Even women with exposure estimates below the EPA suggested action guideline had 1.5 times the odds of having a placenta-related stillbirth. (nih.gov)
  • 2018. Modeled exposure to tetrachloroethylene-contaminated drinking water and the risk of placenta-related stillbirths: a case-control study from Massachusetts and Rhode Island. (nih.gov)
  • A late stillbirth occurs between 28 and 36 completed pregnancy weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • A term stillbirth occurs between 37 or more completed pregnancy weeks. (cdc.gov)
  • Stillbirth occurs in families of all races, ethnicities, and income levels, and to women of all ages. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC does this by tracking how often stillbirth occurs and researching what causes stillbirth and how to prevent it. (cdc.gov)
  • Stillbirth occurs when a fetus dies at or after 20 weeks of gestation. (nih.gov)
  • The research also reveals that more than 4.2 million women live with depression, often for years, after the stillbirth occurs. (sapeople.com)
  • Our 2nd (stillbirth) also didn't seem to move down the birth canal fast enough. (mothering.com)
  • Women who experienced a stillbirth and those who gave birth to a live infant participated in the study. (nih.gov)
  • Research shows several possible causes of stillbirth, including problems with the placenta, birth defects, and infection. (nih.gov)
  • The three cases, which included a stillbirth in Mecklenberg County and a premature birth in Moore County, are considered unrelated, according to the N.C. Division of Public Health. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • A third study found that stillbirth and birth defects occurred in pregnant rats exposed to 3 percent CO2 (equal to 0.8 percent for humans). (thegatewaypundit.com)
  • Therefore the aim of this study was to assess incidence and determinants of stillbirth among women who gave birth in Jimma University specialized hospital. (ajol.info)
  • Problems with the placenta can lead to preeclampsia , gestational diabetes , poor fetal growth, preterm birth , and stillbirth . (nih.gov)
  • The reports says half of all stillbirths occur during labour and birth, usually after a full nine month pregnancy, and the research highlights that most of these 1.3 million deaths could be prevented with improved quality of care. (sapeople.com)
  • The direct financial cost of stillbirth care is 10-70% greater than for a live birth, with additional costs to governments due to reduced productivity of grieving parents and increased welfare costs. (sapeople.com)
  • and 4) definition of stillbirth based on low birth weight and gestational age . (bvsalud.org)
  • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES Background Stillbirths account for a large proportion of perinatal mortality. (nih.gov)
  • Hospital to Home is a program funded by the federal government and designed to support bereaved parents following stillbirth and newborn death. (sands.org.au)
  • however, infection during pregnancy can lead to miscarriage, infection of the newborn, or even stillbirth. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • 2 More research is needed to determine what is underlying reason why some of these factors are associated with stillbirths. (cdc.gov)
  • Smoking tobacco or marijuana, taking prescription painkillers, or using illegal drugs during pregnancy is associated with double or even triple the risk of stillbirth, according to research funded by the National Institutes of Health. (nih.gov)
  • The study enrolled women between March 2006 and September 2008 in five geographically defined areas delivering at 59 hospitals participating in the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network . (nih.gov)
  • Research has found risk factors, such as the age of a pregnant person, and causes, such as genetic problems, for some stillbirths. (nih.gov)
  • Learn about NICHD's clinical research projects related to stillbirth. (nih.gov)
  • The objective of this RFA is to create a network of multidisciplinary investigators to develop research diagnostic protocols as well as a body of data on the scope and causes of stillbirths among varied populations within the United States, while encouraging community involvement to obtain an adequate sampling of rural and urban populations and a diverse ethnic/racial makeup. (nih.gov)
  • The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) convened a workshop on March 26, 2001 with experts in the field to set a national agenda for stillbirth research. (nih.gov)
  • Objectives and Research Approach Because procedures in case ascertainment and registration of fetal deaths vary so widely across the U.S., we do not have a true picture of stillbirths. (nih.gov)
  • Jane Brewin, CEO at Tommy's Centre for Stillbirth Research , said: "Tommy's is proud to have been involved in devising the programme which has been implemented in 19 NHS Maternity Units and has resulted in a significant reduction in stillbirth. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Explosive' new research reveals that using a face mask during pregnancy may increase the chance of stillbirth, testicular dysfunction, and cognitive decline in children, Daily Mail reported . (thegatewaypundit.com)
  • There is a common misperception that many of the deaths are inevitable, but our research shows most stillbirths are preventable. (sapeople.com)
  • Through research and improvements, the FM monitor could potentially identify babies who are at risk of stillbirth. (healtheuropa.com)
  • This webinar brought together federal agencies and advocacy organizations to discuss federal activities related to research on stillbirth, defined as the death of a fetus after 20 weeks of pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • Cochrane Library , Embase, LILACS , MEDLINE / PubMed , PLOS, and ScienceDirect were searched for original research studies quantifying the relationship between GS and stillbirth in the region. (bvsalud.org)
  • Bereaved parents' silence reduces the quality of care post-stillbirth and perpetuates the stigma associated with stillbirth. (stillbirthalliance.org)
  • How can we remove the stigma from stillbirths, opening the door for women to grieve publicly, to acknowledge the precious lives that were replaced with never-ending nevers? (persephonemagazine.com)
  • Conclusions: Low and decreasing levels of segregation were associated with reduced odds of stillbirth, with blacks benefitting more than whites. (nih.gov)
  • Increased odds of stillbirth among pregnant women with syphilis were also seen in all four subgroup meta-analyses. (bvsalud.org)
  • If stillbirth happens before delivery, your health care provider may induce labor or perform a Cesarean section to deliver the fetus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Management of stillbirth varies but typically includes removing the deceased fetus from the womb, identifying the possible cause of the stillbirth, and supporting the family. (nih.gov)
  • We know more can be done to avoid the tragedy of stillbirth and as we develop the 10 year plan for the NHS, we want to build on the progress we've made to make maternity services in England among the safest in the world. (england.nhs.uk)
  • When all Maternity Units adopt this programme, fewer families will have to experience the tragedy of stillbirth which destroys so many family's hopes and dreams. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Every stillbirth is a tragedy for the parents and family, but the majority of stillbirths occur when there are no obvious risk factors. (healtheuropa.com)
  • Alluding to the surge in stillbirths during the pandemic, the German researchers said: 'Circumstantial evidence exists that popular mask use may be related to current observations of a significant rise of 28 percent to 33 percent in stillbirths worldwide. (thegatewaypundit.com)
  • The stillbirth rate has been reduced dramatically since the 1950s with the introduction of interventions for gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, and Rh isoimmunization. (nih.gov)
  • Treating infections during pregnancy - particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where, for instance, 11.2 % of stillbirths are associated with syphilis. (sapeople.com)
  • It simply means that overall as a group, more stillbirths occur among all mothers of black race or older age when compared to white mothers and mothers under 35 years of age. (cdc.gov)
  • The NICHD Stillbirth Working Group of Council is charged with providing a report to the National Advisory Child Health and Human Development Council focusing on the current barriers to collecting data on stillbirths throughout the United States, communities at higher risk of stillbirth, the psychological impact and treatment for mothers following stillbirth, and known risk factors for stillbirth. (nih.gov)
  • According to annual national vital statistics, the number of fetal deaths at 20 weeks or greater gestation is similar in magnitude to the total number of infant deaths in the U.S. Despite this significant and persistent burden of stillbirths, they have remained largely unstudied and, for at least half of all stillbirths, the cause is undetermined. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the cause of about half of all stillbirths is undetermined. (nih.gov)
  • Health care providers use different methods to diagnose stillbirth, depending on the stage of pregnancy and whether labor has already started. (nih.gov)
  • The premise of the Health Providers Toolkit is that by raising awareness among providers about stillbirth and about the needs of bereaved parents for quality care, the stage could be set for healthcare providers to become more receptive to parent voices. (stillbirthalliance.org)
  • Therefore, effort should be made to improve antenatal, obstetric services and delivery services in terms awareness, access, timing and referral system to emergency care and specialized service to reduce the number of stillbirths. (ajol.info)
  • The ability to monitor the movement of babies in the womb has been cited as an urgent need within the healthcare industry to reduce the number of stillbirths globally. (healtheuropa.com)
  • Fig 1 Regional variation in stillbirth rates and the proportion of intrapartum stillbirths using data from 195 countries. (nih.gov)
  • Dr Matthew Jolly, National Clinical Director for Maternity and Women's Health at NHS England , said: "These findings show significant progress in the reduction of stillbirth rates. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Background: Although stillbirth rates are declining, US black women experience two-fold higher rates of stillbirth compared to US white women. (nih.gov)
  • The funding will enable us to further develop our device by engaging with pregnant people and their midwives and doctors, by testing the monitor at home and in hospital, and - we believe- will lead to our device being adopted globally to reduce stillbirth rates worldwide," said principal investigator for the team Professor Niamh Nolan, of the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at UCD . (healtheuropa.com)
  • Our team is made up of biomedical engineers and clinicians from Ireland, the UK and Bangladesh, and together we can work to make ground-breaking advances towards cutting stillbirth rates by half," added Nolan. (healtheuropa.com)
  • The aim was to determine the extent of under-registration of child deaths and stillbirths, estimate infant mortality and under-5 mortality rates and identify factors affecting under-registration. (who.int)
  • Globally, 98% of all stillbirths occur in low- and middle-income countries. (sapeople.com)
  • A stillbirth happens every 16 seconds, affecting over two million families globally, every year. (healtheuropa.com)
  • However, while the infant mortality rate declined by about 32 percent between 1985 and 1998 from 10.6 to 7.2/1000 live births, the stillbirth rate declined by only about 14 percent from 7.8 to 6.7 deaths/1000 live births. (nih.gov)
  • Many women who have a stillbirth go on to have healthy babies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The detailed report shows that stillbirths fell by a fifth at the maternity units where national guidance, known as the Saving Babies Lives Care Bundle , had been implemented. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Despite advances in care for babies, progress in combating stillbirth has declined in recent years. (healtheuropa.com)
  • Dr. Reddy added, "With the legalization of marijuana in some states, it is especially important for pregnant women and health care providers to be aware that cannabis use can increase stillbirth risk. (nih.gov)
  • What are the risk factors for stillbirth? (nih.gov)
  • Smoking is a known risk factor for stillbirth, but this analysis gives us a much clearer picture of the risks than before," said senior author Uma M. Reddy, M.D., MPH, of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD), the NIH institute that supported the study. (nih.gov)
  • Links to websites of groups that study stillbirth or provide information or support related to stillbirth. (nih.gov)
  • This will involve a geographic population-based study of stillbirths enrolled at the time of demise, and a sub-cohort case-control study. (nih.gov)
  • The loss of a baby due to stillbirth remains a sad reality for many families and takes a serious toll on families' health and well-being. (cdc.gov)
  • A stillbirth is the death or loss of a baby before or during delivery. (cdc.gov)
  • Some experiences had everything to do with the stillbirth and losing my baby girl. (yaelernst.com)
  • The economic impact of stillbirth for families ranges from funeral costs for their baby to loss of earnings due to time off work, with data suggesting 10% of bereaved parents remain off work for six months. (sapeople.com)
  • New technologies such as baby movement monitoring will offer a crucial advance towards preventing stillbirth," said Professor Fionnuala McAuliffe from UCD School of Medicine and the National Maternity Hospital, Dublin. (healtheuropa.com)
  • Only a small number of women tested positive for prescription painkiller use, but there was a trend towards an association of these drugs with an elevated stillbirth risk. (nih.gov)
  • Two North Carolina women, including one in Durham County, suffered stillbirths and a third delivered prematurely after consuming foods tainted with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, state public health officials said today. (foodpoisonjournal.com)
  • This is a startlingly high statistic, especially considering how little I hear about stillbirths and the women who survive them. (persephonemagazine.com)
  • This, they say, creates an "epidemic of grief" with millions of women living with symptoms of depression following the stillbirth, and many fathers reporting that they suppress their grief. (sapeople.com)
  • Strengthening access to and quality of family planning services - especially for older and very young women, who are at higher risk of stillbirth. (sapeople.com)
  • Addressing inequalities - in high-income countries, women in the most disadvantaged communities face at least double the risk of stillbirth. (sapeople.com)
  • An NIEHS grantee reported that women who drank water contaminated with the solvent PCE had double the rate of a certain type of stillbirth. (nih.gov)
  • and (5) there are few geographic population-based, detailed investigations of reproductive and fetal risks associated with stillbirth. (nih.gov)
  • The best practice guidance is now being introduced across the country and has the potential if these findings were replicated, to prevent an estimated 600 stillbirths. (england.nhs.uk)
  • Over 50% of stillbirths are associated with a reduction in the baby's movement in the womb. (healtheuropa.com)
  • Over the same time period stillbirths have fallen by 20 per cent, meaning 161 fewer stillbirths in the participating units. (england.nhs.uk)
  • We estimated number of fewer stillbirths attributable to decreasing segregation using the population attributable fraction. (nih.gov)
  • The Parents Toolkit was developed with stillbirth parents and a parent support organization in Kenya, and aims to increase parents' awareness of stillbirth and capacity to advocate on their own behalf, through an existing parent support organization. (stillbirthalliance.org)
  • To learn more about CDC's activities, visit the Stillbirth CDC Activities page . (cdc.gov)
  • Despite this significant and persistent burden of stillbirths, they have remained largely unstudied. (nih.gov)
  • Because of advances in medical technology over the last 30 years, prenatal care (medical care during pregnancy) has improved, which has dramatically reduced the number of late and term stillbirths. (cdc.gov)
  • How do health care providers manage stillbirth? (nih.gov)
  • Find answers to other common questions about stillbirth, such as ways to reduce the risk of stillbirth and how to find care after a stillbirth. (nih.gov)
  • We found 72.2% of child deaths, including all 45 stillbirths, were unregistered. (who.int)
  • This does not mean that every individual of black race or older age is at higher risk for having a stillbirth. (cdc.gov)
  • While the U.S. stillbirth rate decreased from 18 per 1,000 births in 1950 to 6 per 1,000 births in 2006, it still remains higher than many other developed countries and affects almost 26,000 U.S. newborns per year. (nih.gov)
  • A mother from Malawi Christina Sapulaye, who experienced a stillbirth last year, says: "It was a very painful situation to me and I never knew what to do… I am being stigmatised by my own people and was divorced due to the stillbirth, and now I am by myself with my little kids. (sapeople.com)