Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Receptors, Androgen: Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1: A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in the transcriptional activation of chromatin regions.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Receptors, LH: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 3: A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS and PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING during the process of nuclear receptor-induced transcription. The coactivator has been found at elevated levels in certain HORMONE-DEPENDENT NEOPLASMS such as those found in BREAST CANCER.Tacrolimus Binding Proteins: A family of immunophilin proteins that bind to the immunosuppressive drugs TACROLIMUS (also known as FK506) and SIROLIMUS. EC 5.2.1.-Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Metribolone: A synthetic non-aromatizable androgen and anabolic steroid. It binds strongly to the androgen receptor and has therefore also been used as an affinity label for this receptor in the prostate and in prostatic tumors.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mammary Tumor Virus, Mouse: The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).COUP Transcription Factor I: A COUP transcription factor that was originally identified as a homodimer that binds to a direct repeat regulatory element in the chicken albumin promoter. It is a transcription factor that plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2: A nuclear co-repressor protein that shows specificity for RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. The dissociation of this co-repressor from nuclear receptors is generally ligand-dependent, but can also occur by way of its phosphorylation by members of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. The protein contains two nuclear receptor interaction domains and four repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 1.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4: A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome: An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1: A nuclear protein that regulates the expression of genes involved in a diverse array of processes related to metabolism and reproduction. The protein contains three nuclear receptor interaction domains and three repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 2.Oncogene Proteins v-erbA: Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.Receptors, Thyrotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).Prostate: A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.Etiocholanolone: The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.17-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the oxidation of 17-hydroxysteroids to 17-ketosteroids. EC 1.1.-.Adrenal Cortex HormonesEstrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Hydroxyprogesterones: Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Anabolic Agents: These compounds stimulate anabolism and inhibit catabolism. They stimulate the development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2: A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Androstanes: The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Genes, erbA: Genes related to the erbA DNA sequence that was first isolated from the avian erythroblastosis virus (ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS, AVIAN), v-erbA. In cells, erbA genes encode thyroid hormone receptors (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE). Two distinct c-erbA genes have been identified: erbA-alpha located at 17q21; and erbA-beta located at 3p24. Truncations at the N- and C-terminals of erbA result in products resembling v-erbA. Truncations affect hormone responsiveness but not DNA binding capacity.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Estradiol Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to ESTRADIOL, the major mammalian female sex hormone. Estradiol congeners include important estradiol precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with estrogenic activities.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Promegestone: A synthetic progestin which is useful for the study of progestin distribution and progestin tissue receptors, as it is not bound by transcortin and binds to progesterone receptors with a higher association constant than progesterone.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Diethylstilbestrol: A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Steryl-Sulfatase: An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
Modulation of steroid hormone receptors[edit]. Danazol is described as a possessing high affinity for the androgen receptor (AR ... "Affiliations among steroid receptors as revealed by multivariate analysis of steroid binding data". J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. ... and direct binding to and occupation of steroid hormone carrier proteins and consequent displacement of steroid hormones from ... Danazol is known to bind to two steroid hormone carrier proteins: sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which binds androgens ...
Neurol India 2013;61:383-8 Edgar Wingender (1993). "Steroid/Thyroid Hormone Receptors". Gene Regulation in Eukaryotes. New York ... Retinoic acid acts by binding to the retinoic acid receptor (RAR), which is bound to DNA as a heterodimer with the retinoid X ... In some cells, one of the target genes is the gene for the retinoic acid receptor itself (RAR-beta in mammals), which amplifies ... Retinoic acid receptors mediate transcription of different sets of genes controlling differentiation of a variety of cell types ...
"Gonadal Steroid Hormone Receptors and Social Behaviors". springer.com. Retrieved 9 December 2014. "Controversy surrounds ... the effects of hormones on rodent brains and behavior, and the effects of steroid hormones on social behavior. Blaustein lives ... His research has focused on the cellular processes behind how brain function and behavior are modified by steroid hormones, and ... "Cytoplasmic progestin-receptors in guinea pig brain: Characteristics and relationship to the induction of sexual behavior". ...
Encarnación CA, Ciocca DR, McGuire WL, Clark GM, Fuqua SA, Osborne CK (1993). "Measurement of steroid hormone receptors in ... Resistance to selective estrogen receptor modulator drugs[edit]. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are a commonly ... Loss of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)[110] *Although this may be a mechanism of resistance in a minority of women, most ERα+ ... Mutations in estrogen receptors. *Alterations in co-regulatory proteins *Interactions between the SERM, ER, and co-regulatory ...
2.1 Class: Cys4 zinc finger of nuclear receptor type *2.1.1 Family: Steroid hormone receptors ... Weigel NL, Moore NL (October 2007). "Steroid receptor phosphorylation: a key modulator of multiple receptor functions". ... For example, certain steroid receptors can exchange cofactors with NF-κB, which is a switch between inflammation and cellular ... "Sex steroid receptors in skeletal differentiation and epithelial neoplasia: is tissue-specific intervention possible?". ...
Although inactive at steroid hormone receptors, E2S has been found to act as a potent inhibitor of glutathione S-transferase, ... Clinical Interest of Steroid Hormone Receptors in Breast Cancer. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 2105-. ISBN 978-3-642- ... Estradiol sulfate (E2S), or 17β-estradiol 3-sulfate, is a natural, endogenous steroid and an estrogen ester. E2S itself is ... Simultaneously, estrogen sulfotransferases convert estradiol to E2S, resulting in an equilibrium between the two steroids in ...
2013) Biophysical mechanisms for large-effect mutations in the evolution of steroid hormone receptors. Proceedings of the ... A closer look at the different ancestral hormone receptors and the various hormones shows that at the level of interaction ... "Evolution of minimal specificity and promiscuity in steroid hormone receptors". PLOS Genetics. 8 (11): e1003072. doi:10.1371/ ... The Thornton lab notably resurrected several ancestral hormone receptors (from about 500Ma) and collaborated with the Stevens ...
Evans, R. M. (1988). "The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily". Science. 240 (4854): 889-895. doi:10.1126/science. ... His research focuses on the function of nuclear hormone signaling and metabolism. He received his Bachelor of Science and PhD ... "The nuclear receptor superfamily: The second decade". Cell. 83 (6): 835-839. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(95)90199-X. PMID 8521507. ...
Freedman, Leonard P. Molecular Biology of Steroid and Nuclear Hormone Receptors. Progress in Gene Expression. Boston: ...
Some ginsenosides have also been shown to be partial agonists of steroid hormone receptors. It is not known how these ... Two broad mechanisms of action have been suggested for ginsenoside activity, based on their similarity to steroid hormones. ... The structure of these dammarane ginsenosides consists of a 4-ring, steroid-like structure. To each ginsenoside is bound at ... The biosynthetic pathway of ginsenosides is not entirely characterized, though as steroids they derive from pathways that lead ...
"Molecular Mechanisms of Action of Steroid Hormone Receptors" 65-75 (2002). Editors: Marija Krstic-Demonacos & Constantinos ... Borras, M; Lacroix M; Legros N; Leclercq G. (1997). "Estrogen receptor-negative/progesterone receptor-positive Evsa-T mammary ... Lacroix, M; Leclercq G. (2004). "About GATA3, HNF3A, and XBP1, three genes co-expressed with the oestrogen receptor-alpha gene ... Maaroufi, Y; Lacroix M; Lespagnard L; Journe F; Larsimont D; Leclercq G. (2000). "Estrogen receptor of primary breast cancers: ...
"Common non-hormone binding component in non-transformed chick oviduct receptors of four steroid hormones". Nature. 308 (5962): ... Davies TH, Ning YM, Sánchez ER (February 2002). "A new first step in activation of steroid receptors: hormone-induced switching ... The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is the most thoroughly studied example of a steroid receptor whose function is crucially ... In the absence of the steroid hormone cortisol, GR resides in the cytosol complexed with several chaperone proteins including ...
"Regulation of activities of steroid hormone receptors by tibolone and its primary metabolites". The Journal of Steroid ... is a synthetic steroid which is used in the treatment of endometriosis and for menopausal hormone therapy. The drug was ... "Hormone therapy for endometriosis and surgical menopause". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD005997. doi:10.1002/ ... It has similar or greater efficacy compared to older menopausal hormone therapy drugs, but shares a similar side effect profile ...
"Tuberous sclerosis gene 2 product modulates transcription mediated by steroid hormone receptor family members". J. Biol. Chem. ... Selective modulation of transcription mediated by members of the steroid receptor superfamily. Inoki K, Ouyang H, Zhu T, ...
... has also been found to co-localize certain gonadal steroid hormone receptors. These include the estrogen receptor ... The main receptor neurokinin B interacts with is the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R). The Neurokinin 3 receptor is a part of a ... This subpopulation is targeted by a large number of steroid hormones and works to form a network that feeds back to GnRH pulse ... It was shown, in monkeys, that activation of NK3R, the NKB receptor, was associated with release of hormones that come before ...
This protein is a member of nuclear hormone receptor family of steroid hormone receptors. Coup (chicken ovalbumin upstream ... Ing NH, Beekman JM, Tsai SY, Tsai MJ, O'Malley BW (Sep 1992). "Members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily interact ... "Heterodimerization among thyroid hormone receptor, retinoic acid receptor, retinoid X receptor, chicken ovalbumin upstream ... "The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacts with estrogen receptor alpha and orphan receptors COUP-TFI and ERRalpha1". Archives of ...
... interacts with p160 coactivator subtypes and differentially suppresses transcriptional activity of steroid hormone receptors". ... Kino T, Chrousos GP (2003). "Tumor necrosis factor alpha receptor- and Fas-associated FLASH inhibit transcriptional activity of ... the glucocorticoid receptor by binding to and interfering with its interaction with p160 type nuclear receptor coactivators". J ... J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 92 (5): 357-63. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2004.09.003. PMID 15698540. Flotho C, Coustan-Smith E, Pei D ...
"Translocator Protein/Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor Is Not Required for Steroid Hormone Biosynthesis". Endocrinology. 155 ( ... "Peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis". Steroids. 62 (1): 21-8. doi:10.1016/S0039- ... "Binding domain-driven intracellular trafficking of sterols for synthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids and oxysterols". ... benzodiazepine receptor: regional mapping of the gene and characterization of the receptor expressed from cDNA". DNA Cell Biol ...
... where it stimulates the release of steroid hormones. Steroid hormones bind to glucocorticoid receptors in the brain, providing ... This secretion is made up of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, which are steroid hormones that the adrenal gland releases, ... There is also some activation of the HPA axis, producing glucocorticoids (cortisol, aka the S-hormone or stress-hormone). ... travel through the hypophysial portal vessel where they travel to and bind to the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor on ...
... is a high-affinity interactor for steroid, thyroid hormone, and retinoid receptors". Mol. Endocrinol. 12 (1): 4-18. doi:10.1210 ... is a high-affinity interactor for steroid, thyroid hormone, and retinoid receptors". Mol. Endocrinol. 12 (1): 4-18. doi:10.1210 ... Indeed, FUS/TLS interacts with several nuclear receptors. and with gene-specific transcription factors such as Spi-1/PU.1. or ... Husi H, Ward MA, Choudhary JS, Blackstock WP, Grant SG (2000). "Proteomic analysis of NMDA receptor-adhesion protein signaling ...
O'Malley's work has been on the primary actions of steroid hormones and nuclear receptors. He has published over 600 papers and ... molecular endocrinology and steroid receptors and transcriptional coactivators. His work on molecular mechanisms of steroid ... receptor coactivators has great relevance to genetic and reproductive diseases, disorders of metabolism and diabetes, and ...
... is a steroid hormone receptor coactivator and a factor in DNA repair. PSMC3-INTERACTING PROTEIN; PSMC3IP Peng, M; Bakker ...
... subunits of the human SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex promote transcriptional activation by steroid hormone receptors". ... Ichinose H, Garnier JM, Chambon P, Losson R (March 1997). "Ligand-dependent interaction between the estrogen receptor and the ... and Drosophila brahma are transcriptional coactivators cooperating with the estrogen receptor and the retinoic acid receptor". ... "Recruitment of the SWI-SNF chromatin remodeling complex as a mechanism of gene activation by the glucocorticoid receptor tau1 ...
The modified forms of these proteins are involved in stimulation of gene expression via steroid hormone receptors. ... CBP by PRMT4 inhibits binding to CREB and thereby partitions the limited cellular pool of CBP for steroid hormone receptor ...
Davies TH, Ning YM, Sánchez ER (2002). "A new first step in activation of steroid receptors: hormone-induced switching of ...
2.1) Nuclear receptor (Cys4). .mw-parser-output .nobold{font-weight:normal}. subfamily 1. *Thyroid hormone *α ...
The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) are members from the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor ... Sequence analysis showed the COUPTF1 was a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily (Beato, 1989; Evans, 1988 ... Procyanidin B3 inhibitor joined up with the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Through the characterization of COUP- ... with additional members of the receptor superfamily (OMalley, 1990; Wang et al., 1989). Therefore, COUPTF1, defined as a ...
Breast Carcinogenesis Tumour Epithelial Cell Breast Cancer Epithelial Cell Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Steroid Receptor ... Other members of the steroid receptor superfamily have also been detected in breast cancer epithelial cells, notably PR, AR, ... Investigating and critically appraising the expression and potential role of androgen receptor in breast carcinoma. Hormone Mol ... Smith L, Coleman LJ, Cummings M, Satheesha S, Shaw SO, Speirs V, Hughes TA (2010) Expression of estrogen receptor β isoforms is ...
Thus, steroid hormones and peptides may share a common receptor, which raises intriguing questions about the interaction ... the putative dual role of the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase tBRI1/SR160 in plant steroid hormone and peptide hormone ... Plants with mutations in cu3 do not respond to brassinolide steroid hormones and have increased concentrations of brassinolides ... Identification of the tomato homolog of the Arabidopsis brassinolide receptor BR1, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase, ...
Steroid hormones mediate critical lineage-specific developmental and physiologic responses. They function by binding their ... We will review how steroid receptor-dependent genomic signaling is affected by genetic alterations in endocrine therapy ... cognate receptors, which are transcription factors that drive specific gene expression programs. The requirement of most ... and most breast cancers for estrogen has led to the development of endocrine therapies that block the action of these hormones ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment ... Steroid hormone. A steroid hormone is a steroid that acts as a hormone. Steroid hormones can be grouped into 2 classes, ... Hormone receptor. A hormone receptor is a molecule that can bind to a specific hormone. Receptors for peptide hormones tend to ... Steroid hormone receptor. Steroid hormone receptors are found in the nucleus, cytosol, and also on the plasma membrane of ...
sp,O95718,ERR2_HUMAN Steroid hormone receptor ERR2 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ESRRB PE=1 SV=3 ... Steroid hormone receptor ERR2Add BLAST. 433. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/ptm_processing_ ... Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR3 subfamily.Curated. Zinc finger. Feature key. Position(s). Description ... Estrogen receptor-like 2. Estrogen-related receptor beta1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information that is based on ...
... hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors encompasses not only the receptors for steroids, thyroid ... Steroid hormone receptors and their regulation by phosphorylation. Biochem J (1996) 319 (3): 657-667. ... Specific involvement of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in the function and activity of sex steroid hormone receptors reveals the ... Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis ...
... that perform signal transduction for steroid hormones. Steroid hormone receptors are part of the nuclear receptor family that ... Nuclear receptor. References. *↑ Evans, R.M. The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Science 240:889-895. 1988. ... The hormone response elements (HRE) for steroid hormone receptors are DNA sequences with the structure of a pair of palindrome ... Orphan receptors. Structure. Steroid hormone receptors share a common structure of four units that are functionally homologous ...
Nuclear receptors that bind steroid hormones are all classified as type I receptors. Only type I receptors have a heat shock ... The best studied steroid hormone receptors are members of the nuclear receptor subfamily 3 (NR3) that include receptors for ... Nuclear receptors Subfamily 3: Estrogen Receptor-like Group A: Estrogen receptor (Sex hormones: Estrogen) 1: Estrogen receptor- ... binds Thyroid hormone (though not technically steroid hormones, thyroid hormones can be grouped here because their receptors ...
Endocrine regulation mechanisms in the skin with special reference to steroid hormone receptors]. Download Prime PubMed App to ... Acne VulgarisDermatitis, SeborrheicEstradiolGonadal Steroid HormonesHumansProtein BindingReceptors, AndrogenReceptors, Steroid ... Hormone receptors in normal skin and acne.. *[Sex steroid-binding globulin, free serum testosterone, and androgen receptors in ... Endocrine Regulation Mechanisms in the Skin With Special Reference to Steroid Hormone Receptors]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1983 ...
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING STEROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. STEROID HORMONE RECEPTORS AND BEHAVIOR. STEROID HORMONE ... STRUCTURE OF THE STEROID HORMONE RECEPTOR PROTEIN. STRUCTURE OF STEROID HORMONE-REGULATED GENES. MODEL OF STEROID HORMONE ... A target cell contains the steroid hormone receptors required to respond to a given steroid hormone. A. Most steroid hormones ... MODEL OF STEROID HORMONE RECEPTOR MECHANISM OF ACTION. Arrival and Entry of Steroid Hormones Into Target Tissue Cells. Steroid ...
... androgen receptor and progesterone receptor knockout mice demonstrate that epithelial steroid receptors are neither necessary ... Elucidation of a role for stromal steroid hormone receptors in mammary gland growth and development using tissue recombinants. ... with steroid receptor deficient mice is described as a tool to dissect the complex paracrine pathways of sex-hormone-regulated ... Instead, hormonal regulation of epithelial proliferation is a paracrine event mediated by hormone-receptor-positive stromal ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in steroid hormone receptor binding pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ... Antibodies for proteins involved in steroid hormone receptor binding pathways; according to their Panther/Gene Ontology ...
Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) are notorious intracellular travellers, transiting among different cellular compartments as ... Molecular Chaperones, Essential Partners of Steroid Hormone Receptors for Activity and Mobility Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010 Jun; ... Steroid hormone receptors (SHRs) are notorious intracellular travellers, transiting among different cellular compartments as ...
Steroid hormone receptors in intracranial tumors have been studied by many authors in recent years. Most of the research has ... Schnegg (J.F.), Gomez (F.), Lemarchand-Beraud (T.), De Tribolet (N.): "Presence of Sex Steroid Hormone Receptors in Meningioma ... Steroid hormone receptors in intracranial tumors have been studied by many authors in recent years. Most of the research has ... Markwalder (T.M.), Zava (D.T.), Markwalder (R.V.): "Sexual Steroid Hormone Receptor Assays in Human Astrocytomas". Surg. Neurol ...
This dendritic growth is gated on a cell-by-cell basis by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor- ... It depends on a particular isoform of the steroid hormone receptor ecdysone receptor-B2 (EcR-B2), for which functional roles ... This gating of dendritic growth is regulated by a specific isoform of the steroid hormone receptor EcR-B2. Using ... Dendritic growth gated by a steroid hormone receptor underlies increases in activity in the developing Drosophila locomotor ...
Several papers dealing with the clinical relevance of steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer have already been published. ... We hope that this book will enable the reader to become acquainted with the present state of European steroid hormone receptor ... Several papers dealing with the clinical relevance of steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer have already been published. ... Standardization of Steroid Receptor Analysis in Breast Cancer Biopsies: EORTC Receptor Group ...
... receptors were evaluated in 89 primary breast cancers and 23 axillary lymph node metastases. About 57% of primary and 72.2% of ... Epidermal growth factor receptor in human breast cancer: correlation with steroid hormone receptors and axillary lymph node ... An inverse distribution of EGF-R and steroid hormone receptor positive tumors was found (chi 2 = 10.87; P less than 0.001 for ... Epidermal growth factor (EGF-R) estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors were evaluated in 89 primary breast cancers and ...
Receptors and the Action of Sex Steroid Hormones E. E. BAULIEU E. E. BAULIEU ... E. E. BAULIEU; Receptors and the Action of Sex Steroid Hormones. Biochem Soc Trans 1 March 1973; 1 (2): 486-487. doi: https ... Sex differences in the brain-an interplay of sex steroid hormones and sex chromosomes Clin Sci (Lond) (July,2016) ...
Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on Hippocampal NMDA Receptor ... Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on Hippocampal NMDA Receptor ...
"Ovarian steroids and selective estrogen receptor modulators activity on rat brain NMDA and AMPA receptors," Brain Research ... R. A. Hill, Y. W. Wu, P. Kwek, and M. van den Buuse, "Modulatory effects of sex steroid hormones on brain-derived neurotrophic ... R. A. Hill, "Interaction of sex steroid hormones and brain-derived neurotrophic factor-tyrosine kinase B signalling: relevance ... Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on Hippocampal NMDA Receptor ...
Cell membrane receptors of steroid hormones. J Brosens1, I Huhtaniemi1 & B Gellersen2. ... This sex steroid is essential for normal reproduction in nearly all species. The recent cloning of a G-protein coupled receptor ... of diverse signal transduction pathways is thought to play an integral role in the cellular responses to many steroid hormones ... The mammalian homologues could be currently considered orphan receptors with as yet undefined roles in reproduction. ...
Steroid hormone receptors status was classified as absent (estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor 0% of the cells positive ... The relationship between steroid hormone receptor expression and response to chemotherapy has received little attention in the ... Chemotherapy Is More Effective in Patients with Breast Cancer Not Expressing Steroid Hormone Receptors. A Study of Preoperative ... These findings provide substantial additional evidence to support the hypothesis that steroid hormone receptor status of the ...
Partial Hormone Resistance in Mice with Disruption of the Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 (SRC-1) Gene ... Partial Hormone Resistance in Mice with Disruption of the Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 (SRC-1) Gene ... Partial Hormone Resistance in Mice with Disruption of the Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 (SRC-1) Gene ... Partial Hormone Resistance in Mice with Disruption of the Steroid Receptor Coactivator-1 (SRC-1) Gene ...
Researchers have obtained a detailed molecular picture that shows how glucocorticoid hormones shut off key immune system genes ... Steroid hormone receptor prefers working alone to shut off immune system genes. By Quinn Eastman , Woodruff Health Sciences ... The hormone is required for the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to enter the nucleus, giving it access to DNA. ... Both cortisol and synthetic hormones act by binding the glucocorticoid receptor, a protein that binds DNA and turns some genes ...
  • although, no ebook has overviewed stories at the moment being performed in Europe, neither is there a sign in of the ecu facilities acting receptor assays. (consulligent.com)
  • The abundance of medical info appropriate to receptor assays led us so as to add serious summaries to assist the reader to shape his personal reviews at the topic. (consulligent.com)
  • M. Morissette, M. Le Saux, and T. Di Paolo, "Effect of oestrogen receptor alpha and beta agonists on brain N -methyl-D-aspartate receptors," Journal of Neuroendocrinology , vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 1006-1014, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients and methods: Data from 783 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma treated with preoperative chemotherapy and operated at the European Institute of Oncology were used to develop a nomogram using logistic regression model based on both categorical (clinical T and N, HER2/neu, grade and primary therapy) and continuous variables (age, oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), Ki-67 expression and number of chemotherapy courses). (elsevier.com)
  • The cell membrane aldosterone receptor has shown to increase the activity of the basolateral Na/K ATPase, ENaC sodium channels and ROMK potassium channels of the principal cell in the distal tubule and cortical collecting duct of nephrons (as well as in the large bowel and possibly in sweat glands). (wikipedia.org)
  • Our website provides information about anabolic steroids strictly for educational reasons only. (stoynev.us)
  • Please understand and make clear that does not approve or condone illegal use of anabolic steroids without a doctors prescription. (stoynev.us)
  • Causes of hepatocellular adenoma include oral contraceptive medications containing mestranol as well as anabolic steroids. (medscape.com)
  • Cushla R. McCarthny, Xin Du, YeeWen Candace Wu, and Rachel A. Hill, "Investigating the Interactive Effects of Sex Steroid Hormones and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor during Adolescence on Hippocampal NMDA Receptor Expression," International Journal of Endocrinology , vol. 2018, Article ID 7231915, 12 pages, 2018. (hindawi.com)
  • Leung YK, Lee MT, Lam HM, Tarapore P, Ho SM (2012) Estrogen receptor-beta and breast cancer: translating biology into clinical practice. (springer.com)
  • Menopausal status, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status [absent (0% of the cells positive) versus expressed], clinical tumor size, histologic grade, Ki-67, Her-2/ neu expression, and type and route of chemotherapy were considered. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Given that this topic has received little attention in major reviews on brain tumor epidemiology to date ( 1 , 4 - 6 ), we review here findings from descriptive and analytic epidemiology, clinical studies, and experimental animal and cell culture studies pertinent to the potential role of steroid hormones in the development of glioma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Download Clinical Interest of Steroid Hormone Receptors in Breast by G. Nicolò, A. Carbone, M. Esposito, L. Santi (auth. (consulligent.com)