A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.
A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.
The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.
A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.
A PREDNISOLONE derivative with similar anti-inflammatory action.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Steroids which are substituted with one or more bromine atoms in any position.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Steroid derivatives formed by oxidation of a methyl group on the side chain or a methylene group in the ring skeleton to form a ketone.
A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)
C18 steroid with androgenic and anabolic properties. It is generally prepared from alkyl ethers of ESTRADIOL to resemble TESTOSTERONE but less one carbon at the 19 position.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.
A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in the transcriptional activation of chromatin regions.
Steroids which are substituted with one or more chlorine atoms in any position.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).
The injection of drugs, most often analgesics, into the spinal canal without puncturing the dura mater.
A synthetic steroid with anabolic properties that are more pronounced than its androgenic effects. It has little progestational activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1188)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
17,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A 17-hydroxycorticosteroid with glucocorticoid and anti-inflammatory activities.
A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.
Unsaturated derivatives of the steroid androstane containing at least one double bond at any site in any of the rings.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
Steroids that contain a ketone group at position 17.
A glucocorticoid given, as the free alcohol or in esterified form, orally, intramuscularly, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p739)
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Enzymes of the oxidoreductase class that catalyze the dehydrogenation of hydroxysteroids. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.-.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
An intermediate in TESTOSTERONE biosynthesis, found in the TESTIS or the ADRENAL GLANDS. Androstenediol, derived from DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE by the reduction of the 17-keto group (17-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES), is converted to TESTOSTERONE by the oxidation of the 3-beta hydroxyl group to a 3-keto group (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES).
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
An esterified form of TRIAMCINOLONE. It is an anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. Intralesional, intramuscular, and intra-articular injections are also administered under certain conditions.
The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.
Unsaturated androstanes which are substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position in the ring system.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
A group of compounds forming the nucleus of the estrogenic steroid family.
A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.
Unsaturated androstane derivatives which are substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position in the ring system.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
A metabolite of 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE, normally produced in small quantities by the GONADS and the ADRENAL GLANDS, found in URINE. An elevated urinary pregnanetriol is associated with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA with a deficiency of STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
Errors in metabolic processing of STEROIDS resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.
A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS and PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING during the process of nuclear receptor-induced transcription. The coactivator has been found at elevated levels in certain HORMONE-DEPENDENT NEOPLASMS such as those found in BREAST CANCER.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Administration of high doses of pharmaceuticals over short periods of time.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 16-alpha-hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme is encoded by a number of genes from several CYP2 subfamilies.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.
A macrolide isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Streptomyces tsukubaensis that has strong immunosuppressive activity in vivo and prevents the activation of T-lymphocytes in response to antigenic or mitogenic stimulation in vitro.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. They are found in BUFONIDAE and often possess cardiotonic properties.
Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cyclopentanophenanthrenes with a 5- or 6-membered lactone ring attached at the 17-position and SUGARS attached at the 3-position. Plants they come from have long been used in congestive heart failure. They increase the force of cardiac contraction without significantly affecting other parameters, but are very toxic at larger doses. Their mechanism of action usually involves inhibition of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE and they are often used in cell biological studies for that purpose.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A synthetic progestin which is useful for the study of progestin distribution and progestin tissue receptors, as it is not bound by transcortin and binds to progesterone receptors with a higher association constant than progesterone.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.
A derivative of PREDNISOLONE with high glucocorticoid activity and low mineralocorticoid activity. Absorbed through the skin faster than FLUOCINONIDE, it is used topically in treatment of PSORIASIS but may cause marked adrenocortical suppression.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A synthetic steroid that has anabolic and androgenic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1194)
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A synthetic progestational agent with actions similar to those of PROGESTERONE. This racemic or (+-)-form has about half the potency of the levo form (LEVONORGESTREL). Norgestrel is used as a contraceptive, ovulation inhibitor, and for the control of menstrual disorders and endometriosis.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.
A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Steroidal compounds related to TESTOSTERONE, the major mammalian male sex hormone. Testosterone congeners include important testosterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with androgenic activities.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Chronic form of ichthyosis that is inherited as a sex-linked recessive trait carried on the X-chromosome and transmitted to the male offspring. It is characterized by severe scaling, especially on the extremities, and is associated with steroid sulfatase deficiency.
An antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum, and related species. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1301)
A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with nitrogen atoms.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
An enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of a ketone and hydroxy group at C-20 of cortisone and other 17,20,21-trihydroxy steroids. EC 1.1.1.53.
An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.
A group of enzymes that catalyze the reversible reduction-oxidation reaction of 20-hydroxysteroids, such as from a 20-ketosteroid to a 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.149) or to a 20-beta-hydroxysteroid (EC 1.1.1.53).
A water-soluble ester of METHYLPREDNISOLONE used for cardiac, allergic, and hypoxic emergencies.
An immunosuppressive agent used in combination with cyclophosphamide and hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A cyclic undecapeptide from an extract of soil fungi. It is a powerful immunosupressant with a specific action on T-lymphocytes. It is used for the prophylaxis of graft rejection in organ and tissue transplantation. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed).
A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Drugs that inhibit 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE. They are commonly used to reduce the production of DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
(6 alpha)-17-Hydroxy-6-methylpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. A synthetic progestational hormone used in veterinary practice as an estrus regulator.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
An orally active 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE inhibitor. It is used as a surgical alternative for treatment of benign PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 3-oxo-delta4 steroids into their corresponding 5alpha form. It plays an important role in the conversion of TESTOSTERONE into DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE and PROGESTERONE into DIHYDROPROGESTERONE.

Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures. (1/3349)

A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.  (+info)

Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment. (2/3349)

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions. (3/3349)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. DESIGN: 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. SETTING: Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of steroid. RESULTS: Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a mean concentration of 456 micrograms/g (range 64 to 1500 micrograms/g). All were applied to areas of sensitive skin such as face and flexures. CONCLUSION: Greater regulation needs to be imposed on Chinese herbalists to prevent illegal and inappropriate prescribing of potent steroids.  (+info)

Effective control of Epstein-Barr virus-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis with immunochemotherapy. Histiocyte Society. (4/3349)

The familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a lethal disorder. Although the prognosis for Epstein-Barr virus-associated HLH (EBV-HLH) remains uncertain, numerous reports indicate that it can also be fatal in a substantial proportion of cases. We therefore assessed the potential of immunochemotherapy with a core combination of steroids and etoposide to control EBV-HLH in 17 infants and children who met stringent diagnostic criteria for this reactive disorder of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Treatment of life-threatening emergencies was left to the discretion of participating investigators and typically included either intravenous Ig or cyclosporin A (CSA). Five patients (29%) entered complete remission during the induction phase (1 to 2 months), whereas 10 others (57%) required additional treatment to achieve this status. In 2 cases, immunochemotherapy was ineffective, prompting allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Severe but reversible myelosuppression was a common finding; adverse late sequelae were limited to epileptic activity in one child and chronic EBV infection in 2 others. Fourteen of the 17 patients treated with immunochemotherapy have maintained their complete responses for 4+ to 39+ months (median, 15+ months), suggesting a low probability of disease recurrence. These results provide a new perspective on EBV-HLH, showing effective control (and perhaps cure) of the majority of EBV-HLH cases without bone marrow transplantation, using steroids and etoposide, with or without immunomodulatory agents.  (+info)

Ethanol-like discriminative stimulus effects of endogenous neuroactive steroids: effect of ethanol training dose and dosing procedure. (5/3349)

A number of endogenous steroids exhibit rapid, nongenomic effects on the central nervous system and are called neuroactive steroids. The rapid mechanisms of action include modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which are two receptors implicated in the behavioral effects of ethanol. It was hypothesized that neuroactive steroids that positively modulate GABAA receptors or negatively modulate NMDA receptors, analogous to the actions of ethanol, would produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to ethanol. Two groups of male Long-Evans rats (n = 6-8/group) were trained to discriminate between 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg ethanol (i.g.) and water (i.g.). The neuroactive steroids allopregnanolone, pregnanolone, epipregnanolone, allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, pregnanolone sulfate, epipregnanolone sulfate, dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, pregnenolone, and pregnenolone sulfate (PS), all administered i.p., were tested for substitution with acute and cumulative dosing procedures (n = 4-8/steroid). The GABAA-positive modulatory steroids allopregnanolone, pregnanolone, and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone substituted for ethanol, as did the low-efficacy steroid 3beta,5beta-P. GABAA-negative modulators, such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and PS, and all of the NMDA modulators tested, including PS, pregnanolone sulfate, and epipregnanolone sulfate, did not substitute for ethanol. These results show that certain endogenously occurring neuroactive steroids produce discriminative stimulus effects similar to those of ethanol.  (+info)

Clinicopathological features of Churg-Strauss syndrome-associated neuropathy. (6/3349)

We assessed the clinicopathological features of 28 patients with peripheral neuropathy associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Initial symptoms attributable to neuropathy were acute painful dysaesthesiae and oedema in the dysaesthetic portion of the distal limbs. Sensory and motor involvement mostly showed a pattern of mononeuritis multiplex in the initial phase, progressing into asymmetrical polyneuropathy, restricted to the limbs. Parallel loss of myelinated and unmyelinated fibres due to axonal degeneration was evident as decreased or absent amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials and compound muscle action potentials, indicating acute massive axonal loss. Epineurial necrotizing vasculitis was seen in 54% of cases; infiltrates consisted mainly of CD8-positive suppressor/cytotoxic and CD4-positive helper T lymphocytes. Eosinophils were present in infiltrates, but in smaller numbers than lymphocytes. CD20-positive B lymphocytes were seen only occasionally. Deposits of IgG, C3d, IgE and major basic protein were scarce. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 years, with a range of 8 months to 10 years. Fatal outcome was seen only in a single patient, indicating a good survival rate. The patients who responded well to the initial corticosteroid therapy within 4 weeks regained self-controlled functional status in longterm follow-up (modified Rankin score was < or = 2), while those not responding well to the initial corticosteroid therapy led a dependent existence (P < 0.01). In addition the patients with poor functional outcomes had significantly more systemic organ damage caused by vasculitis (P < 0.05). Necrotizing vasculitis mediated by cytotoxic T cells, leading to ischaemic changes, appears to be a major cause of Churg-Strauss syndrome-associated neuropathy. The initial clinical course and the extent of systemic vasculitic lesions may influence the long-term functional prognosis.  (+info)

Antioxidant effects of aminosalicylates and potential new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease: assessment in cell-free systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies. (7/3349)

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid in inflammatory bowel disease may be related to its antioxidant properties. AIM: To compare in vitro the antioxidant effects of conventional drugs (5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, metronidazole), with new aminosalicylates (4-aminosalicylic acid, balsalazide) and other potential therapies (ascorbate, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, verapamil). METHODS: Compounds were assessed for efficacy in reducing the in vitro production of reactive oxygen species by cell-free systems (using xanthine/xanthine oxidase, with or without myeloperoxidase) and by colorectal biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. RESULTS: 5-aminosalicylic acid and balsalazide were more potent antioxidants than 4-aminosalicylic acid or N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in cell-free systems. 5-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM) and balsalazide (20 mM) inhibited rectal biopsy chemiluminescence by 93% and 100%, respectively, compared with only 59% inhibition by 4-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM). Hydrocortisone, metronidazole and verapamil had no significant effect on chemiluminescence in any system. Ascorbate (20 mM) inhibited chemiluminescence by 100% in cell-free systems and by 60% in rectal biopsies. N-acetyl cysteine (10 mM), and both oxidized and reduced glutathione (10 mM), completely inhibited chemiluminescence in cell-free systems, but not with rectal biopsies. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidant effects of compounds varies between cell-free systems and inflamed colorectal biopsies. The effect of drugs on the chemiluminescence produced by these two assay systems is useful for screening potentially new antioxidant treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Ascorbate seems worth further study as a novel therapy.  (+info)

The diagnosis, classification, and management of asthma according to severity. (8/3349)

This activity is designed for primary care and specialist physicians. GOAL: To provide prompt and appropriate treatment for asthma of all levels of severity resulting in improved level of activity and decreased need for urgent care and hospitalization with a possible reduction in the annual decline of lung function, degree of permanent airway damage, and mortality. OBJECTIVES: 1. To provide a framework on the basis of history, physical findings, and laboratory results for the diagnosis of asthma. 2. To improve the ability to classify asthma by degree of severity. 3. To describe an incremental therapeutic approach to asthma by degree of severity. 4. To provide a systematic approach with regard to periodic reevaluation of asthma severity and modification of the treatment plan.  (+info)

A series of enzymatic steps in the mitochondria and ER of steroidogenic tissues convert cholesterol into all of the other steroid hormones and intermediates. We previously reported a 7-gene signature that predicts prognosis in estrogen receptor β positive (ERβ+) NSCLC. Steroid names in conventional script are steroid hormones and precursors; those in italics are urinary metabolites of the aforementioned. Steroid Hormone synthesis pathway (Clinical aspect) Hello Awesomites :D I was reviewing the corticosteroid synthesis pathway and its applied. 3bHSD CYP21 (21alpha-hydroxylase ... -Vitamin D3: Lou YR, et al. Steroidogenic enzymes. Steroid synthesis and metabolism in the foetus and neonate. Mitochondria are essential sites for steroid hormone biosynthesis. Cholesterol is a form of lipid used in steroid synthesis to enable conversion of these fats into usable hormone molecules for secretion by the endocrine glands. This figure illustrates the formation of the major hormone classes from ...
Steroids are powerful drugs to overcome the inflammation and relieve pain, in addition to the steroid directly bekarja on brain chemistry is also beneficial for improving mood. Someone who is not inflamed but taking steroids can feel comfortable in a relatively cepat.Tetapi steroid use as a pain reliever and improve mood also has side effects that sometimes it membahayakan.Efek side caused by steroid use include: - Steroids can suppress immune function and increase the risk of infection. - When drunk, steroids can cause gastritis or ulcer-Steroids can stop the blood supply to the joints, especially in the thighs and cause pain degenerative called avascular necrosis. - Steroids can reduce bone mass and increase the risk of fractures bone in long-term use. - Steroids can cause the bodys ability to respond to the emotional and physical pain is reduced. - Most of taking steroids will remove fat and fluid in his body despite discontinuation of the steroid ...
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Norma Devine, Editor. On Wednesday, November 13, 2002, Dr. Rick Wilson, a glaucoma specialist at Wills, and the glaucoma chat group discussed Steroid Use and IOP.. Moderator: Welcome, Dr. Rick. We have lots of newcomers tonight. The topic is Steroid Use and Intraocular Pressure. P: When was it determined that steroids can cause elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma? Dr. Rick Wilson: I think it was back in the Sixties (Bernie Becker at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.) Moderator: Are we talking about all steroids or topical steroids?. Dr. Rick Wilson: Mostly topical. Systemic steroids act by a different mechanism, as far as we can tell, and the effect is much quicker than topical steroids.. P: What are the usual effects of steroid use on IOP? Dr. Rick Wilson: A small percent of patients will get a large rise in IOP, about a third will get a modest rise in IOP, and the rest will not get much of a rise unless the steroids are taken for a prolonged period, for example, ...
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the trivial names proposed for peptide hormones are given in the appendix. Complex of steroid and receptor bind to response elements of. List of steroid hormones and peptide hormones, list of steroid drugs for bodybuilding. Steroid hormones are insoluble in water; transport proteins carry them in the blood. As a result, they remain in circulation longer than peptide hormones. 1) protein hormones (or polypeptide hormones) are made of chains of amino acids. An example is adh (antidiuretic hormone) which decreases blood pressure. Relative to protein/polypeptide hormones, steroids usually have longer half-lives, often in the range of many minutes to hours. Steroid hormones act on target cells​. Insulin is a peptide hormone that is used as a growth factor in many. Цитируется: 23 - most signaling mechanisms initiated by peptide hormone receptors are also activated by membrane actions of steroid hormones (1). The most recent additions. Regulation of the salt and water balance of the body. ...
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In this study we have clarified important issues pertaining to the classification of inflammatory phenotypes in asthma and their relationship to steroid response. Our principal findings are: (1) after steroid withdrawal we were unable to identify a neutrophilic phenotype in our population of patients; (2) ICS treatment was associated with increased airway neutrophils and a switch to a neutrophilic phenotype in some patients; (3) although steroid responsiveness is greater in EA, it is not exclusive to this phenotype but also occurs in NEA; and (4) Feno may be used to predict the steroid response in NEA.. Our finding of the absence of a neutrophilic phenotype after steroid withdrawal and, with steroid, of a significant increase in the proportion of sputum neutrophils (∼10%) and in the number of patients with neutrophilic asthma has significant implications. It may be that in previous studies reporting inflammatory phenotypes the results are not strictly accurate because patients were receiving ...
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Topic summary contributed by volunteer(s): Randy All animal products contain steroid hormones, and the presence of hormones in food has been connected with several human health problems. For example, steroid hormones in milk may contribute to the acne epidemic. The sex steroid hormones in meat may alter a mans testicular development in utero as well as affect female fertility. Breast cancer is sensitive to growth promoting steroid hormones like estrogen. The dramatic increase of hormone dependent cancers, including breast, ovarian, endometrial, and prostate cancer in Japan, for example, has been speculatively linked to anabolic steroids in the beef supply. Due to the possibility of dietary hormones, including steroids, being a factor in hormone-related cancers, we should consider monitoring the levels of steroids and other hormones in dairy and meat-containing foods. There may be natural alternatives to anabolic steroids. For example, a lotion made out of cilantro seeds had some ...
Steroid, or cortisone, injections are a very common treatment for a wide range of painful or inflammatory conditions around the hand, wrist and elbow. Unlike pills, injected steroids deliver a high concentration of the medicine directly to the area of concern and minimize the side effects to the body as a whole.. The steroids that are used for injection are just one member of a large family of compounds known are hormones. The hormones produced naturally in the body regulate many biological functions such as growth, metabolism, inflammation and reaction to stress or injury. The synthetically produced steroids used for injections (e.g. betamethasone, triamcinolone) are in a group called glucocorticoids. Like their naturally occurring counterparts, this group has a number of functions including regulation of inflammation and the immune system. These the steroids should not be confused with anabolic steroids that have been misused for performance enhancement in sports. Anabolic steroids mimic the ...
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In a perfect world, the answer to the question should someone with diabetes take steroids? would be a simple no. Of course, not only do we not live in a perfect world, there are also few simple answers for diabetics. Steroids can play havoc with blood sugar levels, but they can also be the best choice in treating some very serious conditions. So, perhaps the better answer would be maybe with the added caveat of making sure you are aware of the consequences and prepared to be proactive in managing them. Steroids are frequently prescribed to treat a wide range of conditions, some relatively minor such as rashes, muscle spasms and pain, injuries and respiratory issues. These normally require only a short period of use. They are also used long-term for conditions like certain inflammatory disorders, asthma, arthritis, autoimmune disorders and organ transplants. Steroids can be exceptionally effective. At the same time, they also significantly increase blood glucose levels in people with ...
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Steroid hormone: Steroid hormone, any of a group of hormones that belong to the class of chemical compounds known as steroids. Steroid hormones are secreted by three glands-the adrenal cortex, testes, and ovaries-and by the placenta during pregnancy. Learn more about steroid hormone classification, secretion, and function.
The athletes and bodybuilders take injectable form of steroids, in order to accelerate muscle growth, function, stamina, endurance and development. The HGH is simply not a steroid. If the terms are changed, it can be stated that some of the steroids re hormones. All this is because of the confusion, whether HGH is a steroid or not. Also, the similarity between the two is that both the HGH and the steroids can be sold legally on a prescription and illegally from the black marketers. In the medical realms, the steroids are termed as the hormones produced by several glands in the body.. The HGH is a common treatment in the form of prescription for the medical conditions that have to do with dysfunctioning of the pituitary glands and hormone levels. Also, this dysfunctioning may result in growth deficiencies in muscles, short stature as well as the conditions affecting the metabolism. The benefits of the HGH are very real. Some of the benefits of the HGH for men are listed below:. ...
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in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2008), 157(3), 266-74. Traditionally, the production and regulation of steroid hormones has been viewed as a multi-organ process involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis for sex steroids and the hypothalamic ... [more ▼]. Traditionally, the production and regulation of steroid hormones has been viewed as a multi-organ process involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis for sex steroids and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for glucocorticoids. However, active steroids can also be synthesized locally in target tissues, either from circulating inactive precursors or de novo from cholesterol. Here, we review recent work demonstrating local steroid synthesis, with an emphasis on steroids synthesized in the brain (neurosteroids) and steroids synthesized in the immune system (immunosteroids). Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that other components of the HPG axis (luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing ...
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The clinical use of lumbar epidural steroid injections has increased dramatically. Although there are certainly beneficial effects to using epidural steroid injections in a treatment regimen for lumbar radicular pain, there is a lack of well designed, placebo-controlled studies to define conclusively specific indications and techniques for different spinal diagnoses.
It is well known that blood glucose level is elevated in diabetes patients more than non-diabetes patients who underwent the epidural steroid injection. However, there has been no reports of the effect of various kinds of steroid or various dose of steroid which are commonly used in the clinical setting. Previous studies have simply shown that the blood glucose level is elevated in diabetes patients and did not show or suggest the adequate strategy of epidural steroid injection in diabetes patients regarding steroid type, dosage or injection interval. Therefore, the investigators tried to evaluate the effect of different dosage of triamcinolone, which is a commonly used steroid in epidural steroid injection, on the blood glucose level ...
National national attention has recently been focused on the issue of epidural steroid injections (ESIs) because of the use of steroids containing fungal contaminants resulting in fungal infectious meningitis. Epidural steroid injections are commonly performed as an early treatment for low back pain. As of November 24, 2012 the Center for Disease Control had identified 478 cases of fungal meningitis and 34 deaths due to this steroid contamination in the United States.. Remarkably, a much more serious widespread health care problem related to epidural steroid injections has received essentially no attention from the medical community or governmental agencies. This has been specifically related to inadvertently causing a severe chemical meningitis when some sterile steroid suspensions are unknowingly injected, not into the epidural space, but directly into the spinal fluid (the subarachnoid space). The subarachnoid space which surrounds our nervous systems (brain, spinal cord, etc.) contains the ...
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On the basis of the results of this study in which only minor complications were encountered, it can be said that the frequency of major complications is pretty rare in transforaminal lumbar epidural steroid injections in expert hands and in the conditions in which safety precautions are taken.
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Abstract. Background: Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is mediated by activated T lymphocytes. Alemtuzumab is an unconjugated, humanized IgG1 kappa monoc
A Single-Cohort, Phase 2 Study of Ruxolitinib in Combination With Corticosteroids for the Treatment of Steroid-Refractory Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease - The purpose of this study is to assess the efficacy of ruxolitinib in combination with corticosteroids in subjects with Grades II to IV steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
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Epidural Steroid Injections - Epidural steroid injections are used to treat a variety of painful conditions involving the low/mild back and neck such as bulging discs,
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Steroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 compound, to the first C21 steroid, pregnenolone, which is converted by a bifunctional enzyme complex to the gestagen hormone, progesterone [MD:M00107]. Pregnenolone and progesterone are the starting materials for the three groups of steroids: C21 steroids of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, C19 steroids of androgens, and C18 steroids of estrogens. (i) Progesterone is converted by hydroxylations at carbons 21 and 11 to corticosterone, which is further modified by hydroxylation and oxydoreduction at carbon 18 to yield aldosterone, a mineralcorticoid [MD:M00108]. Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid, is formed from 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with 11-deoxycortisol as an intermediate [MD:M00109]. (ii) Male hormone testosterone is formed from pregnenolone by two pathways, delta5 pathway via ...
Steroid hormones derived from cholesterol are a class of biologically active compounds in vertebrates. The cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme CYP11A1 catalyzes conversion of cholesterol, a C27 compound, to the first C21 steroid, pregnenolone, which is converted by a bifunctional enzyme complex to the gestagen hormone, progesterone [MD:M00107]. Pregnenolone and progesterone are the starting materials for the three groups of steroids: C21 steroids of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, C19 steroids of androgens, and C18 steroids of estrogens. (i) Progesterone is converted by hydroxylations at carbons 21 and 11 to corticosterone, which is further modified by hydroxylation and oxydoreduction at carbon 18 to yield aldosterone, a mineralcorticoid [MD:M00108]. Cortisol, the main glucocorticoid, is formed from 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone with 11-deoxycortisol as an intermediate [MD:M00109]. (ii) Male hormone testosterone is formed from pregnenolone by two pathways, delta5 pathway via ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Gene Locus for Steroid-Resistant Nephrotic Syndrome with Deafness Maps to Chromosome 14q24.2. AU - Ruf, Rainer G.. AU - Wolf, Matthias T.F.. AU - Hennies, Hans C.. AU - Lucke, Barbara. AU - Zinn, Christina. AU - Varnholt, Verena. AU - Lichtenberger, Anne. AU - Pasch, Andreas. AU - Imm, Anita. AU - Briese, Sonia. AU - Lennert, Thomas. AU - Fuchshuber, Arno. AU - Nurnberg, Peter. AU - Hildebrandt, Friedhelm. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) leads to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in childhood or young adulthood. Positional cloning for genes causing SRNS has opened the first insights into the understanding of its pathogenesis. This study reports a genome-wide search for linkage in a consanguineous Palestinian kindred with SRNS and deafness and detection of a region of homozygosity on chromosome 14q24.2. Multipoint analysis of 12 markers used for further fine mapping resulted in a LOD score Zmax of 4.12 (θ = 0) for marker D14S1025 and ...
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Synthetic steroids are acknowledged as artificial drugs which imitate your bodys individual mechanisms for improving muscle growth. If you wonder whether they are natural steroids or not, then you should know that steroids are of both the kinds. There are present organic compounds, known as steroid hormones which are already present in your body. You will also find various artificially formulated composites which are sold in different bodybuilding and healthcare stores. Anabolic steroids do come under the category of synthetic steroids that recreate the impacts of both estrogen as well as testosterone. Both these hormones are naturally manufactured in your adrenal glands.. These naturally happening chemicals are chief compounds that are needed for the proper operation of your body and their job is to augment your sexual characteristics, like strength and endurance. Anabolic-androgenic steroids are produced synthetically and they are artificial versions of testosterone. The hormone testosterone ...
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Choosing the right type of steroids that will suit you and give desired results can be a daunting task. This article provides answers to certain queries and also necessary information about the steroids.. Get to know the Steroids. Steroids are synthetically obtained chemical compounds that mimic the health functions of the body and increases protein synthesis. Out of all types of steroids, anabolic steroids are mostly preferred by athletes, sportsmen and celebrities.. Steroids must be taken under professional guidance. You can take clinical help from your gym trainer or sports physician. Moreover, you should always remember that steroids abuse can even be dangerous to your health. So, it is advised not to overdo dosages.. Cutting and bulking steroids. Before choosing a steroid that is right for you, you must decide if you need a lean body or a bulky body. This is the initial deciding factor that will help in choosing the right steroids. You can also mix and match both the type of steroids in a ...
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Steroids[edit]. Glucocorticoid steroids are used to calm down the immune system cells that are attacked by the chemicals ... Another reason steroids should not be used is the delay in reducing inflammation. Steroids can also be taken orally or through ... for it only relieves symptoms in the area in which the steroid is in contact. ...
Steroid controversy[edit]. Jose Canseco, in his book "Juiced", accused Boone of steroid use, saying that in a 2001 spring ... However, Boone has denied taking steroids, or having any such conversation with Canseco, pointing out that he never played ... "Bret Boone on steroids? 'No chance,' he says". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012 ...
Steroids[edit]. The use of steroids in sepsis is controversial.[68] Studies do not give a clear picture as to whether and when ... Patel GP, Balk RA (January 2012). "Systemic steroids in severe sepsis and septic shock". American Journal of Respiratory and ... However, the 2016 Surviving Sepsis Campaign recommended to taper steroids when vasopressors are no longer needed.[6] ...
Steroids[edit]. Corticosteroids such as prednisone improve recovery at 6 months and are thus recommended.[3] Early treatment ( ... Steroids have been shown to be effective at improving recovery in Bell's palsy while antivirals have not.[7] In those who are ... One 2015 review found no effect regardless of severity.[25] Another review found a small benefit when added to steroids in ... One review found that antivirals (such as aciclovir) are ineffective in improving recovery from Bell's palsy beyond steroids ...
steroid biosynthesis. 2 subfamilies, 3 genes. CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2 CYP17. steroid biosynthesis, 17-alpha hydroxylase. 1 ... and steroid 18-methyloxidase activities.. *CYP17A1, in endoplasmic reticulum of adrenal cortex has steroid 17α-hydroxylase and ... Steroid hormones[edit]. Steroidogenesis, showing many of the enzyme activities that are performed by cytochrome P450 enzymes.[ ... steroid biosynthesis: aromatase synthesizes estrogen. 1 subfamily, 1 gene. CYP19A1 CYP20. unknown function. 1 subfamily, 1 gene ...
Anabolic steroids[edit]. Anabolic steroids are used to enhance performance in sports and as they are prohibited in most high- ... In 2003, sixteen members of the Chicago White Sox considered refusing to take a drug test, in hopes of making steroid testing ... Major applications of drug testing include detection of the presence of performance enhancing steroids in sport, employers and ...
"Affiliations among steroid receptors as revealed by multivariate analysis of steroid binding data". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... "Steroid structural requirements for high affinity binding to human sex steroid binding protein (SBP)". Steroids. 38 (3): 243-62 ... Others/atypical (other expanded steroid ring systems, homosteroids, and non-pregnane steroids): Cortisuzol ... and direct binding to and occupation of steroid hormone carrier proteins and consequent displacement of steroid hormones from ...
Axillary steroids[edit]. Axillary steroids are produced by the testes, ovaries, apocrine glands, and adrenal glands.[41] These ... Several axillary steroids have been described as potential human pheromones: androstadienol, androstadienone, androstenol, ... axillary steroids, vaginal aliphatic acids, and stimulators of the vomeronasal organ. ... chemicals are not biologically active until puberty when sex steroids influence their activity.[42] The change in activity ...
Steroid structure[edit]. Hodgkin was particularly noted for discovering three-dimensional biomolecular structures.[12] In 1945 ... working with C.H. (Harry) Carlisle, she published the first such structure of a steroid, cholesteryl iodide (having worked with ...
Steroids[edit]. House has admitted to using anabolic steroid in the 1970s making him one of the earliest players to admit to ... House a 'failed experiment' with steroids. *^ - Baseball MLB - 715: Hank Aaron's Glorious Ordeal - Monday April 5, 1999 01:26 ... House has stated that "six or seven" pitchers on every major league staff in the 1970s were "fiddling" with steroids or human ... In an interview with the San Francisco Chronicle, he described his use of steroids as "a failed experiment", although he ...
Steroids[edit]. Additional treatment with corticosteroids (usually dexamethasone) has shown some benefits, such as a reduction ... evidence emerged that treatment with steroids could improve the prognosis of bacterial meningitis.[66][69][87] World Meningitis ...
Anabolic steroids[edit]. Main articles: Ergogenic use of anabolic steroids and Anabolic steroid ... Steroids[edit]. Over the last 20 years the appearance of steroids in sports has been seen as an epidemic. Research and limited ... By designating anabolic steroids as a Schedule II controlled substance, the bill would crack down on illegal steroid use". ( ... In countries where anabolic steroids are strictly regulated, some have called for a regulatory relief. Steroids are available ...
Sex steroid agonists (via negative feedback on the HPG axis): Androgens/anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone, nandrolone ... Sex steroid antagonists (via disinhibition of the HPG axis): Antiandrogens (e.g., flutamide, bicalutamide, enzalutamide) ... Anabolic steroid adjunct[edit]. In the world of performance-enhancing drugs, HCG is increasingly used in combination with ... HCG is commonly used during and after steroid cycles to maintain and restore testicular size as well as normal testosterone ...
Anabolic steroids[edit]. See also: List of androgens/anabolic steroids and List of androgen esters § Esters of synthetic AAS ... Hydroaromatic steroid hormones. Part I. 10-Nortestosterone". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 367. doi:10.1039/ ... Nandrolone, also known as 19-nortestosterone, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) which is used in the form of esters ... de Souza GL, Hallak J (2011). "Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review". BJU Int. 108 (11): 1860-5. doi: ...
Epidural steroid injection[edit]. Main article: Epidural steroid injection. Epidural steroid injection may be used to treat ... "Epidural Steroid Injections". Pain Management Specialists.. *^ Norman D (2003). "Epidural analgesia using loss of resistance ... Boqing Chen and Patrick M. Foye, UMDNJ: New Jersey Medical School, Epidural Steroid Injections: Non-surgical Treatment of Spine ... Steroids may be injected at the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, or caudal/sacral levels, depending on the specific area where the ...
A potent anabolic steroid with reduced androgenic and estrogenic activity". Steroids. 75 (6): 377-89. doi:10.1016/j.steroids. ... This article about a steroid is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Others: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (e.g., nandrolone and esters, trenbolone and esters, ethylestrenol, norethandrolone, ... injected anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) of the nandrolone group and an androgen ester - specifically, the C17β ...
This article about a steroid is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone and esters, methyltestosterone, metandienone (methandrostenolone), nandrolone and esters ...
Steroids *Dexamethasone (Decadron) is given in low dose at the onset of a general anesthetic as an effective antiemetic. It is ...
doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2003.12.008. PMID 15072917. S2CID 10930192.. *^ a b LaMarca HL, Rosen JM (2007). "Estrogen regulation of ... Kleinberg DL, Ruan W (2008). "IGF-I, GH, and sex steroid effects in normal mammary gland development". J Mammary Gland Biol ... Lamote I, Meyer E, Massart-Leën AM, Burvenich C (2004). "Sex steroids and growth factors in the regulation of mammary gland ... The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone (GH), mostly ...
Steroids: Sex steroids: Androgens (AR). *Estrogens (ER). *Progestogens (PR); Corticosteroids: Glucocorticoids (GR) ...
This article about a steroid is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Steroids. 78 (1): 102-7. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2012.09.005. PMID 23063964.. ...
Raynaud JP, Ojasoo T (1986). "The design and use of sex-steroid antagonists". J. Steroid Biochem. 25 (5B): 811-33. doi:10.1016/ ... Applied modifications in the steroidal structure". Steroids. 74 (2): 172-97. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2008.10.016. PMID 19028512 ... Anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone and esters, methyltestosterone, metandienone (methandrostenolone), nandrolone and esters ... Androgens/anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone, testosterone esters, nandrolone esters, oxandrolone, fluoxymesterone) ...
Steroids: Sex steroids: Androgens (AR). *Estrogens (ER). *Progestogens (PR); Corticosteroids: Glucocorticoids (GR) ...
See also: Anabolic steroid § Adverse effects. History[edit]. CDMT was the first original product of Jenapharm, an East German ... "The steroid story of Jenapharm: from the late 1940s to the early 1970s". Steroids. 64 (7): 439-45. doi:10.1016/S0039-128X(99) ... Chlorodehydromethyltestosterone (CDMT; brand name Oral Turinabol) is an anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS). It is the 4-chloro- ... The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 128 (3-5): 121-7. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2011.11.004. PMID 22142641.. ...
steroid binding. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • steroid hormone receptor activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ... The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 176: 38-48. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.05.005. PMID 28595943.. ... doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2016.02.016. PMID 26921679.. *^ Catusse J, Wollner S, Leick M, Schröttner P, Schraufstätter I, Burger M ... steroid hormone binding. • chromatin binding. • protein binding. • signal transducer activity. • mineralocorticoid receptor ...
... is one of the five forms of vitamin D.[32] Cholecalciferol is a secosteroid, that is, a steroid molecule with ...
Others/atypical (other expanded steroid ring systems, homosteroids, and non-pregnane steroids): Cortisuzol ... "Steroid Drug Withdrawal Symptoms, Treatment & Prognosis". MedicineNet. Retrieved 14 June 2018.. *^ Bello CS, Garrett SD. " ... Long-term side effects include Cushing's syndrome, steroid dementia syndrome,[25] truncal weight gain, osteoporosis, glaucoma ... "Steroids". Australian Department of Health & Human Services. April 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2018.. ...
... (E3), also spelled oestriol, is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone.[1][2] It is one of three ... Anabolic steroids (e.g., testosterone and esters, methyltestosterone, metandienone (methandrostenolone), nandrolone and esters ... which is then sulfated by steroid sulfotransferase into dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S).[citation needed] DHEA-S is ... Due to high expression of steroid sulfatase in the placenta, 16α-OH-DHEA-S is rapidly cleaved into 16α-OH-DHEA.[3] Then, 16α-OH ...
Steroids Made It Possible. American Chemical Society, Washington. External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... Miramontes Luis E., Romero Miguel A, Fritsche O, Preparation of 6-methyl steroids of the pregnane series, United States Patent ... Miramontes Luis E., Romero Miguel A, Ahuad Farjat Fortunato (1959), Preparation of 6-methyl steroids of the pregnane series ... Miramontes Luis E., Romero Miguel A (1960), 12alpha-hydroxy-12beta-methyltigogenin and 12-methylene steroids derived therefrom ...
Steroids: For both short-term and long-term steroid treatment, when stopping treatment, the dosage is tapered rather than ... Steroids Archived 2006-04-25 at the Wayback Machine. *^ Ray M. Merrill (2013). Introduction to Epidemiology. Jones & Bartlett ... Abrupt discontinuation can result in adrenal insufficiency; and/or steroid withdrawal syndrome (a rebound effect in which ...
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  • Athletes sometimes take anabolic steroids because of their testosterone-like effects. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some bodybuilders and athletes use anabolic steroids to build muscles and improve athletic performance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dianabol (Methandrostenolone) is the most potent androgenic anabolic steroid that was heavily used by bodybuilders and athletes in the 80s-90s. (reddit.com)
  • Some athletes take steroids in the hopes that they will improve their ability to run faster, hit farther, lift heavier weights, jump higher, or have more endurance. (kidshealth.org)
  • Androstenedione, or "andro," is a kind of anabolic steroid taken by athletes who want to build muscle. (kidshealth.org)
  • Steroid use has trickled down to younger athletes too, who face pressure to be stronger and faster, and to make it to college and professional leagues. (kidshealth.org)
  • Drug testing for all athletes has become common, and those who fail a drug test for steroids can face legal consequences, including jail time, monetary fines, being banned from an event or team, or forfeiture of trophies or medals. (kidshealth.org)
  • Many pressures might drive young athletes to try steroids. (kidshealth.org)
  • Corticosteroids are different from anabolic steroids, which some athletes use to build bigger muscles. (webmd.com)
  • Anabolic steroids are primarily used by bodybuilders, athletes, and fitness 'buffs' who claim steroids give them a competitive advantage and/or improve their physical performance. (usdoj.gov)
  • Some people who are not athletes also take steroids to increase their endurance, muscle size and strength, and reduce body fat which they believe improves personal appearance. (usdoj.gov)
  • Athletes (middle or high school, college, professional, and Olympic) usually take steroids for a limited period of time to achieve a particular goal. (usdoj.gov)
  • How closely the two drug scandals may be linked isn't known, but personal trainer Brian McNamee, who told the Mitchell commission that he injected Yankee pitcher Roger Clemens and other players with steroids, is a former NYPD cop who left the department in 1993 and later embarked on a career as a personal trainer who allegedly injected star athletes with drugs, according to ESPN.com. (villagevoice.com)
  • The Giambis were among more than two dozen elite athletes summoned to San Francisco last year to testify in the federal investigation centered on the Bay Area Laboratory Co -Operative, a Burlingame nutritional business suspected of distributing "designer" steroids to elite athletes. (sfgate.com)
  • Confirmation/Argument Despite steroids having multiple negative effects on both athletes and the game of baseball, they also have good effects too. (bartleby.com)
  • The use of steroid by athletes has been a controversial issue for some time. (bartleby.com)
  • The steroids used by athletes are mostly androgenic steroids: steroids, which act like testosterone. (bartleby.com)
  • Anderson was one of four men charged last week in a steroid-distribution ring that is charged with supplying athletes with banned substances. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The International Olympic Committee, National Collegiate Athletic Association and many professional sports leagues (including the Major League Baseball, National Basketball Association, National Football League, and National Hockey League), have banned the use of steroids by athletes due to their potentially dangerous side effects and because they give the user an unfair advantage. (conservapedia.com)
  • Though Canada, West Germany, and Spain, for example, are moving against the use of steroids by athletes, many nations are waiting for the International Amateur Athletics Federation and the International Olympic Committee to take the lead. (deseretnews.com)
  • Responding to recent allegations about rampant steroid abuse in Major League Baseball, the Oakland Democrat and former high school baseball coach has introduced legislation that would require professional athletes playing in California to be tested for performance-enhancing drugs or be barred from play. (law.com)
  • Several of the members of the committee argued that the presence of chemically-enhanced players in the Major Leagues encourages young athletes to gobble and inject steroids, and Committee Chairman Waxman said "there is a pyramid of steroid use in our society, and today our investigation starts where it should. (wbur.org)
  • Steroid use in athletes should it be legal? (bookrags.com)
  • Instead of wasting government resources on aspects of the steroids problem that primarily concern elite athletes and their investors, why not ramp up an education campaign for our own youth right here at home? (courant.com)
  • As we all know, the sports media has had plenty of stories to tell of professional athletes who participate in illegal steroid use to enhance their performance. (eteamz.com)
  • Steroids (sometimes referred to as "roids" or "juice") are the same as, or similar to, certain hormones in the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • Anabolic steroids are artificially produced hormones that are the same as, or similar to, androgens , the male-type sex hormones in the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • The record-setting major leaguer was charged with lying to Congress about the use of steroids and human growth hormones. (pbs.org)
  • Anabolic steroids are synthetic hormones that can boost the body's ability to produce muscle and prevent muscle breakdown. (kidshealth.org)
  • Schedule I are not pro-hormones, they are technically anabolic steroids, as such your statement means AAS have no idea what you're talking 36x the DIANABOL is ordered, often along with thyroid disorders, such as prednisone, cortisone, cortisol, etc. (angelfire.com)
  • Steroid hormones, which are excreted by endocrine organs such as testes and ovaries, flow in abundance throughout the bloodstream, reach target organs and structures, and exert powerful effects on them. (scientificamerican.com)
  • It turns out that the brain is a veritable sponge for steroid hormones. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Whereas the subtle structural effects of naturally-occurring steroid hormones and sex differences in the brain have been extensively studied, few studies have examined the role of synthetic hormones on changes in the human brain. (scientificamerican.com)
  • These files contained calendars, which appear to contain references to daily doses of steroids and growth hormones. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The information thus far discussed in sections 7, 8 and 10 indicates that the gonadotropic hormones (section 5) regulated the activity of the gonads through the production of steroid hormones (sections 6 and 9). (fao.org)
  • William Sadowski, 47, of Robinson Township, pleaded guilty in November to conspiracy to possess with intent to distribute anabolic steroids and human growth hormones, or HGH, and was sentenced Tuesday by Senior U.S. District Judge Maurice Cohill Jr. (yahoo.com)
  • Steroids are hormones produced by the body to help cells, tissues and organs function. (rte.ie)
  • Anabolic steroids are drugs containing hormones, or hormone-like substances, that are used to increas. (bookrags.com)
  • WEDNESDAY, March 27, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Men who abuse hormones such as testosterone or steroids for bodybuilding can have declines in sperm and testosterone production, researchers say. (medicinenet.com)
  • For synthetic steroids the structure of which is sufficiency different from that of natural hormones, the requirements for a sensitive assay method not involving chromatography are simply maximum affinity and positioning of the couple at a site which does not undergo metabolic attack. (osti.gov)
  • Chris Davies of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) found that applying brassinosteroids - plant hormones chemically similar to human steroids - to grape skins speeded the ripening of the grapes. (decanter.com)
  • Steroids is a monthly peer-reviewed international scientific journal covering all aspects of steroid hormones, such as biological aspects of steroidal moieties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Simultaneous use of anabolic steroids and corticosteroids will increase the risk of foot and ankle swelling. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Drugs commonly referred to as "steroids" are classified as corticosteroids or anabolic (or anabolic-androgenic ) steroids. (kidshealth.org)
  • Steroids (short for corticosteroids) are synthetic drugs that closely resemble cortisol, a hormone that your body produces naturally. (webmd.com)
  • There are three major divisions of steroids: corticosteroids, estrogens and progestogens, androgens. (bartleby.com)
  • corticosteroids and androgenic steroids . (rte.ie)
  • Sometimes the body does not produce enough corticosteroids, such as in Addison's disease , and taking synthetic steroids can be lifesaving. (rte.ie)
  • Just like the corticosteroids, androgenic steroids are produced in our bodies but sometimes we use synthetic versions of the androgenic steroids medicinally to treat a wide variety of conditions. (rte.ie)
  • The two drugs are steroids (full name corticosteroids) and antiviral medicines. (deccanherald.com)
  • Anabolic steroids stimulate muscle tissue to grow and "bulk up" in response to training by mimicking the effect of naturally produced testosterone on the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • Anabolic steroids are synthetic (man-made) versions of testosterone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • D-Bal, a healthy steroid alternative, contains all-natural ingredients, such as whey protein, BCAAs (branch-chained amino acids - leucine, valine, isoleucine), and Tribulus Terrestris, a plant known to naturally increase testosterone levels (despite modern researches show mixed conclusions). (reddit.com)
  • Anabolic steroids are compounds, derived from testosterone, which promote tissue growth and repair. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Anabolic steroids are drugs that resemble the chemical structure of the sex hormone testosterone , which is made naturally by the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • When anabolic steroids increase the levels of testosterone in the blood, they stimulate muscle tissue in the body to grow larger and stronger. (kidshealth.org)
  • Anabolic steroids are synthetically produced variants of the naturally occurring male hormone testosterone. (usdoj.gov)
  • Giambi also said he had taken "undetectable" steroids known as "the clear" and "the cream" -- one a liquid administered by placing a few drops under the tongue, the other a testosterone-based balm rubbed onto the body. (sfgate.com)
  • Until the year 1935 scientists never knew that testosterone steroids were associated with an increase in muscle production. (bartleby.com)
  • Anabolic steroids are a group molecules that include the male sex hormone testosterone and synthetic analogs of testosterone" (Taylor,1991) Anabolic steroids are used by many people in sports today due to the rapid increase in muscle mass. (bartleby.com)
  • Steroids Testosterone was often referred to as the "male hormone", It is responsible for the development of the male characteristics such as lowering of the voice, hair growth, and because the male body produces much more of it than the female. (bartleby.com)
  • Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone. (erowid.org)
  • Men who use androgenic anabolic steroids-such as testosterone-may face a higher risk of early death and of experiencing more hospital admissions, according to a new Journal of Internal Medicine study. (news-medical.net)
  • These include the female sex steroids like estrogen and progesterone and the male sex steroid testosterone. (rte.ie)
  • While the use of female sex steroids for medicinal purposes is widespread, the use of testosterone is more often associated with illicit use. (rte.ie)
  • Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids are synthetic versions of the naturally occurring male sex hormone, testosterone. (bookrags.com)
  • Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids are a group of synthetic drugs that are related in chemical structure to the male hormone testosterone. (bookrags.com)
  • Anabolic steroids are synthetic variants of the male sex-hormone, testosterone. (bookrags.com)
  • They ranged from anabolic steroids and human growth hormone to testosterone. (npr.org)
  • Androgenic/anabolic steroids are synthetic analogs of the natural androgenic 'male' hormone called testosterone that is produced primarily in the testes in males and in the ovaries in females. (thebody.com)
  • This means they take multiple doses of steroids over a period of time, stop for a period, then start up again. (kidshealth.org)
  • In 2000, Dr. Pope conducted a NIDA-supported study which showed that, along with violent behavior, high doses of steroids can cause extreme fluctuations in emotions, from euphoria (bliss) to rage. (scholastic.com)
  • Low doses of steroids may provide significant relief from pain and stiffness for people with conditions including rheumatoid arthritis . (webmd.com)
  • Temporary use of higher doses of steroids may help a person recover from a severe flare-up of arthritis . (webmd.com)
  • Also, the injections may help avoid the need for oral steroids or increased doses of oral steroids, which could have greater side effects. (webmd.com)
  • Do other people find the same benefits with rectal steroids over oral steroids? (healingwell.com)
  • Oral steroids will affect your entire body so if you can reach the inflamed area with foam or retention enemas then they are a much better option as you are far less likely to have nasty steroid side-effects. (healingwell.com)
  • I have only ever had the oral steroids so I don't know what to expect with the IV steroids. (medhelp.org)
  • Oral steroids may cause liver toxicity which manifests as increases in liver function tests in the blood. (thebody.com)
  • Some people prefer injectables to oral steroids for this reason. (thebody.com)
  • Other steroids, sometimes called steroidal supplements , contain dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and/or androstenedione (also known as andro). (kidshealth.org)
  • On the outside, steroid abusers look big and strong, but on the inside, they're weak. (scholastic.com)
  • Abusers will often alternate periods (6 to 16 weeks in length) of high dose use of steroids with periods of low dose use or no drug at all. (usdoj.gov)
  • The problem isn't steroids it's steroid abusers and uneducated users. (reddit.com)
  • Some steroid abusers experience withdrawal symptoms when they stop taking the drug. (conservapedia.com)
  • But some people use steroid pills, gels, creams, or injections because they think steroids can improve their sports performance or the way they look. (kidshealth.org)
  • What Conditions Are Treated With Steroid Injections? (webmd.com)
  • What Are the Expected Benefits of Steroid Injections? (webmd.com)
  • Steroid injections into a specific area are generally well tolerated and are less likely than other forms of steroid drugs to produce serious side effects. (webmd.com)
  • What Role Do Steroid Injections Play In an Overall Treatment Program? (webmd.com)
  • Steroid injections can be added to a treatment program that may already include anti-inflammatory pain medications ( NSAIDs ), physical therapy , occupational therapy, or supportive devices such as canes and braces. (webmd.com)
  • Epidural Steroid Injections help patients with disc herniations , disc bulges, degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis and sciatica . (google.com)
  • Nearly all the victims had received steroid injections for back pain. (cnbc.com)
  • Before receiving steroids for multiple sclerosis treatment, patients should be aware of the side effects and should arrange to be under the supervision of a physician. (dailystrength.org)
  • There is increasing concern regarding possible serious health problems that are associated with the abuse of steroids, including both short-term and long-term side effects. (usdoj.gov)
  • It seems that weekly we hear about some professional athlete who sullies himself and his sport through abuse of steroids . (scientificamerican.com)
  • Despite the hazards to health, chronic abuse of steroids is reaching beyond the ranks of professional and college athletics into high schools and even junior high schools. (deseretnews.com)
  • These are only some of the health risks associated with the abuse of steroids. (wbur.org)
  • Some anabolics agents like human growth hormone (Serostim™), and the oral anabolic steroid oxandrolone (Oxandrin™) appear to be safe and effective for women and children with HIV. (thebody.com)
  • An eight-month undercover investigation reveals how young people craving a perfect body image are being sold potentially dangerous anabolic steroids by personal trainers, bouncers and retailers. (rte.ie)
  • That probe, which currently revolves around New York City, in part because of the alleged involvement of a Mets clubhouse employee, has spilled over from Queens into Brooklyn into the NYPD, where an investigation of steroid use by New York City cops is bubbling under the surface. (villagevoice.com)
  • But that's just the steroids angle of the investigation. (villagevoice.com)
  • Federal agents followed Anderson on Sept.11, 2002, as he made a quick visit to the Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative - the nutritional supplements lab at the center of the investigation of the steroid-distribution ring. (washingtontimes.com)
  • PITTSBURGH (AP) -- A pharmacist has been sentenced to 2½ years in federal prison after pleading guilty to helping a former Pittsburgh Steelers team doctor illegally distribute anabolic steroids in an investigation spun off from a national crackdown on the performance enhancing drugs. (yahoo.com)
  • The team and Rydze have previously said he didn't supply steroids to Steelers players, though the investigation that targeted Rydze and Sadowski spun off from a national probe that included Applied Pharmacy Services in Mobile, Ala., which was identified as a supplier in U.S. Sen. George Mitchell's landmark 2007 report on steroid use in Major League Baseball. (yahoo.com)
  • NEW YORK, Dec. 13 -- A 21-month investigation into use of performance-enhancing drugs in Major League Baseball concluded Thursday a culture of secrecy and permissiveness gave rise to a 'steroids era' in the game that included some of its biggest names, most prominent among them superstar pitcher Roger Clemens. (washingtonpost.com)
  • A public review of the NFL's strategy for combating steroid use marks the next step in our investigation," Davis said in a written statement. (washingtonpost.com)
  • An in-depth investigation shows that despite avowals to the contrary, college football programs are rife with the use of illegal steroids. (csmonitor.com)
  • But the AP investigation found that colleges are much more likely to test for the use of marijuana or other illegal "recreational" drugs than for steroids. (csmonitor.com)
  • Presidential candidate Sen. Hillary Clinton, D-N.Y., released a negative campaign ad, prominent lawmakers reconsidered their endorsements and Congress questioned pitcher Roger Clemens over steroid use allegations. (pbs.org)
  • NEW YORK-One month after his name appeared in the Mitchell Report, veteran Yankees pitcher Roger Clemens filed a defamation suit against performance-enhancing drugs in which he claimed that steroids are attempting to tarnish his career. (theonion.com)
  • Kamano S (2000) Are steroids really ineffective for severely head injured patients? (springer.com)
  • The onetime Oakland A's first baseman and 2000 American League Most Valuable Player testified that in 2003, when he hit 41 home runs for the Yankees, he had used several different steroids obtained from Greg Anderson , weight trainer for San Francisco Giants star Barry Bonds . (sfgate.com)
  • Anabolic steroids, also called anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs), can build muscle and improve athletic performance, but they can also have significant adverse effects, especially when used incorrectly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The other major class of steroids are the androgenic steroids, also known as sex steroids. (rte.ie)
  • They are more properly called anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs), because they ha. (bookrags.com)
  • There is a link between use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and reduced mental health later in life. (redorbit.com)
  • Together with colleagues from Sahlgrenska University Hospital, they found a connection between abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and mental health problems many years later. (redorbit.com)
  • New York Yankees star Jason Giambi told a federal grand jury that he had injected himself with human growth hormone during the 2003 baseball season and had started using steroids at least two years earlier, The Chronicle has learned. (sfgate.com)
  • The International Amateur Athletic Federation, which governs track and field, disclosed in a statement Monday night that the two world record-holders tested positive for anabolic steroids at meets last August. (latimes.com)
  • Former NFL football player Johnnie Morton ( Pictures ) has tested positive for anabolic steroids following his mixed martial arts debut on June 2, California State Athletic Commission Executive Officer Armando Garcia informed Sherdog.com Wednesday afternoon. (sherdog.com)
  • And people who use steroids also appear to be at higher risk for using other drugs, such as alcohol or cocaine, often to counteract some of the negative effects of steroids. (kidshealth.org)
  • Some people "cycle" their steroid doses. (kidshealth.org)
  • Carefully, older awakenings were more atherosclerotic to prednisolone steroids menstrual cycle develop baseline when using people. (peciatky.net)
  • Yes, the friends on the people of discount are propecia after steroids occult and only, and that creates hair for us consistently. (kalentura.com)
  • But some people misuse anabolic steroids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why do people misuse anabolic steroids? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why Do People Use Steroids? (kidshealth.org)
  • For these people, steroid therapy may eliminate the need for kidney dialysis or transplant. (webmd.com)
  • Some people report relief from osteoarthritis when steroids are injected directly into swollen or painful joints. (webmd.com)
  • A recent survey found that one in five young people in Ireland would consider taking steroids, which are now cheaper and more accessible than ever before. (rte.ie)
  • The increase in the number of young people using illegal steroids is not being taken seriously enough in Ireland, according to experts. (rte.ie)
  • Agris Bremsmits supplied the researcher with a product called Sustannon, which contains a mixture of different steroids.Interviewed for RTÉ Investigates - Steroid Ireland, Dr Brendan Buckley, the former chair of the Irish Sports Council Anti-Doping Committee says, the use of illegal steroids by young people in Ireland is "a real issue with major health implications. (rte.ie)
  • Being a doctor I've seen firsthand people using steroids. (rte.ie)
  • I've never used steroids and it's very important to me for people to know I am anti-steroids. (rte.ie)
  • But what is so important is that young people are educated about steroids," Dr Higgins added. (rte.ie)
  • Why do people abuse steroids? (usdoj.gov)
  • People abusing steroids may take anywhere from 1 to upwards of a 100 times normal therapeutic doses of anabolic steroids. (usdoj.gov)
  • But people close to the probe, speaking on the condition of anonymity, say that in the probe of cops' steroid use, investigators from the State Department of Health have given the D.A. almost a dozen boxes of records gathered during three raids at Lowen's Pharmacy in Brooklyn. (villagevoice.com)
  • Steroids, what they are why people use them What are anabolic steroids? (bartleby.com)
  • Many people see Steroids as an answer to their problems. (bartleby.com)
  • Many people turn to steroids because they think it will give them solutions to the problems they have with society. (bartleby.com)
  • This is a textbook case of slander: If steroids had not injected themselves-maliciously and with premeditation-into Mr. Clemens' bloodstream on multiple occasions, people would not be accusing my client of taking steroids,' Clemens' lawyer Rusty Hardin said in a statement released Tuesday. (theonion.com)
  • The new documents say Anderson initially denied distributing steroids in discussions with federal agents but later said he sometimes "gave" steroids to people he knew. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Anabolic steroids are used for some medical conditions, but people also use them illegally in some sports settings. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People using anabolic steroids to improve muscle growth and sporting performance are far more likely to experience issues with their memory, according to new research from Northumbria University. (news-medical.net)
  • Most people can take steroid tablets. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Pauley writes, in the portion of her book excerpted in the August 20, 2004 People, that she experienced hypomania following the first administration of steroids for her hives and depression with the second. (dailystrength.org)
  • People who inject steroids also run the risk of contracting or transmitting hepatitis or HIV . (conservapedia.com)
  • However, what many people may not know is that steroids occur naturally in our bodies and play an important role in modern medicine. (rte.ie)
  • Besides, the majority of steroid users that I've met aren't people that I want to be around in the gym, anyway. (exrx.net)
  • Well, steroids do have a purpose other than sports performance, and can be a very valuable tool for people that need to rehab from very dramatic trauma. (exrx.net)
  • I'm not going to vote for any of the people that are linked to steroids. (deseretnews.com)
  • This act made anabolic steroids Class III regulated drugs, available by prescription only to people with justifiable health problems. (thebody.com)
  • Treatment with steroids can help people recover from a common and distressing disorder which paralyses the facial muscles, new research has confirmed. (deccanherald.com)
  • Steroid tablets definitely help people recover completely from Bell's palsy, without getting long-term problems with their facial muscles such as a changed appearance. (deccanherald.com)
  • In studies looking at steroids alone, 16 per cent of people who took steroids got some type of long-term problem, compared to 24 per cent of people who didn't take steroids. (deccanherald.com)
  • A lot of people these days wonder how steroids work. (prezi.com)
  • A lot of people worry that steroids are bad for your body. (prezi.com)
  • Many people wonder what steroids are. (prezi.com)
  • Your doctor will be able to provide more advice about how to safely stop taking steroids. (www.nhs.uk)
  • As with most drugs-Yesalis cites as examples aspirin, ibuprofen, Tylenol, and valium-"you put yourself at risk when you take steroids at high doses for protracted periods of use. (thedailybeast.com)
  • I was in the hospital on high doses of IV steroids. (drugs.com)
  • Nandrolone is just one of many synthetic anabolic steroids used in medicine. (nature.com)
  • UFC legend Ken Shamrock has been suspended for one year for testing positive for the steroid Stanozolol, as well as two Nandrolone-based substances, 19-Norandrosterone and 19-Noretiocholanolone, according to a statement issued by the California State Athletic Commission on Wednesday. (sherdog.com)
  • Sadowski's pharmacy allegedly developed drug combinations, or "stacks," that included steroids, HGH and other substances - many used to legitimately treat breast cancer and other maladies - that, when taken with the steroids, were meant to prevent their undesirable side effects. (yahoo.com)
  • Concerns over a growing illicit market and prevalence of abuse combined with the possibility of harmful long-term effects of steroid use led Congress to place anabolic steroids into Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) in 1991. (conservapedia.com)
  • The most commonly used class of performance enhancing substances are steroids. (rte.ie)
  • Upshaw also said that the union and league are discussing the possibility of increasing the frequency of steroid tests of players during the offseason, and are contemplating making additions to the list of substances banned under the policy. (washingtonpost.com)
  • A former clubhouse employee of the New York Mets has pleaded guilty to distributing banned substances, including steroids, to baseball players. (npr.org)
  • You have doctors who say bodybuilders undermine the side effects of steroid use and you have bodybuilders who say that the side effects stated by doctors and those alike are grossly overstated. (exrx.net)
  • Users combine several different types of steroids or incorporate other supplements in an attempt to maximize the effectiveness of the steroids. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Users will combine different types of steroids in a process known as stacking, to enhance the overall effect. (conservapedia.com)
  • A report released Thursday exposing widespread steroid use in baseball's highest ranks caused a massive media storm. (pbs.org)
  • Baseball's steroids scandal has broken wide open with last week's release of former senator George Mitchell's report on players who may have broken the rules of the sport by bulking up. (villagevoice.com)
  • In the United States, the National Collegiate Athletic Association distributes posters and video tapes about the dangers of steroids, but there is not enough random testing. (deseretnews.com)
  • If you've been taking steroid tablets for more than a few days, you usually need to reduce your dose gradually. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Taking steroid tablets for less than 3 weeks is unlikely to cause any significant side effects. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If you're already taking steroid tablets, ask your doctor or a pharmacist for advice before taking any other medicines, remedies or supplements. (www.nhs.uk)
  • You can usually drink alcohol while taking steroid tablets, but do not drink too much as this may irritate your stomach. (www.nhs.uk)
  • You can also eat most foods while taking steroid tablets. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Taking both steroid tablets and antiviral tablets might work a little better than taking steroid tablets alone, but the research isn't clear. (deccanherald.com)
  • Steroid supplements are weaker forms of androgen. (kidshealth.org)
  • The anabolic effect of anabolic steroids is elicited by the action of the steroid on androgen receptors in muscle tissue. (thebody.com)
  • The sports-enhancing aspects of steroid use combined with the cosmetic benefits obtained by kids starving to be "noticed" have led many of our youth down a one way street to disaster. (eteamz.com)
  • Because of the nature of the adverse effects of anabolic steroids, their use should be restricted to cases where the benefits clearly outweigh the risks. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Besides the health risks, kids who use steroids without a prescription are breaking the law. (kidshealth.org)
  • Many users are not fully aware of the long term health risks associated with steroid use. (rte.ie)
  • The short-term adverse physical effects of anabolic steroid abuse are fairly well known. (usdoj.gov)
  • The long-term adverse physical effects of anabolic steroid abuse in men and in women, other than masculinizing effects, have not been studied, and as such, are not known. (usdoj.gov)
  • Anabolic steroid abuse causes adverse side effects ranging from acne and breast development in men, to unattractive changes in appearance by women, to life-threatening conditions. (conservapedia.com)
  • Most patients in both groups reported adverse events during the study, but the adverse event rate was higher for the infliximab group than for the steroid group (25.3 vs 11.0 adverse events/100 patient-years). (medscape.com)
  • The problem persists even though the adverse side-effects associated with steroid abuse are well-known. (deseretnews.com)
  • Smuggling from these areas is easier because a prescription is not required for the purchase of steroids. (usdoj.gov)
  • These countries do not require a prescription for the purchase of steroids, making it easier to smuggle them. (conservapedia.com)
  • Canseco has admitted using steroids himself and so has 1996 National League MVP Ken Caminiti, who put the overall league number at about 50 percent. (law.com)
  • RTÉ Investigates found steroids being sold for as little as €40 for a six-week course. (rte.ie)
  • Inside Anderson's residence, agents found steroids, syringes and other paraphernalia associated with steroid distribution activities," the documents said. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Health care providers use anabolic steroids to treat some hormone problems in men, delayed puberty , and muscle loss from some diseases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Officials have also seized millions of dollars of human growth hormone (HGH) and steroids from that Bay Ridge pharmacy. (villagevoice.com)
  • What happens, then, when the female brain gets a significant and artificial dose of steroid hormone, either progesterone, estrogen or both? (scientificamerican.com)
  • The long-awaited report by George J. Mitchell gave a detailed account provided by a onetime team trainer who told the panel that he injected Clemens -- a seven-time Cy Young Award winner regarded as the greatest pitcher of the last half-century -- with steroids and human growth hormone while he was with the Toronto Blue Jays and New York Yankees. (washingtonpost.com)
  • It spread blame for the rise of the use of anabolic steroids and human growth hormone in baseball among the players, team officials, the union and Commissioner of Baseball Bud Selig. (washingtonpost.com)
  • But the cooperation of two clubhouse insiders -- former New York Mets clubhouse attendant Kirk J. Radomski and former Toronto Blue Jays and New York Yankees strength coach Brian McNamee, who testified to injecting Clemens with steroids and human growth hormone -- brought about the report's most stunning revelations. (washingtonpost.com)
  • He said he and several teammates used amphetamines (known as "greenies"), human growth hormone and "whatever steroid" they could find. (sfgate.com)
  • House estimated that six or seven pitchers on every staff were "fiddling" with steroids or growth hormone. (sfgate.com)
  • Officials of major league baseball have testified before a congressional committee about a report released last month linking more than 80 players to allegations that they used or possessed performance-enhancing steroids and human growth hormone. (voanews.com)
  • For all the home runs and wins, it's a trio tainted with accusations that their statistics were boosted by performance-enhancing drugs during a period when there were no agreed-upon penalties in baseball for the use of steroids and human growth hormone. (deseretnews.com)
  • That dose mâ hair featuring the mexico red star use even is propecia after steroids direct. (kalentura.com)
  • Injecting steroids into one or two areas of inflammation allows doctors to deliver a high dose of the drug directly to the problem area. (webmd.com)
  • Steroids are sometimes used in medicine, but illegal use of AASs may involve doses 10 to 100 times higher than the normal prescription dose. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Last month, New England Compounding recalled three lots of steroids made since May that totaled 17,676 single-dose vials of medicine _ roughly equivalent to 20 gallons. (cnbc.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) Aug 28 - In patients with new-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA), remission induction rates are similar with infliximab and high-dose intravenous steroids, according to results from the IDEA study. (medscape.com)
  • He would especially favor infliximab over high-dose intravenous steroids "where it is reimbursed. (medscape.com)
  • Well I had a 5 day dose of IV steroids and let me just say I was like super women. (medhelp.org)
  • What is more deadly short term, chugging 10 gallons of electrolyte free water or taking 10x normal dose of steroids? (exrx.net)
  • As for the cop-steroid scandal, when the story first broke in October, NYPD officials repeatedly said that only six officers were believed to be involved. (villagevoice.com)
  • Despite the international scandal that resulted, steroids are still running strong, playing a growing and increasingly worrisome role in U.S. athletics and in America's drug epidemic.This problem is back in the news because the Canadians have been conducting an extended inquiry into the Ben Johnson scandal. (deseretnews.com)
  • The steroid scandal is not just about ball players,' he noted. (voanews.com)
  • Over the past few months, different allegations toward certain superstars and their involvement with illegal anabolic steroids have surfaced. (bartleby.com)
  • And as an ESPN Radio addict, I'd been bombarded for years by its omnipresent, perversely mixed messages: the screaming sports-host anti-steroid hysteria, interrupted every 20 minutes by snake-oily "Low T" elixir ads, using the kind of incredulous performance hype that would discomfit even Bernie Madoff. (thedailybeast.com)
  • As an instructor, I'm about as anti-steroid as you can be, not through research but through first-hand knowledge," House said. (sfgate.com)
  • Upon further questioning, Anderson admitted that he had given steroids to several professional baseball players," the documents say. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The illness appeared, she says, when she was given steroids for a case of hives. (dailystrength.org)
  • Legal steroids alternatives? (reddit.com)
  • Looking for strong prohormones a.k.a. legal steroids? (youtube.com)
  • Legal steroids are being reviewed as the best muscle building supplements and best supplements for muscle gain. (dailymotion.com)
  • So suspicion hangs over today's opening day (albeit in Tokyo with the New York Yankees against the Tampa Bay Devil Rays), with fans chewing on the implications of federal indictments against four men, including slugger Barry Bonds' trainer, on charges of illegal steroid distribution. (latimes.com)
  • East German Doping Detailed in Documents : Steroids: Widespread program included seven Olympic gold medalists. (latimes.com)
  • Opening day organ salutes and fireworks festivities can't disguise the cloud over Major League Baseball this year: its failure to institute a credible drug-testing policy that would end steroid abuse. (latimes.com)
  • Steroid use in Major League Baseball is a topic of growing concern. (bartleby.com)
  • The panel headed by Mitchell, a former Senate majority leader and federal prosecutor, was commissioned by Major League Baseball in March 2006 to address the steroid issue. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In order to pressure major league baseball to toughen its policy against steroid use, the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform holds an 11-hour hearing on March 17, 2005, during which seven former and current baseball players are questioned. (history.com)
  • Coincidentally, Major League Baseball executives are set to propose at a bargaining meeting this week that players be tested for steroids three times a year. (law.com)
  • The committee held a contentious hearing in March in which former Major League Baseball players testified about steroid use. (washingtonpost.com)
  • A former bat boy for the New York Mets has pleaded guilty to selling steroids and other drugs to Major League Baseball players. (npr.org)
  • Do you two feel complicit in the rise of steroid use in major league baseball? (voanews.com)
  • The body makes steroids naturally to support such functions as fighting stress and promoting growth and development. (kidshealth.org)
  • Our body's naturally occurring steroids are created using cholesterol as a starting material. (rte.ie)
  • The steroid binds to the receptor and is carried to the nucleus of the cell where it instructs the cell to increase protein synthesis. (thebody.com)
  • Anabolic steroids are taken orally, injected intramuscularly, or rubbed on the skin when in the form of gels or creams. (conservapedia.com)
  • The most bang for your buck in veracruz of statistical gains would vaguely come from one of the barring injectables or from steroids such as Dianabol or Anadrol (sp? (angelfire.com)
  • Retrieved on April 20, 2021 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/HIV-and-Steroids.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • These psychiatric symptoms may be a result of steroids' effect on the brain. (scholastic.com)
  • Anabolic steroids aren't bad - it's the side effects and post cycle symptoms that are bad. (reddit.com)
  • As I understand it, the steroids reduce the inflamation in our central nervous system, allowing our symptoms to grow quieter. (medhelp.org)
  • What we were able to show, though, is that psychiatric symptoms and use of steroids and other drugs tend to reinforce each other in a vicious cycle. (redorbit.com)