The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.
Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
Reproductive sterilization without the consent of the patient.
Water in its gaseous state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Further or repeated use of equipment, instruments, devices, or materials. It includes additional use regardless of the original intent of the producer as to disposability or durability. It does not include the repeated use of fluids or solutions.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemicals especially for use on instruments to destroy pathogenic organisms. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
Formaldehyde is a colorless, flammable, strong-smelling chemical compound, primarily used as a preservative in medical laboratories and fungicide, which is also produced naturally in the human body and released during decomposition.
Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
The doctrines and policies of the Nazis or the National Social German Workers party, which ruled Germany under Adolf Hitler from 1933-1945. These doctrines and policies included racist nationalism, expansionism, and state control of the economy. (from Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. and American Heritage College Dictionary, 3d ed.)
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.
The application of a caustic substance, a hot instrument, an electric current, or other agent to control bleeding while removing or destroying tissue.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
A massive slaughter, especially the systematic mass extermination of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps prior to and during World War II.
Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.
The induction of local hyperthermia by either short radio waves or high-frequency sound waves.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Compounds that cause reproductive sterility in organisms. They are sometimes used to control pest populations by sterilizing males within the population.
Treatment of food with RADIATION.
Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Endoscopes used for viewing the interior of blood vessels.
Devices that diminish the likelihood of or prevent conception. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Facilities in which WARFARE or political prisoners are confined.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
ENDOSCOPES for examining the abdominal and pelvic organs in the peritoneal cavity.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
Religion and sex can intersect in medical definitions through the study of spirituality and sexuality, which explores how religious beliefs, practices, and cultural values may influence individuals' sexual behaviors, attitudes, and experiences, including issues related to sexual health, sexual orientation, gender identity, reproductive rights, and sexual dysfunctions.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Destruction by passage of a galvanic electric current, as in disintegration of a chemical compound in solution.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing bones or bone tissue for future use.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
A state in which the environs of hospitals, laboratories, domestic and animal housing, work places, spacecraft, and other surroundings are under technological control with regard to air conditioning, heating, lighting, humidity, ventilation, and other ambient features. The concept includes control of atmospheric composition. (From Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
Solutions prepared for exchange across a semipermeable membrane of solutes below a molecular size determined by the cutoff threshold of the membrane material.
A reagent that forms fluorescent conjugation products with primary amines. It is used for the detection of many biogenic amines, peptides, and proteins in nanogram quantities in body fluids.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The occupation concerned with the cutting and dressing of the hair of customers and, of men, the shaving and trimming of the beard and mustache. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Instruments for the visual examination of interior structures of the body. There are rigid endoscopes and flexible fiberoptic endoscopes for various types of viewing in ENDOSCOPY.
A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.
Linear furanocoumarins which are found in many PLANTS, especially UMBELLIFERAE and RUTACEAE, as well as PSORALEA from which they were originally discovered. They can intercalate DNA and, in an UV-initiated reaction of the furan portion, alkylate PYRIMIDINES, resulting in PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS.
A serine-rich sticky protein secreted by MOTHS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm silk gum protein secreted in the middle section of silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Sericin acts as a cement and coating for the two fibroin filaments in a silk strand and is readily soluble in mild alkaline solution.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, to guide and determine present and future decisions on population control by limiting the number of children or controlling fertility, notably through family planning and contraception within the nuclear family.
Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.
Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.
Nonexpendable apparatus used during surgical procedures. They are differentiated from SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS, usually hand-held and used in the immediate operative field.
Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Intrauterine contraceptive devices that depend on the release of metallic copper.
"Military science" is not typically considered a medical term, but rather refers to the study and practice of the techniques, methods, and theories used in warfare, including strategy, tactics, logistics, and military technology.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "El Salvador" is a country located in Central America, and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!
A species of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING BACTERIA in the family BACILLACEAE, found in soil, hot springs, Arctic waters, ocean sediments, and spoiled food products.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A territory of northwest Canada, bounded on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the south by British Columbia, and on the west by Alaska. Its capital is Whitehorse. It takes its name from the Yukon River, the Indian yu-kun-ah, meaning big river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1367 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p608)
The destruction of germs causing disease.
Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.
Loss or destruction of the epithelial lining of the UTERINE CERVIX.
A plant of the family APIACEAE which is the source of asiatic acid and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. = Hydrocotyle asiatica L. is known for effect on peripheral circulation.
A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

Degenerative changes in aortic root allografts placed in the right ventricular outflow tract of growing puppies. (1/814)

Differently prepared aortic root allografts were implanted in the right ventricular outflow tract of growing puppies to determine the site of origin and progress of degenerative changes in these conduits. The three preparations assessed were as follows: group A, fresh and sterile grafts; group B, antibiotic sterilized grafts in nutrient medium; and group C, beta-propiolactone sterilized grafts. Although calcification of the aortic wall occurred in all groups, the aortic leaflets were minimally affected. A correlation between viability and lack of calcification and between viability and long-term function is emphasized.  (+info)

Disinfection of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy equipment: an evaluation of a cetrimide chlorhexidine solution and glutaraldehyde. (2/814)

There is little information available on the bacteriological contamination of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopes during routine use and the effects of 'disinfecting solutions'. A bacteriological evaluation was therefore made of cleaning an endoscope and its ancillary equipment with (1) water, (2) an aqueous solution of 1% cetrimide with 0.1% chlorhexidine, and (3) activated aqueous 2% glutaraldehyde. All equipment, but particularly the endoscope itself, was found to be heavily contaminated after use with a wide variety of organisms of which 53% were Gram positive. Cleaning the endoscope and ancillary equipment with water and the cetrimide/chlorhexidine solution alone or in combination was inadequate to produce disinfection but immersion in glutaraldehyde for two minutes consistently produced sterile cultures with our sampling technique. A rapid and simple method for disinfection of endoscopic equipment is therefore recommended and we think this is especially suitable for busy endoscopy units.  (+info)

A test for 'hygienic' hand disinfection. (3/814)

A standardised test procedure is described in which finger-tips are inoculated with broth cultures of organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphyloccocus saprophyticus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa): counts are made from washings of hands after disinfection with various antiseptic-detergents, alcoholic solutions, or unmedicated soap. 70% alcohol, with or without chlorhexidine, was the most effective preparation. The two antiseptic detergents showed variable results, but against Gram-negative bacilli neither was significantly more effective than plain soap. Some tests were also made on the death rate of organisms dried on the skin without disinfection.  (+info)

Autoclaving impairs the connector-tube bond of the laryngeal mask airway but not its airtightness. (4/814)

The general-purpose laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is re-usable when undamaged, and cleaned and autoclaved correctly. We had found weakening of the silicone adhesive that bonds the connector of the LMA to the tube. We report that repeated autoclaving damaged the adhesive such that the connector could be rotated in the tube after the 12th autoclave cycle in almost all of the LMA tested. The damage to the adhesive did not affect the airtightness of the junction, which appears to be maintained by the material properties of the connector and tube and by the shape of the join.  (+info)

Mass treatment of humans who drank unpasteurized milk from rabid cows--Massachusetts, 1996-1998. (5/814)

Rabies is a viral zoonosis that is usually transmitted by the bite of an infected mammal. However, in Massachusetts, two incidents have been reported since 1996 of potential mass exposures to rabies through drinking unpasteurized milk. This report presents the investigations of these two incidents.  (+info)

Growth from spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in heat-treated vegetable juice. (6/814)

Unheated spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were able to lead to growth in sterile deoxygenated turnip, spring green, helda bean, broccoli, or potato juice, although the probability of growth was low and the time to growth was longer than the time to growth in culture media. With all five vegetable juices tested, the probability of growth increased when spores were inoculated into the juice and then heated for 2 min in a water bath at 80 degrees C. The probability of growth was greater in bean or broccoli juice than in culture media following 10 min of heat treatment in these media. Growth was prevented by heat treatment of spores in vegetable juices or culture media at 80 degrees C for 100 min. We show for the first time that adding heat-treated vegetable juice to culture media can increase the number of heat-damaged spores of C. botulinum that can lead to colony formation.  (+info)

Use of a whole blood assay to evaluate in vitro T cell responses to new leprosy skin test antigens in leprosy patients and healthy subjects. (7/814)

Development of an immunological tool to detect infection with Mycobacterium leprae would greatly benefit leprosy control programmes, as demonstrated by the contribution of the tuberculin test to tuberculosis control. In a new approach to develop a 'tuberculin-like' reagent for use in leprosy, two new fractions of M. leprae depleted of cross-reactive and immunomodulatory lipids- MLSA-LAM (cytosol-derived) and MLCwA (cell wall-derived)-have been produced in a form suitable for use as skin test reagents. T cell responses (interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and lymphoproliferation) to these two new fractions were evaluated in a leprosy-endemic area of Nepal using a simple in vitro whole blood test. The two fractions were shown to be highly potent T cell antigens in subjects exposed to M. leprae-paucibacillary leprosy patients and household contacts. Responses to the fractions decreased towards the lepromatous pole of leprosy. Endemic control subjects also showed high responses to the fractions, indicating high exposure to M. leprae, or cross-reactive mycobacterial antigens, in this Nepali population. The new fractions, depleted of lipids and lipoarabinomannan (LAM) gave enhanced responses compared with a standard M. leprae sonicate. The cell wall fraction appeared a more potent antigen than the cytosol fraction, which may be due to the predominance of the 65-kD GroEL antigen in the cell wall. The whole blood assay proved a robust field tool and a useful way of evaluating such reagents prior to clinical trials.  (+info)

Lethality of a heat- and phosphate-catalyzed glucose by-product to Escherichia coli O157:H7 and partial protection conferred by the rpoS regulon. (8/814)

A by-product of glucose produced during sterilization (121 degrees C, 15 lb/in2, 15 min) at neutral pH and in the presence of phosphate (i.e., phosphate-buffered saline) was bactericidal to Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ATCC 43895). Other six-carbon (fructose and galactose) and five-carbon (arabinose, ribose, and xylose) reducing sugars also produced a toxic by-product under the same conditions. Fructose and the five-carbon sugars yielded the most bactericidal activity. Glucose concentrations of 1% (wt/vol) resulted in a 99.9% decline in the CFU of stationary-phase cells per milliliter in 2 days at 25 degrees C. An rpoS mutant (pRR10::rpoS) of strain 43895 (FRIK 816-3) was significantly (P < 0.001) more sensitive to the glucose-phosphate by-product than the parent strain, as glucose concentrations from 0.05 to 0.25% resulted in a 2- to 3-log10 reduction in CFU per milliliter in 2 days at 25 degrees C. Likewise, log-phase cells of the wild-type strain, 43895, were significantly more sensitive (P < 0.001) to the glucose-phosphate by-product than were stationary-phase cells, which is consistent with the stability of rpoS and the regulation of rpoS-regulated genes. The bactericidal effect of the glucose-phosphate by-product was reduced when strains ATCC 43895 and FRIK 816-3 were incubated at a low temperature (4 degrees C). Also, growth in glucose-free medium (i.e., nutrient broth) did not alleviate the sensitivity to the glucose-phosphate by-product and excludes the possibility of substrate-accelerated death as the cause of the bactericidal effect observed. The glucose-phosphate by-product was also bactericidal to Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae, and a Klebsiella sp. Attempts to identify the glucose-phosphate by-product were unsuccessful. These studies demonstrate the production of a glucose-phosphate by-product bactericidal to E. coli O157:H7 and the protective effects afforded by rpoS-regulated gene products. Additionally, the detection of sublethally injured bacteria may be compromised by the presence of this by-product in recovery media.  (+info)

Sterilization, in a medical context, refers to the process of eliminating or removing all forms of microbial life, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, spores, and any other biological agents from a surface, object, or environment. This is typically achieved through various methods such as heat (using autoclaves), chemical processes, irradiation, or filtration.

In addition, sterilization can also refer to the surgical procedure that renders individuals unable to reproduce. This is often referred to as "permanent contraception" and can be performed through various methods such as vasectomy for men and tubal ligation for women. It's important to note that these procedures are typically permanent and not easily reversible.

Tubal sterilization, also known as female sterilization or tubal ligation, is a permanent form of birth control for women. It involves blocking, sealing, or removing the fallopian tubes, which prevents the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. This procedure can be performed surgically through various methods such as cutting and tying the tubes, using clips or rings to block them, or removing a portion of the tube (known as a partial salpingectomy). Tubal sterilization is considered a highly effective form of contraception with a low failure rate. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections and should be combined with condom use for that purpose. It's important to note that tubal sterilization is a permanent procedure and cannot be easily reversed.

Reproductive sterilization is a surgical procedure that aims to prevent reproduction by making an individual unable to produce viable reproductive cells or preventing the union of sperm and egg. In males, this is often achieved through a vasectomy, which involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra. In females, sterilization is typically performed via a procedure called tubal ligation, where the fallopian tubes are cut, tied, or sealed, preventing the egg from traveling from the ovaries to the uterus and blocking sperm from reaching the egg. These methods are considered permanent forms of contraception; however, in rare cases, reversals may be attempted with varying degrees of success.

Sterilization reversal, also known as sterilization reversion or de-sterilization, refers to the surgical procedure aimed at restoring fertility after a voluntary surgical sterilization. The most common methods of sterilization in women are tubal ligation (cutting, tying, or blocking the fallopian tubes) and in men is vasectomy (cutting and sealing the vas deferens).

The reversal procedure for women typically involves microsurgery to reconnect the severed ends of the fallopian tubes (tubal anastomosis), allowing the egg to travel from the ovaries to the uterus and enabling fertilization. The success rate depends on various factors, such as the type and location of the original sterilization, the age and fertility status of the woman before sterilization, and the skill of the surgeon.

For men, a vasectomy reversal (vasovasostomy) aims to reconnect the severed ends of the vas deferens, restoring the passage of sperm into the semen. The success rate for this procedure is generally higher than that of tubal ligation reversals and also depends on factors like the time elapsed since the original vasectomy and the skill of the surgeon.

It's important to note that while sterilization reversals can be successful in some cases, they are not always guaranteed to restore fertility. Moreover, these procedures can be expensive, invasive, and may carry risks such as infection, bleeding, or damage to surrounding tissues. Therefore, it is essential for individuals considering a sterilization reversal to consult with a qualified healthcare professional to discuss the potential benefits, risks, and alternatives thoroughly.

Ethylene oxide is a colorless gas at room temperature and pressure with a faintly sweet odor. It is used primarily as a sterilant, especially for medical equipment, but also has applications in the manufacture of other chemicals, including antifreeze and textile products. Ethylene oxide is highly flammable and reactive, and exposure can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, as well as more serious health effects with prolonged or high-level exposure. It is also a known human carcinogen, meaning that it has been shown to cause cancer in humans.

Involuntary sterilization is a medical procedure that permanently prevents an individual's ability to reproduce, without their consent or against their will. This practice has been used in the past as a form of population control, particularly targeting marginalized communities such as people with disabilities, those with mental illness, and racial minorities. In many places, involuntary sterilization is now considered a violation of human rights and is illegal. However, there are still instances where it may be performed under specific circumstances, such as in cases where an individual poses a risk to their own reproductive health or when the reproduction would cause harm to the potential offspring. These decisions are typically made by the court system or medical professionals, taking into account the best interests of the individual and their legal rights.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "steam" is not a medical term. It refers to water in its gaseous state, produced when water is heated to its boiling point. If you have any questions about a medical condition or treatment, please provide more context and I will do my best to help answer your question.

Eugenics is a scientific movement that advocates for the improvement of human genetic qualities through various measures such as controlled breeding, selective immigration, and even forced sterilization. The goal of eugenics is to increase the number of individuals who possess desirable traits and decrease the number of those with undesirable traits in order to improve the overall genetic makeup of the population.

The term "eugenics" was coined by Sir Francis Galton, a British scientist, in 1883. He believed that intelligence and other positive traits were heritable and could be improved through selective breeding. The eugenics movement gained popularity in the early 20th century, particularly in the United States and Germany, where it was used to justify forced sterilization and other coercive measures aimed at controlling the reproduction of certain groups of people.

Today, the concept of eugenics is widely discredited due to its association with discrimination, racism, and human rights abuses. However, the principles of genetics and heredity that underlie eugenics continue to be studied and applied in fields such as medicine and agriculture.

I cannot provide a medical definition for "equipment reuse" as it is not a term that is commonly used in the medical field. However, I can give you some general information about equipment reuse in healthcare settings.

Equipment reuse refers to the practice of using previously owned or disposable medical equipment and supplies multiple times after they have been sterilized or disinfected according to established protocols. This practice is often adopted by healthcare facilities as a way to reduce costs, conserve resources, and minimize waste.

Examples of medical equipment that may be reused include anesthesia breathing circuits, blood pressure cuffs, stethoscopes, and electronic thermometers. It's important to note that any reprocessed or reused medical equipment must undergo strict cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization procedures to ensure the safety of patients and healthcare workers.

Reusing medical equipment can have benefits such as reducing costs and waste, but it also carries risks if not done properly. Proper training and adherence to established protocols are crucial to ensuring that reused equipment is safe for use.

A vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. It involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland, to prevent the release of sperm during ejaculation. This procedure is typically performed in an outpatient setting, using local anesthesia, and takes about 20-30 minutes. It is considered a highly effective form of birth control with a low risk of complications. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so additional protection such as condoms may still be necessary.

Dental disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are used to inactivate or destroy microorganisms present on dental instruments, equipment, and surfaces in order to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. These disinfectants are intended to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe and poses minimal risk of infection.

Dental disinfectants can be classified based on their spectrum of activity, which ranges from low-level disinfectants that are effective against vegetative bacteria, fungi, and viruses, to high-level disinfectants that also inactivate bacterial spores. The choice of a particular dental disinfectant depends on the intended use, the level of contamination, and the type of microorganisms present.

It is important to follow the manufacturer's instructions for use, including the recommended contact time, concentration, and method of application, to ensure the effectiveness of dental disinfectants. Additionally, proper handling, storage, and disposal of these agents are essential to prevent harm to patients, staff, and the environment.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

Equipment contamination in a medical context refers to the presence of harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi, on the surfaces of medical equipment or devices. This can occur during use, storage, or transportation of the equipment and can lead to the transmission of infections to patients, healthcare workers, or other individuals who come into contact with the contaminated equipment.

Equipment contamination can occur through various routes, including contact with contaminated body fluids, airborne particles, or environmental surfaces. To prevent equipment contamination and the resulting infection transmission, it is essential to follow strict infection control practices, such as regular cleaning and disinfection of equipment, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and proper handling and storage of medical devices.

Dental instruments are specialized tools that dentists, dental hygienists, and other oral healthcare professionals use to examine, clean, and treat teeth and gums. These instruments come in various shapes and sizes, and each one is designed for a specific purpose. Here are some common dental instruments and their functions:

1. Mouth mirror: A small, handheld mirror used to help the dentist see hard-to-reach areas of the mouth and reflect light onto the teeth and gums.
2. Explorer: A sharp, hooked instrument used to probe teeth and detect cavities, tartar, or other dental problems.
3. Sickle scaler: A curved, sharp-edged instrument used to remove calculus (tartar) from the tooth surface.
4. Periodontal probe: A blunt, calibrated instrument used to measure the depth of periodontal pockets and assess gum health.
5. Dental syringe: A device used to inject local anesthesia into the gums before dental procedures.
6. High-speed handpiece: Also known as a dental drill, it is used to remove decay, shape teeth, or prepare them for fillings and other restorations.
7. Low-speed handpiece: A slower, quieter drill used for various procedures, such as placing crowns or veneers.
8. Suction tip: A thin tube that removes saliva, water, and debris from the mouth during dental procedures.
9. Cotton rolls: Small squares of cotton used to isolate teeth, absorb fluids, and protect soft tissues during dental treatments.
10. Dental forceps: Specialized pliers used to remove teeth or hold them in place while restorations are being placed.
11. Elevators: Curved, wedge-shaped instruments used to loosen or lift teeth out of their sockets.
12. Rubber dam: A thin sheet of rubber or latex that isolates a specific tooth or area during dental treatment, keeping it dry and free from saliva and debris.

These are just a few examples of the many dental instruments used in modern dentistry. Each one plays an essential role in maintaining oral health and providing effective dental care.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Peracetic acid (PAA) is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field as a disinfectant and sterilant. Medically, it's often used for high-level disinfection of medical devices and equipment, especially those that are heat-sensitive or cannot be sterilized using traditional methods like steam sterilization.

Peracetic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO3H. It's a colorless liquid with a pungent, acrid smell, similar to that of acetic acid (vinegar). In solution, it's a strong oxidizing agent and can effectively kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores.

It's important to note that peracetic acid should be used with caution due to its potential irritant effects on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Proper handling and use according to manufacturer instructions are essential to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Contraception is the use of various devices, methods, or medications to prevent pregnancy. The term is derived from the Latin words "contra" meaning "against" and "conceptio" meaning "conception." Contraceptive methods can be broadly categorized into temporary and permanent methods. Temporary methods include barriers such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges; hormonal methods like the pill, patch, ring, injection, and emergency contraception; and fertility awareness-based methods that involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods. Permanent methods include surgical procedures such as tubal ligation for women and vasectomy for men.

The primary goal of contraception is to prevent the sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg, thereby preventing pregnancy. However, some contraceptive methods also offer additional benefits such as reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and regulating menstrual cycles. It's important to note that while contraception can prevent pregnancy, it does not protect against STIs, so using condoms is still recommended for individuals who are at risk of contracting STIs.

When choosing a contraceptive method, it's essential to consider factors such as effectiveness, safety, ease of use, cost, and personal preferences. It's also important to consult with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate method based on individual health history and needs.

Hysteroscopy is a diagnostic procedure that allows healthcare professionals to examine the interior of the uterus (hyster(o)- and -scopy from Greek "womb" + "examination"). It is performed using a hysteroscope, which is a thin, lighted tube with a camera attached to its end. The hysteroscope is inserted through the vagina and cervix into the uterus, enabling the visualization of the uterine cavity and the detection of any abnormalities, such as polyps, fibroids, or structural issues like a septum.

Hysteroscopy can be performed in a doctor's office or an outpatient surgical center under local, regional, or general anesthesia depending on the situation and patient comfort. The procedure may also be used for minor surgical interventions, such as removing polyps or fibroids, or to assist with other procedures like laparoscopy.

In summary, hysteroscopy is a medical examination of the uterine cavity using a thin, lighted tube called a hysteroscope, which can aid in diagnosing and treating various conditions affecting the uterus.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plasma Gases" is not a recognized medical term or concept. Plasma is a state of matter, like solid, liquid, or gas, and it is often referred to as the fourth state of matter. It consists of ionized particles, or particles that have been stripped of some of their electrons.

In the context of medicine, plasma is most commonly discussed in relation to blood plasma, which is the yellowish fluid in which blood cells are suspended. Plasma carries cells, hormones, nutrients, and waste products throughout the body.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or concepts, I'd be happy to help further if I can!

Formaldehyde is not a medication or a term commonly used in human medicine. It is a chemical compound with the formula CH2O, which is commonly used in industry for various purposes such as a preservative, disinfectant, and embalming agent. Formaldehyde is also found naturally in the environment and is produced in small amounts by certain animals, plants, and humans.

Exposure to formaldehyde can cause irritation of the eyes, nose, throat, and skin, and prolonged exposure has been linked to cancer, particularly nasopharyngeal cancer and leukemia. Therefore, it is important to limit exposure to this chemical and use appropriate protective equipment when handling it.

'Infection Control, Dental' refers to the practices and procedures implemented in dental settings to prevent the transmission of infectious agents from person to person, or from contaminated instruments, equipment, or environmental surfaces to patients or dental personnel. It includes a range of measures such as hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (e.g., gloves, masks, eyewear), sterilization and disinfection of instruments and equipment, safe injection practices, and environmental cleaning and disinfection. The goal of infection control in dentistry is to eliminate or minimize the risk of infectious diseases, such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, and tuberculosis, among others, being transmitted in dental settings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Judicial Role" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. It is a legal term that refers to the role and responsibilities of a judge in the administration of justice. This includes presiding over trials, interpreting and applying laws, and ensuring fair and impartial proceedings.

National Socialism, also known as Nazism, is not a medical term. It is a political ideology that originated in Germany in the early 20th century and was associated with the Nazi Party and its leader, Adolf Hitler. The ideology was characterized by extreme nationalism, racism, anti-Semitism, and totalitarianism.

While National Socialism is not a medical term, it has had significant impacts on the history of medicine, particularly during World War II when the Nazi regime implemented policies that led to the systematic persecution and murder of millions of people, including six million Jews in the Holocaust. The Nazi regime also conducted unethical medical experiments on prisoners in concentration camps, which have been widely condemned.

Therefore, while National Socialism is not a medical term, it is important for medical professionals to be aware of its historical context and the ways in which political ideologies can impact medical ethics and practice.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

Menstruation disturbances, also known as menstrual disorders, refer to any irregularities or abnormalities in a woman's menstrual cycle. These disturbances can manifest in various ways, including:

1. Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods for three consecutive cycles or more in women of reproductive age.
2. Oligomenorrhea: Infrequent or light menstrual periods that occur at intervals greater than 35 days.
3. Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation, often accompanied by cramping, pelvic pain, and other symptoms that can interfere with daily activities.
4. Menorrhagia: Heavy or prolonged menstrual periods that last longer than seven days or result in excessive blood loss, leading to anemia or other health complications.
5. Polymenorrhea: Abnormally frequent menstrual periods that occur at intervals of 21 days or less.
6. Metrorrhagia: Irregular and unpredictable vaginal bleeding between expected menstrual periods, which can be caused by various factors such as hormonal imbalances, infections, or structural abnormalities.

Menstruation disturbances can have significant impacts on a woman's quality of life, fertility, and overall health. They may result from various underlying conditions, including hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, or sexually transmitted infections. Proper diagnosis and treatment of the underlying cause are essential for managing menstruation disturbances effectively.

Cautery is a medical term that refers to the use of heat, electricity, or chemicals to burn and destroy abnormal or unwanted tissue. This procedure is used to stop bleeding, destroy cancer cells, or remove benign growths such as warts or skin tags. The tool used for cauterization is called a cautery, which can be in the form of a hot iron, electrical current, or chemical substance.

The process of cauterization involves applying heat or a chemical substance to the affected area, causing the tissue to coagulate and eventually die. This results in the formation of an eschar, or scab, that covers the wound and helps prevent infection while the tissue heals. Cautery can be performed as a standalone procedure or as part of a larger surgical intervention.

Cauterization is used for various medical purposes, including:

1. Hemostasis: To control bleeding by sealing off blood vessels in the affected area.
2. Destruction of abnormal tissue: To remove unwanted tissue such as warts, skin tags, or cancerous growths.
3. Prevention of infection: To seal off wounds and prevent bacteria from entering the body.
4. Pain relief: To destroy nerve endings in the affected area, reducing pain and discomfort.

While cautery is a relatively safe procedure, it can have some risks and complications, such as infection, scarring, or damage to surrounding tissue. Therefore, it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in a sterile environment.

In the context of medicine, spores are typically discussed in relation to certain types of infections and diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. Spores are a dormant, resistant form of these microorganisms that can survive under harsh environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures, lack of nutrients, and exposure to chemicals.

Spores can be highly resistant to heat, radiation, and disinfectants, making them difficult to eliminate from contaminated surfaces or medical equipment. When the conditions are favorable, spores can germinate and grow into mature microorganisms that can cause infection.

Some examples of medically relevant spores include those produced by Clostridioides difficile (C. diff), a bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized patients, and Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungus that can cause invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals.

It's worth noting that spores are not unique to medical contexts and have broader relevance in fields such as botany, mycology, and biology.

I must clarify that the term "Holocaust" is primarily used in a historical and cultural context, rather than in a medical one. It refers to the systematic state-sponsored persecution and genocide of six million European Jews by Nazi Germany and its collaborators during World War II. This atrocity took place from 1941 to 1945 and is widely considered to be one of the darkest chapters in human history.

However, if you are looking for a medical term that may have some thematic or conceptual similarities to the Holocaust, you might consider "mass casualty incident" or "mass atrocity." These terms describe events where numerous individuals suffer serious injuries or fatalities due to intentional human actions or natural disasters.

Medical Definition:

Mass Casualty Incident (MCI): An event in which the number of injured or deceased victims exceeds the local resources available to respond effectively. MCIs can result from natural disasters, transportation accidents, or intentional acts such as terrorist attacks.

Mass Atrocity: A large-scale and deliberate act of violence committed against a civilian population, often involving multiple incidents of murder, torture, forced displacement, or other forms of human rights abuses. The Holocaust is an example of a mass atrocity.

"Population control" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, it is a concept that is often discussed in the context of public health and societal planning. In this context, population control refers to the practices and policies aimed at managing the size and growth rate of a population, with the goal of achieving a sustainable balance between population size and available resources.

Population control measures may include:

1. Family planning programs that provide access to contraception and education about reproductive health.
2. Public health initiatives that address maternal and child health, infectious diseases, and other factors that affect fertility rates.
3. Social and economic policies that promote gender equality, education, and economic opportunities for women, who often have a disproportionate impact on fertility rates.
4. In some cases, more coercive measures such as forced sterilization or abortion, which are widely considered to be unethical and violations of human rights.

It's important to note that population control is a complex and controversial issue, with many different perspectives and approaches. While some argue that managing population growth is essential for achieving sustainable development and reducing poverty, others argue that it is a violation of individual freedoms and human rights.

Diathermy is a medical term that refers to the use of high-frequency electrical currents to heat body tissues. The term "diathermy" comes from the Greek words "dia," meaning "through," and "therme," meaning "heat." There are several types of diathermy, including shortwave, microwave, and ultrasound diathermy.

Shortwave diathermy uses electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 10 MHz and 27 MHz to generate heat in deep tissues. This type of diathermy is often used to treat muscle or joint pain, increase blood flow, or promote healing after surgery or injury.

Microwave diathermy uses high-frequency electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 915 MHz and 2450 MHz to generate heat in superficial tissues. This type of diathermy is often used to treat skin conditions such as dermatitis or psoriasis.

Ultrasound diathermy uses high-frequency sound waves with frequencies above 1 MHz to generate heat in soft tissues. This type of diathermy is often used to treat muscle or tendon injuries, promote healing, or relieve pain.

Diathermy should be administered by a trained healthcare professional, as there are potential risks and complications associated with its use, including burns, discomfort, or damage to implanted medical devices such as pacemakers.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity. The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube, accounting for about 95% of cases. This condition is also known as tubal pregnancy. Other less common sites include the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. However, in an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and starts to develop somewhere other than the uterus. The growing embryo cannot survive outside the uterus, and if left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can cause life-threatening bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or other organs.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, lightheadedness, fainting, and in severe cases, shock. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests to measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy depends on several factors, including the location, size, and growth rate of the ectopic mass, as well as the patient's overall health and desire for future pregnancies. Treatment options may include medication to stop the growth of the embryo or surgery to remove the ectopic tissue. In some cases, both methods may be used together. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve the chances of preserving fertility in future pregnancies.

Gamma rays are a type of ionizing radiation that is released from the nucleus of an atom during radioactive decay. They are high-energy photons, with wavelengths shorter than 0.01 nanometers and frequencies greater than 3 x 10^19 Hz. Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiation, similar to X-rays, but with higher energy levels and the ability to penetrate matter more deeply. They can cause damage to living tissue and are used in medical imaging and cancer treatment.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

Chemosterilants are chemical agents that are used to sterilize or inhibit the reproduction of insects and other pests. These chemicals work by interfering with the normal functioning of the reproductive system, either by preventing the formation or maturation of gametes (sex cells) or by preventing the successful fertilization and development of offspring.

Chemosterilants are often used in public health programs to control the spread of disease-carrying insects, such as mosquitoes and ticks. They can also be used in agricultural settings to manage pests that damage crops or stored food products.

Some common chemosterilants include:

* Aziridines: These are a group of chemicals that work by alkylating (adding an alkyl group to) the DNA of cells, which can prevent them from dividing and reproducing. Aziridines are often used to sterilize male insects.
* Dinitrophenols: These chemicals disrupt the energy production in cells, which can lead to sterility or death. Dinitrophenols are sometimes used to sterilize female insects.
* Spinosad: This is a natural compound produced by a soil bacterium that acts as a neurotoxin to insects. It can be used to control a wide range of pests, including flies, mosquitoes, and moths.

It's important to note that chemosterilants are not typically used in medical treatments for humans or other animals. They are primarily used as tools for controlling pest populations in public health and agricultural settings.

Food irradiation is a process that uses ionizing radiation to kill bacteria, parasites, and insects in food. It also slows down the ripening and sprouting of foods and eliminates or reduces the need for chemical fumigants and preservatives. The food does not become radioactive as a result of irradiation.

The three types of radiation sources used for food irradiation are gamma rays, electron beams, and X-rays. Gamma rays are produced naturally by the decay of radioisotopes such as cobalt-60 or cesium-137. Electron beams and X-rays are produced artificially.

Food irradiation is regulated in many countries, including the United States, where it is approved for use on a variety of foods, including spices, herbs, seasonings, fruits, vegetables, grains, poultry, red meats, and eggs. The process is considered safe for human consumption and has been endorsed by numerous scientific organizations, including the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

I believe there may be some confusion in your question as Polyethylenes are not a medical term, but rather a category of synthetic polymers commonly used in various industrial and medical applications. Here's a brief overview:

Polyethylene (PE) is a type of thermoplastic polymer made from the monomer ethylene. It is a versatile material with numerous applications due to its chemical resistance, durability, and flexibility. There are several types of polyethylenes, including:

1. Low-density polyethylene (LDPE): This type has a lower density and more branching in its molecular structure, which results in less crystallinity. LDPE is known for its flexibility and is often used in packaging films, bags, and containers.
2. High-density polyethylene (HDPE): HDPE has a higher density and less branching, resulting in greater crystallinity. It is more rigid than LDPE and is commonly used in applications such as bottles, pipes, and containers.
3. Linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE): This type combines the flexibility of LDPE with some of the strength and rigidity of HDPE. LLDPE has fewer branches than LDPE but more than HDPE. It is often used in film applications, such as stretch wrap and agricultural films.
4. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE): UHMWPE has an extremely high molecular weight, resulting in exceptional wear resistance, impact strength, and chemical resistance. It is commonly used in medical applications, such as orthopedic implants and joint replacements, due to its biocompatibility and low friction coefficient.

While polyethylenes are not a medical term per se, they do have significant medical applications, particularly UHMWPE in orthopedic devices.

I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of marriage, as the concept of marriage is a social, legal, and often religious institution, rather than a medical one. However, I can tell you that there are no medical definitions associated with the term "marriage." It is typically defined in terms of a committed relationship between two individuals, recognized by law and/or religion, which may involve shared responsibilities, rights, and obligations.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

A Glucose Solution, Hypertonic is a medical solution that contains a higher concentration of glucose (sugar) than is found in normal body fluids. This results in an osmotic gradient that draws water from the surrounding tissues and increases the osmolarity of the body fluids. It is often used in medical settings to treat certain conditions such as hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or dehydration due to diarrhea or vomiting. However, it's important to note that hypertonic glucose solutions should be used with caution because high concentrations of glucose can lead to complications like hyperglycemia and dehydration if not properly managed.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

An angioscope is a type of medical device that is used to visually examine the interior of blood vessels and other hollow structures within the body. It is a thin, flexible fiber-optic instrument that can be inserted into the vessel through a small incision or catheterization procedure. Once in place, the angioscope allows physicians to directly observe the internal lining of the vessel and identify any abnormalities, such as plaque buildup, inflammation, or tumors.

Angioscopes are often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tools, such as angiography or intravascular ultrasound, to provide a more complete picture of the condition of the blood vessels. They can be particularly useful in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, and vasculitis.

It's important to note that while angioscopes can provide valuable diagnostic information, they are typically used as part of a larger diagnostic workup and may not always be necessary or appropriate in every case. The decision to use an angioscope should be made by a qualified medical professional based on the individual patient's needs and circumstances.

Contraceptive devices are medical products or tools specifically designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the fertilization of an egg by sperm, or the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. There are various types of contraceptive devices available, each with its own mechanism of action and efficacy rate. Here are some common examples:

1. Intrauterine Devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by affecting the movement of sperm and changing the lining of the uterus to make it less receptive to implantation.
2. Contraceptive Implants: These are small, flexible rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to block sperm from reaching the egg.
3. Diaphragms and Cervical Caps: These are flexible, dome-shaped devices made of silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina before sex. They cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
4. Male and Female Condoms: These are thin sheaths made of latex, polyurethane, or other materials that are placed over the penis (male condom) or inside the vagina (female condom) during sex to prevent sperm from entering the body.
5. Spermicides: These are chemicals that kill or disable sperm and can be used alone or in combination with other contraceptive methods such as condoms, diaphragms, or cervical caps. They come in various forms, including foams, creams, gels, films, and suppositories.

It's important to note that while contraceptive devices are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms is the best way to reduce the risk of STIs during sexual activity.

Disposable equipment in a medical context refers to items that are designed to be used once and then discarded. These items are often patient-care products that come into contact with patients or bodily fluids, and are meant to help reduce the risk of infection transmission. Examples of disposable medical equipment include gloves, gowns, face masks, syringes, and bandages.

Disposable equipment is intended for single use only and should not be reused or cleaned for reuse. This helps ensure that the equipment remains sterile and free from potential contaminants that could cause harm to patients or healthcare workers. Proper disposal of these items is also important to prevent the spread of infection and maintain a safe and clean environment.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Concentration camps are facilities where large numbers of people, typically those belonging to specific demographic groups such as ethnic, political, or social, are detained or imprisoned in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. These camps were originally used during the late 19th and early 20th centuries for military purposes, such as housing prisoners of war. However, they became infamous during World War II when Nazi Germany established a network of concentration camps to persecute and exterminate Jews, Romas, homosexuals, disabled individuals, political dissidents, and other marginalized groups.

The medical definition of concentration camps refers to the systematic deprivation of human rights, including access to adequate food, water, shelter, medical care, and hygiene facilities. The living conditions in these camps are often deplorable, leading to widespread disease, malnutrition, and death. Additionally, many detainees are subjected to forced labor, torture, and mass killings, making concentration camps a tool of political repression and genocide.

It is important to note that the term "concentration camp" should not be used lightly or casually, as it invokes a painful and tragic history of human rights abuses and atrocities. Any use of this term should be done with caution and respect for its historical significance.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Bacteria do not produce spores; instead, it is fungi and other types of microorganisms that produce spores for reproduction and survival purposes. Spores are essentially reproductive cells that are resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive under harsh conditions.

If you meant to ask about endospores, those are produced by some bacteria as a protective mechanism during times of stress or nutrient deprivation. Endospores are highly resistant structures containing bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes. They can survive for long periods in extreme environments and germinate into vegetative cells when conditions improve.

Here's the medical definition of endospores:

Endospores (also called bacterial spores) are highly resistant, dormant structures produced by certain bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They contain a core of bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes surrounded by a protective layer called the spore coat. Endospores can survive under harsh conditions for extended periods and germinate into vegetative cells when favorable conditions return. Common examples of endospore-forming bacteria include Bacillus species (such as B. anthracis, which causes anthrax) and Clostridium species (such as C. difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea).

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Glutaral" does not seem to be a recognized medical term or abbreviation in healthcare and biomedical sciences. It is possible that you may be looking for information on "glutaraldehyde," which is a disinfectant and sterilizing agent used in medical settings.

Glutaraldehyde is a chemical compound with the formula C5H8O2, and it's often used as a 2% solution. It's an effective agent against bacteria, viruses, and fungi, making it useful for sterilizing medical equipment. However, glutaraldehyde can cause respiratory issues and skin irritation in some individuals, so proper handling and use are essential to minimize exposure.

If you meant to ask about a different term or if this answer does not address your question, please provide more context or clarify your request, and I will be happy to help further.

A laparoscope is a type of medical instrument called an endoscope, which is used to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. Specifically, a laparoscope is a long, thin tube with a high-intensity light and a high-resolution camera attached to it. This device allows surgeons to view the abdominal cavity through small incisions, without having to make large, invasive cuts.

During a laparoscopic procedure, the surgeon will insert the laparoscope through a small incision in the abdomen, typically near the navel. The camera sends images back to a monitor, giving the surgeon a clear view of the organs and tissues inside the body. This allows for more precise and less invasive surgical procedures, often resulting in faster recovery times and fewer complications compared to traditional open surgery.

Laparoscopes are commonly used in a variety of surgical procedures, including:

1. Gynecological surgeries (e.g., hysterectomies, ovarian cyst removals)
2. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
3. Gastrointestinal surgeries (e.g., removing benign or malignant tumors)
4. Hernia repairs
5. Bariatric surgeries for weight loss (e.g., gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy)

While laparoscopes provide numerous benefits over open surgery, they still require specialized training and expertise to use effectively and safely.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Ambulatory surgical procedures, also known as outpatient or same-day surgery, refer to medical operations that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These procedures are typically performed in a specialized ambulatory surgery center (ASC) or in a hospital-based outpatient department. Patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures receive anesthesia, undergo the operation, and recover enough to be discharged home on the same day of the procedure.

Examples of common ambulatory surgical procedures include:

1. Arthroscopy (joint scope examination and repair)
2. Cataract surgery
3. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy
4. Dental surgery, such as wisdom tooth extraction
5. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
6. Hernia repair
7. Hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus)
8. Minor skin procedures, like biopsies and lesion removals
9. Orthopedic procedures, such as carpal tunnel release or joint injections
10. Pain management procedures, including epidural steroid injections and nerve blocks
11. Podiatric (foot and ankle) surgery
12. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

Advancements in medical technology, minimally invasive surgical techniques, and improved anesthesia methods have contributed to the growth of ambulatory surgical procedures, offering patients a more convenient and cost-effective alternative to traditional inpatient surgeries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Stainless Steel" is not a medical term. It is a type of steel that contains at least 10.5% chromium content by mass, and usually contains nickel as well. The chromium forms a passive film that protects the metal from corrosion and staining. Stainless steel is widely used in various industries including medicine, for example, in medical equipment and surgical instruments due to its resistance to rust and corrosion.

'Equipment and Supplies' is a term used in the medical field to refer to the physical items and materials needed for medical care, treatment, and procedures. These can include a wide range of items, such as:

* Medical equipment: This includes devices and machines used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes, such as stethoscopes, blood pressure monitors, EKG machines, ventilators, and infusion pumps.
* Medical supplies: These are consumable items that are used once and then discarded, such as syringes, needles, bandages, gowns, gloves, and face masks.
* Furniture and fixtures: This includes items such as hospital beds, examination tables, chairs, and cabinets that are used to create a functional medical space.

Having the right equipment and supplies is essential for providing safe and effective medical care. The specific items needed will depend on the type of medical practice or facility, as well as the needs of individual patients.

I'm happy to help, but I think there might be a bit of confusion in your question. Religion and sex are two distinct concepts that don't have a medical definition when combined. However, I can provide you with some information about each one separately.

Religion: Religion is a set of beliefs, practices, rituals, and moral values that are shared by a community or group of individuals. It often involves a belief in a higher power or powers, and may include various traditions, ceremonies, and teachings.

Sex: Sex refers to the biological characteristics that define males and females. It is usually determined by an individual's anatomy, chromosomes, and reproductive organs. Sex can also refer to sexual activity, which involves the intimate contact between two or more individuals for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

If you have any specific questions about either religion or sex in a medical context, please let me know and I'll do my best to provide a helpful response!

Contraception behavior refers to the actions and decisions made by individuals or couples to prevent pregnancy. This can include the use of various contraceptive methods, such as hormonal birth control (e.g., pills, patches, rings), barrier methods (e.g., condoms, diaphragms), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and natural family planning techniques (e.g., fertility awareness-based methods).

Contraception behavior can be influenced by various factors, including personal beliefs, cultural norms, relationship dynamics, access to healthcare services, and knowledge about contraceptive options. It is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, as it allows individuals and couples to plan their families and make informed choices about whether and when to have children.

It's worth noting that while the term "contraception behavior" typically refers to actions taken specifically to prevent pregnancy, some contraceptive methods may also provide protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). For example, condoms are effective at preventing both pregnancy and STIs when used consistently and correctly.

A therapeutic abortion is the deliberate termination of a pregnancy before viability (the ability of the fetus to survive outside the womb), which is generally considered to be around 24 weeks of gestation. The term "therapeutic" is used to describe abortions that are performed for medical reasons, such as to protect the life or health of the pregnant individual, or in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality and cannot survive outside the womb.

Therapeutic abortions may be recommended in situations where continuing the pregnancy poses a significant risk to the health or life of the pregnant individual. For example, if a pregnant person has a serious medical condition such as heart disease, cancer, or severe pre-eclampsia, continuing the pregnancy could worsen their condition and put them at risk of serious complications or even death. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be necessary to protect the health or life of the pregnant individual.

Therapeutic abortions may also be recommended in cases where the fetus has a severe abnormality that is not compatible with life outside the womb. For example, if the fetus has a condition such as anencephaly (a neural tube defect where the brain and skull do not form properly), or a chromosomal abnormality such as Trisomy 13 or 18, continuing the pregnancy may result in a stillbirth or a short, painful life for the infant after birth. In these cases, a therapeutic abortion may be considered a compassionate option to prevent unnecessary suffering.

It's important to note that the decision to undergo a therapeutic abortion is a deeply personal one, and should be made in consultation with medical professionals and trusted family members or support networks. Ultimately, the decision should be based on what is best for the physical and emotional health of the pregnant individual, taking into account their values, beliefs, and circumstances.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Unplanned pregnancy is a pregnancy that is not intended or expected by the woman or couple. It is also sometimes referred to as an "unintended" or "unwanted" pregnancy. This can occur when contraceptive methods fail or are not used, or when there is a lack of knowledge about or access to effective family planning resources. Unplanned pregnancies can present various physical, emotional, and social challenges for the individuals involved, and may also have implications for public health and societal well-being. It's important to note that unplanned pregnancies can still result in wanted and loved children, but the circumstances surrounding their conception may bring additional stressors and considerations.

Electrolysis is a medical procedure that involves the use of electrical current to permanently remove hair growth. It works by passing a thin, solid metal electrode (called a probe) into the natural opening of the hair follicle and applying an electrical charge to destroy the hair root. This process can be used to remove hair from any part of the body, including the face, legs, arms, underarms, and bikini area.

During electrolysis, a trained professional called an electrologist inserts a small needle into the hair follicle and applies a mild electrical current. The current heats up and destroys the hair root, preventing future growth. Multiple treatments are usually necessary to achieve permanent hair removal, as only one or two hairs can be treated at a time.

Electrolysis is considered a safe and effective method for permanent hair removal, but it can cause some discomfort during and after treatment. Common side effects include redness, swelling, and tenderness in the treated area. These side effects typically resolve within a few hours to a few days after treatment.

It's important to note that electrolysis should only be performed by a licensed and trained electrologist. Improper technique can cause scarring, infection, or other complications. Before undergoing electrolysis, it's recommended to consult with a dermatologist or other healthcare provider to discuss the risks and benefits of the procedure.

A bone bank is a facility or organization that collects, stores, and distributes bone grafts or bone-graft substitutes for use in medical procedures. These bones or bone substitutes can come from donors (cadavers or living donors) or can be synthetic. The bones are typically cleaned, sterilized, and processed to make them safe for transplantation before being stored in the bank. Bone banks are regulated by various national and international organizations to ensure the safety and quality of the bone grafts they provide.

Bone banks play an important role in orthopedic and dental surgery, as well as in reconstructive surgery, by providing a source of bone tissue that can be used to repair or rebuild damaged or missing bones. The use of bone grafts from bone banks has been shown to improve outcomes in many surgical procedures, including spinal fusion, joint replacement, and maxillofacial reconstruction.

Medical Definition:

Radiation is the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization, which can occur naturally (e.g., sunlight) or be produced artificially (e.g., x-rays, radioisotopes). In medicine, radiation is used diagnostically and therapeutically in various forms, such as X-rays, gamma rays, and radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat diseases like cancer. However, excessive exposure to radiation can pose health risks, including radiation sickness and increased risk of cancer.

Medical legislation refers to laws and regulations that govern the practice of medicine and related healthcare fields. These laws are established by federal, state, or local governments to ensure that medical professionals provide safe, ethical, and effective care to their patients. They cover a wide range of issues including:

1. Licensing and certification of healthcare providers
2. Standards of care and professional conduct
3. Patient rights and privacy (e.g., HIPAA)
4. Prescription medication use and abuse
5. Medical malpractice and liability
6. Healthcare facility accreditation and safety
7. Public health and prevention measures
8. Research involving human subjects
9. Reimbursement for medical services (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid)
10. Telemedicine and telehealth practices

Medical legislation aims to protect both patients and healthcare providers while maintaining a high standard of care and promoting the overall health of the population.

"Controlled Environment" is a term used to describe a setting in which environmental conditions are monitored, regulated, and maintained within certain specific parameters. These conditions may include factors such as temperature, humidity, light exposure, air quality, and cleanliness. The purpose of a controlled environment is to ensure that the conditions are optimal for a particular activity or process, and to minimize the potential for variability or contamination that could affect outcomes or results.

In medical and healthcare settings, controlled environments are used in a variety of contexts, such as:

* Research laboratories: To ensure consistent and reproducible experimental conditions for scientific studies.
* Pharmaceutical manufacturing: To maintain strict quality control standards during the production of drugs and other medical products.
* Sterile fields: In operating rooms or cleanrooms, to minimize the risk of infection or contamination during surgical procedures or sensitive medical operations.
* Medical storage: For storing temperature-sensitive medications, vaccines, or specimens at specific temperatures to maintain their stability and efficacy.

Overall, controlled environments play a critical role in maintaining safety, quality, and consistency in medical and healthcare settings.

Dialysis solutions are fluids that are used during the process of dialysis, which is a treatment for patients with kidney failure. The main function of these solutions is to help remove waste products and excess fluid from the bloodstream, as the kidneys are no longer able to do so effectively.

The dialysis solution typically contains a mixture of water, electrolytes (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate), and a small amount of glucose. The composition of the solution may vary depending on the individual patient's needs, but it is carefully controlled to match the patient's blood as closely as possible.

During dialysis, the patient's blood is circulated through a special filter called a dialyzer, which separates waste products and excess fluids from the blood. The used dialysis solution, which contains these waste products and excess fluids, is then discarded. Fresh dialysis solution is continuously introduced into the dialyzer to replace the used solution, creating a continuous flow of fluid that helps remove waste products and maintain the proper balance of electrolytes in the patient's blood.

Overall, dialysis solutions play a critical role in helping patients with kidney failure maintain their health and quality of life.

O-Phthalaldehyde (OPA) is not typically defined in a medical context as it is primarily used in laboratory settings as a reagent for protein quantification and detection. However, it can be mentioned in some scientific or technical medical literature. Here's the general definition:

O-Phthalaldehyde (OPA) is an organic compound with the formula C8H6O2. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, soluble in most organic solvents and sparingly soluble in water. OPA is primarily used as a fluorescent labeling reagent for primary amines, such as the side chains of lysine residues in proteins. This reaction is commonly used for protein detection and quantification assays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). It is crucial to handle OPA with care due to its potential health hazards, which include skin and eye irritation, respiratory issues, and possible carcinogenicity.

In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.

Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.

"Drug storage" refers to the proper handling, maintenance, and preservation of medications in a safe and suitable environment to ensure their effectiveness and safety until they are used. Proper drug storage includes:

1. Protecting drugs from light, heat, and moisture: Exposure to these elements can degrade the quality and potency of medications. Therefore, it is recommended to store most drugs in a cool, dry place, away from direct sunlight.

2. Keeping drugs out of reach of children and pets: Medications should be stored in a secure location, such as a locked cabinet or medicine chest, to prevent accidental ingestion or harm to young children and animals.

3. Following storage instructions on drug labels and packaging: Some medications require specific storage conditions, such as refrigeration or protection from freezing. Always follow the storage instructions provided by the manufacturer or pharmacist.

4. Regularly inspecting drugs for signs of degradation or expiration: Check medications for changes in color, consistency, or odor, and discard any that have expired or show signs of spoilage.

5. Storing drugs separately from one another: Keep different medications separate to prevent cross-contamination, incorrect dosing, or accidental mixing of incompatible substances.

6. Avoiding storage in areas with high humidity or temperature fluctuations: Bathrooms, kitchens, and garages are generally not ideal for storing medications due to their exposure to moisture, heat, and temperature changes.

Proper drug storage is crucial for maintaining the safety, efficacy, and stability of medications. Improper storage can lead to reduced potency, increased risk of adverse effects, or even life-threatening situations. Always consult a healthcare professional or pharmacist for specific storage instructions and recommendations.

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

"Barbering" is a medical term that refers to the act of a bird or other animal feather-plucking or chewing on its own feathers, skin, or other animals' feathers or fur. This behavior can be a sign of various medical conditions, such as feather mites, nutritional deficiencies, or psychological disorders like feather-plucking syndrome. It is important to consult with a veterinarian if you notice barbering behavior in your bird or other animal, as it may indicate an underlying health issue that needs to be addressed.

An endoscope is a medical device used for examining the interior of a body cavity or organ. It consists of a long, thin, flexible (or rigid) tube with a light and a camera at one end. The other end is connected to a video monitor that displays the images captured by the camera. Endoscopes can be inserted through natural openings in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through small incisions. They are used for diagnostic purposes, as well as for performing various medical procedures, including biopsies and surgeries. Different types of endoscopes include gastroscopes, colonoscopes, bronchoscopes, and arthroscopes, among others.

I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding. Hinduism is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the world's major religions, primarily practiced in India and Nepal. It encompasses a wide variety of beliefs, traditions, and practices, which vary significantly among its followers. If you have any questions related to religion, culture, or anthropology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Gynecology is a branch of medicine that deals with the health of the female reproductive system. It includes the diagnosis, treatment, and management of conditions related to the female reproductive organs such as the vagina, cervix, uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Gynecologists provide routine care for women, including Pap tests, breast exams, and family planning advice. They also treat a wide range of gynecological issues, from menstrual disorders and sexually transmitted infections to reproductive system cancers and hormonal imbalances. In addition, many gynecologists also provide obstetric care, making them both ob-gyns.

It's important for women to establish a relationship with a trusted gynecologist to ensure they receive regular checkups and are able to address any concerns or issues related to their reproductive health.

Psoralens are a class of organic compounds that can be found in several plants such as figs, celery, and parsnips. They are primarily known for their use in the treatment of skin conditions like psoriasis and eczema. When combined with ultraviolet A (UVA) light therapy, psoralens can help to slow down the excessive growth of skin cells that lead to these conditions.

Psoralens work by intercalating into DNA, which means they fit between the base pairs of the double helix structure of DNA. When exposed to UVA light, the psoralen molecules undergo a chemical reaction that forms cross-links in the DNA, which can inhibit the replication and transcription of DNA. This effect on skin cells can help to reduce inflammation and slow down the growth of affected skin cells, leading to an improvement in symptoms of certain skin conditions.

It's important to note that psoralens can have side effects, including increased sensitivity to sunlight, which can lead to sunburn and an increased risk of skin cancer with long-term use. Therefore, it's essential to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider carefully when using psoralen therapy.

Sericin is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in the field of biochemistry and materials science. Sericins are a group of proteins that are found in silk fibers produced by certain insects, particularly silkworms (Bombyx mori). These proteins make up about 25-30% of the total weight of silk fibers and are responsible for the adhesive properties that allow silk fibers to stick together.

Sericins have been studied for their potential medical applications due to their unique chemical and physical properties. They have been found to possess various biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound healing properties. Some research has suggested that sericins may be useful in the development of new biomaterials for tissue engineering, drug delivery systems, and medical devices.

However, it is important to note that while sericins have shown promise in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy in humans before they can be widely used in medical applications.

Cobalt isotopes are variants of the chemical element Cobalt (Co) that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. This results in the different isotopes having slightly different masses and varying levels of stability.

The most naturally occurring stable cobalt isotope is Co-59, which contains 27 neutrons in its nucleus. However, there are also several radioactive isotopes of cobalt, including Co-60, which is a commonly used medical and industrial radioisotope.

Co-60 has 30 neutrons in its nucleus and undergoes beta decay, emitting gamma rays and becoming Nickel-60. It has a half-life of approximately 5.27 years, making it useful for a variety of applications, including cancer treatment, industrial radiography, and sterilization of medical equipment.

Other radioactive isotopes of cobalt include Co-57, which has a half-life of 271.8 days and is used in medical imaging, and Co-56, which has a half-life of just 77.2 seconds and is used in research.

Family planning policy refers to a government's official position or action regarding the use of family planning services, including contraception, fertility awareness, and reproductive health education. The goal of family planning policies is to enable individuals and couples to make informed decisions about whether and when to have children, thus contributing to improved maternal and child health outcomes, reduced unintended pregnancies, and lower abortion rates. Family planning policies may include provisions for the provision of free or subsidized contraceptive methods, sex education in schools, training for healthcare providers, and public awareness campaigns. The specific content and implementation of family planning policies vary widely between countries and are often influenced by cultural, religious, and political factors.

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that involves the use of fluoroscopy and a contrast medium to examine the internal structure of the uterus and fallopian tubes. It is primarily used to diagnose abnormalities related to the shape and size of the uterus, endometrial lining, and fallopian tubes, including blockages or scarring that may affect fertility.

During the procedure, a thin catheter is inserted through the cervix into the uterus, and a contrast medium is injected. The radiologist then takes X-ray images as the contrast fills the uterine cavity and flows through the fallopian tubes. This allows for the visualization of any abnormalities such as blockages, scarring, or structural issues that may be impacting fertility or menstrual function.

HSG is typically performed in a radiology department or outpatient clinic by a trained radiologist or gynecologist. It is usually recommended for women who are experiencing infertility, recurrent miscarriages, or abnormal menstrual bleeding, and may be used as part of an evaluation prior to fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Osmotic diuretics are a type of diuretic medication that increase the excretion of urine by increasing the osmolarity of filtrate in the renal tubules. This is achieved by the drugs being freely filtered through the glomerulus and then not being reabsorbed in the tubules, which creates an osmotic gradient that promotes the movement of water into the tubular lumen, thereby increasing urine production.

Examples of osmotic diuretics include mannitol and urea. These medications are primarily used to promote diuresis in patients with conditions such as cerebral edema or increased intracranial pressure, as well as in the treatment of acute renal failure. It is important to note that osmotic diuretics can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances if not used carefully, so close monitoring of fluid and electrolyte levels is necessary during treatment.

Surgical equipment refers to the specialized tools and instruments used by medical professionals during surgical procedures. These devices are designed to assist in various aspects of surgery, such as cutting, grasping, retraction, clamping, and suturing. Surgical equipment can be categorized into several types based on their function and use:

1. Cutting instruments: These include scalpels, scissors, and surgical blades designed to cut through tissues with precision and minimal trauma.

2. Grasping forceps: Forceps are used to hold, manipulate, or retrieve tissue, organs, or other surgical tools. Examples include Babcock forceps, Kelly forceps, and Allis tissue forceps.

3. Retractors: These devices help to expose deeper structures by holding open body cavities or tissues during surgery. Common retractors include Weitlaner retractors, Army-Navy retractors, and self-retaining retractors like the Bookwalter system.

4. Clamps: Used for occluding blood vessels, controlling bleeding, or approximating tissue edges before suturing. Examples of clamps are hemostats, bulldog clips, and Satinsky clamps.

5. Suction devices: These tools help remove fluids, debris, and smoke from the surgical site, improving visibility for the surgeon. Examples include Yankauer suctions and Frazier tip suctions.

6. Needle holders: Specialized forceps designed to hold suture needles securely during the process of suturing or approximating tissue edges.

7. Surgical staplers: Devices that place linear staple lines in tissues, used for quick and efficient closure of surgical incisions or anastomoses (joining two structures together).

8. Cautery devices: Electrosurgical units that use heat generated by electrical current to cut tissue and coagulate bleeding vessels.

9. Implants and prosthetics: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged body parts, such as artificial joints, heart valves, or orthopedic implants.

10. Monitoring and navigation equipment: Advanced tools that provide real-time feedback on patient physiology, surgical site anatomy, or instrument positioning during minimally invasive procedures.

These are just a few examples of the diverse range of instruments and devices used in modern surgery. The choice of tools depends on various factors, including the type of procedure, patient characteristics, and surgeon preference.

Splenic tuberculosis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (ETB), which refers to a manifestation of the disease outside of the lungs. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

In splenic tuberculosis, the infection involves the spleen (an organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen that filters blood and helps fight infection). The infection can occur through the hematogenous spread (dissemination via the bloodstream) from a primary focus elsewhere in the body, such as the lungs.

The disease presents with various symptoms, including fever, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal pain, and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen). Diagnosis often requires a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and microbiological or histopathological confirmation. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of multidrug antibiotics to eliminate the infection and prevent complications.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "microwaves" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; they are commonly used in communication devices and home appliances such as microwave ovens. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate response.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. The copper IUD is a type of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) that releases copper ions, which are toxic to sperm and egg, preventing fertilization. It is one of the most effective forms of birth control available, with a failure rate of less than 1%.

The copper IUD can be used by women who have previously given birth as well as those who have not. It can be inserted up to five days after unprotected intercourse as emergency contraception to prevent pregnancy. Once inserted, the copper IUD can remain in place for up to ten years, although it can be removed at any time if a woman wants to become pregnant or for other reasons.

Copper IUDs are also used as an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding and can be used to manage endometriosis-associated pain. Common side effects of copper IUDs include heavier and longer menstrual periods, cramping during insertion, and irregular periods during the first few months after insertion. However, these side effects usually subside over time.

It is important to note that while copper IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is still recommended to use condoms or other barrier methods of protection during sexual activity to reduce the risk of STIs.

"Military science" is not a term that is typically used in the field of medicine as it does not have a direct medical definition. However, military science can be generally defined as the study and practice of the principles of warfare, including strategy, tactics, logistics, and leadership. It involves the application of knowledge to plan, conduct, and analyze military operations.

In some cases, military science may intersect with medical fields such as military medicine or battlefield medicine, which involve providing medical care and support to military personnel during times of conflict or peacekeeping missions. Military medical professionals must have a strong understanding of military science in order to effectively coordinate their efforts with the overall mission objectives and to provide the best possible care for wounded soldiers in challenging environments.

An Intrauterine Device (IUD) is a long-acting, reversible contraceptive device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It is a small T-shaped piece of flexible plastic with strings attached to it for removal. There are two types of IUDs available: hormonal and copper. Hormonal IUDs release progestin, which thickens cervical mucus and thins the lining of the uterus, preventing sperm from reaching and fertilizing an egg. Copper IUDs, on the other hand, produce an inflammatory reaction in the uterus that is toxic to sperm and eggs, preventing fertilization.

IUDs are more than 99% effective at preventing pregnancy and can remain in place for several years, depending on the type. They are easily removable by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or choose another form of contraception. IUDs do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so it is important to use condoms in addition to an IUD for protection against STIs.

In summary, Intrauterine Devices are small, T-shaped plastic devices that are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. They come in two types: hormonal and copper, both of which work by preventing fertilization. IUDs are highly effective, long-acting, and reversible forms of contraception.

I'm not sure what you're looking for with the term "Medical definition of 'El Salvador'" as El Salvador is a country and not a medical term. However, I can provide some general information about El Salvador and its healthcare system.

El Salvador is a country located in Central America, bordered by Guatemala to the west, Honduras to the north, and Nicaragua to the east. It has a population of approximately 6.5 million people. The official language is Spanish.

The healthcare system in El Salvador is composed of both public and private sectors. The Ministry of Health oversees the public sector, which includes hospitals, health centers, and clinics that provide free or low-cost services to the population. However, due to limited resources and infrastructure, many people seek care in the private sector, which can be expensive and often requires out-of-pocket payments.

El Salvador faces several challenges in its healthcare system, including high rates of infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS, as well as noncommunicable diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. Access to healthcare services can also be limited, particularly in rural areas. The country has made efforts to improve its healthcare system, including the implementation of health reforms aimed at increasing access to care and improving the quality of services.

I hope this information is helpful! If you have any specific questions about El Salvador or its healthcare system, please let me know.

"Geobacillus stearothermophilus" is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that is thermophilic, meaning it thrives at relatively high temperatures. It is commonly found in soil and hot springs, and can also be found in other environments such as compost piles, oil fields, and even in some food products.

The bacterium is known for its ability to form endospores that are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, making it a useful organism for sterility testing and bioprotection applications. It has an optimum growth temperature of around 60-70°C (140-158°F) and can survive at temperatures up to 80°C (176°F).

In the medical field, "Geobacillus stearothermophilus" is not typically associated with human disease or infection. However, there have been rare cases of infections reported in immunocompromised individuals who have come into contact with contaminated medical devices or materials.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jurisprudence" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Jurisprudence refers to the theory and philosophy of law, or the study of legal systems, principles, and practices. It is a subject that falls under the purview of lawyers, judges, and scholars of law. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaOCl. It is a pale greenish-yellow liquid that is highly reactive and unstable in its pure form. However, it is commonly available as a dilute aqueous solution known as bleach, which has the characteristic smell of chlorine.

In medical terms, sodium hypochlorite is widely used for its disinfectant and antiseptic properties. It is effective against a broad range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Sodium hypochlorite solution is commonly used to disinfect surfaces, medical instruments, and wounds.

When applied to wounds or skin infections, sodium hypochlorite can help reduce bacterial load, promote healing, and prevent infection. It is also a component of some mouthwashes and toothpastes, where it helps to kill bacteria and freshen breath. However, it can be irritating to the skin and mucous membranes, so it should be used with caution and at appropriate concentrations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Yukon Territory" is not a medical term. It's actually a geographical location, specifically a territory in northwest Canada, known for its natural beauty and wilderness. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Antisepsis is the process of preventing or limiting the growth and reproduction of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) that can cause infection or disease. This is typically achieved through the use of antiseptic agents, which are substances that inhibit the growth of microorganisms when applied to living tissue or non-living material like surfaces.

Antiseptics work by either killing the microorganisms outright (bactericidal) or preventing them from reproducing and growing (bacteriostatic). They can be applied topically, in the form of creams, ointments, gels, sprays, or washes, to prevent infection in wounds, cuts, burns, or other types of skin damage. Antiseptics are also used in medical devices and equipment to maintain sterility and prevent cross-contamination during procedures.

Examples of antiseptic agents include alcohol, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, and povidone-iodine. The choice of antiseptic depends on the type of microorganism being targeted, the location and severity of the infection, and any potential adverse effects or interactions with other medications or medical conditions.

It's important to note that antisepsis is different from sterilization, which involves the complete destruction of all living organisms, including spores, using methods such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. Sterilization is typically used for surgical instruments and other medical equipment that come into direct contact with sterile tissues or bodily fluids during procedures.

Medical waste disposal is the process of safely and compliantly getting rid of healthcare-related waste, such as used needles, scalpels, bandages, cultures, stocks, swabs used to inoculate cultures, removal of human tissues, unwanted prescription drugs, body parts, identifiable body fluids, and contaminated animal carcasses. The purpose is to protect public health and the environment from potential infection or exposure to harmful agents.

The methods of disposal vary depending on the type and nature of the waste but can include incineration, autoclaving, chemical disinfection, and landfilling. It's strictly regulated by various local, state, and federal agencies to ensure that it's handled and disposed of properly.

Uterine cervical erosion, also known as ectropion or cervical ectopy, is not typically considered a disease or a medical condition but rather a normal variant in the appearance of the cervix. It occurs when the cells that normally line the inside of the cervical canal (glandular cells) extend out onto the surface of the exocervix, which is the portion of the cervix that is visible during a routine pelvic examination.

This extension of glandular cells can appear as a red, smooth, and shiny area on the cervix, and it may be more prone to bleeding or discomfort during intercourse or menstruation. Cervical erosion can be caused by various factors, including hormonal changes, inflammation, or irritation of the cervix.

While cervical erosion is not typically harmful, it can increase the risk of certain infections, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, it is essential to monitor and treat any underlying conditions that may contribute to cervical erosion. In some cases, cervical erosion may resolve on its own without treatment, but if it causes discomfort or bleeding, treatment options such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, or cauterization may be recommended.

"Centella" is the common name for a plant species known scientifically as *Centella asiatica*, also referred to as gotu kola. It is a herb that has been used in traditional medicine in various cultures, including Ayurvedic and Chinese medicine, for its potential health benefits. The active compounds in centella include saponins called asiaticoside, madecassoside, and madasiatic acid, which are believed to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties.

Centella has been studied for its potential effects on various conditions, such as anxiety, cognitive function, and skin health. However, more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before using centella to ensure that it's appropriate for your individual health needs and to avoid potential interactions with other medications.

In medical and legal contexts, a minor is a person who has not yet reached the age of majority. The age of majority varies depending on the jurisdiction but is generally 18 or 21 years old. Minors are considered to be legally incompetent to make certain decisions for themselves, such as consenting to medical treatment or signing a contract. Therefore, in healthcare settings, minors typically require the consent of a parent or guardian before receiving medical care, except in specific circumstances where the minor is deemed mature enough to make their own decisions (e.g., emancipated minors).

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Look up sterilization in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Sterilization may refer to: Sterilization (microbiology), killing or ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Sterilization. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ... renders a human unable to reproduce Neutering is the surgical sterilization of animals Irradiation induced sterility is used in ... a farming technique that sterilizes soil with steam in open fields or greenhouses Sterilization (medicine) ...
Sterilization was used by the US and France in the 1920s and 1930s, initially with some success as they built up huge hoards of ... In macroeconomics, sterilization is action taken by a country's central bank to counter the effects on the money supply caused ... Over the first few years of the 21st century, China was able to make a good yearly profit on its sterilization operations, ... In the 1930s and in the 21st century, sterilization has most commonly been associated with efforts by nations with a balance of ...
Sterilization (or sterilisation) refers to any process that removes, kills, or deactivates all forms of life (particularly ... "Sterilization , NASP". North American Sterilization & Packaging. Retrieved 2016-05-17. Mushtaq M, Banks CJ, Heaven S (May 2012 ... "Chemical Vapor Sterilization". Incineration Thiel, Theresa (1999). "Sterilization of Broth Media by ... This method is a faster process than dry heat sterilization. Steam sterilization is performed using an autoclave, sometimes ...
Though sterilization could be performed on men and women, women were most likely to undergo the procedure. Sterilization was ... Compulsory sterilization, also known as forced or coerced sterilization, is a government-mandated program to involuntarily ... The U.S. commonwealth of Puerto Rico had a sterilization program as well. Some states continued to have sterilization laws on ... On the legal history of eugenic sterilization in the U.S., see Lombardo, Paul. "Eugenic Sterilization Laws". Eugenics Archive. ...
In some cases, sterilization can be reversed but not all. It can vary by the type of sterilization performed. Surgical ... Sterilization (also spelled sterilisation) is any of a number of medical methods of birth control that intentionally leaves a ... Sterilization methods include both surgical and non-surgical, and exist for both males and females. Sterilization procedures ... Because sterilization is a largely irreversible procedure, post-sterilization regret is a major psychological effect. The most ...
Pressure sterilization is the prevailing method used for medical sterilization of heat-resistant tools, and for sterilization ... Moist heat sterilization describes sterilization techniques that use hot water vapor as a sterilizing agent. Heating an article ... indicates that sterilization was not achieved and the sterilization cycle may need revision or improvement.[citation needed] A ... Heating an article is one of the earliest forms of sterilization practiced. Moist heat sterilization processes sterilize using ...
Madrigal v. Quilligan No más bebés Sterilization law in the United States Eugenics in the United States Sterilization of Native ... Priddy recommended her for sterilization. This was brought to the courts in order to sanctify the sterilization order. Buck's ... The doctors who did the sterilization were not punished. Involuntary sterilization programs were in some instances supported ... Committee for Abortion Rights and Against Sterilization Abuse (CARASA) (1979). Women Under Attack: Abortion, Sterilization ...
During the time the Sexual Sterilization Act was in effect, 4,800 cases were proposed for sterilization in the Province of ... The criterion for sterilization in both categories was no longer solely genetic. The risk of mental injury to the patient or ... The Sexual Sterilization Act was first introduced into the legislature on March 5, 1927, but due to a crowded session and ... The Sterilization of Leilani Muir. Video recording, 1996. McLaren, Angus. Our Own Master Race: Eugenics in Canada, 1885-1945. ...
In horticulture as well as nurseries for sterilization of substrates and top soil In agriculture for sterilization and ... I. Physical aspects of soil sterilisation - II. Practical aspects of soil sterilisation - III. Selection of boiler, steam mains ... sterilization of top soil and combined application as heating In wineries as combination boiler for sterilization and cleaning ... Modern soil steam sterilization was first discovered in 1888 (by Frank in Germany) and was first commercially used in the ...
... of an object is one of the earliest forms of sterilization practiced. It uses hot air that is either ... The dry heat sterilization process is accomplished by conduction; that is where heat is absorbed by the exterior surface of an ... The proper time and temperature for dry heat sterilization is 160 °C (320 °F) for 2 hours or 170 °C (340 °F) for 1 hour, and in ... The presence of moisture, such as in steam sterilization, significantly speeds up heat penetration. There are two types of hot ...
... when sterilizations began to be performed, there were no pre-existing conditions which necessitated sterilizations other than ... but still excluded the sterilization campaign. "Mass sterilisation scandal shocks Peru". BBC News. 2002-07-24. Retrieved 2021- ... Forced sterilization in Peru was a part of a larger effort which was variably described as the ethnic cleansing or genocide of ... The forced sterilization of vulnerable groups through the Programa Nacional de Población has been variably described as an ...
The Canadian sterilization laws created a Eugenics Board that could impose sterilizations on people without their consent. This ... While it was conceded that sterilization would not change the behavior of these women, sterilization was intended to prevent ... The discussion reached a consensus that involuntary sterilization (or sterilization with substituted consent) is only ... Eugenics Eugenic feminism Eugenics in the United States Compulsory sterilization Sterilization (medicine) "Indigenous women ...
... syndrome (PATSS) is a rare complication that could occur in patients with prior tubal ... Townsend, DE; McCausland, V; McCausland, A; Fields, G; Kauffman, K (1993). "Post-ablation-tubal sterilization syndrome". Obstet ... sterilization following an endometrial ablation procedure. Occult bleeding into the obstructed tubes causes tubal distention ...
Another common form of sterilization was tubal ligation, a sterilization procedure in which a woman's fallopian tubes are tied ... In some cases, women were misled into believing that the sterilization procedure was reversible. In other cases, sterilization ... female sterilization (20%) and male condoms (18%). Today, although the Indian Health Service continues to use sterilization as ... where sterilization has particular religious resonance." In some areas, the sterilization procedure was insufficiently sterile ...
The Virginia Sterilization Act of 1924 was a U.S. state law in Virginia for the sterilization of institutionalized persons " ... In 1922, he published his book, Eugenical Sterilization in the United States, which included a "MODEL EUGENICAL STERILIZATION ... Forced sterilization, however, was much more common. By 1956, twenty-four states had laws providing for involuntary ... In 2015, Patrick A. Hope reintroduced the Justice for Victims of Sterilization Act, and although the Act did not get past the ...
Whiting, Glynis (1996). The Sterilization of Leilani Muir (film). National Film Board of Canada. "The Sterilization of Leilani ... The Sterilization of Leilani Muir is a 1996 documentary directed by Glynis Whiting about the life and times of Leilani Muir, ... The Sterilization of Leilani Muir at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, 1996 ... "Sociology Video Project: The Sterilization of Leilani Muir". York University, Department of Sociology. Retrieved June 20, 2013 ...
The sterilization may be authorized if the court determines with clear and convincing evidence that the sterilization is in the ... The sterilization may be consummated after the hospital's sterilization committee reviews and approves the request. None of ... As the 26th state to pass any kind of sterilization law, Mississippi began the first sterilization on an inmate. The people ... "Our understanding" of any laws that were created in regards to sterilization in this state is that all types of sterilization ...
This article provides an overview of human sterilization by country. While many countries permit voluntary sterilization for ... Muslim, Nina (2 April 2008). "Women now able to undergo sterilisation at private hospitals". Retrieved 17 ... EngenderHealth (2002). "4". Contraceptive sterilization : global issues and trends. John A. Ross. New York, NY: EngenderHealth ... ". "2016-2017 Human Rights in Lithuania" (PDF). Lithuania has not legalized voluntary surgical sterilization, as a family ...
The forced sterilizations were often rushed and used little anesthetics. The sterilization process affected very intimate areas ... More than one hundred female sterilizations were known by the 1930s. Sterilization procedures were done by two common ways: ... For the first sterilization, the incision was horizontal but the second time they made a long vertical cut in my belly. I've ... By 1940 sterilization stopped and was followed by killing which was called "Mercy Killing" by the Nazis, about 16,000 deaf ...
Until 2013, sterilisation was mandatory before sex change. This last mandatory sterilisation has been criticised by several ... SOU 1974:25 Fri sterilisering, "The current Sterilization Law (1941: 282) is restrictive. License is required for sterilisation ... Compulsory sterilisation in Sweden were sterilisations which were carried out in Sweden, without a valid consent of the subject ... Another law, passed in 1941, was more far reaching and stated three broad grounds on which sterilisation could be carried out: ...
"Sterilisation death toll climbs to 13". The Asian Age. Dash, Jatindra (11 November 2014). "Ten women die after botched surgery ... "Sterilization Deaths Show India's Health Care Ills". ABC News. Associated Press. 12 November 2014. Retrieved 12 November 2014. ... He was then honored by the Chhattisgarh government for carrying out the record number of sterilizations. However, the women ... On November 14, 2014, the Director of Mahawar Pharma, the company that supplied medicines used in the sterilizations, was ...
This is a list of instruments used in microbiological sterilization and disinfection. Ananthanarayan, R.; Paniker, C.K. Jayaram ...
... , also known as the CS&A Act 1977, is an Act of Parliament in New Zealand. ... The Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion (Safe Areas) Amendment Act 2022 inserts Sections 13A to 13C which: Section 13A: ... The Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion Act 1977 regulated the supply of contraceptives to young people, the conditions ... "Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion Act 1977 passed". New Zealand History. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 19 March ...
New Zealand Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion (1977). Contraception, sterilisation and abortion in ... The Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion was carried out in New Zealand from 1975 to 1977, shortly ... 1977). Critique of the report of the Royal Commission of Inquiry into Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion in New Zealand ... Wills, D (1977). "The report of the Royal Commission on Contraception, Sterilisation and Abortion: a comparison with health ...
Compulsory sterilization is the unwanted and/or nonconsensual sterilization of both men and women. The main form of ... Sterilization in the United States prison system dates back to the same origins as compulsory sterilization of developmentally ... In the 1907 sterilization law passed by Indiana governor Frank J. Hanly, sterilization was made mandatory for "criminals, ... Compulsory Sterilization Eugenics in the United States Carey, Allison (1 March 1998). "Gender and Compulsory Sterilization ...
The Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion (Safe Areas) Amendment Act 2022 is an Act of Parliament in New Zealand that will ... The Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion (Safe Areas) Amendment Bill is a private member's bill introduced by Labour ... "Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion (Safe Areas) Amendment Bill". New Zealand Parliament. Archived from the original on ... "Contraception, Sterilisation, and Abortion (Safe Areas) Amendment Bill". Member's Bill of 16 February 2022. New Zealand ...
Sterilization". American Archive. Archived from the original on May 1, 2022. Page 91, We, the Northern Cheyenne People, ...
They discussed involuntary sterilization on the reservation and in Lame Deer, Montana. The reservation only had 2400 people in ... In a span of 6 years it resulted in circa 25% involuntary sterilization of Native American women and called it modern genocide ... In the 1970s, she protested against some sterilization procedures for tribal members in the 1970s that were performed in ... "A 1970 Law Led to the Mass Sterilization of Native American Women. That History Still Matters". Time. November 28, 2019. ...
Sterilization > Watsons distilled water Watsons has been a sponsor for numerous teams and drivers at the Macau Grand Prix. They ...
Bullough, Vern L. (2001). "Sterilization". Encyclopedia of birth control. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-181-6. Chatterton, Jocelyn ...
Male sterilization, or vasectomy, is one of the few contraceptive methods available to men and can be performed in an ... Male sterilization does not protect against STDs; consistent and correct use of male latex condoms reduces the risk for STDs, ... Fewer than 1 woman out of 100 becomes pregnant in the first year after her male partner undergoes sterilization (14). Because ... all men should be appropriately counseled about the permanency of sterilization and the availability of highly effective, long- ...
Look up sterilization in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Sterilization may refer to: Sterilization (microbiology), killing or ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Sterilization. If an internal link led you here, you may wish ... renders a human unable to reproduce Neutering is the surgical sterilization of animals Irradiation induced sterility is used in ... a farming technique that sterilizes soil with steam in open fields or greenhouses Sterilization (medicine) ...
Pressure sterilization is the prevailing method used for medical sterilization of heat-resistant tools, and for sterilization ... Moist heat sterilization describes sterilization techniques that use hot water vapor as a sterilizing agent. Heating an article ... indicates that sterilization was not achieved and the sterilization cycle may need revision or improvement.[citation needed] A ... Heating an article is one of the earliest forms of sterilization practiced. Moist heat sterilization processes sterilize using ...
Sterilization Basics Great courses to start your sterilization monitoring education with!. *When Patient Safety is on the Table ... Steam Sterilization Great courses to start your sterilization monitoring education with!. *Design, Function and Application of ... Sterilization Quality Control in the Clinic Setting by Susan Flynn. *Monitoring the Sterilization Process & Troubleshooting ... Hydrogen Peroxide Sterilization Listen to our very own technical service expert provide the tools you need for hydrogen ...
Refill packs for Portable Sterilization Spray DL-SP006EN-W. • Available in convenient packing 5ml x 30 refills. • Individual ... for PORTABLE STERILIZATION SPRAY DL-SP006EN-W REFILL PACKS (5ml) 30PCS DL-SP10BEN. ... PORTABLE STERILIZATION SPRAY DL-SP006EN-W REFILL PACKS (5ml) 30PCS DL-SP10BEN. ...
Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities (2008) ... Table 8. Examples of flash steam sterilization parameters. *Table 9. Characteristics of an ideal low-temperature sterilization ... Factors Affecting the Efficacy of Disinfection and Sterilization. Guideline for Disinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare ... The effects of inorganic contaminants on the sterilization process were studied during the 1950s and 1960s 424, 425. These and ...
A sterilization surgery is a procedure done to permanently prevent future pregnancies. ... When deciding if you want to have a sterilization procedure, it is important to consider: *Whether or not you want any more ... People who do not want to have any more children may choose to have sterilization surgery. However, some may regret the ... Talk to your health care provider about all the options available to you before making the decision to have a sterilization ...
At least 110 Romani women in eastern Slovakia have been subjected to involuntary sterilization says a recent report by ... Under communism, Romani women were paid bribes to undergo sterilization.. Police and Government Harassment Has Increased as a ... She died in her mid-twenties her life the price of the sterilization that brings the Peruvian population control program one ... Romani women in eastern Slovakia have been subject to at least 110 forced and coerced sterilizations in government health care ...
... "flash sterilization" or, more recently, "immediate use steam sterilization." During flash and immediate use steam sterilization ... Sterilization wraps, like rigid sterilization containers such as One Tray, are cleared with an intended use that specifies, ... This clearance describes One Tray as a sterilization wrap intended for the rapid sterilization of instruments in flash cycles, ... "ONE TRAY® is a terminal sterilization container not an IUSS [Immediate Use Steam Sterilization] container." "Offers an option ...
enforced sterilization. Primary tabs. Enforced sterilization, also known as compulsory sterilization, refers to forcibly ... Sterilization, which usually involves surgical procedures, eliminates a persons ability to procreate. Widespread or systematic ... enforced sterilization is a crime against humanity under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ...
Japan Court Rules Against Mandatory Transgender Sterilization. Surgery Requirement Held to be Unconstitutional ... filed a court request to have his legal gender recognized as male without undergoing sterilization surgery as prescribed by ... case before the grand chamber of the Supreme Court asks the justices to eliminate the outdated and abusive sterilization ...
Highly recommended for checking sterilization in heavily packed autoclaves. ... Heat-sensitive strips that change colors to indicate that sterilization temperatures have been achieved. ... Decrease quantity for Sterilization Indicator Strips - Box of 250 Increase quantity for Sterilization Indicator Strips - Box of ... Heat-sensitive strips that change colors to indicate that sterilization temperatures have been achieved. Highly recommended for ...
... Maia Anderson - Thursday, October 8th, 2020. ... "Hope the FDA can approve Mask Sterilization equipment ASAP. As per Governor @MikeDeWine, there is a company in Ohio, @Battelle ...
Documentation should reflect activities related to sterilization.. *Policies and procedures for sterilization and sterilization ... Dry-heat sterilization should be used only for materials that are impenetrable to moist heat. Dry heat may be used to sterilize ... Immediate use sterilization should be kept to a minimum and should be used only in selected clinical situations in a controlled ... Ethylene oxide sterilization is a low temperature process that may be used for moisture- and heat-sensitive surgical items and ...
Steam sterilization (wet heat) is the most common form of non-industrial-based sterilization. During this process the packaging ... The sterilization process used for ionizing radiation sterilization is different and simpler from gas-based methods. During ... Packaging engineering considerations for EO sterilization. EO is the most common sterilization method used in the medical ... Packaging engineering considerations for radiation sterilization. The next most prevalent form of sterilization is ionizing ...
... a non-contact sterilization system that instantly kills microorganisms on the outside of packages to prevent the contents from ... Xenons SteriPulse-XL surface decontamination system, a non-contact sterilization system that instantly kills microorganisms on ...
... to central India on Wednesday after at least 12 women died and dozens of others fell ill during a government-run sterilization ... Sterilizations continue to be the most popular method of birth control in India, with many women opting for them because a one- ... Indian doctor arrested for deaths of 13 women after sterilization. A total of 83 women had the surgeries as part of a free ... A total of 83 women had the surgeries as part of a free government-run mass sterilization campaign and were sent home that ...
autocalve sterilization tapes for use in containers that will undergo sterilization in steam autoclaves, autoclave-resistant ... NEW Autoclave Sterilization Indicator Tape. & Autoclave Resistant Thermal Transfer Tape. NEW Steam Sterilization Indicator Tape ... Steam Sterilization Tape is used to confirm that the labeled material has been autoclaved. The tape is available in two sizes: ... Withstands sterilization by steam autoclaves and dry heat ovens. *Uses unique color-changing stripes to indicate whether ...
Sterilization Laws Are Still on the Books - and Pose New Dangers Post-"Roe" The legacy of eugenics threatens to break forth ... whose 2020 documentary about the legacy of Californias sterilization program identified almost 1,400 sterilizations in which ... Victims of Forced Sterilization in California Are Fighting for Reparations Gaining justice for survivors of the states abuse ... Few Victims of Forced Sterilization in California Have Received Reparations. Only a fraction of those eligible are believed to ...
A university study released late last year found there have been at least 22 cases of forced sterilization of First Nations and ...
... the most commonly used method of sterilization for women. ... The average cost for the hysteroscopic sterilization was $2,314 ... Mayo Clinic gynecologists have discovered that hysteroscopic sterilization, a new method of plugging the fallopian tubes to ... Hysteroscopic sterilization will save patients money compared to laparoscopic tubal ligation. *Download PDF Copy ... Tags: Conception, Drugs, Hospital, Ligation, Nursing, Pain, Pharmacy, Pregnancy, Sterilization, Surgery, Tubal Ligation, Vagina ...
Mass sterilizations in India leads to deaths. Indias disregard for human life, especially the lives of the poor, is an ... The forcible sterilisation campaign was based on the premise that these women had no control over their own lives. Thus it was ... Indias government has a sordid history of promoting mass sterilizations. In the mid-1970s, Indira Ghandi created these ... the government pays medical personnel for each subject they can round up and get to a government-run sterilization hospital. ( ...
Capacity for Microwave Liquid Sterilization Equipment varies from 150 to 1500 kg per hour. Capacity for microwave tunnels ... Microwave Liquid Sterilization Equipmentoffers a complete range of 915 MHz Microwave thawing machine for the food industry and ... Physical sterilization,do not need to add any chemical sterilization drugs,ensure the productsâ ... 5. Continuous steril zation,high degree of automation,fast sterilization,thorough sterilization. ...
Leaders from the Sterilization Packaging Manufacturers Council will explore the latest in package testing, materials, and more ... Leaders from the Sterilization Packaging Manufacturers Council will explore the latest in package testing, materials, and more ... Could you tell us about the Sterilization Packaging Manufacturers Council (SPMC)?. Alip: I think the SPMC mission provides an ... HomePharma & MedicalMedical PackagingNavigate Evolving Medical Device Packaging & Sterilization Regulations ...
Including: 1) By Product Type: Sterilization Equipment; Disinfectants2) By Method: Physical Method; Chemical Method; Mechanical ... Heat Sterilization, Filtration Sterilization, Low Temperature Sterilization, Radiation Sterilization. Covering: 3M Company, ... Sterilization Equipment and Disinfectants Global Market Report 2023. Feb 2023, TBR591F, TBRC (Publisher) ... Sterilization Equipment And Disinfectants Global Market Report 2020-30: COVID 19 Implications and Growth. *Published Date - Jul ...
... the California Legislature is finally grappling with reports of modern-day sterilization abuse in its prison system. ... becomes the first state to agree to provide financial compensation to people who suffered under government-run sterilization ... James Heinrich, an OB/GYN who worked at Valley State Prison for Women, told Johnson that the cost of the sterilizations "isnt ... A human rights organization called Justice Now has been working for years to document and expose the sterilizations. The issue ...
Entitled "Body and Soul: Forced Sterilization and Other Assaults on Roma Reproductive Freedom," the report is based on 230 ... Women Subjected to Forced Sterilizations in Slovakia. Feminist Majority Foundation Blog , March 4, 2003 ... the piece of paper Maria signed was a notation that stated that the patient requested sterilization, the Times reports. ... new report reveals that Romani women in Eastern Slovakia have been subjected to undergo approximately 110 forced sterilizations ...
As UVC sterilisation becomes more prevalent, Knight Optical can offer UV domes to house LEDs and LED arrays, as well as other ...
  • Awareness of these factors should lead to better use of disinfection and sterilization processes and will be briefly reviewed. (
  • This reinforces the need for scrupulous cleaning of medical instruments before disinfection and sterilization. (
  • Implicit in all disinfection strategies is the consideration that the most resistant microbial subpopulation controls the sterilization or disinfection time. (
  • Conclusion ITherefore, given the results presented, it may be concluded that most of the private dental clinics in the city of Porto Velho, Rondônia, use autoclave sterilization as the preferred method and that it was effective given the biological indicators used, but the knowledge of dental surgeons regarding the process of sterilization and disinfection was insufficient, which alerts to the need for greater awareness by the professionals. (
  • Accordingly, you're about to hear from CDC experts on recommendations for resuming non-emergency dental care during the COVID-19 pandemic, new information regarding facility and equipment considerations, sterilization, and disinfection, and considerations for the use of test-based strategies to inform patient care, and on expanded recommendations for provision of dental care to both patients with COVID-19 and patients without COVID-19. (
  • Romani women in eastern Slovakia have been subject to at least 110 forced and coerced sterilizations in government health care facilities since the fall of communism in 1989, according to a recent report by human rights investigators in New York and Slovakia. (
  • At least 110 Romani women in eastern Slovakia have been subjected to involuntary sterilization says a recent report by investigators from women's rights organizations in New York and Slovakia. (
  • The money Pulido received is part of California's effort to reckon with and respond to its past: a history in which more than 20,000 incarcerated people - largely women - underwent involuntary sterilization procedures. (
  • India's government has a sordid history of promoting mass sterilizations. (
  • If the BLM were to move forward with impractical mass sterilizations and the results fell short for any number of reasons (e.g., cost, logistics, medical complications), the failure could provide the latest impetus for lawmakers to renew a push for the BLM to resort to outright culling of the herds in order to reduce numbers. (
  • When using biological indicators, samples containing spores of heat-resistant microbes such as Geobacillus stearothermophilis are sterilized alongside a standard load, and are then incubated in sterile media (often contained within the sample in a glass ampule to be broken after sterilization). (
  • flash sterilization equipment is often kept in an operating room's sterile field, steam-penetrative protective packaging may be used to prepackage items, and specially designed rigid sterilization container systems can be reused. (
  • Further, to date, FDA has not cleared or approved a rigid reusable sterilization container with an intended use for terminal sterile storage with retained moisture. (
  • Reusable medical devices, including surgical instruments that enter normally sterile tissue or the vascular system require sterilization before each use. (
  • The package must demonstrate that it is effective in facilitating sterilization, maintaining sterile barrier properties for the claimed shelf life, physically protecting and containing the product, and facilitating easy removal and use in the field. (
  • While all of these functions are critical to the success of the packaging, facilitating sterilization and maintaining sterile barrier properties are probably the least understood. (
  • Addressing these challenges, the Sterilization Packaging Manufacturers Council , or SPMC, consists of a group of industry leaders who work collaboratively to educate professionals on packaging and sterilization practices and how to deliver medical devices in a safe and sterile manner, ultimately, providing unparalleled patient care. (
  • A small percentage of ethylene oxide is used in the sterilization or fumigation of certain equipment (about 50% of all sterile medical devices), cosmetics, and food (ATSDR 2020, EPA 2018, NTP 2021). (
  • Ethylene oxide sterilization is a low temperature process that may be used for moisture- and heat-sensitive surgical items and when indicated by the device manufacturer. (
  • While "sterility" implies the destruction of free-living organisms which may grow within a sample, sterilization does not necessarily entail destruction of infectious matter. (
  • Sterilized materials should be labeled and stored in a manner to ensure sterility and marked with the sterilization date. (
  • ISO 11137-2:2011 specifies methods of determining the minimum dose needed to achieve a specified requirement for sterility and methods to substantiate the use of 25 kGy or 15 kGy as the sterilization dose to achieve a sterility assurance level, SAL, of 10 -6 . (
  • ONE TRAY® Sealed Sterilization Containers are intended to be used to hold temperature tolerant medical devices, surgical supplies, single instruments, multiple instruments or an instrument set for immediate use following flash sterilization. (
  • Sterilization, which usually involves surgical procedures, eliminates a person's ability to procreate. (
  • The conference and exhibition is strategically held in one of the nation's largest healthcare hubs, designed to bring together the visionaries who are changing the digital health technology landscape, refining the art of surgical robotics, and transforming the critical field of medical device packaging sterilization. (
  • Surgical sterilization, on the other hand, entails a risky and highly invasive procedure that causes significant distress to the animal. (
  • Proponents of surgical sterilization sometimes argue the process is similar to fertility control methods that have been used to curb populations of other wild animals, such as deer. (
  • For an agency such as the BLM, which routinely informs lawmakers and the public that it does not have sufficient resources and funding to effectively manage wild horses and burros, it is hard to imagine how attempting to implement mass surgical sterilizations would help matters. (
  • Following an independent review in 2017, the then-Saskatoon Health Region apologized for the coercion of Indigenous women to undergo surgical sterilization. (
  • Update of S&C Memorandum 09-55 Regarding Standards for Immediate Use Sterilization in Surgical Settings: This memo reiterates and updates information regarding nationally recognized infection prevention and control guidelines and professionally acceptable standards of practice with respect to immediate use sterilization and supersedes S&C Memorandum 09-55. (
  • Objective: identify the representation of the feminine, verifying the conscious and unconscious expectations of alterations of life after surgical tubal sterilization. (
  • Most dental clinics do not interrupt the cycle of sterilization in ovens and make use of surgical grade sterilization of instruments in autoclaves. (
  • Workers may be exposed to ethylene oxide during sterilization of a variety of items such as medical equipment and products (e.g., surgical instruments, single-use medical devices), disposable health-care products, pharmaceutical and veterinary products, food, spices, and animal feed. (
  • In 2021, Gen Suzuki, a transgender man, filed a court request to have his legal gender recognized as male without undergoing sterilization surgery as prescribed by national law. (
  • Health-care technicians can be exposed to short, concentrated bursts of the gas when the door of a sterilizing chamber is opened, unless the most modern ethylene oxide sterilizer is utilized to allow a continuous process from sterilization to aeration in the same chamber (ATSDR 2020, IARC 2018, NTP 2021). (
  • The procedure for women (often called tubal sterilization) is more complicated and may be done using a thin tube inserted through a small incision in the abdomen or done through a larger incision in the abdomen. (
  • Permanent contraception for women is often called tubal sterilization, which also refers to a specific procedure, the so-called tying the tubes. (
  • ISO 11137-2:2011 also specifies methods of sterilization dose audit used to demonstrate the continued effectiveness of the sterilization dose. (
  • Among the equipment evaluated, 7(25%) ovens tested positive (ineffective sterilization) and no autoclaves (0%) produced positive results, demonstrating the effectiveness of the sterilization process. (
  • citation needed] A more effective method is Tyndallization, which uses three successive steam treatments to achieve sterilization over the course of three days. (
  • Water Quality for Steam Sterilization and Equipment Conservation by Paulo Laranjeira, Ph.D. (
  • This clearance describes One Tray as a sterilization wrap intended for the rapid sterilization of instruments in flash cycles, which is referred to as "flash sterilization" or, more recently, "immediate use steam sterilization. (
  • A technician prepares samples for steam sterilization. (
  • Though there is a large list of sterilization methods to choose from, there are three common methods which tend to dominate the industry: ethylene oxide (EO), ionizing radiation (otherwise known as gamma radiation or electron beam) and steam sterilization. (
  • Moist heat sterilization processes sterilize using hot air that is heavily laden with water vapor, which plays the most important role in the sterilization. (
  • Microorganisms vary greatly in their resistance to chemical germicides and sterilization processes (Figure 1) 342 Intrinsic resistance mechanisms in microorganisms to disinfectants vary. (
  • Policies and procedures for sterilization and sterilization-related processes and practices should be developed, reviewed periodically, revised as necessary and readily available in the practice setting. (
  • Change in Terminology: "Flash" Sterilization vs. IUSS: Nationally recognized organizations with expertise in infection prevention and control and instrument sterilization processes, and other professional organizations recommend abandoning the use of the term "flash" sterilization, which is now considered outmoded, and replacing it with the term "IUSS. (
  • The approach taken to upgrade sterilization processes made it possible to standardize them while ensuring traceability. (
  • It's a massive feat to have reparations pass for forced sterilization survivors to begin with," said Erika Cohn, whose 2020 documentary about the legacy of California's sterilization program identified almost 1,400 sterilizations in which it was unclear if people had been able to appropriately consent. (
  • Sterilization Equipment and Disinfectants Global Market Report 2023 from The Business Research Company provides strategists, marketers and senior management with the critical information they need to assess the market. (
  • citation needed] In cases when items need to be sterilized for immediate use, flash sterilization may be employed. (
  • Dr. Famuyide and colleagues found that hysteroscopic sterilization costs patients approximately $500 less on their medical bills compared to the traditional method of female sterilization, laparoscopic tubal ligation, surgery requiring an abdominal incision with general anesthesia. (
  • The study was conducted retrospectively via a comparative cost analysis of the aforementioned two methods of female sterilization performed on women ages 27 to 45 who requested permanent sterilization at Mayo Clinic from January to December 2003. (
  • Female sterilization : guidelines for the development of services. (
  • Pressure sterilization is the prevailing method used for medical sterilization of heat-resistant tools, and for sterilization of materials for microbiology and other fields calling for aseptic technique. (
  • Heating an article is one of the earliest forms of sterilization practiced. (
  • Let's take a look at some of the most commonly used forms of sterilization, design features and a few test options that can help determine an optimal packaging system. (
  • In that quest, the government pays medical personnel for each subject they can round up and get to a government-run sterilization hospital. (
  • As North Carolina becomes the first state to agree to provide financial compensation to people who suffered under government-run sterilization programs, the California Legislature is finally grappling with reports of modern-day sterilization abuse in its prison system. (
  • Highly recommended for checking sterilization in heavily packed autoclaves. (
  • The performance of autoclaves, dry-heat ovens and chemical solutions used for sterilization of dental instruments has been tested. (
  • To test the performance of autoclaves, dry-heat ovens, boiling-water devices and chemical disinfectants used for sterilization of instruments and equipment in dental practice. (
  • The first was to examine the efficiency of sterilization carried out by autoclaves, dry-heat ovens and boiling-water devices. (
  • Methods A sample study was conducted with 100 dental clinics, by way of a questionnaire about procedures related to the sterilization process and implementation of biological monitoring of the equipment, using spores of Bacillus subtilis for the oven and Geobacillus stearothermophilus for the autoclaves. (
  • California's is the first to include modern-day survivors of forced sterilization. (
  • California's use of forced sterilizations represents a dark chapter in the state's history. (
  • Male sterilization, or vasectomy, is one of the few contraceptive methods available to men and can be performed in an outpatient procedure or office setting. (
  • A sterilization surgery is a procedure done to permanently prevent future pregnancies. (
  • Talk to your health care provider about all the options available to you before making the decision to have a sterilization procedure. (
  • Dr. Famuyide expects that patients will be able to further increase their savings by choosing hysteroscopic sterilization in the future, as the procedure moves out of the hospital setting to the physician's office. (
  • The woman, known only as Ms J, became pregnant in 2006 after a botched sterilisation procedure eight years earlier. (
  • EO is the most common sterilization method used in the medical industry and accounts for more than half of all sterilized medical devices. (
  • For disposible devices, the more common sterilization techniques are ETO, gamma radiation or liquid sterilization. (
  • It is the duty of all the members of a dental team to ensure that all the necessary procedures (thorough sterilization) are taken to protect themselves and their patients from cross infection [3]. (
  • EP3HTMed is a one component, no mix, USP Class VI epoxy that resists repeated autoclaving and chemical sterilization. (
  • Chemical sterilization was shown to be inadequate for dental practice. (
  • Because male sterilization is intended to be irreversible, all men should be appropriately counseled about the permanency of sterilization and the availability of highly effective, long-acting, reversible methods of contraception for women. (
  • In Tunisia , Hospital sterilization guidelines recommend the establishment of a quality assurance system . (
  • This report focuses on sterilization equipment and disinfectants market which is experiencing strong growth. (
  • The sterilization equipment and disinfectants market global report from the Business Research Company answers all these questions and many more. (
  • NEW DELHI - The doctor who conducted sterilization procedures after which 13 women died in central India was arrested, but insisted he didn't do anything wrong _ even though he said he used to perform up to 10 times more surgeries a day than allowed. (
  • Gupta had performed over 80 sterilization surgeries in six hours - a clear breach of government protocol, which prohibits surgeons from performing more than 30 sterilizations in a day, Mandal said. (
  • Women in most Indian states are promised 1,400 rupees ($23) when they choose to have laparoscopic, or "keyhole," sterilization surgeries like those conducted in Bilaspur. (
  • Low-temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization methods should be used to sterilize moisture- and heatsensitive items and when indicated by the device manufacturer. (
  • Low temperature hydrogen peroxide vapor sterilization methods should be used for moisture- and heat sensitive items and when indicated by the device manufacturer. (
  • Liquid chemical sterilant instrument reprocessing systems that use peracetic acid as a low-temperature sterilant should be used for devices that are heat-sensitive, can be immersed, are approved for this process by the device manufacturer, and cannot be sterilized using terminal sterilization methods. (
  • EP42HT-2Med is a two part, room temperature curable, USP Class VI certified epoxy that withstands repeated sterilization, including autoclaving and chemical sterilants. (
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has learned that your firm, Innovative Sterilizations Technologies, LLC, is marketing the ONE TRAY Sealed Sterilization Container (One Tray), a rigid reusable sterilization container classified under 21 C.F.R. 880.6850, in the United States without marketing clearance or approval, in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act). (
  • In general, demands for sterilization performance are more rigorous for reusable products than for disposable products. (
  • Master Bond has developed a wide variety of adhesives, sealants and potting compounds for the assembly of reusable and disposable medical devices, including many Class VI biocompatible materials, which are specially designed to withstand the sterilization requirements for a particular application without sacrificing the performance properties of the material. (
  • Mayo Clinic gynecologists have discovered that hysteroscopic sterilization, a new method of plugging the fallopian tubes to prevent conception, will save patients money compared to laparoscopic tubal ligation, the most commonly used method of sterilization for women. (
  • The analysis included 43 cases of hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 cases of laparoscopic tubal ligation. (
  • The various procedures used to perform moist heat sterilization process cause destruction of micro-organisms by denaturation of macromolecules. (
  • Moist heat sterilization describes sterilization techniques that use hot water vapor as a sterilizing agent. (
  • For example, EO may have trouble reaching the center of the lumens for devices with long lengths of tubing, or devices with sensitive electronics may not fare well with gamma radiation or electron beam sterilization. (
  • The most widely employed sterilization methods for medical devices include autoclaving, radiation (electron beam or isotopes), ethylene oxide, plasma or corona discharge and liquid sterilants (hydrogen peroxide, glutaraldehyde, etc. (
  • A new report reveals that Romani women in Eastern Slovakia have been subjected to undergo approximately 110 forced sterilizations in government healthcare facilities. (
  • Epoxy polymers are among the most widely employed adhesives, sealants and potting compounds for repeated sterilization such as autoclaving and liquid sterilization. (
  • Fewer than 1 woman out of 100 becomes pregnant in the first year after her male partner undergoes sterilization ( 14 ). (
  • Regulations surrounding medical device packaging and sterilization constantly evolve, and making matters more challenging, they vary according to the type of sterilization process the device undergoes. (
  • Package design is an integral part of the entire medical device development process, yet it is frequently left as an afterthought or the decision is made to purchase an off-the-shelf system without consideration to the device or sterilization method. (
  • The process for sterilization includes preconditioning the products, exposure and then aeration (off gassing). (
  • This form of sterilization is known as a gas-in/gas-out process. (
  • The deviations were part of the commercial sterilization process and could result in contamination by spoilage organisms or pathogens, which could lead to life-threatening illness if consumed. (
  • Objective To evaluate the quality of the sterilization process in private dental clinics in Porto Velho, Rondônia. (
  • Among other issues, the legislators and witnesses discussed the state corrections department regulation that explicitly prohibits sterilization unless "medically necessary. (
  • The march was organized by law firm Semaganis Worme Lombard, which is representing women in a class-action against the Government of Canada, the Saskatchewan Health Authority and other government bodies and agencies they allege forced Indigenous women to undergo sterilization. (
  • The following recommended practices for Sterilization were developed by the Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses (AORN) Recommended Practices Committee. (
  • Personnel should receive intial and ongoing education and competency validation for sterilization practices. (
  • It is hoped that the results can support both education and the monitoring of safe practices for the sterilization of dental instruments in private clinics in Porto Velho, helping and encouraging the academic community with the importance of this issue in training. (
  • Dr. Hector Chavez Espinoza, President of the Peruvian Medical Association, testified to the mandatory sterilization quotas set for Peruvian doctors. (
  • Experts say the deaths are the result of a complete lack of medical oversight and the fact that the government in India sets sterilization targets as part of its efforts to stabilize India's booming population. (
  • Needless to say, no thought was given to any medical complications arising out of this assembly line approach to sterilisation. (
  • SPMC is a consortium of like-minded companies committed to patient protection by providing sterilization packaging for life-saving medical devices and pharmaceuticals. (
  • There are many initiatives and continued advances in materials underway that are helping supply chain partners and packaging engineers for medical devices overcome sterilization challenges. (
  • Sterilization capabilities are an important consideration for the selection of polymeric adhesives, sealants and potting compounds for use in medical applications. (
  • Occupational sources include factories where ethylene oxide is produced or used to make other chemicals, and facilities performing medical device sterilization or fumigation of foods, clothing, and cosmetics. (
  • Sterilizations continue to be the most popular method of birth control in India, with many women opting for them because a one-time operation can help them take charge of their fertility. (
  • India has one of the world's highest rates of sterilization among women, with about 37 per cent undergoing such operations compared with 29 per cent in China, according to the United Nations. (
  • Implementation of a quality management system in a central sterilization unit: experience in the Hospital Tahar Sfar, Mahdia, Tunisia]. (
  • We conducted a prospective study in the sterilization unit of the Hospital Tahar Sfar, Mahdia in 2019. (
  • A child waves a flag ahead of a rally calling for an immediate end to coerced sterilization in Canada at the Saskatchewan Legislative Assembly on Nov. 26, 2019. (
  • requires the medium to be formulated for this purpose), or the appearance of turbidity (cloudiness indicating light scattering by bacterial cells) indicates that sterilization was not achieved and the sterilization cycle may need revision or improvement. (
  • Women have been harassed, coerced, bargained with, and lied to, just so doctors and health workers can meet their mandatory sterilization quotas to appease the family planners. (
  • A university study released late last year found there have been at least 22 cases of forced sterilization of First Nations and Inuit women in Quebec since 1980. (
  • The forcible sterilisation campaign was based on the premise that these women had no control over their own lives. (
  • Yesterday, the Public Safety Committee of the California State Senate held a hearing to gather information on unethical and illegal sterilizations of women in the state prison system. (
  • James Heinrich, an OB/GYN who worked at Valley State Prison for Women, told Johnson that the cost of the sterilizations "isn't a huge amount of money compared to what you save in welfare paying for these unwanted children - as they procreated more. (
  • Not only does Heinrich assume that any children imprisoned women might have in the future would be unwanted, he justifies circumventing policies against sterilization as saving the state money - exactly the type of dehumanizing rationale that policymakers and courts repudiated more than 30 years ago. (
  • Lawyers who are leading a class action lawsuit against the Government of Canada and other governing bodies say it's 'shocking' how many women have come forward with allegations of coerced sterilization. (
  • People at the rally held signs that read 'protect our women' and 'stopped forced sterilization. (
  • According to the lawsuit's summary of claim , the term 'coerced sterilization' refers to the practice of sterilizing Aboriginal women in Canada without their proper or informed consent. (
  • Hope the FDA can approve Mask Sterilization equipment ASAP. (
  • If you interesting in Microwave Liquid Sterilization Equipment ?kindly ask me, Shandong Industrial Microwave Oven can give technical support and service. (
  • Return to Freedom's lawsuit challenging the BLM's plan to perform the risky sterilization surgery known as ovariectomy via colpotomy on mares captured from the Confusion Herd Management Area in Utah continues. (
  • The report, 'Body and Soul: Forced Sterilization and Other Assaults on Roma Reproductive Freedom,' is based on 230 in-depth interviews conducted in 40 Roma settlements in eastern Slovakia, according to the report's authors, the New York-based Center for Reproductive Rights (formerly the Center for Reproductive Law and Policy) and the Centre for Civil and Human Rights in Kosice, a Slovak non-governmental organization. (
  • Sterilization is the complete destruction or elimination of microbial viability, including spores ( 3 ). (
  • A mother has lost her long running battle with ACC for weekly compensation when she became pregnant after a failed sterilisation operation. (
  • A solo mum who became pregnant after a failed sterilisation has lost her bid for weekly compensation after an 11-year battle with ACC. (
  • Therefore, boiling is an insufficient method to achieve sterilization. (
  • Enforced sterilization, also known as compulsory sterilization, refers to forcibly sterilizing an ethnic group as part of a systematic attack against that ethnic group. (
  • This can depend on the geometry of the device, how it will be used in the field and the selected sterilization method. (
  • She died in her mid-twenties her life the price of the sterilization that brings the Peruvian population control program one step closer to its quota. (
  • Last December, local media reported that the Asunaro Social Welfare Service Corporation in Hokkaido, which caters to people with intellectual disabilities, mandated sterilisation or other birth control measures for couples who intended to start a family or live together. (
  • Leaders from the Sterilization Packaging Manufacturers Council will explore the latest in package testing, materials, and more at MD&M Minneapolis. (
  • Could you tell us about the Sterilization Packaging Manufacturers Council (SPMC)? (
  • The following information is about deciding to have a sterilization surgery. (
  • People who do not want to have any more children may choose to have sterilization surgery. (
  • Japan's Supreme Court on Wednesday ruled that a law requiring transgender people to have sterilization surgery in order to officially change their gender is unconstitutional. (
  • TOKYO (AP) - Japan's Supreme Court on Wednesday ruled that a law requiring transgender people to undergo sterilization surgery in order to officially change their gender is unconstitutional, a landmark verdict welcomed by advocates as a sign of growing acceptance of LGBTQ+ rights. (
  • The law forces those who seek a gender change a "cruel choice between accepting the sterilization surgery that causes intense bodily invasion and giving up important legal benefits of being treated according to their gender identity," the Supreme Court said. (
  • tunnel type tangerine peel drying and sterilization microwave machine with 0.42 e easy-to-use parts graphics, giving you the ability Small Oil Pressing Machine - Leader Machinery to check parts availability, Industrial Tunnel Microwave Dryer pricing, examine remanufactured options. (