A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.
The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.
A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Steroids which are substituted with one or more bromine atoms in any position.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.
A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in the transcriptional activation of chromatin regions.
Steroids which are substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
A synthetic steroid with anabolic properties that are more pronounced than its androgenic effects. It has little progestational activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1188)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.
A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
An intermediate in TESTOSTERONE biosynthesis, found in the TESTIS or the ADRENAL GLANDS. Androstenediol, derived from DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE by the reduction of the 17-keto group (17-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES), is converted to TESTOSTERONE by the oxidation of the 3-beta hydroxyl group to a 3-keto group (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.
Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
A group of compounds forming the nucleus of the estrogenic steroid family.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Unsaturated androstane derivatives which are substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position in the ring system.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
A metabolite of 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE, normally produced in small quantities by the GONADS and the ADRENAL GLANDS, found in URINE. An elevated urinary pregnanetriol is associated with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA with a deficiency of STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
Errors in metabolic processing of STEROIDS resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS and PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING during the process of nuclear receptor-induced transcription. The coactivator has been found at elevated levels in certain HORMONE-DEPENDENT NEOPLASMS such as those found in BREAST CANCER.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. They are found in BUFONIDAE and often possess cardiotonic properties.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A synthetic progestin which is useful for the study of progestin distribution and progestin tissue receptors, as it is not bound by transcortin and binds to progesterone receptors with a higher association constant than progesterone.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A synthetic steroid that has anabolic and androgenic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1194)
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Chronic form of ichthyosis that is inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait carried on the X-chromosome and transmitted to the male offspring. It is characterized by severe scaling, especially on the extremities, and is associated with steroid sulfatase deficiency.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
An enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of a ketone and hydroxy group at C-20 of cortisone and other 17,20,21-trihydroxy steroids. EC 1.1.1.53.
An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
A water-soluble ester of METHYLPREDNISOLONE used for cardiac, allergic, and hypoxic emergencies.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/3349)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/3349)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions. (3/3349)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. DESIGN: 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. SETTING: Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of steroid. RESULTS: Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a mean concentration of 456 micrograms/g (range 64 to 1500 micrograms/g). All were applied to areas of sensitive skin such as face and flexures. CONCLUSION: Greater regulation needs to be imposed on Chinese herbalists to prevent illegal and inappropriate prescribing of potent steroids.  (+info)

Effective control of Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with immunochemotherapy. Histiocyte Society. (4/3349)

The familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a lethal disorder. Although the prognosis for Epstein-Barr virus-associated HLH (EBV-HLH) remains uncertain, numerous reports indicate that it can also be fatal in a substantial proportion of cases. We therefore assessed the potential of immunochemotherapy with a core combination of steroids and etoposide to control EBV-HLH in 17 infants and children who met stringent diagnostic criteria for this reactive disorder of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Treatment of life-threatening emergencies was left to the discretion of participating investigators and typically included either intravenous Ig or cyclosporin A (CSA). Five patients (29%) entered complete remission during the induction phase (1 to 2 months), whereas 10 others (57%) required additional treatment to achieve this status. In 2 cases, immunochemotherapy was ineffective, prompting allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Severe but reversible myelosuppression was a common finding; adverse late sequelae were limited to epileptic activity in one child and chronic EBV infection in 2 others. Fourteen of the 17 patients treated with immunochemotherapy have maintained their complete responses for 4+ to 39+ months (median, 15+ months), suggesting a low probability of disease recurrence. These results provide a new perspective on EBV-HLH, showing effective control (and perhaps cure) of the majority of EBV-HLH cases without bone marrow transplantation, using steroids and etoposide, with or without immunomodulatory agents.  (+info)

Ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of endogenous neuroactive steroids: effect of ethanol training dose and dosing procedure. (5/3349)

A number of endogenous steroids exhibit rapid, nongenomic effects on the central nervous system and are called neuroactive steroids. The rapid mechanisms of action include modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which are two receptors implicated in the behavioral effects of ethanol. It was hypothesized that neuroactive steroids that positively modulate GABAA receptors or negatively modulate NMDA receptors, analogous to the actions of ethanol, would produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to ethanol. Two groups of male Long-Evans rats (n = 6-8/group) were trained to discriminate between 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (i.g.) and water (i.g.). The neuroactive steroids allopregnanolone, pregnanolone, epipregnanolone, allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, pregnanolone sulfate, epipregnanolone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, pregnenolone, and pregnenolone sulfate (PS), all administered i.p., were tested for substitution with acute and cumulative dosing procedures (n = 4-8/steroid). The GABAA-positive modulatory steroids allopregnanolone, pregnanolone, and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone substituted for ethanol, as did the low-efficacy steroid 3beta,5beta-P. GABAA-negative modulators, such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and PS, and all of the NMDA modulators tested, including PS, pregnanolone sulfate, and epipregnanolone sulfate, did not substitute for ethanol. These results show that certain endogenously occurring neuroactive steroids produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of ethanol.  (+info)

Clinicopathological features of Churg-Strauss syndrome-associated neuropathy. (6/3349)

We assessed the clinicopathological features of 28 patients with peripheral neuropathy associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Initial symptoms attributable to neuropathy were acute painful dysaesthesiae and oedema in the dysaesthetic portion of the distal limbs. Sensory and motor involvement mostly showed a pattern of mononeuritis multiplex in the initial phase, progressing into asymmetrical polyneuropathy, restricted to the limbs. Parallel loss of myelinated and unmyelinated fibres due to axonal degeneration was evident as decreased or absent amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials and compound muscle action potentials, indicating acute massive axonal loss. Epineurial necrotizing vasculitis was seen in 54% of cases; infiltrates consisted mainly of CD8-positive suppressor/cytotoxic and CD4-positive helper T lymphocytes. Eosinophils were present in infiltrates, but in smaller numbers than lymphocytes. CD20-positive B lymphocytes were seen only occasionally. Deposits of IgG, C3d, IgE and major basic protein were scarce. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 years, with a range of 8 months to 10 years. Fatal outcome was seen only in a single patient, indicating a good survival rate. The patients who responded well to the initial corticosteroid therapy within 4 weeks regained self-controlled functional status in longterm follow-up (modified Rankin score was < or = 2), while those not responding well to the initial corticosteroid therapy led a dependent existence (P < 0.01). In addition the patients with poor functional outcomes had significantly more systemic organ damage caused by vasculitis (P < 0.05). Necrotizing vasculitis mediated by cytotoxic T cells, leading to ischaemic changes, appears to be a major cause of Churg-Strauss syndrome-associated neuropathy. The initial clinical course and the extent of systemic vasculitic lesions may influence the long-term functional prognosis.  (+info)

Antioxidant effects of aminosalicylates and potential new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease: assessment in cell-free systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies. (7/3349)

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid in inflammatory bowel disease may be related to its antioxidant properties. AIM: To compare in vitro the antioxidant effects of conventional drugs (5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, metronidazole), with new aminosalicylates (4-aminosalicylic acid, balsalazide) and other potential therapies (ascorbate, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, verapamil). METHODS: Compounds were assessed for efficacy in reducing the in vitro production of reactive oxygen species by cell-free systems (using xanthine/xanthine oxidase, with or without myeloperoxidase) and by colorectal biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. RESULTS: 5-aminosalicylic acid and balsalazide were more potent antioxidants than 4-aminosalicylic acid or N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in cell-free systems. 5-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM) and balsalazide (20 mM) inhibited rectal biopsy chemiluminescence by 93% and 100%, respectively, compared with only 59% inhibition by 4-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM). Hydrocortisone, metronidazole and verapamil had no significant effect on chemiluminescence in any system. Ascorbate (20 mM) inhibited chemiluminescence by 100% in cell-free systems and by 60% in rectal biopsies. N-acetyl cysteine (10 mM), and both oxidized and reduced glutathione (10 mM), completely inhibited chemiluminescence in cell-free systems, but not with rectal biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidant effects of compounds varies between cell-free systems and inflamed colorectal biopsies. The effect of drugs on the chemiluminescence produced by these two assay systems is useful for screening potentially new antioxidant treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Ascorbate seems worth further study as a novel therapy.  (+info)

The diagnosis, classification, and management of asthma according to severity. (8/3349)

This activity is designed for primary care and specialist physicians. GOAL: To provide prompt and appropriate treatment for asthma of all levels of severity resulting in improved level of activity and decreased need for urgent care and hospitalization with a possible reduction in the annual decline of lung function, degree of permanent airway damage, and mortality. OBJECTIVES: 1. To provide a framework on the basis of history, physical findings, and laboratory results for the diagnosis of asthma. 2. To improve the ability to classify asthma by degree of severity. 3. To describe an incremental therapeutic approach to asthma by degree of severity. 4. To provide a systematic approach with regard to periodic reevaluation of asthma severity and modification of the treatment plan.  (+info)

There are three main forms of ACH:

1. Classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): This is the most common form of ACH, accounting for about 90% of cases. It is caused by mutations in the CYP21 gene, which codes for an enzyme that converts cholesterol into cortisol and aldosterone.
2. Non-classic CAH (NCAH): This form of ACH is less common than classic CAH and is caused by mutations in other genes involved in cortisol and aldosterone production.
3. Mineralocorticoid excess (MOE) or glucocorticoid deficiency (GD): These are rare forms of ACH that are characterized by excessive production of mineralocorticoids (such as aldosterone) or a deficiency of glucocorticoids (such as cortisol).

The symptoms of ACH can vary depending on the specific form of the disorder and the age at which it is diagnosed. In classic CAH, symptoms typically appear in infancy and may include:

* Premature puberty (in girls) or delayed puberty (in boys)
* Abnormal growth patterns
* Distended abdomen
* Fatigue
* Weight gain or obesity
* Easy bruising or bleeding

In NCAH and MOE/GD, symptoms may be less severe or may not appear until later in childhood or adulthood. They may include:

* High blood pressure
* Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
* Weight gain or obesity
* Fatigue
* Mood changes

If left untreated, ACH can lead to serious complications, including:

* Adrenal gland insufficiency
* Heart problems
* Bone health problems
* Increased risk of infections
* Mental health issues (such as depression or anxiety)

Treatment for ACH typically involves hormone replacement therapy to restore the balance of hormones in the body. This may involve taking medications such as cortisol, aldosterone, or other hormones to replace those that are deficient or imbalanced. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove an adrenal tumor or to correct physical abnormalities.

With proper treatment, many individuals with ACH can lead healthy, active lives. However, it is important for individuals with ACH to work closely with their healthcare providers to manage their condition and prevent complications. This may involve regular check-ups, hormone level monitoring, and lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise.

There are several types of radiculopathy, including:

1. Cervical radiculopathy: This type affects the neck and arm region and is often caused by a herniated disk or degenerative changes in the spine.
2. Thoracic radiculopathy: This type affects the chest and abdominal regions and is often caused by a tumor or injury.
3. Lumbar radiculopathy: This type affects the lower back and leg region and is often caused by a herniated disk, spinal stenosis, or degenerative changes in the spine.
4. Sacral radiculopathy: This type affects the pelvis and legs and is often caused by a tumor or injury.

The symptoms of radiculopathy can vary depending on the location and severity of the nerve compression. They may include:

1. Pain in the affected area, which can be sharp or dull and may be accompanied by numbness, tingling, or weakness.
2. Numbness or tingling sensations in the skin of the affected limb.
3. Weakness in the affected muscles, which can make it difficult to move the affected limb or perform certain activities.
4. Difficulty with coordination and balance.
5. Tremors or spasms in the affected muscles.
6. Decreased reflexes in the affected area.
7. Difficulty with bladder or bowel control (in severe cases).

Treatment for radiculopathy depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Conservative treatments such as physical therapy, medication, and lifestyle changes may be effective in managing symptoms and improving function. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the nerve root.

It's important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the symptoms of radiculopathy, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.

Asthma can cause recurring episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These symptoms occur when the muscles surrounding the airways contract, causing the airways to narrow and swell. This can be triggered by exposure to environmental allergens or irritants such as pollen, dust mites, pet dander, or respiratory infections.

There is no cure for asthma, but it can be managed with medication and lifestyle changes. Treatment typically includes inhaled corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, bronchodilators to open up the airways, and rescue medications to relieve symptoms during an asthma attack.

Asthma is a common condition that affects people of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children. According to the American Lung Association, more than 25 million Americans have asthma, and it is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under the age of 18.

While there is no cure for asthma, early diagnosis and proper treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life for those affected by the condition.

Ichthyosis, X-linked is characterized by dry, scaly skin and can vary in severity from mild to severe. The most common form of the disorder is called X-linked ichthyosis (XLI), which affects males more frequently than females. Females can also be affected, but their symptoms are typically milder.

The symptoms of ichthyosis, X-linked may include:

* Dry, scaly skin on the arms, legs, back, and chest
* Redness and inflammation of the skin
* Cracking and flaking of the skin
* Thickened skin that can be darker or lighter than normal skin tone
* Increased risk of infections and other complications such as eczema and asthma

Ichthyosis, X-linked is caused by mutations in the filaggrin gene, which plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the skin's outer layer. The disorder is usually inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern, meaning that the mutated gene is passed from the mother to her son, who will then develop the condition.

There is no cure for ichthyosis, X-linked, but there are treatments available to manage the symptoms. These may include moisturizers, topical medications, and oral medications to reduce inflammation and prevent infections. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove thickened skin.

Early diagnosis and treatment of ichthyosis, X-linked can help manage the symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals with the disorder. However, the condition can be challenging to diagnose, as it can resemble other skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis or eczema. A correct diagnosis is essential to ensure proper management and prevent complications.

In conclusion, ichthyosis, X-linked is a rare and severe genetic disorder that affects the skin, causing thickening of the skin, dryness, and cracks. While there is no cure for the condition, early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms and improve the quality of life for individuals with ichthyosis, X-linked. A correct diagnosis is essential to ensure proper management and prevent complications.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, is a rare condition where the adrenal glands are damaged or destroyed, leading to a decrease in cortisol and aldosterone production. This can be caused by autoimmune disorders, genetic defects, or viral infections.

Secondary adrenal insufficiency is more common and occurs when the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, does not produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol and aldosterone. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and pituitary tumors.

Adrenal insufficiency can cause a range of symptoms, including fatigue, weight loss, muscle weakness, and low blood pressure. Treatment typically involves hormone replacement therapy with cortisol and aldosterone supplements, as well as addressing any underlying causes of the condition.

In summary, adrenal insufficiency is a condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol and aldosterone hormones, leading to a range of symptoms and potential complications. It can be classified into primary and secondary types, and treatment involves hormone replacement therapy and addressing any underlying causes.

The causes of virilism can be due to various factors including:

1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): A genetic disorder that affects the production of hormones by the adrenal glands, leading to excessive levels of androgens such as testosterone.
2. Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS): A condition where the body is unable to respond to androgens, leading to virilization.
3. 5-alpha-reductase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder that affects the production of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase, which is important for the development of male characteristics.
4. Genetic mutations: Some individuals may have genetic mutations that lead to the overproduction of androgens or the underproduction of anti-androgens.
5. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances in hormone levels, such as high testosterone and low estrogen, can also cause virilism.

Virilism can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as hormone level measurements. Treatment options for virilism depend on the underlying cause and may include hormone replacement therapy, surgery, or psychological counseling.

In summary, virilism is a condition characterized by the excessive development of male characteristics in individuals who are not biologically male, and it can be caused by various genetic or hormonal factors. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Symptoms of ichthyosis can include:

* Thickened, scaly skin on the arms, legs, back, and chest
* Redness and itching
* Cracking and splitting of the skin
* Increased risk of infection
* Respiratory problems

Treatment for ichthyosis typically involves the use of topical creams and ointments to help soften and hydrate the skin, as well as oral medications to reduce inflammation and itching. In severe cases, phototherapy or systemic corticosteroids may be necessary.

In addition to these medical treatments, there are also several home remedies and lifestyle modifications that can help manage the symptoms of ichthyosis. These include:

* Moisturizing regularly with a fragrance-free moisturizer
* Avoiding harsh soaps and cleansers
* Using lukewarm water when showering or bathing
* Applying cool compresses to the skin to reduce redness and inflammation
* Wearing loose, breathable clothing to avoid irritating the skin
* Protecting the skin from extreme temperatures and environmental stressors.

These tumors typically affect adult men and are relatively slow-growing. They can cause symptoms such as painless testicular swelling, difficulty urinating, or abdominal discomfort due to pressure on surrounding organs.

Leydig cell tumors are relatively rare, accounting for less than 1% of all testicular tumors. They are usually benign (non-cancerous), but in some cases can be malignant (cancerous). Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the affected testicle (orchiectomy) and may also involve hormone therapy to reduce levels of male hormones, such as testosterone.

Leydig cell tumors are classified into two main types: Leydig cell adenoma and Leydig cell carcinoma. Leydig cell adenoma is the more common type and typically grows slowly, while Leydig cell carcinoma is less common but can grow faster and be more aggressive.

Overall, Leydig cell tumors are rare and often slow-growing, but they can cause significant symptoms and may require surgical intervention to treat.

Steroids is a monthly peer-reviewed international scientific journal covering all aspects of steroid hormones, such as ... Steroids. "Steroids". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2014. Official website ( ...
... may refer to: List of androgens/anabolic steroids - steroidal androgens/anabolic steroids List of androgens/ ... or inhibitors of steroid biosynthesis and metabolism As well as lists of steroid esters, including: List of androgen esters - ... corticosteroid esters List of steroid esters List of steroid medications available in the United States (Articles with short ... anabolic steroids (alternate) - steroidal androgens/anabolic steroids List of steroidal antiandrogens - steroidal antiandrogens ...
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Adrenal steroids are distinguished from gonadal steroids, which are steroids that are derived from the gonads and include sex ... Cortisone is another steroid that allows the glomeruli to filter the blood more efficiently. This steroid also increases the ... Adrenal steroids are steroids that are derived from the adrenal glands. They include corticosteroids, which consist of ... The main role of adrenal steroids is to regulate electrolyte and water levels in the kidneys. Each steroid has a different ...
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List of steroid esters Steroid sulfate Vermeulen A (1975). "Longacting steroid preparations". Acta Clin Belg. 30 (1): 48-55. ... Steroids. 137: 47-56. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2018.07.010. PMC 6137153. PMID 30086356. Vermeulen A (1975). "Longacting steroid ... Esterification of steroids with fatty acids was developed to prolong the duration of effect of steroid hormones. By 1957, more ... Like many other steroid esters, they are prodrugs. Unlike other steroid esters however, they bypass first-pass metabolism with ...
... steroid 3-sulfatase, steroid sulfate sulfohydrolase, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfatase, pregnenolone sulfatase, phenolic steroid ... The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of sulfated steroid precursors to the free steroid. This includes ... April 1987). "Genetic heterogeneity of steroid sulfatase deficiency revealed with cDNA for human steroid sulfatase". ... Steroid sulfatase (STS), or steryl-sulfatase (EC 3.1.6.2), formerly known as arylsulfatase C, is a sulfatase enzyme involved in ...
... is commonly associated with endogenous or exogenous sources of androgen, drug therapy, or diabetes and is less ... Steroid acne is an adverse reaction to corticosteroids, and presents as small, firm follicular papules on the forehead, cheeks ... Acne vulgaris and steroid acne are quite different processes, although the comedones may be clinically indistinguishable. ... Dennis, Mark; Bowen, William Talbot; Cho, Lucy (2012). "Steroid acne". Mechanisms of Clinical Signs. Elsevier. p. 554. ISBN 978 ...
... s are endogenous sulfate esters of steroids. They are formed by steroid sulfotransferases via sulfation of ... v t e v t e (Human metabolites, Neurosteroids, Steroid esters, Steroid hormones, Sulfate esters, All stub articles, Steroid ... endogenous steroids like cholesterol and steroid hormones. Although steroid sulfates do not bind to steroid hormone receptors ... Estrogen conjugate Steroid ester Mueller JW, Gilligan LC, Idkowiak J, Arlt W, Foster PA (2015). "The Regulation of Steroid ...
The highlighted steroids are often used in the screening of allergies to topical steroid and systemic steroids. When one is ... Topical steroids are the topical forms of corticosteroids. Topical steroids are the most commonly prescribed topical ... Side effects may occur from long-term topical steroid use. Weaker topical steroids are utilized for thin-skinned and sensitive ... see steroid allergy) Steroid atrophy Perioral dermatitis: This is a rash that occurs around the mouth and the eye region that ...
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural ... and less frequently psychosis and suicide have been associated with steroid abuse. Long-term steroid abusers may develop ... Designer steroids are AAS that have not been approved and marketed for medical use but have been distributed through the black ... Most steroid users are not athletes. In the United States, between 1 million and 3 million people (1% of the population) are ...
... s are reductase enzymes that are involved in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism. They include: 5α-Reductase 5 ... "Functional Characterization of the Steroid Reductase Genes GmDET2a and GmDET2b form Glycine max". International Journal of ...
The enzyme steroid-lactonase (EC 3.1.1.37) catalyzes the reaction testololactone + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ... Holmlund CE, Blank RH (January 1965). "Preparation and properties of a steroid lactonase". Archives of Biochemistry and ...
A steroid hydroxylase is a class of hydroxylase enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of steroids. Steroidogenic enzyme ... Steroidogenesis Steroid nomenclature - numbering of carbons Production of DHEA from Cholesterol Steroid+hydroxylases at the US ... Steroids, All stub articles, EC 1.14 stubs). ...
Steroid-induced rosacea can be caused by the prolonged used of a topical steroid on the face. Topical steroid comes in 7 ... from the use of either systemic steroid or topical steroids. It is nearly identical to steroid induced acne from the standpoint ... Only mild steroids should be applied to the face. The use of the topical steroid should be limited to the condition. Alternate ... If the patient is using a strong topical steroid, he or she is weaned to a weaker class VI or VII steroid. Usually, they are to ...
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The time between administration of steroids and delivery may alter the effectiveness of the steroids. Common corticosteroids ... Steroids do not appear to increase the number of women who develop infection of the fetal membranes (chorioamnionitis) or of ... Antenatal steroids have been shown to reduce the occurrence and mortality of infant respiratory distress syndrome, a life- ... Antenatal steroids have also been shown to have definite beneficial effect in treating the condition of preterm premature ...
List of steroids List of designer drugs § Androgens List of androgens/anabolic steroids available in the United States ? = ... Applied modifications in the steroidal structure". Steroids. 74 (2): 172-97. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2008.10.016. PMID 19028512 ... Androgens and anabolic steroids, Steroids, Chemistry-related lists). ... This is a list of androgens/anabolic steroids (AAS) or testosterone derivatives. Esters are mostly not included in this list; ...
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Applied modifications in the steroidal structure". Steroids. 74 (2): 172-97. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2008.10.016. PMID 19028512 ... An extended or bulkier group at the C17α position reduces AR agonist activity or changes the steroid into an antiandrogen. An ... Removal of the ketone at the C3 position can dramatically decrease AR agonist activity but render the steroid into an androgen ... The structure-activity relationships (SAR) of anabolic steroids (AAS) have been extensively studied. Addition of a methyl or ...
In enzymology, a steroid 9alpha-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.99.24) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction pregna-4,9(11)- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is steroid,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (9-epoxidizing). This enzyme is also ... called steroid 9alpha-hydroxylase. It has 2 cofactors: FMN, and Iron-sulfur. Strijewski A (November 1982). "The steroid-9 alpha ...
The condition reverses, but not always completely, within months after steroid treatment is stopped. The term "steroid dementia ... Varney, NR; Alexander, B; MacIndoe, JH (1984). "Reversible steroid dementia in patients without steroid psychosis". The ... Cognitive symptoms from steroids appear within the first few weeks of treatment, appear to be dose dependent, and may or may ... The treatment with steroids was stopped and three years later (while still taking buspirone, albuterol, fluticasone and ...
Other names in common use include hydroxy steroid acetylglucosaminyltransferase, steroid acetylglucosaminyltransferase, uridine ... In enzymology, a steroid N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.39) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction UDP-N- ... Collins DC, Jirku H, Layne DS (1968). "Steroid N-acetylglucosaminyl transferase. Localization and some properties of the enzyme ...
... for sciatica and spinal stenosis is of unclear effect. The evidence to support use in the cervical ... Epidural steroid injection (ESI) is a technique in which corticosteroids and a local anesthetic are injected into the epidural ... Schneider, B; Zheng, P; Mattie, R; Kennedy, DJ (August 2016). "Safety of epidural steroid injections". Expert Opinion on Drug ... Jaimes, Rafael; Rocco, Angelo (August 2014). "Multiple epidural steroid injections and body mass index linked with occurrence ...
In enzymology, a steroid 17alpha-monooxygenase (EC 1.14.99.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction a steroid + AH2 ... Steroid+17alpha-monooxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology v t e (EC ... This enzyme participates in c21-steroid hormone metabolism. It has 3 cofactors: NADH, NADPH, and Heme. Lynn WS, Brown RH (June ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is steroid,hydrogen-donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (17alpha-hydroxylating). Other names ...
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  • Prolonged anabolic steroid use leads basic hormone creation including testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH), so simply with 2 x 20mg pills taken will cause testicular atrophy. (atimes.com)
  • It is even considered as more powerful than can wont street information about androgens and anabolic steroid (AAS). (yetipublishing.com)
  • Finally, anabolic steroid users may suffer helps lower comes from human where to buy Dianabol the buy steroids in the USA serum out of the study. (yetipublishing.com)
  • Who are continuously jeopardising their health for a cause they and anabolic steroid the drugs and information from more experienced users at the gym, often establishing a mentor-mentee relationship. (yetipublishing.com)
  • The strong majority who run a Clomid cycle and by a strong majority we mean nearly all will do so after their anabolic steroid use has been discontinued. (steroid.com)
  • Once anabolic steroid use is complete many athletes, the smart ones will begin and complete a period known as Post Cycle Therapy (PCT) and it is during this phase in-which the individual is bringing his natural testosterone production back online. (steroid.com)
  • If your anabolic steroid use ends with long ester gear you can wait about 10 days before beginning hCG use and then begin your Clomid therapy once it is complete. (steroid.com)
  • Being an anabolic steroid more than androgenic, it is suitable for both men and women to gain muscle or lose fat. (outlookindia.com)
  • This anabolic steroid gives is perfect for gym rats and athletes looking to build a stronger and more defined physique through body recomposition. (outlookindia.com)
  • The term 'neuroactive steroids' has been coined for steroids that interact with neurotransmitter receptors. (nih.gov)
  • One of the best characterized actions of neuroactive steroids is the allosteric modulation of GABA(A)-receptor function via binding to a putative steroid-binding site. (nih.gov)
  • Since neuroactive steroids may interact with a variety of other membrane receptors, excitatory as well as inhibitory, they may have an impact on the excitability of specific brain regions. (nih.gov)
  • Apart from these particular properties, neuroactive steroids may regulate gene expression via progesterone receptors. (nih.gov)
  • This review focuses on the effects of neuroactive steroids on neuronal excitability and their putative impact on the physiology of epileptic disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Among the plethora of available drugs employed for CNS diseases, neuroactive steroids are endogenous molecules derived from cholesterol or synthetic compounds that have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and modulate brain function in health and disease. (nih.gov)
  • Measures Quantitation of neuroactive steroids in plasma The measurement of estradiol (Estradiol EII) and progesterone (Progesterone II) was performed by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) employing a Cobas e601, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Deutschland. (nih.gov)
  • These conditions resulting from topical corticosteroid use on ringworm are sometimes referred to as steroid-modified tinea . (cdc.gov)
  • Topical steroids are very effective when used in the induction of remission and in the acute exacerbation of atopic dermatitis. (medscape.com)
  • Triamcinolone topical is a medium-potency topical steroid. (medscape.com)
  • Hydrocortisone topical is an example of a low-potency topical steroid available over the counter. (medscape.com)
  • The patient was treated with topical steroids plus daily Dapsone 100 mg and weekly steroid injections (40 mg). (bvsalud.org)
  • This case of MMP in a young female patient was effectively managed with a combination therapy of topical steroids, Dapsone and steroid injections. (bvsalud.org)
  • These steroids are similar to hormones that your adrenal glands make to fight stress associated with illnesses and injuries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is increasing clinical and experimental evidence that hormones, in particular sex steroid hormones, influence neuronal excitability and other brain functions. (nih.gov)
  • However, it remains unclear whether in the US population circulating concentrations of sex steroid hormones vary by race/ethnicity. (cdc.gov)
  • But there's another type of steroid - sometimes called a corticosteroid - that treats a variety of problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • First reaching consumers in 1962, the steroid was initially targeted as a corticosteroid medication for catabolic diseases since it helps gain muscle density after muscle atrophy caused by a medical condition. (outlookindia.com)
  • You should not treat rashes that might be ringworm with creams that contain steroids. (cdc.gov)
  • Low- to medium-potency steroids should be used routinely, with medium-to-high potency steroids for more severe rashes. (medscape.com)
  • The anti-inflammatory properties of the steroids can combat the inflammation associated with pneumonia. (ecanadanow.com)
  • It treats inflammatory dermatoses responsive to steroids. (medscape.com)
  • Purchase of high-potency steroids abroad. (cdc.gov)
  • Anabolic steroids also have androgenic and virilizing properties, including the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics such as the growth of the vocal cords and body hair (secondary sexual characteristics). (atimes.com)
  • Should where to buy Proviron androgenic use non-steroidal prescription-only, and cell type, let alone their often follows rapidly as the steroid dose is where to buy Proviron reduced. (yetipublishing.com)
  • Summary: Endogenous and exogenous steroids can be found in the meat, milk, and waste materials produced by cattle. (cdc.gov)
  • Even if it's marketed well, you still get a different substance than the real Anavar steroid while most likely, paying more. (outlookindia.com)
  • Anavar is a potent anabolic agent, basically a steroid, synthesized to simulate the effects of testosterone and approved by the FDA. (outlookindia.com)
  • Today, Anavar is one of the most popular and safest steroids for bodybuilders. (outlookindia.com)
  • Anavar, in turn, is the market name of the steroid, so these are basically different names of the same substance. (outlookindia.com)
  • Albumin, which exists in far higher concentrations than SHBG, also binds sexual steroids - although with a clearly lower binding affinity (e.g. about 100 times lower for testosterone). (cdc.gov)
  • Steroids shop where you buy anabolic steroids like testosterone online anabolic steroids medical use. (yetipublishing.com)
  • the degree of suppression can be dependent on which steroids were used and to a degree even the dose (somewhat) but make no mistake testosterone production is suppressed and generally dramatically. (steroid.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Role of adrenal steroids in retention and utilization of vitamin B6 in liver. (who.int)
  • According to the institutional protocol patients received conventional dose steroids versus pulse dose steroids . (bvsalud.org)
  • Steroids are strong medicines, and they can have side effects, including weakened bones and cataracts. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many of these steroid creams also contain antifungal and antibacterial medicines, and the labels say that the cream can be used to treat fungal infections. (cdc.gov)
  • If you travel internationally, develop a rash, and think it might be ringworm, be aware that strong over-the-counter steroid creams containing combinations of antifungal and antibacterial medicines can make ringworm worse and can cause other health problems. (cdc.gov)
  • Other steroids are manmade medicines. (kidshealth.org)
  • It might help to start taking these medicines a couple of days before the steroids begin and continue taking them for a few days after the steroids are done. (kidshealth.org)
  • Likewise, Olympic where to buy Proviron athletes supplementation number of precursors of anabolic steroids caused this kind of liver foodstuff and medicines (FDA). (yetipublishing.com)
  • Steroid pills are quite small and mixing them in applesauce or pudding can make them easier to take. (kidshealth.org)
  • But some teens on long-term steroid treatment take pills at home, and might have a steroid card or wear a medical alert bracelet. (kidshealth.org)
  • For this reason, people sometimes apply over-the-counter creams or ointments containing medications called corticosteroids (or "steroids" for short) to their rash. (cdc.gov)
  • It is also referred to as Oxandrolone or Oxandrin, which are the names of the synthesized steroid itself. (outlookindia.com)
  • In the world of sport, competition is to be the number one reason why steroid use has become popular among athletes. (ipl.org)
  • This is a controversial issue because it makes the athletes get to the point of make the risk to using steroids. (ipl.org)
  • This is when many athletes will turn to the use of steroids. (ipl.org)
  • Even though the Federal Government has given a lot of money to aid in research on steroid use, there has not been sufficient evidence to deter athletes from using them. (ipl.org)
  • The word steroid might make you think of "roid rage" or side effects in athletes, weightlifters, and bodybuilders who use them. (kidshealth.org)
  • BACKGROUND Steroid resistant asthma (SRA) represents a small subgroup of those patients who have asthma and who are difficult to manage. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS In 11 of the 14 patients identified there was little to substantiate the diagnosis of severe or steroid resistant asthma apart from symptoms and upper respiratory wheeze. (bmj.com)
  • Cases of steroid resistant asthma (SRA) have been well described but have been defined by different criteria. (bmj.com)
  • The real steroid is the way to go because original substances contain quality ingredients that actually work. (outlookindia.com)
  • In contrast, steroids are transported through milk and meat to humans where they may exert biological activity. (cdc.gov)
  • Furthermore, environmental matrices such as raw water and dust may also allow for the environmental transport and bioavailability of steroids to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • While the concentrations may be low, exposure to these matrices, most notably dairy products made with whole milk, can be a source of exogenous steroids to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • A former Boston police officer was sentenced to one year imprisonment yesterday for pleading guilty to federal charges of possession with intent to distribute anabolic steroids, perjury and obstruction of justice. (bostonherald.com)
  • Bosch and Rodriguez are both expected to testify if Rodriguez's cousin Yuri Sucart and ex-University of Miami pitching coach Lazaro Collazo go on trial, for conspiring to distribute steroids, as scheduled in April. (bbc.com)
  • One Case Sparks National Action Imagine… A patient goes to the doctor for a routine steroid injection. (cdc.gov)
  • Authorities had Siegel under surveillance as part of a steroid-trafficking investigation. (foxnews.com)
  • In the serum SHBG mainly takes over the transportation of steroids and the reduction/regulation of the effect of androgen. (cdc.gov)
  • Steroid creams can be helpful for some skin problems and can even temporarily reduce ringworm symptoms like itching and redness. (cdc.gov)
  • Symptoms cleared completely the day after steroid treatment began, and urine samples became normochromic 7 days later. (cdc.gov)
  • Steroids used in medical treatments can have some side effects. (kidshealth.org)
  • A lot of steroid treatments happen in a doctor's office or clinic. (kidshealth.org)
  • Not only did the treatments lead to shorter hospital stays, the use of steroids also reduced the need for ventilators and the risk of a disease called acute respiratory distress syndrome. (ecanadanow.com)
  • Our team suspected blackwater fever (BWF), a complication of P. falciparum infection, and colleagues from a referral center for tropical diseases confirmed the diagnosis and recommended administration of steroids. (cdc.gov)
  • But if your doctor prescribed a steroid as part of your cancer treatment, don't worry. (kidshealth.org)
  • Steroids can help with cancer treatment in a variety of ways. (kidshealth.org)
  • The doctors will give you all the details, but there are some things to remember when you take steroids by mouth for cancer treatment. (kidshealth.org)
  • It has been proposed that racial/ethnic variation in prostate cancer incidence may be, in part, due to racial/ethnic variation in sex steroid hormone levels. (cdc.gov)
  • Steroid creams can allow ringworm infections to spread to cover more of the body. (cdc.gov)
  • Steroids are chemicals made normally by the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • There are a lot of steroids you can try on your way to the perfect body, whether it's a bulky beast or a shredded god(dess) you're working to become. (outlookindia.com)
  • We describe an episode of blackwater fever in a nonimmune 12-year-old girl in Italy who was treated with steroids, resulting in a rapid clinical resolution. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, if all the steroids being used were that of a short ester nature PCT can begin very quickly, often in a few days after the end of the cycle. (steroid.com)
  • You may have heard of anabolic steroids , which can have harmful effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What Are the Side Effects of Steroids? (kidshealth.org)
  • What are endometrial steroids for your tissues need most common Deca Durabolin side effects. (yetipublishing.com)
  • The third class indicated that there is some knowledge about the harms of anabolic steroids, but may create hazards and lead to an underestimation of the side effects of using. (bvsalud.org)
  • If there's an emergency, the card or bracelet will let doctors know about the steroids, which can change the treatment they give you. (kidshealth.org)
  • A new review at McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada has shown that the use of steroids may be a viable treatment option. (ecanadanow.com)
  • Steroids have sexual health consequences: from very dosages is not proved. (atimes.com)
  • The overuse of steroids to treat ringworm may contribute to antimicrobial-resistant ringworm infections, an emerging public health concern . (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, adolescents referred the concern of his group regarding physical appearance and they present a discourse about steroids focused on health, either through a false healthy appearance or emphasize the damages. (bvsalud.org)
  • In rare cases, steroid creams can allow the fungus that causes ringworm to invade deeper into the skin and cause a more serious condition. (cdc.gov)
  • Once or twice a year, I open my most popular program, Learning on Steroids. (scotthyoung.com)
  • Steroid creams can make ringworm worse because they weaken the skin's defenses. (cdc.gov)
  • The results indicated three main classes: (1) Concepts of steroids, (2) Benefits derived from steroids, and (3) Losses derived from steroids. (bvsalud.org)
  • But if they do happen, they'll only last as long as you take the steroids. (kidshealth.org)
  • you still need to wait at least two weeks, after all, there are long ester anabolic steroids in your system. (steroid.com)
  • Planar C18 and C19 steroids with a 17α -hydroxyl group bind particularly well, whereas C19 17-ketosteroids such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstendione do not bind so easily. (cdc.gov)
  • If you notice anything strange while you take the steroids, tell the doctor right away. (kidshealth.org)
  • But in some other countries, people can buy creams containing strong steroids without a prescription. (cdc.gov)
  • SHBG binds reversibly to sexual steroids. (cdc.gov)
  • This study investigated the concept of anabolic steroids and identified benefits and harms of using according to adolescents. (bvsalud.org)
  • We used a semi-open questionnaire addressing the concept, the benefits and harms derived from steroids. (bvsalud.org)