Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Pelvimetry: Measurement of the dimensions and capacity of the pelvis. It includes cephalopelvimetry (measurement of fetal head size in relation to maternal pelvic capacity), a prognostic guide to the management of LABOR, OBSTETRIC associated with disproportion.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Fetal Mortality: Number of fetal deaths with stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more in a given population. Late fetal mortality is death after of 28 weeks or more.Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Syphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Fetal Movement: Physical activity of the FETUS in utero. Gross or fine fetal body movement can be monitored by the mother, PALPATION, or ULTRASONOGRAPHY.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Insurance: Coverage by contract whereby one part indemnifies or guarantees another against loss by a specified contingency.Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Pregnancy Tests: Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Trihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Dystocia: Slow or difficult OBSTETRIC LABOR or CHILDBIRTH.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Placental Insufficiency: Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Abruptio Placentae: Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Bereavement: Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Circumcision, Female: A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.EnglandPlacenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Birth Intervals: The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pregnancy, Multiple: The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.Death Certificates: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.

Threshold-linear estimation of genetic parameters for farrowing mortality, litter size, and test performance of Large White sows. (1/412)

Up to 109,447 records of 49,656 Large White sows were used to evaluate the genetic relationship between number of pigs born dead (BD) and number born alive (BA) in first and later parities. Performance data (n = 30,832) for ultrasound backfat (BF) at the end of the test and days to reach 113.5 kg (AD) were used to estimate their relationships with BD and BA at first parity in a four-trait threshold-linear analysis (TL). Effects were year-farm, contemporary group (CG: farm-farrowing year-farrowing month) and animal additive genetic. At first parity, estimates of heritability were 0.09, 0.09, 0.37, and 0.31 for BA, BD, AD, and BF, respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between BD and litter size was -0.04 (BD-BA). Corresponding values with test traits were both -0.14 (BD-AD, BD-BF). Estimates of genetic correlation between BA and performance traits were 0.08 (BA-AD) and 0.05 (BA-BF). The two test traits were moderately negatively correlated (-0.22). For later parities, a six-trait (BD, BA in three parities) TL model was implemented. The estimates of additive genetic variances and heritability increased with parity for BD and BA. Estimates of heritabilities were: 0.09, 0.10, and 0.11 for BD, and 0.09, 0.12, and 0.12 for BA in parities one to three, respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations between different parities were high (0.91 to 0.96) for BD, and slightly lower (0.74 to 0.95) for BA. Genetic correlations between BD and BA were low and positive (0.02 to 0.17) for BA in Parities 1 and 2, but negative (-0.04 to -0.10) for BA in Parity 3. Selection for increased litter size should have little effect on farrowing piglet mortality. Intense selection for faster growth and increased leanness should increase farrowing piglet mortality of first-parity sows. A repeatability model with a simple correction for the heterogeneity of variances over parities could be implemented to select against farrowing mortality. The genetic components of perinatal piglet mortality are independent of the ones for litter size in the first parity, and they show an undesirable, but not strong, genetic association in second parity.  (+info)

The placental RCAS1 expression during stillbirth. (2/412)

BACKGROUND: Independently of the fetal death cause the beginning and course of stillbirth is closely related with the growing cytotoxic activity at the maternal-fetal interface. RCAS1 participates in the inhibition of maternal immune response during pregnancy. The alterations of RCAS1 protein expression in placental cells seem to determine the beginning of the labor and participate in the placental abruption. The aim of the present study was to investigate RCAS1 expression in placentas obtained following stillbirths or normal term births. METHODS: RCAS1 expression was evaluated by Western blot method with the use of monoclonal anti-RCAS1 antibody in 67 placental tissue samples. Pregnant women were divided into four groups according to the mode of labor onset--spontaneous or induced, and the type of labor, stillbirth or labor at term. Placental beta-Actin expression was chosen as a control protein. Relative amounts of placental RCAS1 were compared with the use of Student's t-test, whereas beta-Actin control data were compared with the use of Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS: The average relative amount of RCAS1 was significantly lower in women with induced stillbirths than in women with induced labor at term. Similarly, significantly lower RCAS1 placental levels were observed in patients with spontaneous stillbirths than in women with spontaneous labor at term. Significant differences in RCAS1 expression were also observed with the respect to the beginning of the stillbirth: spontaneous and induced. Lowest RCAS1 placental levels were observed in women with spontaneous stillbirth. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results indicate that the alterations of RCAS1 expression in the human placenta may be involved in the changes of maternal immune system that take place during stillbirth.  (+info)

Minor physical anomalies are not increased in the offspring of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus. (3/412)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and type of minor physical anomalies (MPAs) in infants born to mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: Each trimester, pregnant women with SLE were assessed for disease activity, prescribed drug use, and exposure to tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs through a self reported questionnaire. Infant examinations were performed on 30/39 (77%) live births in women with SLE and the incidence of MPAs determined. RESULTS: 2/30 (7%) patients had three or more MPAs; 4 (13%) had two; 7 (23%) had one; and 17 (57%) had none. One in three women reported alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drug use. Facial anomalies were the most common MPAs. The relative risk and 95% confidence interval for any MPA were 2.05 (0.99 to 4.26) for tobacco use; 1.95 (0.92 to 4.11) for alcohol use; 1.36 (0.165 to 11.23) for maternal disease flare; 0.63 (0.27 to 1.47) for prednisone use; and 0.72 (0.21 to 2.44) for aspirin use. CONCLUSION: 13/30 (43%) infants had minor anomalies-a similar incidence to that of the general population. Counselling for preventable self reported exposure is advisable in addition to counselling specifically for lupus management during pregnancy.  (+info)

Can all neonatal resuscitation be managed by nurse practitioners? (4/412)

AIM: To assess the ability of nurse practitioners to manage the care of all babies requiring resuscitation at birth in a unit without on site medical assistance. METHOD: A prospective review, and selective external audit, of the case records of all 14 572 babies born in a maternity unit in the north of England during the first eight years after nurse practitioners replaced resident paediatric staff in 1996. RESULTS: Every non-malformed baby with an audible heart beat at the start of delivery was successfully resuscitated. Twenty term babies and 41 preterm babies were intubated at birth. Eight term babies only responded after acidosis or hypovolaemia was corrected following umbilical vein catheterisation; in each case the catheter was in place within six minutes of birth. Early grade 2-3 neonatal encephalopathy occurred with much the same frequency (0.12%) as in other recent studies. Independent external cross validated review found no case of substandard care during the first hour of life. CONCLUSION: The practitioners successfully managed all the problems coming their way from the time of appointment. There was no evidence that their skill decreased over time even though, on average, they only found themselves undertaking laryngeal intubation once a year. It remains to be shown that this level of competence can be replicated in other settings.  (+info)

The distribution of apolipoprotein E alleles in Scottish perinatal deaths. (5/412)

BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism has been well studied in the adult human population, in part because the e4 allele is a known risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Little is known of the distribution of ApoE alleles in newborns, and their association with perinatal brain damage has not been investigated. METHODS: ApoE genotyping was undertaken in a Scottish cohort of perinatal deaths (n = 261), some of whom had prenatal brain damage. The distribution of ApoE alleles in perinatal deaths was compared with that in healthy liveborn infants and in adults in Scotland. RESULTS: ApoE e2 was over-represented in 251 perinatal deaths (13% v 8% in healthy newborns, odds ratio (OR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13 to 2.36 and 13% v 8% in adults, OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.41), both in liveborn and stillborn perinatal deaths. In contrast, the prevalence of ApoE e4 was raised in healthy liveborn infants (19%) compared with stillbirths (13%, OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.26) and with adults (15%, OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.76). However, no correlation was found between ApoE genotype and the presence or absence of perinatal brain damage. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows a shift in ApoE allelic distribution in early life compared with adults. The raised prevalence of ApoE e2 associated with perinatal death suggests that this allele is detrimental to pregnancy outcome, whereas ApoE e4 may be less so. However, ApoE genotype did not appear to influence the vulnerability for perinatal hypoxic/ischaemic brain damage, in agreement with findings in adult brains and in animal models.  (+info)

Uterine artery Doppler at 11-14 weeks of gestation to screen for hypertensive disorders and associated complications in an unselected population. (6/412)

OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for the first-trimester uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) and to investigate the role of UtA Doppler in the early prediction of hypertensive disorders and their associated complications in an unselected Mediterranean population. METHODS: A prospective study including 1091 consecutive singleton pregnancies undergoing routine early ultrasound screening at 11-14 weeks of gestation was performed. The left and right UtA were examined by color and pulsed Doppler transvaginally. The mean PI and the presence of bilateral protodiastolic notching were cross-sectionally recorded. Reference ranges were calculated and the pregnancies were followed for occurrence of pre-eclampsia, gestational hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction, placental abruption and stillbirth. The sensitivity and predictive values of a mean UtA-PI>95th percentile and the presence of bilateral notching in the prediction of these pregnancy complications were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 999 women were finally included. Both the mean UtA-PI and the prevalence of bilateral notches showed a significant linear decrease between 11 and 14 weeks' gestation. Sixty-seven (6.7%) pregnancies developed at least one of the formerly described complications, including 22 (2.2%) cases of pre-eclampsia and 37 (3.7%) cases with intrauterine growth restriction. Compared with women with a normal outcome, complicated pregnancies showed a significantly higher mean PI (2.04 vs. 1.75; P<0.05, t-test) and a higher prevalence of bilateral notching (58% vs. 41%; P<0.05, Chi-square test). Using the 95th percentile in mean UtA-PI as a cut-off, 23.9% (95% CI, 13.7-34.1) of complicated pregnancies and 30.8% (95% CI, 5.68-55.85) of severe cases were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that pregnancies with an increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders and related complications already have an abnormally increased UtA-PI in early pregnancy. However, the use of a single uterine Doppler measurement for screening purposes in unselected early pregnancy populations has limited clinical value. The use of UtA-PI combined with other screening tests needs to be determined by further investigation.  (+info)

Validity of maternal and perinatal risk factors reported on fetal death certificates. (7/412)

We sought to estimate the accuracy, relative to maternal medical records, of perinatal risk factors recorded on fetal death certificates. We conducted a validation study of fetal death certificates among women who experienced fetal deaths between 1996 and 2001. The number of previous births, established diabetes, chronic hypertension, maternal fever, performance of autopsy, anencephaly, and Down syndrome had very high accuracy, while placental cord conditions and other chromosomal abnormalities were reported inaccurately. Additional population-based studies are needed to identify strategies to improve fetal death certificate data.  (+info)

Coffee and fetal death: a cohort study with prospective data. (8/412)

The authors conducted a cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort to determine whether coffee consumption during pregnancy is associated with late fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth). A total of 88,482 pregnant women recruited from March 1996 to November 2002 participated in a comprehensive interview on coffee consumption and potentially confounding factors in pregnancy. Information on pregnancy outcome was obtained from the National Hospital Discharge Register and medical records. The authors detected 1,102 fetal deaths. High levels of coffee consumption were associated with an increased risk of fetal death. Relative to nonconsumers of coffee, the adjusted hazard ratios for fetal death associated with coffee consumption of 1/2-3, 4-7, and > or =8 cups of coffee per day were 1.03 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 1.19), 1.33 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.63), and 1.59 (95% CI: 1.19, 2.13), respectively. Reverse causation due to unrecognized fetal demise may explain the association between coffee intake and risk of fetal death prior to 20 completed weeks' gestation but not the association with fetal loss following 20 completed weeks' gestation. Consumption of coffee during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of fetal death, especially losses occurring after 20 completed weeks of gestation.  (+info)

  • CONCLUSIONS -Women experiencing stillbirth were characterized by a high incidence of suboptimal glycemic control, diabetic nephropathy, smoking, and low social status. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The inconsistencies in offer and consent to post-mortem following stillbirth suggest inequality in this area. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hospitals need to examine the physical environment for deliveries and, wherever possible, offer designated private areas with staff trained in stillbirth care. (
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -Retrospectively identified cases of stillbirths in women with type 1 diabetes during 1990-2000 were analyzed regarding characteristics of the mother, the pregnancy, glycemic control, and the stillborn. (
  • Parents' experience of perinatal post-mortem following stillbirth: A mixed methods study. (
  • METHODS: A sample of women who experienced a stillbirth in 2013 were selected by staff at the Office for National Statistics and sent a letter and information leaflet about the study followed by a postal questionnaire. (
  • METHODS: We present a secondary qualitative analysis of transcript data from 3 semi-structured focus groups conducted with parents who had experienced a stillbirth and delivered in a hospital, and 2 focus groups with obstetrician-gynecologists. (
  • Mothers with previous stillbirth were significantly more likely to be depressed in the third trimester than control patients, but these differences were not apparent at one year after the birth. (
  • This study aimed to find out what the general public know about the risk factors associated with stillbirth and whether stillbirth can be prevented. (
  • Many stillbirth risk factors can be identified and when they are, healthcare professionals can monitor pregnancy and hopefully reduce the possibility of a baby dying before birth. (
  • This study highlights the importance of increasing public awareness about stillbirth by providing clear information to women and their partners that there are risk factors associated with stillbirth that can be identified and monitored. (
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the main risk factors associated with stillbirth in a multiethnic English maternity population. (
  • Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have developed an experimental vaccine that reduces stillbirths among rodents born to mothers infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV) - a common virus that can also cause mental retardation and hearing loss in newborn children who were infected in early fetal life. (
  • Should Mothers See Their Infants After Stillbirth? (
  • About 20 percent of mothers who have a stillbirth experience prolonged depression afterward, and one in five suffers post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a subsequent pregnancy. (
  • They identified mothers who had no living children and were attending one of three district hospitals in England for antenatal care in the pregnancy following a stillbirth. (
  • Mothers were excluded if they were receiving treatment for any physical or psychologic condition or if the stillbirth resulted from elective termination because of fetal abnormality. (
  • More than 85 percent of eligible mothers who had experienced stillbirth agreed to participate. (
  • Case and control patients were well matched, but mothers in the stillbirth group had more measures of social disadvantage, such as unemployment, low income, or poor housing. (
  • Twenty-one percent of mothers who had previously experienced stillbirth had measurable PTSD during the third trimester, but only 4 percent were affected at one year after delivery. (
  • This was present in 36 percent of mothers of previous stillbirths and 15 percent of control patients. (
  • Assessment of guidelines for good practice in psychosocial care of mothers after stillbirth: a cohort study. (
  • There were no differences between groups in case level psychological morbidity, but significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms persisted in stillbirth group mothers who had case level PTSD 7 years earlier. (
  • Stillbirth group mothers were more likely to have experienced subsequent partnership breakdown. (
  • In subgroup analysis, smoking 1-9 cig/day and ≥10 cig/day was associated with an 9% and 52% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively. (
  • 0.0001), whereas studies with stillbirth defined at ≥ 24 weeks and ≥ 28 weeks showed 58% and 33% increase in the odds of stillbirth respectively. (
  • Prevention of stillbirths requires attendance at farrowing, careful attention to those sows known to have a high stillbirth rate, prompt intervention when uterine inertia occurs and culling of sows after the seventh litter. (
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning may also increase stillbirth rates dramatically. (
  • The results of this study found that most people did not know how common stillbirth was and also believed that only a minority could be prevented. (
  • WIPO's Development Agenda: another stillbirth? (
  • Taking folic acid before becoming pregnant can prevent certain birth defects, and may reduce the risk of having a miscarriage or another stillbirth. (
  • The findings of a new study suggest that pregnant women who take antidepressants like Zoloft, Paxil, Celexa and Lexapro may increase the risk that their child is born with a congenital heart defect, or that the pregnancy results in a stillbirth. (
  • Researchers from Denmark, the U.K. and Norway found that exposure to a class of antidepressants known as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during the first trimester of pregnancy, when many women do not even realize they are pregnant, was associated with an increased risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs) and stillbirth. (
  • Helping women to stop smoking when they become pregnant, monitoring women at risk of stillbirth more closely and checking babies' heart rates more effectively during labour have all played a part in achieving the dramatic reduction. (
  • Training programs in obstetrics need to better address the bereavement needs of parents following a stillbirth, and research is needed to evaluate effective bereavement interventions, accounting for cultural variation. (
  • The aim of the study was to audit stillbirth cases in women with type 1 diabetes to search for specific characteristics in order to improve antenatal care and treatment. (
  • Stillbirth is more common in African American women, and those aged 35 years and older. (
  • POPULATION: Random sample of women who experienced a stillbirth in 2013. (
  • We conducted seven-year follow-up of a cohort of women who were initially assessed during and after a pregnancy subsequent to stillbirth, together with pair-matched controls. (
  • RESULTS: Women reported that the cheery, bustling environment of the labor and delivery setting was a painful place for parents who had had a stillbirth, and that the well-meaning attempts of physicians to offer comfort often had the opposite effect. (
  • Stillbirth has been reduced by more than one third in two years at Hull Women and Children's Hospital after maternity services adopted national guidelines to save babies' lives. (
  • Hull has more stillbirths than other areas, partly because more women smoke during pregnancy or have a higher body mass index (BMI). (
  • Staff also teach women about the importance of monitoring their babies' movements after 24 weeks, ensuring they know what to do if they detect reduced movements, a proven link to stillbirth. (