In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
A departure from the normal gait in animals.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Any of a group of bone disorders involving one or more ossification centers (EPIPHYSES). It is characterized by degeneration or NECROSIS followed by revascularization and reossification. Osteochondrosis often occurs in children causing varying degrees of discomfort or pain. There are many eponymic types for specific affected areas, such as tarsal navicular (Kohler disease) and tibial tuberosity (Osgood-Schlatter disease).
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
The ability to generate new ideas or images.
The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.
Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Advanced programs of training to meet certain professional requirements in fields other than medicine or dentistry, e.g., pharmacology, nutrition, nursing, etc.
The educational process of instructing.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.
Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
Celestial bodies orbiting around the sun or other stars.
A genus of GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC BACTERIA of marine origin. Many species were formerly classified under ALTEROMONAS.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
A species of parasitic nematode widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. The females and their larvae inhabit the mucosa of the intestinal tract, where they cause ulceration and diarrhea.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.

Exacerbation of antigen-induced arthritis in inducible nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice. (1/146)

OBJECTIVE: Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is suggested to be beneficial in experimental arthritis. Although NO is important for the integrity of the microcirculation, the effects of inhibition of iNOS on the synovial microcirculation are not currently known. This study investigated the synovial microcirculation and leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in iNOS-deficient mice with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) and compared these findings with disease severity. METHODS: Fourteen homozygous iNOS-/- and 14 iNOS+/+ mice were used. The severity of AIA was assessed by measuring knee joint swelling and by histologic scoring. The number of rolling and adherent leukocytes was quantitatively analyzed in synovial microvessels using intravital microscopy of intraarticular synovial tissue. Nitrite/nitrate concentrations were measured, and the expression of iNOS, E- and P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In iNOS+/+ animals with AIA, the plasma concentration of nitrite/nitrate was increased 3-fold and iNOS expression was detected in cells of the joint. Swelling of the knee joint as well as leukocyte infiltration were enhanced in the iNOS-/- arthritic animals compared with iNOS+/+ mice with AIA. AIA-associated leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in synovial postcapillary venules was more pronounced in iNOS-/-, compared with iNOS+/+, arthritic mice. A strong expression of P-selectin and VCAM-1 was observed in the iNOS-/- arthritic mice only. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that NO production by iNOS in vivo has antiinflammatory effects in experimental arthritis, by mediating a reduction in leukocyte adhesion and infiltration.  (+info)

Matrix metalloproteinases and aggrecanases cleave aggrecan in different zones of normal cartilage but colocalize in the development of osteoarthritic lesions in STR/ort mice. (2/146)

OBJECTIVE: To map aggrecan cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and aggrecanases in normal murine tibial articular cartilage (CBA strain) and in the development of spontaneous osteoarthritis (OA) in the STR/ort mouse and to assess the influence of sex hormone status on these conditions in gonadectomized STR/ort mice. METHODS: The distributions of neoepitopes of aggrecan generated by MMP (VDIPEN) and aggrecanase (NITEGE) cleavage were investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: VDIPEN neoepitope was detected mainly in the pericellular matrix of deep-zone chondrocytes in normal tibial cartilage from STR/ort and CBA mice. In early OA, VDIPEN immunostaining also localized to the pericellular matrix of chondrocytes at the site of the lesion. With increasing severity of OA lesions, VDIPEN immunostaining was also detected in the interterritorial matrix, close to the site of the lesion. In contrast, NITEGE mapped most strongly to the pericellular matrix of upper-zone chondrocytes in normal tibial cartilage. As with VDIPEN, NITEGE was strongly expressed in the pericellular matrix at the site of early OA lesions. With advancing OA, NITEGE colocalized with VDIPEN in both the pericellular and interterritorial matrices of chondrocytes adjacent to OA lesions and in those of the deep zones. Hormone status did not appear to influence the development of OA or the distribution of aggrecan neoepitopes in STR/ort mice. CONCLUSION: MMP- and aggrecanase-generated neoepitopes map predominantly to different regions in normal murine tibial cartilage. However, both groups of enzymes generate increased amounts of neoepitopes in pericellular and interterritorial matrix adjacent to histopathologic lesions of OA. Aggrecan degradation and the development of OA appear to be independent of sex hormone status in this model.  (+info)

Processing of nociceptive mechanical and thermal information in central amygdala neurons with knee-joint input. (3/146)

Pain has a strong emotional dimension, and the amygdala plays a key role in emotionality. The processing of nociceptive mechanical and thermal information was studied in individual neurons of the central nucleus of the amygdala, the target of the spino-parabrachio-amygdaloid pain pathway and a major output nucleus of the amygdala. This study is the first to characterize nociceptive amygdala neurons with input from deep tissue, particularly the knee joint. In 46 anesthetized rats, extracellular single-unit recordings were made from 119 central amygdala neurons that were activated orthodromically by electrical stimulation in the lateral pontine parabrachial area and were tested for receptive fields in the knee joints. Responses to brief mechanical stimulation of joints, muscles, and skin and to cutaneous thermal stimuli were recorded. Receptive-field sizes and thresholds were mapped and stimulus-response functions constructed. Neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala with excitatory input from the knee joint (n = 62) typically had large symmetrical receptive fields in both hindlimbs or in all four extremities and responded exclusively or preferentially to noxious mechanical stimulation of deep tissue (n = 58). Noxious mechanical stimulation of the skin excited 30 of these neurons; noxious heat activated 21 neurons. Stimulus-response data were best fitted by a sigmoid nonlinear regression model rather than by a monotonically increasing linear function. Another 15 neurons were inhibited by noxious mechanical stimulation of the knee joint and other deep tissue. Fifteen neurons had no receptive field in the knee but responded to noxious stimulation of other body areas; 27 nonresponsive neurons were not activated by natural somesthetic stimulation. Our data suggest that excitation is the predominant effect of brief painful stimulation of somatic tissue on the population of central amygdala neurons with knee joint input. Their large symmetrical receptive fields and sigmoid rather than monotonically increasing linear stimulus-response functions suggest a role of nociceptive central amygdala neurons in other than sensory-discriminative aspects of pain.  (+info)

Complex polysaccharide inclusions in skeletal muscle adjacent to sarcomas in two dogs. (4/146)

Inclusions of periodic acid-Schiff-positive, amylase resistant material were found within skeletal muscle fibers adjacent to an osteosarcoma in the proximal femur of an 8-year-old intact female Cocker Spaniel dog (dog No. 1) and adjacent to a synovial cell sarcoma of the stifle joint in a 7-year-old spayed female Bouvier des Flandres dog (dog No. 2). Inclusions were pale blue-gray with hematoxylin and eosin stain and formed irregular inclusions, replacing up to approximately 80% of the fiber diameter. Inclusions from dog No. 2 were of non-membrane-bound granular to filamentous material that occasionally formed discrete, elongate electron-dense masses. The features of these inclusions were similar to those of materials previously described as complex polysaccharide, polyglucosan bodies, amylopectin, and Lafora bodies. Evidence for a generalized metabolic disorder was not found in these two dogs, suggesting that storage of complex polysaccharide can occur as a relatively nonspecific response to metabolic alterations in skeletal muscle in a variety of conditions.  (+info)

Differential function of nitric oxide in murine antigen-induced arthritis. (5/146)

BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to investigate the role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) production in different stages of murine antigen-induced arthritis (AiA). METHODS: Clinical, histological and microcirculatory parameters (measured by intravital fluorescence microscopy) were assessed in the knee joint during acute and chronic AiA after inhibition of iNOS with L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL). Plasma concentrations of and were evaluated by the Griess reaction and the expression of iNOS, P- and E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: In both stages of the disease, plasma concentrations of and were increased and iNOS was expressed. In the acute phase, swelling, leucocyte adhesion, leucocyte infiltration and expression of adhesion molecules were increased in arthritic animals treated with L-NIL in comparison with untreated arthritic animals. In the chronic phase, no change in the disease parameters could be detected after L-NIL treatment. CONCLUSION: Increased NO production induced by iNOS during the acute phase of AiA can be regarded as a protective response in the prevention of further leucocytic infiltration and joint destruction, whereas it seems to play a subordinate role in chronic AiA.  (+info)

One of two chondrocyte-expressed isoforms of cartilage intermediate-layer protein functions as an insulin-like growth factor 1 antagonist. (6/146)

OBJECTIVE: Aging and osteoarthritic (OA) cartilage commonly demonstrate enhanced expression of the large, transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta)-inducible glycoprotein cartilage intermediate-layer protein (CILP) as well as enhanced extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) that promotes the deposition of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals. In normal chondrocytes, TGFbeta induces elevated chondrocyte extracellular PPi. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) normally blocks this response and reduces extracellular PPi. However, chondrocyte resistance to IGF-1 is observed in OA and aging. Because CILP was reported to chromatographically fractionate with PPi-generating nucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase (NPP) activity, it has been broadly assumed that CILP itself has NPP activity. Our objective was to directly define CILP functions and their relationship to IGF-1 in chondrocytes. METHODS: Using primary cultures of articular chondrocytes from the knee, we defined the function of the previously described CILP (CILP-1) and of a recently described 50.6% identical protein that we designated the CILP-2 isoform. RESULTS: Both CILP isoforms were constitutively expressed by primary cultured articular chondrocytes, but only CILP-1 expression was detectable in cultured knee meniscal cartilage cells. Neither CILP isoform had intrinsic NPP activity. But CILP-1 blocked the ability of IGF-1 to decrease extracellular PPi, an activity specific for the CILP-1 N-terminal domain. The CILP-1 N-terminal domain also suppressed IGF-1-induced (but not TGFbeta-induced) proliferation and sulfated proteoglycan synthesis, and it inhibited ligand-induced IGF-1 receptor autophosphorylation. CONCLUSION: Two CILP isoforms are differentially expressed by chondrocytes. Neither CILP isoform exhibits PPi-generating NPP activity. But, increased expression of CILP-1, via N-terminal domain-mediated inhibitory effects of CILP-1 on chondrocyte IGF-1 responsiveness, could impair chondrocyte growth and matrix repair and indirectly promote PPi supersaturation in aging and OA cartilage.  (+info)

Hamstring graft technique for stabilization of canine cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifles. (7/146)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the harvest and application of hamstring grafts for canine cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) reconstruction. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. ANIMALS: Four adult female hounds, weighing 26.3 +/- 1.6 kg (mean +/- SEM). METHODS-One stifle in each dog was randomly chosen for hamstring graft CrCL reconstruction after native CrCL transection. Arthroscopy was performed to evaluate graft integrity at 12 weeks. Gait analysis and stifle radiographs were performed preoperatively and up to 52 weeks after graft placement. Dogs were killed 12 (n = 2) or 52 weeks (n = 2) after CrCL reconstruction. Tissues were evaluated grossly and with light and confocal laser microscopy. RESULTS: Hamstring grafts were intact in all stifles at 12 weeks (n = 4) and 52 weeks (n = 2). Grossly, there was no osteoarthritis in stifles at 12 weeks and only chondrophytes along the trochlear ridges at 52 weeks. Minimal radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis developed in stifles with grafts during the study. Lameness in limbs with grafts resolved by 52 weeks. Graft tissue was highly vascular, ligamentized, and undergoing active remodeling at 12 weeks. Fifty-two weeks after graft placement, intraarticular graft tissue was well vascularized, mature, and encapsulated by synovium, and graft-bone interfaces were characterized by Sharpey's fiber insertions. There was no evidence of graft necrosis using confocal laser microscopy at either time point. CONCLUSIONS: The hamstring graft technique may be a viable method of canine CrCL reconstruction. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hamstring grafts may be an alternative technique for canine CrCL reconstruction. Further study is needed before clinical application.  (+info)

Basic fibroblast growth factor mediates transduction of mechanical signals when articular cartilage is loaded. (8/146)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mediates signal transduction in articular cartilage in response to mechanical loading. METHODS: Articular cartilage from porcine metacarpophalangeal or knee joints was cyclically loaded (62.5-250N) for 2 minutes in the absence or presence of a bFGF receptor inhibitor, SB 402451 (250 nM). Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase MAP kinase ERK was measured by Western blot analysis. Changes in protein synthesis were assessed by measuring the incorporation of (35)S-Met/Cys into proteins secreted by cartilage explants or by isolated chondrocytes. RESULTS: Rapid activation of the ERK MAP kinase occurred when articular cartilage was loaded. This was dependent upon release of the bFGF because it was restricted by the FGF receptor inhibitor. Loaded explants were shown to release bFGF. Loading or bFGF stimulation of explants induced synthesis and secretion of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), which was inhibited by SB 402451. CONCLUSION: Cyclical loading of articular cartilage causes bFGF-dependent activation of ERK and synthesis of TIMP-1.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Canine stifle joint biomechanics associated with tibial plateau leveling osteotomy predicted by use of a computer model. AU - Brown, Nathan P.. AU - Bertocci, Gina E.. AU - Marcellin-Little, Denis J. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Objective-To evaluate effects of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) on canine stifle joint biomechanics in a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient stifle joint by use of a 3-D computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to compare biomechanics in TPLOmanaged, CrCL-intact, and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Sample-Computer simulations of the pelvic limb of a Golden Retriever. Procedures-A previously developed computer model of the canine pelvic limb was used to simulate TPLO stabilization to achieve a tibial plateau angle (TPA) of 5° (baseline value) in a CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Sensitivity analysis was conducted for tibial fragment rotation of 13° to -3°. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Management of concurrent patellar luxation and cranial cruciate ligament rupture using modified tibial plateau levelling. AU - Langenbach, Anke. AU - Marcellin-Little, Denis J. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Objectives: To evaluate a novel surgery aimed at managing concurrent medial patellar luxation (MPL) and cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) ruptures in dogs weighing more than 30 kg.Methods: Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) and femoral trochleopasty were performed. The principal tibial fragment was laterally translated by 3 to 6 mm and was externally and abaxially rotated to create a wedge measuring 1·5 to 2·5 mm at the medial and cranial aspect and 1 to 3 mm at the medial and distal aspect of the tibial plateau fragment. The fragments were stabilised with a narrow TPLO plate.Results: Thirteen surgeries were performed in 12 dogs with a mean weight of 39·8 kg. The mean postoperative tibial plateau slope was 8·1°. Additional surgery was required in two cases, one ...
Objective:To evaluate stifle joints of dogs for synovitis, before development of joint instability and cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CrCLR).Study Design:Cross-sectional study.Animals:Dogs (n=16) with CrCLR and stable contralateral stifles; 10 control dogs with intact CrCL.Methods:Arthritis and
The stifle joint (often simply stifle) is a complex joint in the hind limbs of quadruped mammals such as the sheep, horse or dog. It is the equivalent of the human knee and is often the largest synovial joint in the animals body. The stifle joint joins three bones: the femur, patella, and tibia. The joint consists of three smaller ones: the femoropatellar joint, medial femorotibial joint, and lateral femorotibial joint. The stifle joint consists of the femorotibial articulation (femoral and tibial condyles), femoropatellar articulation (femoral trochlea and the patella), and the proximal tibiofibular articulation. The joint is stabilized by paired collateral ligaments which act to prevent abduction/adduction at the joint, as well as paired cruciate ligaments. The cranial cruciate ligament and the caudal cruciate ligament restrict cranial and caudal translation (respectively) of the tibia on the femur. The cranial cruciate also resists over-extension and inward rotation, and is the most commonly ...
Patellar luxations contribute to cartilage erosion which can be developing to cartilage degradation. This research divided to 2 studies. The objectives of the first study were to prevalence of cartilage erosion in dogs with patellar luxation and relation between cartilage erosion and severity of patellar luxation. Sixty dogs with patellar luxation, 48.65% was grade III patellar luxation and 35.14 was grade IV patellar luxation. There was a relation between cartilage erosion and severity of patellar luxation. In second study, the objective was to study of gene expression of osteoarthritis in articular cartilage from dogs with patellar luxation. 34 dogs divided into 4 groups, group 1 was dogs with normal articular cartilage (Nor) (n=5), group 2 stifle osteoarthritic dogs (OA) (n=13), group 3 was dogs with patellar luxation and not found cartilage erosion (PL) (n=6), and group 4 was dogs with patellar luxation and found cartilage erosion (PLCE) (n=10). HAS-1, HAS-2, COL2A1, MMP-3, IL-1, AGG-1 and ...
Stifle lock in its more chronic forms may present as the horses leg extending out and backwards, with its fetlock resting on the ground. This is quite an obvious symptom, although horses can suffer from milder forms of this condition and not have the obvious extension. In some milder cases the horses stifle locks intermittently when the horse is moving, occurring with greater frequency if the horse has been at rest for some time. This may be observed when the horse in slowing down in gait, say from canter to trot. The hind leg will appear to collapse briefly, the stifle often unlocking itself with a loud click. In its most mild form stifle lock can be quite difficult to diagnose. It may appear as a slight shaking or vibration of the hind as the ligament unlocks itself, a mechanism which may be unnoticeable to many riders or onlookers.. A stifle locking often may result in inflammation, damage to the ligaments, and osteoarthritis. Lameness may then result from such ailments.. ...
Stifle lock in its more chronic forms may present as the horses leg extending out and backwards, with its fetlock resting on the ground. This is quite an obvious symptom, although horses can suffer from milder forms of this condition and not have the obvious extension. In some milder cases the horses stifle locks intermittently when the horse is moving, occurring with greater frequency if the horse has been at rest for some time. This may be observed when the horse in slowing down in gait, say from canter to trot. The hind leg will appear to collapse briefly, the stifle often unlocking itself with a loud click. In its most mild form stifle lock can be quite difficult to diagnose. It may appear as a slight shaking or vibration of the hind as the ligament unlocks itself, a mechanism which may be unnoticeable to many riders or onlookers.. A stifle locking often may result in inflammation, damage to the ligaments, and osteoarthritis. Lameness may then result from such ailments.. ...
Yeadon, R, Fitzpatrick, N and Kowaleski, MP (2011) Tibial tuberosity transposition-advancement for treatment of medial patellar luxation and concomitant cranial cruciate ligament disease in the dog Surgical technique, radiographic and clinical outcomes ...
Three surgical techniques, grouped as intra-articular techniques, extra-capsular techniques and fibular head transposition, were used for repair of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient stifle in 113 dogs over a 4 year 4 month period. The clinical outcome of the techniques were compared using information provided by the owners and physical examination. Regardless of surgical technique, 85.7 to 91.0% of dogs showed clinical improvement after surgery. However, less than 50% of dogs became clinically sound on the operated leg and 9.0 to 14.3% of dogs remained persistently lame on the operated leg. No statistical association was found between result after surgery and age, body weight, sex, duration of injury before surgery, association with injury, tibial plateau angle, degree of radiographic osteoarthritis before surgery or the presence of concurrent medial meniscal injury. On physical examination, extra-capsular techniques appeared superior to the fibular head transposition in terms of ...
After a night spent in the comfort of their own beds at home, Lilly and Tara returned the following day for surgery. They were anaesthetised a few minutes apart and transferred to the imaging team for radiography.. X-rays confirmed evidence of right stifle joint effusion in Lilly and bilateral stifle joint effusion in Tara, as well as mild osteophytosis in both. These findings were consistent with a diagnosis of cranial cruciate ligament tears for both dogs. Lilly and Tara were both prepared for surgery and successively underwent the same procedure on their right stifles, with Tara operated less than an hour after Lilly.. Russell performed a mini-medial sub-patellar arthrotomy of the right stifle, which confirmed a 90% rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament for Lilly and a 50% tear for Tara. Meniscal tears were not identified in either dog. Both dogs then underwent standard tibial plateau-levelling osteotomy (TPLO). The osteotomies were stabilised with Synthes 3.5mm 6-hole TPLO plate and ...
This session will discuss the most common stifle injury in the canine patient, a cranial cruciate ligament tear (CCL). There are several signs and symptoms that follow the rupture of the CCL. Veterinarians have several surgical options at their disposal to repair this type of ligament tear. We will discuss three of the most common stifles; the lateral suture technique, TPLOs, and TTAs.
Cross-sectional labeled anatomy of the stifle joint of the dog on MR imaging (meniscus, collateral and cruciate ligaments, muscles of the thigh and crus, tendons)
Cross-sectional labeled anatomy of the stifle joint of the dog on CT imaging (bones, cruciate ligaments, muscles of the thigh and crus, tendons)
Advances in the Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament, 2nd Edition. Peter Muir ISBN: 9781119261711. Feb 2018, Wiley-Blackwell. 424 pages. Description Advances in the Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligament, Second Edition presents in-depth, focused, and updated coverage of current knowledge on cruciate ligament rupture, using a multidisciplinary, evidence-based approach.. ...
INTRODUCTION. Injuries of the Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CrCL) of the stifle are a common clinical finding in dogs of any breed, age and weight. CrCL injuries are consisting of partial tears and of complete rupture. Partial tears are associated to short term and self limiting acute lameness, evolving in chronic grade 1 lameness, usually underestimated and leading to complete rupture after a variable time. The cranial tibial thrust associated to the tibial slope and the weight bearing forces has been demonstrated to be responsible of the continuous stress on the damaged ligament leading to its complete rupture.. CrCL complete rupture is clinically associated to acute grade 3 lameness and can be a consequence of a chronic tear or it can be associated to a recent acute trauma, usually consisting of stifle hyperextension and internal rotation, the same condition leading to traumatic partial tears when of less amount.. When CrCL complete rupture is a evolution of partial tears the radiographic ...
Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) is increasingly being used for treatment of stable partial cruciate ligament rupture (CR) in dogs. Medical records for TPLO-treated dogs from 2003 to 2014 were reviewed and five cases were identified. Data retrieved included physical examination, diagnostic imaging and treatment. At long-term follow-up, the outcome was evaluated by clinical examination, stifle radiographs and force platform gait analysis. The time to follow-up examination was 892±673 days for six stable stifle TPLO treatments in five dogs. Stifles with partial CR remained cranial drawer and cranial tibial thrust negative at follow-up, with little progression of stifle osteoarthritis (OA). These observations suggest that TPLO is an effective clinical treatment for dogs with lameness because of partial CR. TPLO treatment reduces cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) strain, based on ex vivo model studies. Clinically, TPLO may act to block fibre tearing in the CrCL and associated progression of ...
Cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) deficiency is the leading cause of lameness of the canine stifle and has important consequences in terms of morbidity and cost associated with its management. In spite of this impact, development of preventive strategies remains in its infancy, largely because of gaps in our understanding of the complex and likely multifactorial origin of CCL deficiency. The purpose of this article is to provide a critical review of the literature related to the pathogenesis of CCL deficiency and place this evidence in the context of potential preventive measures. Trauma accounts for a minority of CCL ruptures in dogs, whereas progressive degeneration of the ligament has been attributed to a variety of factors that may be broadly classified as genetic, conformational, environmental, immune-mediated, and inflammatory. Genetic screening appears promising as a long-term option in selected breeds while immunomodulating therapies may be implemented in the nearer future to reduce the ...
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY. Cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) injuries occur both as partial and as complete rupture. The ethiology of CrCL injures is traumatic and non traumatic. CrCL injuries of traumatic origin are caused by forced hyperextension and or internal torsion of the stifle; high impact trauma causes the complete rupture of the ligament, while less intense trauma causes partial rupture. Partial rupture usually evolves with time in complete rupture, because of the joint inflammation, of weakening of the ligament and of altered biomechanics imbalance that enhances the cranial tibial thrust. CrCL of non-traumatic origin are caused by a chronic biomechanics imbalance of the forces acting on the CrCL as it is seen in large breed dogs, in overweight dogs, in bowlegged dogs and in dogs with straight rear leg conformation and open knee angle in standing and walking. In these dogs the cranial tibial thrust caused by the forces acting on the slope of the tibial plateau continuously stresses the CrCL and ...
The ruptured cruciate ligament is the most common knee injury in dogs. It usually involves a rear leg that is suddenly so sore that the dog can hardly bear weight on it, or no weight at all. If left alone, the leg will appear to improve over the course of a week or two but the knee will be notably swollen and arthritis will set in quickly. For more information visit: www.theveterinarypartner.com. ...
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Patellar Luxation (or loose knees) is a common condition in dogs, especially small breeds. The dog knee is very similar in structure to the human knee, with the patella (kneecap) sliding in a groove in the femur (thigh bone) within the patellar tendon. Depending on the severity of the condition, when the patella luxates, or slides out of its groove, it may be sudden and painful, or it may become chronic and spend most of its time out on either side of the knee. In small-breed dogs, the patella most often slides medially, or towards the dogs midline, is usually seen in both knees, and can produce a bow-legged deformity of the rear legs. This medial sliding of the patella puts abnormal forces on the bones and muscles of the leg, causing progressive deterioration of the cartilage in the knee joint and eventual arthritis. These abnormal forces also cause the tibia (calf bone) to rotate inward, further worsening the condition. Read More... ...
Patellar Luxation is the dislocation of the kneecap (patella) from its normal position in the femoral groove when the knee is flexed. It has been seen in the Lagotto Romagnolo, and it can be an inherited condition. Good breeders will have an assessment of the patellas undertaken before any dogs are included in a breeding program.. ...
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The width of the tips when closed is the minimum spread and the widest the distractor can open is the maximum spread in the descriptions.. The Wallace Retractor is a popular alternative to the above Joint Distractors to open up the stifle joint. Thumb screw to control the width of opening ...
Objective â 1) To determine whether a graft of fascia lata and part of the patellar ligament, used in an extracapsular fashion from the tibial crest to the femorofabellar ligament, would eliminate abnormal cranial drawer motion in the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) deficient stifle 2) To determine if two new tibial suture anchor points would enhance biomechanical function of the lateral fabellar-tibial suture (FTS). Study Design â Experimental. Animals â 28 canine cadaver hind limbs. Methods â Stifles were mounted in a jig that allowed tibial rotation during loading and were tested between loads of â 65 to 80 N in caudal and cranial drawer respectively. Stifles were tested with the CrCL intact followed by one of four stabilization techniques after CrCL transection: lateral graft technique (LGT) and three FTS with different tibial anchor points. Results â Differences in cranial drawer motion (displacement) and stiffness between the LGT and standard FTS were not significant in two data ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a one year programme of running training (up to 40 km/day for 15 weeks) on the spatial orientation pattern of collagen and glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage in different parts of the knee (stifle) and shoulder joints of young beagle dogs. METHODS: Area specific measurements of the optical path difference (= retardation, gamma) and the cartilage zone thickness were performed using conventional procedures and a new computer based quantitative polarised light microscopy method. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the zonal volume density of collagen fibrils. The concentrations of collagen and hydroxypyridinium crosslinks were investigated biochemically. RESULTS: Running training decreased gamma by 24-34% (p , 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral femoral condyle articular cartilage and at the centre of the tibial condyles. Gamma of glycosaminoglycans decreased by 26% (p , 0.05) in the superficial zone of the lateral condyle ...
Osteoarthritis is an important factor for lameness in horses. This degenerative joint disease is characterized by breakdown of articular cartilage. Therefore a significant amount of research on cartilage repair is currently undertaken (Harmel, 2004). Hyaline cartilage consists of chondrocytes, proteoglycans, collagen and water (Weeren van, 2010). Where proteoglycan can be ... read more replaced, collagen can be created, however the body is unable to recreate the arching configuration of collagen that anchors hyaline cartilage to the subchondral bone. This configuration is required for cartilage to perform as unique mechanical properties (Bramlage, 2009). Different osteochondral scaffolds are developed for cartilage defect repair. These different scaffolds aim to repair tissue that is superior to fibro-cartilage, which is formed after the natural cartilage repair process (Bramlage, 2009). These scaffolds for human use are currently being tested in animal models. The equine stifle model seems to ...
Toy dogs are prone to weak knee joints. It is best to not let your puppy jump from high places such as beds, couches, etc… as this could eventually weaken those stifles and patellas. Also, when brushing your dogs long hair, do those legs gently.. ...
The following radiographs are the mediolateral and caudocranial views of the left stifle of a nine-month-old Yorkshire Terrier.. ...
By Simon Akoje. Financial analysts have expressed concern that the currency swap deal recently signed by the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and the Peoples Bank of China (PBoC) will stifle the Nigerian economy.. The Currency Swap Deal was signed on April 27.. Mr Boniface Okesie, the president Progressive Shareholders Association of Nigeria, told NAN that the currency swap deal was unnecessary.. He said the deal would ensure that majority of the countrys foreign trade deals were channeled to the Chinese economy.. This will lead to economic dependence despite that Nigeria is a sovereign nation. The policy will lead to the influx of Chinese goods into our country considering that we are contending with weak regulation, he said.. Similarly, Dr Austine Nwaeze, a lecturer in the department of Economics, Pan Atlantic University, Ibeju-Lekki, Lagos told NAN that the deal was only good on its surface value.. He noted that in the long run, the initiative would allow the Chinese to compete with our local ...
My colt had been doing that quite a bit, it is locking stifles. He only did it in mornings and was fine after being turned out. I was told have him out as much as possible. Vet was not too concerned at this point as my colt had done quite a bit of growing in a short time and he felt he would grow out of it. He had been doing it fairly regularly up until January. Since he has been back from being broke I have only seen him do it once. Also had a gelding who did this very severely and we were told to work him up hills as much as possible (he was 4) to strenghten his hind end. Once he was in regular work and doing trotting poles and such, he did come out of it also. He too was quite large, 17 hands at 3 years old ...
Osteoarthritis is a chronic, incurable disease of joints that is characterized by joint instability, and loss of articular cartilage. Clinically, osteoarthritis causes varying degrees of pain and dysfunction. Osteoarthritis generally is characterized as primary or secondary. Primary osteoarthritis is old age wear and tear arthritis and while common in humans, is uncommon in dogs. Secondary arthritis is common in dogs and is a response to a joint injury of some type. The most common causes of secondary osteoarthritis in dogs include hip and elbow dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament ruptures, osteochondritis dissicans of various joints, patellar luxation and joint trauma. All of these conditions cause instability or abnormal weight bearing of joints leading to loss of articular cartilage, joint instability and periarticular osteophyte (bone spur) formation.. Osteoarthritis begins with an insult to the joint that causes damage to the articular cartilage. Once the cartilage is damaged, the injured ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) to address abnormal femorotibial kinematics caused by cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture during walking in dogs.STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, clinical.ANIMALS: Sixteen dogs (20-40 kg) with unilateral complete CCL rupture.METHODS: Lateral view fluoroscopy was performed during treadmill walking
Because every patient is different, the AMC uses several different surgical techniques to repair cranial cruciate ligaments. Two common techniques are known by acronyms: TPLO, which stands for tibial plateau leveling osteotomy, and TTA, or tibial tuberosity advancement. Both of these techniques cut and replace a section of the tibia using special bone plates. The bone is replaced in a fashion to improve joint biomechanics. The postoperative x-ray shown here demonstrates the TPLO repair.. Another type of surgical repair involves using suture material as a stand in for the torn ligament. The extracapsular lateral fabellotibial suture technique and the Tightrope® procedure are examples of a suture method of repair. Board certified surgeons at AMC prefer the TPLO and the extracapsular lateral fabellotibial suture techniques. Postoperatively, rehabilitation therapy is often prescribed to improve the rate of recovery through AMCs Tina Santi Flaherty Rehabilitation & Fitness Service.. Dogs with an ...
The cranial cruciate ligament, or CCL (called the anterior cruciate ligament or ACL in humans) is a very important ligament in the stifle (knee) joint in pets. This tiny ligaments job, along with the caudal cruciate ligament and collateral ligaments, is to stabilize the stifle joint where the femur (thigh) and tibia (shin) bones meet…. Read more ». ...
TopDogHealth is dedicated to providing essential and trusted educational material and animal supplements to maintain the health and happiness of your dog. We provide information and health products to pet owners whose dogs may be undergoing orthopedic surgeries such as TPLO (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy), TTA (tibial tuberocity advancement), CCL (cranial cruciate ligament rupture), MPL (medial patellar luxation), FHO (femoral head osteotomy), THR (total hip replacement), or for dogs suffering age-related or genetic joint health issues.. Our skin and joint supplements are designed to help your dog look and feel better. Skin supplements work to improve flaky, dry skin while using natural ingredients to make your dogs coat shine. These supplements can also control excessive shedding and battle underlying skin conditions. Joint supplements work to maintain healthy connective tissues, strong bones, and normal joint function and joint mobility. Keep your dog active and content by providing a ...
TopDogHealth is dedicated to providing essential and trusted educational material and animal supplements to maintain the health and happiness of your dog. We provide information and health products to pet owners whose dogs may be undergoing orthopedic surgeries such as TPLO (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy), TTA (tibial tuberocity advancement), CCL (cranial cruciate ligament rupture), MPL (medial patellar luxation), FHO (femoral head osteotomy), THR (total hip replacement), or for dogs suffering age-related or genetic joint health issues.. Our skin and joint supplements are designed to help your dog look and feel better. Skin supplements work to improve flaky, dry skin while using natural ingredients to make your dogs coat shine. These supplements can also control excessive shedding and battle underlying skin conditions. Joint supplements work to maintain healthy connective tissues, strong bones, and normal joint function and joint mobility. Keep your dog active and content by providing a ...
Total derangement or dislocation of the stifle joint is a serious injury usually caused by severe direct or indirect trauma to the knee. The type of dislocation observed depends upon the direction and location of the inciting trauma. Luxation of the stifle joint is not a very common injury because of the many soft tissue structures that interact to provide stability for the joint. These structures include the cranial and caudal cruciate ligaments along with the medial and lateral collateral ligaments. In addition, some support may also be derived from the quadriceps muscle and patella tendon cranially and the oblique poplitcal muscle, hamstring muscles, and the gastroenemius muscle, caudally. In many cases, fractures may accompany dislocations. Other structures are also likely to be injured including the menisci, joint capsule, popliteal artery, and peroneal nerve. Vascular integrity and neurologic function must be carefully evaluated as these complications usually are the limiting factor in the ...
Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Merck Veterinary Manual was first published in 1955 as a service to the community. The legacy of this great resource continues as the Merck Veterinary Manual in the US and Canada and the MSD Manual outside of North America.. ...
we see at BluePearl is rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL), comparable to a humans anterior cruciate ligament (ACL).. One of our Pet 411 readers contacted me because his 12-year-old dog suffered damage to his CCL and hes wondering about the best treatment options. Since CCL surgery is typically handled by our skilled BluePearl surgeons, I reached out to my colleague Dr. Amanda Conkling, who is board-certified in veterinary surgery, to get her input on the best course of action for our reader. Heres what she had to say:. The CCL joins the thigh bone or femur to the tibia or shin bone at the knee joint. This ligament plays an important role in stabilizing the knee joint and giving it flexibility. In our canine friends, CCL rupture is actually a very complex degenerative process. CCL rupture can affect virtually any breed of dog, but among the most susceptible are Labrador retrievers, Newfoundlands, golden retrievers, German shepherds and Rottweilers. There are also certain factors ...
Overview The cranial cruciate ligament is located within the knee joint and acts to stabilize the femur on the tibia. The ligament can be torn as a result of an acute traumatic event or more commonly it ruptures due to a slow progressive breakdown of the ligament. When the tear is sudden and com ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Patellar blastomycosis in a dog. AU - Oshin, Abimbola. AU - Griffon, Dominique. AU - Lemberger, Karin. AU - Naughton, James. AU - Barger, Anne. PY - 2009/9. Y1 - 2009/9. N2 - A 4-year-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of chronic left hind-limb lameness. Lytic lesions were observed in the left patella on radiographs of the stifle. A biopsy of the patella led to a histopathological diagnosis of blastomycosis. Surgical debridement followed by a 90-day course of itraconazole and physical rehabilitation resolved the clinical signs and stopped the progression of radiographic lesions. Blastomycosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for stifle joint lameness with lytic lesions in the patella.. AB - A 4-year-old, spayed female, mixed-breed dog was presented for evaluation of chronic left hind-limb lameness. Lytic lesions were observed in the left patella on radiographs of the stifle. A biopsy of the patella led to a histopathological diagnosis ...
Subchondral cystic lesions (SCL), sometimes referred to as subchondral bone cysts (SBC) or subchondral lucencies, occur in the medial femoral condyle (MFC) of horses and can cause lameness. They are more common in horses ≤ 2 years of age, but can occur in older horses. The causes of SCL are not well understood, however, trauma and osteochondrosis are most commonly implicated. Radiographs of young horses that develop SCLs indicate a progression from sclerosis to MFC flattening, and then a defect (SCL) that enlarges. Treatments are directed at reducing local inflammation and promoting bone and cartilage healing, with approximately 50-75% of horses becoming sound enough for work. However, bone healing after surgery is inconsistent, occurring in ,20% of patients. Recently, a treatment of MFC SCL using a lag screw was reported to improve the rate of lameness resolution and is the first study to report significant and consistent bone healing. This suggests a biomechanical approach can improve the ...
The knee joint of the cat is one of the weakest in its body. It is relatively unstable because there are no interlocking bones in the knee joint. Instead, it is held together by several ligaments, including the cruciate ligaments, which allow it to move back and forth like a hinge, but restrict its front-to-back and side-to-side motion.. When severe twisting of the knee joint occurs; the anterior or cranial cruciate ligament most commonly tears or breaks. When the cranial cruciate ligament is torn, instability occurs that allows the bones to move in an abnormal fashion in relation to each other. It is difficult for the cat to bear weight on the leg without it collapsing. This condition is painful and, if untreated, can lead to permanent joint complications.. ...
Not all MPLs are problematic. Many small dogs are diagnosed with MPL that do not result in clinical problems. The classic breeds are Yorkshire terriers, Chihuahua, and Toy Poodles, but any small breed dog should be examined for this condition. Large breed dogs can also develop this condition, most notably Labrador Retrievers.. In some instances dogs will limp as a result of patella luxation. When lameness is noted surgical correction is indicated. Medical management with anti-inflammatories can be tried initially, but is generally ineffective because the disease will only continue to progress as mechanical alignment worsens. Over time arthritis can result which could have been prevented with early surgical intervention. For these reasons surgery is indicated for most Grade II dogs with lameness, and any dogs diagnosed with Grade III and Grade IV MPL.. MPL can cause a classic skipping lameness where the patella pops out causing the dog to lift the affected pelvic limb and skip on 3 legs. Once ...
73 41. Cox JS, Nye CE, Scha efer WW, Woodstein IJ. The degenerative effects of partial and total resection of the medial meniscus in dogs knees. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1975;(109):178183. 42. Johnson KA, Francis DJ, Manley PA, Chu Q, Caterson B. Comparison of the effects of caudal pole hemi meniscectomy and complete medial meniscectomy in the canine stifle joint. Am J Vet Res 2004;65(8):1053 1060. 43. Baratz ME, Fu FH, Mengato R. Meniscal tears: the effect of meniscectomy and of repair on intraarticular contact areas and stress in t he human knee. A preliminary report. Am J Sports Med 1986;14(4):270 275. 44. Pena E, Calvo B, Martinez MA, Palanca D, Doblare M. Finite element analysis of the effect of meniscal tears and meniscectomies on human knee biomechanics. Clin Biomech (Bristol Avon ) 2005;20(5):498507. 45. Pozzi A, Kowaleski MP, Apelt D, Meadows C, Andrews CM, Johnson KA. Effect of medial meniscal release on tibial translation after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy. Vet Surg 2006;35(5):486 ...
Canada. University of Montreal. Caroline is a Large Animal Veterinary Surgeon from Canada. She completed her surgical residency training (ACVS candidate) in February 2019 at the University of Montreal, where is previously finished a clinical internship in Farm Animal Surgery and Medicine (IPSAV) in 2015 and her Veterinary Doctoral Degree (DMV) in 2014. She joined her surgical residency program with research through a Master program in Veterinary Clinical Sciences (M.Sc), in which they developed an new innovative Nitinol prosthesis for cranial cruciate ligament rupture in Cattle. Her principal professional interest is orthopedic surgery; a passion reflected by her participation in numerous conferences and orthopedic courses, most of which were offered by the AOVET North America. Facing problems of premature failure of currently available orthopedic implants in horse and cattle surgery and intrigued by this problem; she became naturally involved in the area of biomechanical technology. To fulfill ...
TPLO has become a favorite technique of general and specialty veterinarians to treat CrCL tears in all sizes of dogs. TPLO stabilizes the stifle by eliminating cranial tibial thrust. TPLO is an excellent technique for treating partial and complete tears of the CrCL. This interactive course includes lectures and laboratories to teach participants the theory and method of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Participants will perform TPLOs on plastic bones and cadavers using state of the art equipment and implants. Participants will use locking plate technology to simplify, increase precision and reduce complications of the procedure. Participants should have a basic knowledge of the anatomy and surgical approach to the stifle and principles of bone plate application. The Principles of Fracture Repair Course is a prerequisite. Postoperative radiographs will be taken to assess the participants repair technique. Postoperative management will also be discussed.
TPLO has become a favorite technique of general and specialty veterinarians to treat CrCL tears in all sizes of dogs. TPLO stabilizes the stifle by eliminating cranial tibial thrust. TPLO is an excellent technique for treating partial and complete tears of the CrCL. This interactive course includes lectures and laboratories to teach participants the theory and method of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO). Participants will perform TPLOs on plastic bones and cadavers using state of the art equipment and implants. Participants will use locking plate technology to simplify, increase precision and reduce complications of the procedure. Participants should have a basic knowledge of the anatomy and surgical approach to the stifle and principles of bone plate application. The Principles of Fracture Repair Course is a prerequisite. Postoperative radiographs will be taken to assess the participants repair technique. Postoperative management will also be discussed.
Chronic MCL tears may be detected by calcification adjacent to the medial femoral condyle (8). Arthrography is not of significant importance in detecting MCL tears. Arthrographic demonstration of leakage of dye in an assesment of degree of laxity is not of significant value (5), but in complete MCL tears, contrast leakage will be presented in the vicinity of the ligament (6, 8, 13). The arthrographic diagnosis of MCL tears must be performed within 24-36 hours, by time the tears will not seal off (5). Since lateral collateral ligament (LCL) is an extracapsular structure, arthrographic evaluation of this anatomic structure can not be done (5, 8, 13). In a study reported by Bonomo, duble- contrast arthrography was found to be accurate in the diagnosis of the type of meniscal tears (3). In OCD lesions, favorable results have been obtained with double contrast arthrography in children (7), and adults (13). This is inconsistent with achievement of good results in articular cartilage diagnosis (6). ...
Cruciate ligament injuries are common in our canine buddies. Customized platelet rich plasma (PRP) helps with healing by stimulating the repair work of soft tissues and joints, and utilizing the bodys inherent capability to self-heal. Burst cruciate ligaments are amongst the most typical injuries in pets. Brought on by persistent inflammation and the extremely active way of lives of many dogs, these hind leg tears prevent daily movement while also developing tension on the remainder of the body. A treatment called PRP (modified platelet abundant plasma) is being successfully integrated by integrative vets into the treatment procedure for CCL injuries.. » Read More. ...
One of the most common injuries to the knee of dogs is tearing of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). This ligament is similar to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in humans. There are actually two cruciate ligaments inside the knee: the cranial cruciate ligament and caudal cruciate ligament. They are called cruciate because they cross over each other inside the middle of the knee. ...
Stifles was my first thought too, as my horse has a similar issue. Feels like they forgot to pick the foot up or it got stuck in a hole for a step. Random steps, generally when the horse is tired. My vet said the stifle was catching, not quite locking up but similar, just snagging. It had gotten pretty bad but when I moved barns he was out in a large field 24/7 and the issue has gone away, just by him being able to move around a lot freely. Would definitely get a second opinion from a vet who has more experiences with lameness ...
How does one perform an MRI on an otter? It involves much planning, phone calls, emails, and preparation. When the big day arrived, her keeper brought Sweet Otter to the Zoos Jennings Center for Zoological Medicine in a crate, which was then loaded into one of our vehicles. A veterinarian, vet technician, and hospital keeper then drove our special patient to an off-site animal hospital. If youve ever had an MRI, you know that you DONT MOVE while you are slid into a very small tube and inundated with noisy, sporadic pops and clicks. That is almost impossible for anyone, especially an otter! Hence, Sweet Otter was anesthetized, and because she was such a perfectly placid patient, the MRI was able to pick up her problem almost immediately, and surgery was performed.. What was discovered was a 90 percent tear of her right cranial cruciate ligament. A tibial plateau leveling osteotomy was performed to stabilize the stifle, or knee, joint with a bone plate and screws, which were added to eliminate ...
Strasburg second baseman Olivia Gochenour puts a tag on Clarke Countys Jaime Hoggatt as she stretches a base hit during the fifth inning of Mondays game in Strasburg. Hoggatt was safe as she slid under the tag. Rich Cooley/Daily. Strasburg scored a run in the inning, but it was not enough against the Eagles.. The Eagles Hicks is recovering from a knee injury suffered during the basketball season, which Clarke County coach Susan Grubbs said was a torn ligament. … Fortunately, she cant do anything worse to it by playing, so shell probably wait until the offseason to think about surgery.. Hicks had her way with the Rams. She scattered three hits, although walking five. She struck out three, going 5 1/3 innings.. Her reliever, senior Sarah Miller, went the final 1 2/3 frames, striking out three.. Megan is our starter, but shes just getting her feet under her after being out with an injury. She pitched the other day and had a little work in the game before that, but this was basically her ...
The Wildcats held the Cougars to only 21 yards of total offense, and Steele led the way in helping Warren County to four sacks. Manassas Park had zero passing yards.. After the first quarter or so, when we got to see what all they were running and their formations, we were sort of calling out three possibilities and a lot of times we were right, Steele said. We adjusted well to the ball.. The Cougars didnt pick up a first down after the third play of the second quarter.. Warren County (4-2, 3-1 Bull Run) looked sharp on offense to start the game. The Wildcats went 59 yards on their first possession on eight plays. Warren County running back Demetrus Yates ran on all but one of the plays.. Yates, who rushed for 177 yards on 30 carries, finished off the drive with a 3-yard touchdown run to give the Wildcats a 7-0 lead with 7:35 left in the first quarter.. We emphasized it was going to be wet, Yates said. I knew it rained all week so I knew that I couldnt be as elusive and cutty as usual, ...
Indigenous peoples must consciously confront and oppose the hegemony of the Christian worldview that informs the forces of economic oppression and ecological destruction, says Four Arrows.
Scientists are frugal, especially physicists. I should know: I am one. Actually theyre quintessentially cheap. They would rather attend a meeting in Manhattan, Kan., than Manhattan in the Big Apple - just to save a few bucks.. So its remarkable that Congress and the White House are moving ahead in lockstep with policies that shackle government scientists to their laboratories, largely in response to the General Services Administrations lavish spending on a Las Vegas conference in October 2010. Contrast the GSAs partying rep with the bad rap several thousand physicists got for not gambling enough during the American Physical Societys 1986 March Meeting, which the nations largest physics organization held in the nations largest gaming mecca. Before the geeks left the city, the Las Vegas Sun carried the headline, Physicists in Town, Lowest Casino Take Ever. And after they departed, wallets still intact, Las Vegas told the American Physical Society never to return.. Despite the penchant ...
Speaking of Monsanto , it turns out they are playing a role in Iowas proposed anti-whistleblower bill -- a bill focused primarily on agriculture. Should the bill pass, it will become illegal to produce undercover videos at various types of agricultural facilities (as well as to get a job at a facility with the express intent of producing a video). Sarah Damian of the Government Accountability Project, a whistleblower advocacy organization, observes over at the Food Integrity Campaigns blog that Monsanto has been throwing lobbying dollars behind Iowas effort to draw a steel curtain around food production. And not without reason: ... Monsanto has more facilities in Iowa than in any other state in the country , with more than 25 offices. The company is heavily invested in the bills outcome because crop operations are also covered, which would apply to Monsantos seed ... Full article: http://www.grist.org/food ...
The Obama administration is facing a June 1 deadline to make a key decision on energy, one that will allow the ethanol industry to grow or that will stifle it. In November of 2014, the EPA proposed lowering the amount of renewable fuel used in the US. Since then, opposition from the renewable fuel sector has paralyzed the agency and prevented it from setting blend levels for 2014, 2015, and 2016. A court ruling requires a final decision on this issue by June 1. Bob Dinneen, with the Renewable Fuels Assoc, says there are enough vehicles on the road today to handle an increased amount of ethanol in our fuel supply, There are currently 17.5 million flex fuel vehicles on the road capable of using everything from E-10 to E-15 to E-85. In addition, the EPA itself has approved the use of E-15 for 85% of all cars on the road.. He added the oil industry continues to stifle the expansion of renewable energy in the US. He said the issue here is not a consumer or marketplace issue, This is clearly the ...
A Maryland man who had a bad toothache has filed a class-action lawsuit against his New York dentist after she required him to sign a contract promising not to trash-talk her online -- and then fined him thousands of dollars trying to enforce it
Parents have a right, even an obligation, to participate in their childrens education, but in Texas, the Texas Education Agency and major textbook publishers are blocking parents from having a voice in what the students are taught. By June 17, only 13 of the 62 social studies textbooks were made available to the public. [...] by November, the state will have had six months to consider these textbooks. According to the SBOE, the textbooks that cannot be accessed online are available at local Educational Service Centers, or ESCs. There is no way to responsibly evaluate a textbook from the confines of a distant ESC. [...] at least one major publisher, Pearson, has not made textbooks available at all, but has instead provided only disordered excerpts that correlate to the state standards.
[...] Barry Bonds is sore enough that he missed his second consecutive start. [...] they have the worst bullpen in the majors, with a 7.55 ERA even before a catastrophic collapse Thursday night. The Giants scored 26 runs and allowed 33 in the four games, and may find it difficult to find some sanity in their next series since theyre heading to Denvers Coors Field. With second base open, Arizona manager Bob Melvin had reliever Brandon Medders walk Bonds intentionally to load the bases. In a five-run first, Durham hit a three-run triple, his first extra-base hit of the season. The positive spin out of all of this, that we have to take out of it, is were winning the one-run games, the close games, in the ninth inning, Sweeney said. Steve Kline relieved Fassero and got the final out of the seventh, but a leadoff walk to Tracy in the eighth led to a third run on Luis Gonzalezs RBI single. After a two-out walk, Alou had Worrell face Andy Green, who extended the rally with a bunt single.
In 1999 Congress passed the American Inventors Protection Act (AIPA) which provided among other provisions that U.S. patent applications would be published 18 months after filing.
Several area basketball teams were in action Thursday. The Bellefontaine varsity girls defeated visiting West Liberty-Salem 48-30. The Chiefs led 26-15 at the half, then out
Those who know me have no doubt that my personal political opinions reflect more Massachusetts and California than Texas and Louisiana. But in an industry that has a diverse range of political views, there has always been common ground when it comes to the business of fish.. We all support profitable and healthy fish companies; we support use of our seafood resources for food and encourage maximum sustainable production, and we support business accountability, accurate labeling, sustainability, and compliance with labor laws.. And most importantly, to get these things we support sound fisheries science. The genius of the fishery management system in place since the passage of the original 200 mile limit and the Magnuson Act in 1976 has been the commitment to make fisheries decisions based on sound science.. The regional management councils were set up to allow conflict: various fisheries stakeholders will not agree about gear, allocation, seasons, quota shares, observers or many other features ...
Michael Michalko comments Unfortunately, Ive come to believe that education is a great inhibitor of our natural creativity... To me it seems that in the real world those who know more, create less; and those who know less create more. Whats the evidence about whether this is true?
I spoke at TED in 2006, the year they started to put the talks online. Im told that since then, the talk has been downloaded more than 3.5 million times in more than 200 countries. The number of people whove seen it may be 20 times that or more.
FIA raid an attempt to stifle freedom of expression: PTI leader. By our correspondent. ISLAMABAD: Abdul Hafeez Khan, the vice chairman of Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaf (PTI), on Friday, condemned the raid of the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA) at the offices of Jang Group of newspapers.. In a statement issued from the Central Secretariat, Abdul Hafeez Khan termed the raid as a vindictive act against the Jang Group. But, he was confident that the present rulers could not stifle the freedom of the journalism through such a blatant attack on the offices of the Jang Group. He also assured that the PTI would resist such actions against the newspapers in the guise of tax evasion.. Hafeez Khan, who is also the Chief Organiser of the Party, censured the policies of the present rulers and said that there was a legal process through which the tax department officials could have obtained or asked the department for the tax record instead of raiding through FIA.. Obviously the incident speaks itself the ...
Studies show that US coverage is Israeli-centric. The main bureaus for CNN, Associated Press, Time, etc. are located in Israel and often staffed by Israelis. The son of the NY Times bureau chief is in the Israeli army;pundit Jeffrey Goldberg served in the IDF; Wolf Blitzer worked for AIPAC. Because the U.S. gives Israel over $8 million/day - more than to any other nation - we feel it is essential that we be fully informed on this region. Below are news reports to augment mainstream coverage. ...
Photo by Solarnu Note from Beth: Several weeks ago, I published a guest post by Geoff Livingston called Creating Movements. where he discussed the crossroads of movements and campaigns and the need for an open culture. The post and ideas...
On a night when the 1978 State Championship team was recognized, the Rockets had that old look. Not only was the Shelby County boys basketball team wearing throwback uniforms similar to those of the 78 squad, but they also had that look they had early in the season when they opened the year on a 10-game winning streak. The Rockets jumped out quickly and never looked back in a convincing 53-31 win over rival Oldham County Friday. The win snapped a three-game losing streak for the Rockets (14-6), but it didnt catch head coach Mike Clark by surprise.
But then I became part of the #1 Company in network marketing. I started seeing many young couples who taught dream building workshops and how we need to write goals and read them daily. Their success spoke for itself. They were living the life they were promoting, so I finally told my analytical self, Shut up and listen! I started writing goals, even a movie script, and reading them daily, and it has been totally life changing. Below is a picture of my work truck today ...
What does one make of an academic who attempts to label all criticism of Israeli policy anti-Semitic? This is the favoured tactic of Dr. Henry Srebrnik, a political science professor at the University of Prince Edward Island. In a recent article submitted to the Prince Arthur Herald, Professor Srebrnik adopts a strategy more often employed by left-wing university activists obsessed with political correctness.. Dr. Srebrnik insists that if Jewish students at York University find overt criticism of Israel offensive then the speech or expression must be censored in order to provide a safe space. He is particularly upset over an acrylic painting on display over one of the entrance foyers to the Student Centre. The mural titled Palestinian Roots depicts Israeli aggression and occupation from a Palestinian viewpoint, which professor Srebrnik claims is an anti-Semitic statement, not a critique of the Israeli government. As his op-ed suggests, the painting demonstrates a callous disregard for the ...
Among the demands of Egyptian protesters in Cairos Tahrir Square, one of the most central is constitutional reform that will prevent a repeat of the concentration of power achieved under President Hosni Mubarak. Vice President Omar Suleiman announced Feb. 8 that a committee had been formed to discuss constitutional reforms necessary for free and fair elections, but many protesters are wary that the reforms will be only superficial.Below are a few of the constitutional provisions that have served to limit Egypts opposition and cement the governments power.
By Farah Master HONG KONG (Reuters) - Macau, the worlds largest gambling hub, re-elected its leader and sole candidate Fernando Chui on Sunday, a widely expected result after the pro-China government stifled an unofficial referendum on democracy. Chui was returned to office by a select panel of
Cross-fertilisation of ideas within science is hugely important for innovation. The problem is, the more specialised we become, the more disconnected we become with other scientists outside our field.
One of the most common injuries of the stifle is rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL). Surgery can repair the ligament, but it does not necessarily help restore other damaged joint tissues. Fortunately, the emerging field of regenerative medicine gives hope that it might be possible to generate such replacement tissues in the lab.
Launched on 2nd September 2015, the new state of the art Fitzpatrick Referrals animal hospital based in Guildford is the first of its kind in Europe and aims to change the way cancer is treated in companion animals.. Whilst this building will impress and contain the latest equipment, it is the team of people inside that makes it truly outstanding.. We have brought together world class medical and surgical oncologists with extensive experience in advanced radiation procedures, and the best nursing teams in order to gain a better understanding of animal cancer and to use that knowledge to deliver the very best treatment to animals.. We aim to deliver all of the options to all of the animals all of the time, and we aim to work with our human colleagues to better inform the treatment of cancer for everyone.. With Fitzpatrick Referrals Orthopaedics and Neurology, we will also be the only centre in Europe offering custom-designed 3D-printed limb and joint salvage prostheses.. ...
Seattle, Dec. 05, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Athletes and sports fans are familiar with ACL injuries in humans. But do they know that a similar injury occur...
The research team for this project includes Ms. Katherine Martucci (veterinary student at Washington State University), Dr. Debra Sellon (Professor of Equine Medicine at Washington State University), Dr. Denis Marcellin-Little (Professor of Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery at North Carolina State University), Dr. Michelle Powers (Small Animal Surgeon at Massachusetts Veterinary Referral Hospital), Dr. Kim Cullen (Research Coordinator at Canines in Motion), and Sarah Fernandezlopez. ...
There are many technical variations of the Extracapsular Stabilization, but all are the same in that the stifle joint is stabilized with placement of a non-absorbable suture material, typically a monofilament nylon such as fishing leader line, around the lateral fabella and through a hole in the tibial crest mimicking the pattern of the CCL.. Although often referred to as an artificial ligament, the suture provides only temporary stabilization and will loosen over time. This technique relies on scar tissue to ultimately stabilize the joint.. Recovery time following the Extracapsular Stabilization is approximately 3 to 5 months.. While this technique can be successful, it is more likely to fail in large breed dogs as the prosthetic ligament can stretch or rupture.. Another common complication is over-tightening of the prosthetic ligament with applies excessive compression of the joint. This can lead to cartilage damage, increased risk of meniscal injury, limited range of motion of the joint, ...
CLINICAL FINDINGS: 3 horses had a history of lameness for , 6 months; specific duration was unknown for 1 horse. On initial evaluation, grade 3 to 4 (on a scale from 1 to 5) hind limb lameness was present in all 4 horses. Radiography of the stifle joint of the affected limb revealed medial femoral condyle subchondral lucencies or subchondral cystic lesions (SCLs) in all 4 horses, medial femorotibial osteoarthritis in 3 horses, and medial tibial condyle SCLs in 3 horses ...
An 11-year-old, 41-kg female spayed mixed-breed dog was examined for a chronic left hind limb lameness, with swelling of the proximal left tibia. A tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) using an angle stable implant had been performed 8 years earlier at the site. Initial radiography showed mild degenerative signs in the stifle joint and osteolytic lesions in the proximal tibial metaphysis. Three weeks later, the clinical and radiographic changes had worsened. A transition from a moth-eaten pattern to permeative bone lysis was radiographically evident, along with an extensive increase of soft tissue swelling. Ultrasonographically-guided fine needle aspiration of the epiperiosteal tissue and lymph nodes, CT with pre-and post-contrast scans, and an incisional biopsy were performed. The radiographic and CT findings were consistent with an aggressive and monostotic bone lesion at the site of previous TPLO. The cytology and histology confirmed the diagnosis of an osteosarcoma (OSA) with a chondroid ...
Use of novel tissue engineering approaches to heal an injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) requires suture repair and/or augmentation to provide joint stability. We evaluated the effects of the location of suture augmentation at the femur and tibia in terms of joint stability using a goat model. Eight goat stifle joints were tested with augmentation sutures placed in two femoral tunnel locations: (1) anterior to, or (2) through the ACL footprint, and two tibial tunnel locations: (1) medial to, or (2) medial and lateral to the footprint. Using a robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system, the anterior tibial translation (ATT) and the corresponding in situ force carried by the sutures were obtained at 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees of flexion in response to external loads. No significant differences were found between augmentation groups due to tunnel location in terms of ATT or the in situ forces carried by the sutures at all flexion angles tested. Similar results were ...
Seattle Veterinary Specialists Clinical Update MEDIAL PATELLAR LUXATION (MPL) Patella luxation occurs due to a combination of anatomic abnormalities in the rear limb that force the knee cap out of its normal groove ANATOMY The patella (knee cap) is part of the quadriceps muscle (large muscle group on the front of the thigh) mechanism. The muscle originates at the top of the femur and inserts, via the patella ligament, onto the tibial tuberosity. The quadriceps mechanism forms a straight line from origin to insertion. The patella rides in a groove in the distal femur called the trochlea. WHY DOES THE PATELLA DISLOCATE? If the femur is slightly bowed and the tibial tuberosity (insertion point of the patella ligament) is medially displaced, then the patella is pulled toward the medial side (inside) of the knee. The tissues on the lateral side (outside) of the knee tend to stretch and the patella eventually dislocates medially. The trochlea is often more shallow than normal. [1] CLINICAL SIGNS Dogs ...
Stifling creativity in research environments[edit]. According to an article by John Dodge, editor in chief of Design News, use ... A BusinessWeek article says that James McNerney's introduction of Six Sigma at 3M had the effect of stifling creativity and ... Under Six Sigma, the free-wheeling nature of brainstorming and the serendipitous side of discovery is stifled." He concludes " ...
Bergum, Steve (March 12, 2004). "Cardinal stifle WSU". Spokesman-Review. (Spokane, Washington). p. C1. "Stanford buries Cougars ...
Jones, Stuart (12 August 1991). "Tottenham stifle champions". The Times. p. 29. "A History of The Premier League". Premier ...
Jones, Stuart (12 August 1991). "Tottenham stifle champions". The Times. London: The Times Digital Archive. p. 29. Retrieved 23 ...
Keep back, boys,' he used to cry, imploringly, to the six or seven of us; 'don't stifle us! Don't keep crushing on us in that ...
"GATORS STIFLE LSU". Retrieved June 29, 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "ROTH'S BACK INJURY HAS GATORS WORRIED". ...
On the hind legs, the markings will begin on the inside and move outward onto the stifle, then out onto the hock stretching to ...
"Investment Rights Stifle Democracy". truth-out.org; Corporate Europe Observatory. 2011-05-05. Archived from the original on ...
"Stubborn Swiss stifle Brazil". FIFA.com. 18 June 2018. Creek, Stephen (17 June 2018). "Zuber pegs back below-par Selecao". Goal ...
"Spurs stifle depleted Gunners". BBC News. BBC. 8 November 1999. Retrieved 8 November 2013. Brodkin, Jon (22 November 1999). " ...
At the same time, the NUS adopted a No Platform policy; a concept pioneered by the IMG in 1972; to stifle the campus ... "Security concerns stifle free speech". Palatinate.org.uk. Archived from the original on 30 October 2010. Retrieved 31 May 2010 ...
"Did bomb threat stifle vote? (Capital Times)". Madison.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2009. Retrieved 2012-05-03. ...
"Terengganu stifle Ctg Abahani's dream". The Daily Star. 2019-11-01. Retrieved 2020-01-06. ভাড়াটে থেকে চট্টগ্রামে স্থায়ী ...
"Man City stifle poor Liverpool". BBC News. 31 January 2001. Retrieved 20 April 2019. "City hit back to snatch vital point". ...
Suns stifle Knicks behind Hill; Marbury's father dies, December 2, 2007 Zach Marbury, Stephon's Brother, Will Play in Venezuela ...
"Utah Jazz: The Stifle Tower? French center Rudy Gobert making a big first impression". DeseretNews.com. July 9, 2013. Retrieved ... These dimensions earned him the nickname "The Stifle Tower." The record for wingspan was broken a year later by Walter Tavares ...
Stifled Truth, an appreciation of Wolff's publications to date, by Wyatt Mason in the London Review of Books Tobias Wolff reads ... End notes for This Boy's Life Mason, Wyatt (February 5, 2004). "Stifled Truth". London Review of Books. 26 (3). ISSN 0260-9592 ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Gallagher, David (24 February 1968). "Stifled Tiger". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 ...
Ollison, Rashod D. (4 July 2005). "Did egos stifle Live 8 message?". The Baltimore Sun. "Live 8 dismisses criticism about ...
Graham, Adam (April 6, 2018). "Review: Lame jokes stifle raunchy 'Blockers'". The Detroit News. Archived from the original on ...
"HTML5 webpage locks 'would stifle innovation'". BBC News. 30 May 2013. "Une coalition de vingt-sept organisations demande au ...
"Four-Straight Sox Socks Stifle Sweep". Viva El Birdos. August 16, 2020. "Cardinals Designate Rob Kaminsky Amid Flurry Of Roster ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Moran, Malcolm (July 24, 1990). "Rangers Stifle Yankees On 4 Hits". The New York Times ...
23 TCU Stifle Arkansas". Texas Christian University Department of Athletics. September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 9, 2017. " ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Polyakov, Evgeny (15 October 2013). "Latvia battle back to stifle Slovakia". UEFA. ...
"IRDA Could Stifle Online Insurance Aggregators". Forbes India. Retrieved 22 October 2019. ANI (24 September 2018). " ...
... stifle children 10,000 hours [of] life"). He is of the opinion that in times of easy access to information via the Internet, it ... hinders learning and stifles maturity [...]") and that communication and discussion are strictly regulated in school. On ...
Lowe, Christian; Lamine Chikhi (12 February 2011). "Algeria police stifle Egypt-inspired protest". Thomson Reuters. Archived ...
Garza, Melita Marie (August 1, 1998). "Money Woes Stifle Latino Think Tank". Chicago Tribune - via Proquest. O'Donnell, Maureen ...
Would Premier League defenders stifle him? It remains to be seen." As of 24 April 2021 Individual Hull City Supporters' Player ...
The stifle joint (often simply stifle) is a complex joint in the hind limbs of quadruped mammals such as the sheep, horse or ... The stifle joint joins three bones: the femur, patella, and tibia. The joint consists of three smaller ones: the femoropatellar ... A stifling problem Introduction to the types of joints in horses. University of Bristol and University College Dublin. ... An elaborate twisting movement of the patella allows the stifle to lock in extension when the medial portion of the tendon is ...
Experts in creativity are sometimes damning about the stifling effects of education on creativity. In a comment on his own post ... I believe that while school education may not stifle creativity in general, it may reduce ones ability to think creatively in ... None of this evidence conclusively disproves the idea that education stifles creativity, but it should be comforting to those ... The use of quotes from historical geniuses as evidence that education stifles creativity is less than convincing. For starters ...
Historian and philanthropist character creation Henry von Stifle hosts this free character comic cabaret at the Lion in Stoke ... From the moment you enter Henry Von Stifle and his butler-style assistant are in full character, theyre funny throughout and ... Historian and philanthropist character creation Henry von Stifle hosts this free character comic cabaret at the Lion in Stoke ...
... prosecution and anti-protest laws to stifle the opposition, the Los Angeles Times reported.. ...
Jeremy Irons: university students are crazy to stifle free speech Warning comes in the same week speakers were no platformed ...
The board chairman of the nations largest health insurer charged yesterday that "unnecessary" treatments and tests for breathing and oxygen are costing hospital patients and their health plans $1.25 billion a year, by "conservative estimate.". The Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association, whose 103 member plans cover more than 100 million Americans, warned doctors and hospitals that it will seek to eliminate this expense, at first by voluntary effort, then by halting payments, where necessary, starting next year.. "Respiratory care," the overall term for several procedures, is now given to one hospitalized patient in four at a cost of at least $5 billion a year.. By "conservative" estimate, 25 percent of that use is unneeded, according to Dr. Marvin Shapiro, chairman of the board of Blue Cross-Blue Shield.. The effort to limit this care was announced here by the association as its latest step in a six-year-old "medical necessity" program aimed at curbing runaway health costs.. Blue Cross-Blue ...
But what it is for many students is stifling. And this is as true for kids whove yet to master a skill as it is for those who ... Spiraled Instruction, Stifled Learning. By David Ginsburg - March 05, 2012 3 min read ...
Manchester, England (SportsNetwork.com) - Manchester United turned in one of its best performances of the season on Sunday as the club notched a 3-0 win over Tottenham at Old Trafford.Louis van Gaals men have failed to hit top gear very often this season, but the team took firm control of the match with goals from Marouane Fellaini and Michael Carrick in the opening 20 minutes
Stifle Problems. It doesnt take much to spot a stifle problem: The telltale swelling in the stifle area is a big hint. ... Dealing With Stifle Disease Trauma and several different diseases can affect the stifle. We usually divide stifle diseases ... But the stifle is a complicated joint. Knowing the particular part of the stifle thats affected and the precise cause of the ... Stifle disorders are not often recognized in the horse, and because the stifle is a very complex joint, treatment success is ...
inter.funda.stifle is the second full-length album by alternative rock band Fair to Midland. Tracks including "Dance of the ...
But western experts warn that economic growth in Russia could be stifled if interest rates remain at that level for long. ...
GAINESVILLE, Fla. (AP) - A University of Florida student with a history of taping his own practical jokes was Tasered by campus police and arrested after loudly and repeatedly trying to ask Sen. John Kerry questions during a campus forum.
... 2010-10-21 11:34 Addis Ababa - Ethiopia rejected charges by Human Rights Watch that it was ...
ANYONE who has faced a difficult exam or job interview knows that stress decreases appetite. Biologists thought they already knew which molecule was responsible. But researchers in California now claim that the main culprit is another chemical. When we are stressed, our brain releases a range of molecules called neuropeptides. These prime the body into …
The tight links among software developers on the internet is stifling the development of new ideas, a social scientist argues ... Cosy social networks are stifling innovation. ITS a dirty job, but someones got to do it: for innovation to thrive on ...
verb) When you tell someone that all of his ideas are stupid, this is an example of a situation where you stifle his creativity ... To stifle is to stop someone from breathing or suppress actions by yourself or others. ( ... third-person singular simple present stifles, present participle stifling, simple past and past participle stifled) ... sti·fled, sti·fling, sti·fles *To interrupt or cut off (the voice, for example). ...
stifle bones synonyms, stifle bones pronunciation, stifle bones translation, English dictionary definition of stifle bones. a ... small bone at the stifle joint; the patella, or kneepan. See also: Stifle ... Stifle bone. (redirected from stifle bones) a small bone at the stifle joint; the patella, or kneepan. ... Stifle bones - definition of stifle bones by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/stifle+bones ...
WASHINGTON--The findings from a study conducted at a private girls school may help strengthen the arguments proponents of all-girl schools have made to justify their existence, researchers said here last week.
Stifle joint synonyms, Stifle joint pronunciation, Stifle joint translation, English dictionary definition of Stifle joint. tr. ... v. sti·fled , sti·fling , sti·fles 1. To interrupt or cut off . 2. To keep in or hold back; repress: stifled my indignation. 3 ... sti·fle 1. (stī′fəl). tr.v. sti·fled, sti·fling, sti·fles 1. To interrupt or cut off (the voice, for example). ... stifle. [ˈstaɪfl]. A. VT. 1. [+ person] → ahogar, sofocar. 2. (fig) → suprimir. to stifle a yawn → contener un bostezo. to ...
It will stifle economic growth and I already believe it is, said Dimon, who was speaking at the annual spring meeting of the ... It will stifle economic growth and I already believe it is, said Dimon, who was speaking at the annual spring meeting of... ...
The federal government is spending $45 million to expand a program to helping young people experiencing mental illness to get a job.
... Wednesday, November 13, 2013 By Laura Finley, SpeakOut , Op-Ed ... Stifling Activism, the Bureaucratic Way Wednesday, November 13, 2013 By Laura Finley, SpeakOut , Op-Ed ... I am even more upset at the ways bureaucracy stifles my students who, because they are informed and outraged, want to act and ... I am even more upset at the ways bureaucracy stifles my students who, because they are informed and outraged, want to act and ...
Implanted Heart Cells Stifle Irregular Rhythms. Scientists showed that transplanted human heart cells (green) could beat in ...
They discovered air bubbles in his neck and chest and determined that the stifled sneeze had torn a hole in the lower part of ... The authors warn that while this case is very rare, it is possible to harm yourself from trying to stifle a sneeze. ... If youve ever tried to stifle a sneeze by pinching your nose and closing your mouth, doctors are offering a cautionary tale ...
Shell is trying to stifle your freedom of expression. Blogpost by Ben Ayliffe - 21 September, 2012 at 14:20 11 comments ...
WASHINGTON -- A National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iran has been held up for more than a year in an effort to force the intelligence community to remove dissenting judgments on the Iranian nuclear program, and thus make the document more supportive of U.S. Vice President Dick Cheneys militarily aggressive policy toward Iran, according to accounts of the process provided by participants to two former Central Intelligence Agency officers.. But this pressure on intelligence analysts, obviously instigated by Cheney himself, has not produced a draft estimate without those dissenting views, these sources say. The White House has now apparently decided to release the unsatisfactory draft NIE, but without making its key findings public.. A former CIA intelligence officer who has asked not to be identified told IPS that an official involved in the NIE process says the Iran estimate was ready to be published a year ago but has been delayed because the director of national intelligence wanted a draft ...
BUSINESS FORUM: TWO MERCEDES FOR EACH FARMER?; Farm Subsidies Stifle Agriculture. By JAMES BOVARD; James Bovard is an associate ...
"The Angolan government needs to stop trying to stifle peaceful protests, gag the independent press, or use the state media for ... Angola: Stop Stifling Free Speech. Halt Abuses and Undertake Key Reforms Before Elections ...
  • More and more, the patent debate is pitting companies like IBM and Microsoft--which are looking to patents to protect and recoup the millions of dollars they spend developing products--against members of the open-source and free software movements, which say the patent process stifles innovation by covering processes that are common on the Web. (cnet.com)
  • Would health care reform stifle innovation? (pri.org)
  • Could SyncThink Patent For Adding Eye Tracking In VR HMDs Stifle Innovation? (tomshardware.com)
  • A patent like this could potentially stifle innovation. (tomshardware.com)
  • Did Bank Distress Stifle Innovation During the Great Depression? (hbs.edu)
  • Although Depression era bank distress was associated with the stifling of innovation, our results also help to explain why technological development was still robust following one of the largest shocks in the history of the U.S. banking system. (hbs.edu)
  • Then, as the horse ages and begins training, stifle swelling and persistent lower-grade lameness develop,' Peroni says. (thehorse.com)
  • There is marked distension of the femoropatellar stifle joint capsule and slight to moderate lameness characterized by a stiff limb flight, lowered arc of flight of the foot with or without an intermittent roe-drag. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • There is a sudden onset of lameness associated with some swelling of the stifle joint capsule. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • If lameness persists, the stifle should be radiographed. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • The condition may be suspected when a puppy of a predisposed breed, such as the Labrador retriever, shows hind limb lameness with evidence of stifle disease. (ufaw.org.uk)
  • The Angolan government needs to stop trying to stifle peaceful protests, gag the independent press, or use the state media for partisan purposes if these elections are to be meaningful. (hrw.org)
  • The stifle joint joins three bones: the femur, patella, and tibia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stifle joint consists of the femorotibial articulation (femoral and tibial condyles), femoropatellar articulation (femoral trochlea and the patella), and the proximal tibiofibular articulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • An elaborate twisting movement of the patella allows the stifle to 'lock' in extension when the medial portion of the tendon is 'hooked' over the bulbous medial trochlear ridge of the distal femur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stifle consists of several different articulations between the patella (knee cap), the femur (the long upper bone of the hind leg), and the tibia (the inner of the two bones that extends down from the knee to the hock). (thehorse.com)
  • Falinksi is concerned that not being able to make judgements such as these could potentially stifle entrepreneurship in Australia. (zdnet.com)
  • If they succeed in stifling dissent in the senate, Senator Byrd argued, it will spread. (newshounds.us)
  • ACVS, Assistant Professor of Equine Surgery at the University of California, Davis, 'The femorotibial joint cavity of the stifle is further subdivided into medial and lateral (inside and outside) compartments. (thehorse.com)
  • The offense was clicking for the Wreckers and their defense was stifling with Gallagher and senior Frankie Bergonzi thwarting any and all attempts by the Falcons. (thehour.com)
  • Does Education Stifle Creativity? (psychologytoday.com)
  • Experts in creativity are sometimes damning about the stifling effects of education on creativity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The use of quotes from historical geniuses as evidence that education stifles creativity is less than convincing. (psychologytoday.com)
  • None of this evidence conclusively disproves the idea that education stifles creativity, but it should be comforting to those who spend time in educational institutions. (psychologytoday.com)
  • When you tell someone that all of his ideas are stupid, this is an example of a situation where you stifle his creativity. (yourdictionary.com)
  • I have seen people do an internal blister on stifles and it has worked. (pedigreequery.com)
  • The stifle joint is a common location for subchondral bone cysts, which almost always occur at the point of maximum weight bearing in the lower end of the inside of the femur, the medial femoral condyle. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • Thanks to that stifling defensive effort, the Wildcats are moving on in the NCAA Tournament. (denverpost.com)
  • But western experts warn that economic growth in Russia could be stifled if interest rates remain at that level for long. (rferl.org)
  • It will stifle economic growth and I already believe it is,' said Dimon, who was speaking at the annual spring meeting of the Council of Institutional Investors. (newsmax.com)
  • Misuse of the "hot news" doctrine could stifle this extraordinary growth of free expression. (eff.org)
  • Since tens of thousands of Russians protested in late 2011 against what they termed election fraud, the Kremlin has relied on harassment, prosecution and anti-protest laws to stifle the opposition, the Los Angeles Times reported. (upi.com)
  • The stifle joints may become swollen and stiff (Trostel et al 2002). (ufaw.org.uk)
  • Labrador retrievers are predisposed to stifle osteochondrosis (Necas et al 1999, LaFond et al 2002) but we are unaware of data on the proportion of animals that are affected. (ufaw.org.uk)
  • The canine stifle is the equivalent of the human knee joint. (ufaw.org.uk)
  • Such plots were a major obstacle for reconstruction efforts after the 2011 tsunami, and experts warn it could stifle any recovery efforts should Japan suffer another major natural disaster. (japantimes.co.jp)
  • WE have a yearling who on occasion has been seen with his right hind completley locked behind him from stifle down (picture a horse stretching his hind leg straight back and it staying there) when he tries to pull it forward while walking it doesnt move. (pedigreequery.com)
  • Myanmar's authorities are intensifying restrictions on media as the country approaches crucial national elections, scheduled to be held in November, using threats, harassment and imprisonment to stifle independent journalists and outlets, Amnesty International said in a new briefing today. (amnesty.org)
  • The stifle joint (often simply stifle) is a complex joint in the hind limbs of quadruped mammals such as the sheep, horse or dog. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are between one and four sesamoid bones associated with the stifle joint in different species. (wikipedia.org)
  • But the stifle is a complicated joint. (thehorse.com)
  • The stifle is a complex hinge joint in the upper hind limb of the horse, and the largest joint in the horse's body. (thehorse.com)
  • The stifle also participates in the passive stay apparatus, which locks the joint to allow the horse to maintain a weight-bearing, straight hind limb for long periods of time while relaxing the other hind limb. (thehorse.com)
  • Although comparable to the knee joint in humans, the equine stifle is angled when the horse stands still, whereas the human knee is upright. (thehorse.com)
  • Osteochondrosis of the stifle is a disease in which the cartilage lining the joint surfaces of the bones of the knee develops abnormally and may become pitted, cracked or fragmented. (ufaw.org.uk)
  • Dogs with stifle OCD often have pain and some loss of joint function due to the disease itself but these problems can worsen due to the secondary osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) that also usually develops in dogs affected with this condition. (ufaw.org.uk)
  • In dogs, the stifle is the most frequently injured joint, being ligamentous and meniscal injuries the most common, associated with secondary degenerative changes. (vin.com)
  • Arthrography performed with iohexol, does not provide a full anatomic detail of all structures of the stifle joint in dogs, although some articular structures as the cranial cruciate ligament, the tendon of the long digital extensor muscle, the suprapatellar bursa and the articular cartilage surfaces of the femoral condyles could be perfectly accessible for radiographic evaluation. (vin.com)
  • To stifle is to stop someone from breathing or suppress actions by yourself or others. (yourdictionary.com)
  • A stifling problem Introduction to the types of joints in horses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Young horses with both stifles affected may become slightly roach-backed and have difficulties in getting up after laying down. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • This case, and others we have brought and will bring," stated Timothy J. Muris, Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, "stands for an important proposition: competition must be on the merits, not through misusing the government to stifle your competition. (ftc.gov)
  • The cranial cruciate also resists over-extension and inward rotation, and is the most commonly damaged stifle ligament in dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Garry Kasparov has warned that any attempts by the Government to regulate artificial intelligence (AI) could "stifle" its development and give Russia and China an advantage. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Trauma and several different diseases can affect the stifle. (thehorse.com)
  • We usually divide stifle diseases into two main categories-acquired disorders and developmental disorders,' states John F. Peroni, DVM, MS, Assistant Professor of Large Animal Surgery at the University of Georgia. (thehorse.com)
  • Developmental stifle diseases are congenital (present at birth) and might or might not be caused by genetic abnormalities. (thehorse.com)
  • The Saudi authorities must end their repeated moves to stifle people's attempts to protest against the widespread use of arbitrary detention in the country," declared Philip Luther, Director of Amnesty's Middle East and North Africa Programme. (ekklesia.co.uk)
  • It doesn't take much to spot a stifle problem: The telltale swelling in the stifle area is a big hint. (thehorse.com)
  • He told me the stifle is always a problem because it is difficult to be treated locally. (pedigreequery.com)
  • Does anyone here ever had a problem with stifles popping. (pedigreequery.com)
  • Knowing the particular part of the stifle that's affected and the precise cause of the disorder is critical for implementing the correct therapy and maximizing recovery. (thehorse.com)
  • If the horse does not improve rapidly the stifle should be examined radiographically. (gopetsamerica.com)
  • I had one horse with a stifle after hitting the rail at Philly Park. (pedigreequery.com)
  • I am a farrier and had a horse that his stifle would lock up a bit and seem to drag his leg, wasn't very fluid. (pedigreequery.com)
  • If you've ever tried to stifle a sneeze by pinching your nose and closing your mouth, doctors are offering a cautionary tale for why you should stop. (cbsnews.com)
  • Whoever the moderator is will be under orders to stifle Romney and to cut short answers to questions or reactions to Obama. (wnd.com)
  • Historian and philanthropist character creation Henry von Stifle hosts this free character comic cabaret at the Lion in Stoke Newington. (timeout.com)
  • HONG KONG (Reuters) - Macau, the world's largest gambling hub, re-elected its leader and sole candidate Fernando Chui on Sunday, a widely expected result after the pro-China government stifled an unofficial referendum on democracy. (yahoo.com)