Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
The therapeutic intermittent administration of oxygen in a chamber at greater than sea-level atmospheric pressures (three atmospheres). It is considered effective treatment for air and gas embolisms, smoke inhalation, acute carbon monoxide poisoning, caisson disease, clostridial gangrene, etc. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992). The list of treatment modalities includes stroke.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Protection from an infectious disease agent that is mediated by B- and T- LYMPHOCYTES following exposure to specific antigen, and characterized by IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY. It can result from either previous infection with that agent or vaccination (IMMUNITY, ACTIVE), or transfer of antibody or lymphocytes from an immune donor (IMMUNIZATION, PASSIVE).
Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)
Drugs that block the transport of adrenergic transmitters into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. The tricyclic antidepressants (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) and amphetamines are among the therapeutically important drugs that may act via inhibition of adrenergic transport. Many of these drugs also block transport of serotonin.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
A central nervous system stimulant used most commonly in the treatment of ATTENTION DEFICIT DISORDER in children and for NARCOLEPSY. Its mechanisms appear to be similar to those of DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The d-isomer of this drug is referred to as DEXMETHYLPHENIDATE HYDROCHLORIDE.
Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.
An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.
Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Animals that have no spinal column.
A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.
Analysis of word concepts by the association of polar adjectives, e.g., good-bad, with the concept, father. The adjectives are usually scaled in 7 steps. The subject's placement of the concept on the adjectival scale indicates the connotative meaning of the concept.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (1/623)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

Behavioral, toxic, and neurochemical effects of sydnocarb, a novel psychomotor stimulant: comparisons with methamphetamine. (2/623)

Sydnocarb (3-(beta-phenylisopropyl)-N-phenylcarbamoylsydnonimine) is a psychostimulant in clinical practice in Russia as a primary and adjunct therapy for a host of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. It has been described as a stimulant with an addiction liability and toxicity less than that of amphetamines. The present study undertook to evaluate the psychomotor stimulant effects of sydnocarb in comparison to those of methamphetamine. Sydnocarb increased locomotor activity of mice with reduced potency (approximately 10-fold) and efficacy compared with methamphetamine. Sydnocarb blocked the locomotor depressant effects of haloperidol at doses that were inactive when given alone. The locomotor stimulant effects of both methamphetamine and sydnocarb were dose-dependently blocked by the dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists SCH 39166 and spiperone, respectively; blockade generally occurred at doses of the antagonists that did not depress locomotor activity when given alone. In mice trained to discriminate methamphetamine from saline, sydnocarb fully substituted for methamphetamine with a 9-fold lower potency. When substituted for methamphetamine under self-administration experiments in rats, 10-fold higher concentrations of sydnocarb maintained responding by its i.v. presentation. Sydnocarb engendered stereotypy in high doses with approximately a 2-fold lower potency than methamphetamine. However, sydnocarb was much less efficacious than methamphetamine in inducing stereotyped behavior. Both sydnocarb and methamphetamine increased dialysate levels of dopamine in mouse striatum; however, the potency and efficacy of sydnocarb was less than methamphetamine. The convulsive effects of cocaine were significantly enhanced by the coadministration of nontoxic doses of methamphetamine but not of sydnocarb. Taken together, the present findings indicate that sydnocarb has psychomotor stimulant effects that are shared by methamphetamine while demonstrating a reduced behavioral toxicity.  (+info)

On the relation between object manipulation and stereotypic self-injurious behavior. (3/623)

Results from a number of studies have shown an inverse relationship between stereotypic behavior and object manipulation. The purposes of this study were to determine whether techniques similar to those used previously (prompting and reinforcement) would be effective in increasing object manipulation under both prompted and unprompted conditions, and to ascertain whether increases in object manipulation would result in decreases in stereotypic self-injurious behavior (SIB). Two individuals with developmental disabilities who engaged in SIB maintained by automatic reinforcement participated. Results showed that object manipulation increased from baseline levels when experimenters prompted participants to manipulate leisure items, but that object manipulation was not maintained under unprompted conditions, and rates of SIB stayed within baseline levels. We then attempted to increase object manipulation further by (a) reinforcing object manipulation, (b) blocking SIB while reinforcing manipulation, and (c) preventing SIB by applying protective equipment while reinforcing object manipulation. Reinforcing object manipulation alone did not affect levels of object manipulation. Blocking effectively reduced attempts to engage in SIB for 1 participant but produced no increase in object manipulation. When the 2nd participant was prevented from engaging in SIB through the use of protective equipment, rates of object manipulation increased dramatically but were not maintained when the equipment was removed. These results suggest that stimulation derived from object manipulation, even when supplemented with arbitrary reinforcement, may not compete with stimulation produced by stereotypic SIB; therefore, direct interventions to reduce SIB are required.  (+info)

SR146131: a new potent, orally active, and selective nonpeptide cholecystokinin subtype 1 receptor agonist. II. In vivo pharmacological characterization. (4/623)

SR146131 is a potent and selective agonist at cholecystokinin subtype 1 (CCK1) receptors in vitro. The present study evaluates the activity of the compound in vivo. SR146131 completely inhibited gastric and gallbladder emptying in mice (ED50 of 66 and 2.7 micrograms/kg p.o., respectively). SR146131 dose dependently reduced food intake in fasted rats (from 0.1 mg/kg p.o.), in nonfasted rats in which food intake had been highly stimulated by the administration of neuropeptide Y (1-36) (from 0.3 mg/kg p.o.), in fasted gerbils (from 0.1 mg/kg p.o.), and in marmosets maintained on a restricted diet (from 3 mg/kg p.o.). SR146131 (10 mg/kg p.o.) also increased the number of Fos-positive cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats. Locomotor activity of mice was reduced by orally administered SR146131 (from 0.3 mg/kg p.o.). When administered intrastriatally, SR146131 elicited contralateral turning behavior in mice. Furthermore, orally administered SR146131 (0.3-10 mg/kg), also reduced the levels of cerebellar cyclic GMP. Finally, SR146131 (0.1 microgram/kg to 1 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly and dose dependently antagonized fluphenazine-induced mouth movements in rats. The CCK1 antagonist SR27897B prevented all the effects of SR146131. Conversely, SR146131 was unable to elicit any agonist or antagonist effects in a model of CCK2 receptor stimulation in vivo. SR146131 is a very potent and selective nonpeptide CCK1 agonist in vivo. SR146131 is more potent than any other CCK1 agonists reported to date. Because pharmacodynamic studies suggest that SR146131 should have a high absolute bioavailability, it may be a promising drug for the treatment of eating and motor disorders in humans.  (+info)

Susceptibility to amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization is modulated by environmental stimuli. (5/623)

We have previously reported that intravenous (i.v.) administrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg of amphetamine in the absence of any environmental stimuli predictive of drug administration failed to induce psychomotor sensitization whereas the same drug did produce robust sensitization when given in association with environmental novelty. These results were obtained by studying rotational behavior in animals with a unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the mesostriatal dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to determine if environmental novelty has a similar effect on sensitization to the locomotor activating effects of amphetamine in neurologically intact rats. Rats were implanted with i.v. catheters and divided in four groups. Two groups were housed in locomotor activity cages and given seven consecutive i.v. infusions of either saline (SAL-HOME group) or 0.375 mg/kg of amphetamine (AMPH-HOME group), using a remotely activated delivery system. Simultaneously, the other two groups were transported to the test cages and given the same treatment (SAL-NOVEL and AMPH-NOVEL groups). After one week withdrawal, all groups were given an amphetamine challenge (0.375 mg/kg, i.v.). Amphetamine sensitization developed when the drug was administered under NOVEL conditions, as indicated by a progressive increase in amphetamine-induced locomotor activity over test sessions and by a greater response to the amphetamine challenge in the AMPH-pretreated versus the SAL-pretreated group. In contrast, no sensitization was observed under HOME conditions. Similar results were obtained with the analysis of vertical activity.  (+info)

Behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulant infusions into amygdaloid nuclei. (6/623)

The role of amygdaloid nuclei in locomotion, stereotypy, and conditioned place preference (CPP) produced by psychomotor stimulants was examined. Five 2-day conditioning trials were conducted over 10 consecutive days. Rats received bilateral intracranial infusions of saline, cocaine (25-100 micrograms/side), or amphetamine (0.31-20 micrograms/side) into the ventricles (ICV), basolateral amygdala (BlA), or central amygdala (CeA) and were confined to a compartment. On alternating days, rats received sham infusions and were confined to a different compartment. Locomotion was measured daily, stereotypy was measured on trials 1 and 5, and CPP was measured 24 h after conditioning. ICV infusions of cocaine or amphetamine produced locomotion, rearing, and CPP. Intra-BlA and intra-CeA infusions of the highest dose of cocaine produced locomotion. In contrast, intra-CeA infusions of amphetamine potently produced locomotion and CPP. Intra-BlA infusions of amphetamine, however, did not produce any behavioral changes. These results suggest that the CeA, but not the BlA, is involved in initiating reward and locomotion produced by amphetamine.  (+info)

Contributions of tutor and bird's own song experience to neural selectivity in the songbird anterior forebrain. (7/623)

Auditory neurons of the anterior forebrain (AF) of zebra finches become selective for song during song learning. In adults, these neurons respond more to the bird's own song (BOS) than to the songs of other zebra finches (conspecifics) or BOS played in reverse. In contrast, AF neurons from young birds (30 d) respond equally well to all song stimuli. AF selectivity develops rapidly during song learning, appearing in 60-d-old birds. At this age, many neurons also respond equally well to BOS and tutor song. These similar neural responses to BOS and tutor song might reflect contributions from both song experiences to selectivity, because auditory experiences of both BOS and tutor song are essential for normal song learning. Alternatively, they may simply result from acoustic similarities between BOS and tutor song. Understanding which experience shapes selectivity could elucidate the function of song-selective AF neurons. To minimize acoustic similarity between BOS and tutor song, we induced juvenile birds to produce abnormal song by denervating the syrinx, the avian vocal organ, before song onset. We recorded single neurons extracellularly in the AF at 60 d, after birds had had substantial experience of both the abnormal BOS (tsBOS) and tutor song. Some neurons preferred the unique tsBOS over the tutor song, clearly indicating a role for BOS experience in shaping neural selectivity. In addition, a sizable proportion of neurons responded equally well to tsBOS and tutor song, despite their acoustic dissimilarity. These neurons were not simply immature, because they were selective for tsBOS and tutor song relative to conspecific and reverse song. Furthermore, their similar responses to tsBOS and tutor song could not be attributed to residual acoustic similarities between the two stimuli, as measured by several song analyses. The neural sensitivity to two very different songs suggests that single AF neurons may be shaped by both BOS and tutor song experience.  (+info)

OCD-Like behaviors caused by a neuropotentiating transgene targeted to cortical and limbic D1+ neurons. (8/623)

To study the behavioral role of neurons containing the D1 dopamine receptor (D1+), we have used a genetic neurostimulatory approach. We generated transgenic mice that express an intracellular form of cholera toxin (CT), a neuropotentiating enzyme that chronically activates stimulatory G-protein (Gs) signal transduction and cAMP synthesis, under the control of the D1 promoter. Because the D1 promoter, like other CNS-expressed promoters, confers transgene expression that is regionally restricted to different D1+ CNS subsets in different transgenic lines, we observed distinct but related psychomotor disorders in different D1CT-expressing founders. In a D1CT line in which transgene expression was restricted to the following D1+ CNS regions-the piriform cortex layer II, layers II-III of somatosensory cortical areas, and the intercalated nucleus of the amygdala-D1CT mice showed normal CNS and D1+ neural architecture but increased cAMP content in whole extracts of the piriform and somatosensory cortex. These mice also exhibited a constellation of compulsive behavioral abnormalities that strongly resembled human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These compulsive behaviors included episodes of perseverance or repetition of any and all normal behaviors, repetitive nonaggressive biting of siblings during grooming, and repetitive leaping. These results suggest that chronic potentiation of cortical and limbic D1+ neurons thought to induce glutamatergic output to the striatum causes behaviors reminiscent of those in human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders.  (+info)

Synonyms for stereotyped behavior at Thesaurus.com with free online thesaurus, antonyms, and definitions. Dictionary and Word of the Day.
Abnormal repetitive behaviors (odd or inappropriate movements, self-injury, and compulsions) are among the aberrant behaviors exhibited by individuals with mental retardation. However, little is known about their pathobiology and treatments are largely unconfirmed by controlled trials. For example, few controlled studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of abnormal repetitive behavior in individuals with mental retardation.. This trial is part of a larger project designed to elucidate the neurobiological bases of repetitive behavior disorders and to develop rational, safe, and effective pharmacological treatments. Thus far, the project has established a pathophysiological basis for stereotyped behavior disorder, demonstrated the role of central dopamine deficiency in stereotyped behavior disorder, and provided evidence of the efficacy of both 5-HT uptake inhibitors and atypical antipsychotics in treating stereotyped behaviors.. There is currently little information to ...
Abstract: Manganese (Mn) is an essential dietary element required for several important physiological processes. However, accumulation of Mn due to excessive environmental exposure is known to pose neurological health concerns that manifest as movement abnormalities and cognitive impairment. Oxidative stress has been hypothesized to play a role in this dysfunction. In these studies we examined the effect Mn exposure had on oxidative stress in the brain with or without antioxidant therapy, and how brain regional Mn accumulation affected stereotypic behaviors in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats raised on AIN-93G diet were randomized into a Mn free group (deionized water) and Mn exposed group (deionized water with 1 g Mn/L). Each group was then subdivided into three additional groups receiving injections of either saline (vehicle) or antioxidant therapy: 200 mg/kg N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or 5 mg/kg (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to yield six groups total, each with an n=6. During the sixth week of ...
(a and b) Evaluations of stereotyped behaviors of experimental rats during an 8-week period. Data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. (n = 10 rats/group). The ini
Background: Stereotypies are repetitive, invariant compulsive behavioural sequences often observed in captive or domestic animals. Owing to the relative infrequency of their observation in wild- or freeranging animals, stereotypies are assumed to be a product of captivity (1). Stereotypies are more commonly observed in animals kept in social isolation or sub-optimal environments lacking sufficient species-relevant enrichment (2); thus, their presence is often considered to be an indicator of poor welfare (3). Domestic horses, particularly those kept in intensive housing systems (boxes, stalls, etc.) show a range of stereotypic behaviours, including oral (crib-biting) and locomotor (weaving) behaviours (4).. One strong risk factor for the development of stereotypic behaviour is social isolation (5, 6) and isolation rearing is known to be a strong risk factor for the development of stereotypic behaviours in horses (7). Despite this, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that link social ...
Two key behavioural changes that are often seen in FTD are apathy and stereotypical behaviours.. The study, led by Claire OConnor, revealed that individuals with high levels of apathy (reduced interest or motivation to do things) had much more difficulty completing their daily activities. For example, they were more likely to need reminding to have a shower, or to change their clothes every day. In contrast, individuals with high stereotypical behaviours (rigid, specific daily routines), were managing their everyday tasks more effectively than those who had lower levels of these behaviours. This suggests that stereotypical behaviours may actually support the person to independently manage their everyday living tasks for longer.. Given the lack of cure or effective treatment options in frontotemporal dementia, the development of effective intervention strategies remains crucial. In order to develop these strategies, we need to better understand the disease process itself. The results from ...
Unscramble stereotypies, Unscramble letters stereotypies, Point value for stereotypies, Word Decoder for stereotypies, Word generator using the letters stereotypies, Word Solver stereotypies, Possible Scrabble words with stereotypies, Anagram of stereotypies
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We often punish horses for exhibiting undesirable stereotypic behaviors, but most of these behaviors are responses to suboptimal environments. Thus, punishing the horse for the behavior only increases the already heightened stress that caused
Description: While traditional applied behaviour analysis programs are often extremely effective in increasing communication skills and remediating repetitive, stereotyped behaviours in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder; many fail to address social skills beyond initiating social interactions through mand training. This workshop will review the application of Teaching Interactions (Leaf, et al., 2009), and how to implement them while following a comprehensive social skills curriculum (Winner, 2005) for individuals with high-functioning Autism. Participants will learn how to increase appropriate social behaviours in structured teaching sessions through the use of discrimination training and role-play and how to program for generalization to natural contingencies by establishing a socially significant rationale for change and systematically shaping approximations ...
Expansion of the β-cell mass is a stereotypic response to insulin resistance. The increase in mass has been attributed to both β-cell replication and neogenesis (36). Since islets are imbedded in the larger pancreas, an expansion of the endocrine cell mass would require a vasculature that can grow in response to specific signals arising from the islet parenchyma or external signals. Studies in a number of systems, including the endocrine pancreas, have shown that cues for tissue growth and remodeling can arise from the vasculature (21). The vasculature is also critical to maintaining the health of mature tissue by providing nutrients and oxygen, as well as additional growth signals.. In the present study, we demonstrate morphological changes in the microvasculature of the pancreatic islet before the onset of hyperglycemia with a continued parallel degeneration of the microvasculature and β-cells following the onset of hyperglycemia. Morphologically, it appears that nestin is a useful marker ...
Meadow Brook Animal Hospital - 972-529-5033 · Preston Road Animal Hospital - 972-239-1309 Exactly what triggers psychological feather picking in companion birds is unknown. It probably varies from individual to individual. Psychological feather picking has many similarities to the human syndrome called Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). OCD is a type of anxiety disorder affecting about 0.05% of the human population. Interestingly, the condition is more common in people of above average intelligence. To simplify: humans affected with OCD display what are termed stereotypic behaviors. Stereotypic behaviors are repetitive and persistent and seem to serve no obvious purpose. Furthermore, they are often exaggerated grooming behaviors. Examples include constant nail biting, incessant fiddling with the hair, frequent hand washing, repetitive touching of light switches, etc. Apparently these stereotypic behaviors are a result of some powerful internally derived thought or urge. Functionally, OCD ...
A stereotypy (/ˈstɛriəˌtaɪpi, ˈstɪər-, -ioʊ-/, STERR-ee-oh-ty-pee or STEER-ee-oh-ty-pee) is a repetitive or ritualistic movement, posture, or utterance. Stereotypies may be simple movements such as body rocking, or complex, such as self-caressing, crossing and uncrossing of legs, and marching in place. They are found in people with intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, tardive dyskinesia and stereotypic movement disorder, but may also be encountered in neurotypical individuals as well. Studies have shown stereotypies associated with some types of schizophrenia. Frontotemporal dementia is also a common neurological cause of repetitive behaviors and stereotypies. Several causes have been hypothesized for stereotypy, and several treatment options are available. Stereotypy is sometimes called stimming in autism, under the hypothesis that it self-stimulates one or more senses. Related terms include punding and tweaking to describe repetitive behavior that is a side effect of ...
It is important to understand that doctors here are not curing a disease. They are actually engaged in the political and social shaping of masculine and feminine behavior. Several facts bear out this contention. Here especially, I note the role of the so-called gender identity clinics and private therapists who foster and reinforce stereotyped behavior. Persons wishing to change sex come to these clinics or go to individual therapists to receive counseling and ultimately to be referred for treatment and surgery. It is a primary requirement of these centers that men who wish to be transsexed must prove that they can pass as true women in order to qualify for treatment and surgery. Passing requirements evaluate everything from an individuals feminine dress, to feminine body language, to so-called feminine positions in intercourse. Most clinics require candidates for surgery to live out opposite sex-roles and rigidly defined stereotypical behavior for periods of six months to two years. Thus ...
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Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are behaviorally defined by impairments in communication, social interactions, and repetitive stereotypic behaviors. Many children with ASD also experience gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as irregular bowel movements.
Activation of neuropeptide S (NPS) signaling has been found to produce arousal, wakefulness, anxiolytic-like behaviors, and enhanced memory formation. In order to further study physiological functions of the NPS system, we generated NPS precursor knockout mice by homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. NPS-/- mice were viable, fertile, and anatomically normal, when compared to their wild-type and heterozygous littermates. The total number of NPS neurons-although no longer synthesizing the peptide - was not affected by the knockout, as analyzed in NPS-/- /NPSEGFP double transgenic mice. Analysis of behavioral phenotypes revealed significant deficits in exploratory activity in NPS-/- mice. NPS precursor knockout mice displayed attenuated arousal in the hole board test, visible as reduced total nose pokes and number of holes inspected, that was not confounded by increased repetitive or stereotypic behavior. Importantly, long-term memory was significantly impaired in NPS-/- mice in the ...
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction and social communication, as well as by the presence of repetitive and stereotyped behaviors and interests. Brodmann areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal cortex, which are involved in language processing, imitation function, and sociality processing networks, have been implicated in this complex disorder. Using a stereologic approach, this study aims to explore the presence of neuropathological differences in areas 44 and 45 in patients with autism compared to age- and hemisphere-matched controls. Based on previous evidence in the fusiform gyrus, we expected to find a decrease in the number and size of pyramidal neurons as well as an increase in volume of layers III, V, and VI in patients with autism. We observed significantly smaller pyramidal neurons in patients with autism compared to controls, although there was no difference in pyramidal neuron numbers or layer volumes. The reduced pyramidal
By Stephen Shore www.autismasperger.net THE AUTISM BOMB Most of us are inducted into the Autism Community by what I call the Autism Bomb. Autism often strikes a typically developing child at approximately 18 to 24 months with a sudden, dramatic loss of speech and contact with the environment. Self-stimulatory behaviors (stims) such as hand flapping […]. ...
Although autism is diagnosed according to three core features of social deficits, communication impairments, and repetitive or stereotyped behaviors, other behavioral features such as sensory and motor impairments are present in more than 70% of indi
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According to the study by, Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, repeated administration of this methamphetamine (5 mg/kg administered three times at 2-h intervals) leads to a transition from horizontal hyperlocomotion to excessive orofacial stereotypy (taffy pulling) only in wild type and D3 mutants. In both genotypes, this transition is accompanied by a change in the relative ratios of striatal neuronal activation in two neurochemically distinct compartments, with striosomal neuronal activation exceeding that of the striatal matrix during stereotypy. Both the stereotypic response to METH and the associated predominant activation of neurons located in striosomes require D2-receptor expression. These studies indicate a differential requirement for D1- and D2-like receptor activation in mediating the effects of METH on cognitive and motor function(7). Other indicated that the D3 Dopamine Receptor Hypothesis suggests D3 antagonists could prevent sensitization, and may interrupt ...
Because of its close relationship with the process of evolutionary differentiation, it is expected that geographic variability in acoustic sexual traits should be greater among than within populations. This is particularly expected in organisms with typically high population genetic structure and low dispersal abilities, such as anuran amphibians. We studied the acoustic traits of the advertisement call in the small-sized dendrobatoid frog Allobates paleovarzensis through its range in Central Amazonia. We accessed the variability of call traits from the within-male to the among-population levels, and evaluated the degree of stereotypy of the call characteristics. Call variability had comparable magnitudes within and among populations, and was independent of the degree of stereotypy of call measurements. Therefore, none of the call traits stood out as a potential cue for discrimination between populations. Spectral call measurements were static and strongly related with body size, which explained between
Scientists at Duke University in North Carolina have found that forming a habit alters the brains circuitry, leading to lasting changes which make us crave food or repeat behaviours.
Motor stereotypies, described as repetitive, topographically invariant and seemingly purposeless behaviours, are common to several developmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. While drug induced stereotypy has been ...
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Autism is diagnosed on the basis of a triad of impairments in social interaction, communication, and flexible imaginative functions (with restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests; RRBIs). The
Autism is a neurological disorder that was reported to affect 20 out of every 1,000 kids in 2012. This disorder has three major features including the inability to develop social relationships with others, communicate with people verbally or non-verbally and take part in lots of repetitive behavior. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Read more ...
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This report describes a series of experiments, all of which demonstrate a strong contribution of the behavioral pattern manifested at the time of initial amphetamine injection to the topography and development of the stereotypy that develops with chronic amphetamine intoxication. These initial behavioral patterns reflect (i) learned behaviors, (ii) species-specific behaviors, (iii) behaviors associated with amphetamine arousal, and (iv) novel behaviors reflecting unique environmental circumstances prevailing at the time of administration. In an experiment using eight dogs administered amphetamine in a situation which allowed interaction between the animals, the behavioral stereotypies that developed were comprised of the social interaction patterns ongoing at the time of initial drug effects. Experiments with rats have demonstrated that the configuration of the enclosure in which they are injected influences the initial behavioral reactions to amphetamine and thus modifies the stereotypy. In experiments
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And Ive average pay bikram yoga instructor due to my extensive martial arts past seen plenty. Our single-gender Dog down yoga pose are simple and comfortable, furnished with 3-4 single beds and located in various locations around the ashram. As you exhale, grab your right knee with your left hand. ABC-Community Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community; I Average pay bikram yoga instructor, Agitation, Crying; The yoga practice kingston Lethargy, Social Withdrawal; III Stereotypic Behavior; IV Hyperactivity, Noncompliance; V Inappropriate Speech. Whatever you choose remains your point of focus for the whole average pay bikram yoga instructor. To ensure that youre fully leveraging the marketing power of your event title, select the type of event that best fits the experience you want to create. Bikram Yoga one of the first styles of hot yoga devised average pay bikram yoga instructor hatha yoga, by Bikram Choudhury It is practiced traditionally in a room at 104 F (40 C) with 40 humidity. Jessamyn ...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by dysfunction in social interaction, communication and stereotypic behavior. Genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the development of ASD, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are not clear. Epigenetic modifications have been suggested as molecular mechanism that can mediate the interaction between the environment and the genome to produce adaptive or maladaptive behaviors. Here, using the Illumina 450 K methylation array we have determined the existence of many dysregulated CpGs in two cortical regions, Brodmann area 10 (BA10) and Brodmann area 24 (BA24), of individuals who had ASD. In BA10 we found a very significant enrichment for genomic areas responsible for immune functions among the hypomethylated CpGs, whereas genes related to synaptic membrane were enriched among hypermethylated CpGs. By comparing our methylome data with previously published transcriptome data,
The mission of our group is to unravel structure-function relationships between neural circuits, sensory coding and adaptive behaviours. We are interested in understanding how odour tracking comes about in terms of circuit computation. This problem is tackled in the olfactory system of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster larva. Our research combines a variety of experimental and computational techniques aiming to define how naturalistic odorant stimuli are encoded and processed in the olfactory system. In particular, we are developing new computational tools to monitor and classify stereotypical behaviours automatically. We are seeking to identify circuits involved in the processing of olfactory information and the making of decisions underlying chemotaxis.. ...
The graduate dean invites all graduate faculty to attend the final oral examinations for the doctoral candidates scheduled as follows:. Shiri Dori-Hacohen, Ph.D., Computer Science. Monday, April 10, 9 a.m., 203 Computer Science Building. Dissertation: Controversy Detection and Analysis. James Allan, chr.. Amy Ryan, Ph.D., Neuroscience and Behavior. Monday, April 10, 1:30 p.m., N423 Tobin Hall. Dissertation: The Effects of Predictability on Stereotypic Behavior in Typical Adult Humans (Homo Sapiens) and Rhesus Macaques (Macaca Mulatta). Melinda Novak and Brian Lickel, co-chrs.. Gregory De Wet, Ph.D., Geosciences. Monday, April 10, 2:30 p.m., 129 Morrill II, Morrill Science Center. Dissertation: Arctic and North Atlantic Paleo-Environmental Reconstructions from Lake Sediments. Raymond Bradley and Isla Castaneda, co-chrs.. Jacinta Renee Saffold, Ph.D., Afro-American Studies. Tuesday, April 11, 2:30 p.m., 601 Herter. Dissertation: Stories Written on Concrete: Understanding and (Re) Imaging ...
Resources. Cooper, J. J., & Albentosa, M. J. (2005). Behavioural adaptation in the domestic horse: potential role of apparently abnormal responses including stereotypic behavior. Livestock Production Science 92 177- 182. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301622604002350. Murray, M.J., & Eichorn, E. S. (1996, December). Effects of intermittent feed deprivation, intermittent feed deprivation with ranitidine administration, and stall confinement with ad libitum access to hay on gastric ulceration in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 (11) 1599-603. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/14292543_Effects_of_intermittent_feed_deprivation_intermittent_feed_deprivation_with_ranitidine_and_stall_confinement_with_free_access_to_hay_on_gastric_ulceration_in_Horses. Ransom, J. I., & Cade, B. S. (2009). Quantifying Equid Behavior-A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses. Publications of the US Geological Survey 26. Available at: ...
Resources. Cooper, J. J., & Albentosa, M. J. (2005). Behavioural adaptation in the domestic horse: potential role of apparently abnormal responses including stereotypic behavior. Livestock Production Science 92 177- 182. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301622604002350. Murray, M.J., & Eichorn, E. S. (1996, December). Effects of intermittent feed deprivation, intermittent feed deprivation with ranitidine administration, and stall confinement with ad libitum access to hay on gastric ulceration in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research 57 (11) 1599-603. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/14292543_Effects_of_intermittent_feed_deprivation_intermittent_feed_deprivation_with_ranitidine_and_stall_confinement_with_free_access_to_hay_on_gastric_ulceration_in_Horses. Ransom, J. I., & Cade, B. S. (2009). Quantifying Equid Behavior-A Research Ethogram for Free-Roaming Feral Horses. Publications of the US Geological Survey 26. Available at: ...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders -characterized by impairments in social and communication skills as well as restricted interests and stereotyped behavior....
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a qualitative alteration in social interaction and communication, associated with restricted interests and stereotyped behaviors. People with autism are four times more likely to develop depression, than the general population, it is even considered as the most common mental health condition in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). One of the challenges is to recognize the manifestations related to depression in people with ASD, in whom, in general, it is expressed differently in relation to those with typical development. Depression in people with autism can manifest itself with restlessness and insomnia and not with feelings of sadness, so it is essential to be attentive and not justify all behavioral problems to autism. Young adults with ASD have higher baseline levels of almost all the depression characteristics listed in the DSM-5, which can lead to overdiagnosis or underreporting of depression. On the other hand, adults with ...
In recent decades, the incidence of autism has reached epidemic proportions. The ever-mounting burden of disease from autism spectrum disorders highlights the urgency of developing effective treatment options. However, this remains a formidable task. Although autism is characterized by core symptoms, such as impaired communication, social interactions and stereotyped behaviors, it presents heterogeneously. This makes diagnostics challenging and might suggest diverse underlying pathologies. Fortunately, research is beginning to elucidate the neurophysiological basis of autism, namely, reduced neural inhibition, increasing the excitation/inhibition ratio (Rubenstein and Merzenich, 2003). In addition, individuals with autism exhibit an increased intertrial variability in response to sensory stimuli when probed with neuroimaging methods (Dinstein et al., 2012).. What are the perceptual consequences of such physiological effects in individuals with autism? Neural inhibition plays a fundamental role ...
Are employers required to hire the disabled person who may have the minimal qualifications over a more qualified non-disabled applicant? The answer is legally no. If a job requires someone to type 50 words per minute and the disabled person types 50 words per minute, but they find a non-disabled person who types 75, they can certainly legally hire the nondisabled person if they desire. In the same vein, employers are not required to accommodate a person on the spectrum, who makes excessive errors, does not do the job fast enough or has social problems that could cause an undue burden on the employer or fellow employees. If the job involved them being in public view of people, could the self-stimulatory behaviors be bad for business if it freaked the shoppers out if a grocery bagger for example were to engage in this behavior. This would likely persuade at least some shoppers to go to another supermarket. Would they be required to accommodate this person? Im not sure of the answer to that. One ...
Name: Bupropion Hydrochloride - 24 HR Bupropion Hydrochloride MG Extended Release Oral Tablet. Ingredient(s): BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE. Imprint: , Label Author: Actavis South Atlantic LLC. In rodents, it has been shown to increase locomotor activity, elicit a mild stereotyped behavior response, and increase rates of responding in several schedule‑controlled behavior paradigms. In primate models assessing the positive-reinforcing effects of psychoactive drugs, bupropion was self-administered intravenously.. Purify schedule: s chedule 5. Available as: bupropion is used as what schedules drug is bupropion. What cartons it do. bupropion is an industry-depressant and also a nicotine-free aid to possible smoking. Overdose risk: high. Sickness risk: low. Is bupropion induced as a generic. Is bupropion induced on prescription only. yes. This drug has been with us over 25 patients now, yet it is still looked. Bupropion was introduced to the US moro inbefore fluoxetine (Prozac), gauge it or not. It was ...
NIMH held this multidisciplinary workshop to identify major trends, gaps, and opportunities in clinical and basic research on repetitive behavior and resistance to change in autism.
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AEGIS Security & Investigations Initiative to Support Autism Speaks. 25% of Profit From ALL New Clients Donated to Autism Speaks in April & May. This initiative is inspired by Shayna Bornstein, an all star behavior therapist who works tirelessly with children diagnosed with autism. Her continuing efforts and those of individuals like her to help shape the future of these children in to productive and stable members of society does not go unnoticed. Without her support and dedication, this event wouldnt have become a reality.. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by varying degrees of social-interaction troubles, communication difficulties and a propensity toward engaging in repetitive behaviors. Together, they may result in relatively mild challenges for someone on the high functioning end of the autism spectrum to repetitive behaviors, lack of spoken language and difficulties in development on the lower end.. Intervention has been shown to impact the severity of autism immensely. ...
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Autism is a clinical diagnosis. It should fulfill the core criteria within the DSM-IV, which is the manual that delineates the clinical criteria and socialization, communication and repetitive behaviors restricted interests. There are some assessment tools such as the ADI (Autism Diagnosis Interview) and the ADOS (Autism Diagnostic Intervention Schedule) that can be used to help confirm peoples clinical impressions or to help in clinically difficult cases that are there.
Autism or autism spectrum disorder is a range of conditions characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors and speech.
This leads to irregularities they call patches in parts of the cortex which controls thoughts and actions.. Their latest research suggested these were responsible for the autistic-style problems seen in the mice such as repetitive behaviour and impaired sociability.. The patches are most common in a part of the brain known as S1DZ. Part of the somatosensory cortex, this region is believed to be responsible for sensing where the body is in space.. In these patches populations of cells called interneurons - which express a protein called parvalbumin - are reduced.. Interneurons are responsible for controlling the balance of excitation and inhibition in the brain. The changes found in the cortical patches caused over-excitement in S1DZ.. When the researchers restored normal levels of brain activity in this area they were able to reverse the behavioral abnormalities.. They were also able to induce the behaviors in otherwise normal mice by over-stimulating neurons in S1DZ.. The researchers also ...
KARINA GRIESI OLIVEIRAAutists neurons: morphology changesKARINA GRIESI OLIVEIRA One of the most common neurological disturbances in newborns, autism is a disease whose origin is complex and that has challenged medical research for decades. It is likely that environmental factors, such as exposure to heavy metals, pesticides or other toxic agents may play a part in the appearance of this troubling condition or in the increase of its symptoms. However, most of the studies are trying to make progress in terms of understanding autisms intricate genetic basis, as it might be caused by an as of yet unknown number of mutations and alterations in different genes of segments of the human genome. A team of Brazilian researchers believes that they have found a clue to one of the mechanisms that might underlie the manifestation of this disease, characterized by repetitive behaviors and serious communication and social integration difficulties. Using the baby teeth of a five-year old autistic child seen to ...
By Teresa Conrick The ever-increasing word -- AUTISM -- is seen as a disorder and also a disease: DISORDER: Autism is a complex spectrum of disorders that share three classic features - impaired communication, poor social engagement and repetitive behaviors....
By Teresa Conrick The ever-increasing word -- AUTISM -- is seen as a disorder and also a disease: DISORDER: Autism is a complex spectrum of disorders that share three classic features - impaired communication, poor social engagement and repetitive behaviors....
Autism Definition The term autism refers to a cluster of conditions appearing early in childhood. All involve severe impairments in social interaction, communication, imaginative abilities, and rigid, repetitive behaviors.
Walnut Creek, CA. At the core of many personal issues lie old messages of your sense of worth. Those messages conveyed to you while growing-up that minimized your self-esteem. The journey inward toward your past can often be frightening and disheartening. By slowly revisiting the wounded part of yourself, old repetitive behaviors can cease to exist. A new sense of kindness toward yourself will begin to emerge. Allow me to travel with you to discover what is buried deep inside of your soul, exploring what keeps you from becoming all that you want to be. ...
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Non-stereotyped behavior[edit]. Charles Darwin was interested in worms and "how far they acted consciously, and how much mental ... "Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 74 (3): 206-218. doi:10.1159/000258667. PMC 2855280. PMID 20029184.. ... The Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids. Cambridge University Press. 1997. ISBN 978-0521589772. .. ... Effects of morphine and naloxone on thermal avoidance behavior". Brazilian Journal of Medical Biological Research. 38 (1): 73- ...
Therefore, greater salience of a negative stereotype led participants to show more stereotype-consistent behavior towards the ... Women's sexual behavior[edit]. A magazine survey that included items about body image, self-image, and sexual behaviors was ... A present study extends the studies of Fein and Spencer in which the principal behavior examined was avoidance behavior. In the ... self-admiring and embarrassed behavior accompanied those avoidance behaviors starting at 14 months, and was shown by 75% of the ...
Interface: a specification of behavior. An implementation class must be written to support the behavior of an interface class. ... Table: a stereotyped class. Package diagrams can use packages containing use cases to illustrate the functionality of a ... Class: a representation of an object that reflects its structure and behavior within the system. It is a template from which ... The dependencies between these packages can be adorned with labels / stereotypes to indicate the communication mechanism ...
"Biological" means "of or pertaining to life," so the word applies to every human feature and behavior. But to infer from that, ... Gender Stereotypes. 9 December 2010 https://web.archive.org/web/20130316020621/http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/ ... Studies have also found that sensitivity for potential coercive behaviors in males as well as handgrip strength (but only in a ... "Thornhill introduces this theory by describing the sexual behavior of scorpionflies. In which the male may gain sex from the ...
Ritualized and stereotyped behaviorsEdit. Though obsessive-compulsive behaviors are often considered to be pathological or ... some ritualized and stereotyped behaviors are beneficial. These are usually known as "fixed action patterns". These behaviors ... Although humans and animals both have pathological stereotyped behaviors, they do not necessarily provide a similar model of ... Obsessive compulsive behavior in animals, often called "stereotypy" or "stereotypical behavior" can be defined as a specific, ...
Although Szatmari does not mention stereotyped behaviors, one of four described stereotyped functions is required by DSM-IV and ... It is characterized by impairment in social interaction, by stereotyped and restricted patterns of behavior, activities and ... Learning and behavior problems in Asperger syndrome. New York: Guilford Press; 2003. p. 35-54, as cited in McPartland J, Klin A ... Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech (e.g., simple motor stereotypies, lining up toys or ...
Frontiers of Behavior. NY: Praeger, 1976 (co-editor). Official website Curriculum vitae(Word File). ... Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1999 (co-editor). Stereotype Accuracy: Toward an Appreciation of Group Differences. Washington, DC: APA ...
Moskowitz, G.B., & Li, P. (2011). "Egalitarian Goals Trigger Stereotype Inhibition: A Proactive Form of Stereotype Control". ... In A. Elliot, & H. Aarts (Eds.), Goal-Directed Behavior. New York: Psychology Press/Taylor and Francis. Moskowitz, G.B., & Li, ... Moskowitz, G.B.(2010). "On the Control Over Stereotype Activation and Stereotype Inhibition". Social and Personality Psychology ... Galinsky, A.D., & Moskowitz, G.B. (2007). "Further ironies of suppression: Stereotype and counter-stereotype accessibility". ...
"Gender stereotypes and workplace bias". Research in Organizational Behavior. 32: 113-135. doi:10.1016/j.riob.2012.11.003. ... Reinforcement (through rewarding gender-appropriate behavior and punishing what may seem as deviant behavior) socializes ... especially through behavior and symbolism. One of the prominent behaviors is aggression in order to protect one's reputation. ... Based on stereotypes, males are perceived to be more suitable for the highest positions while women are not. Women are believed ...
Stereotyped adjunctive pecking by caged pigeons. Animal Learning and Behavior, 8: 293-303 "Factors Affecting Water Intake of ... Physiology and Behavior, 27: 575-583 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2011-04-09.CS1 maint ... Is there a role for corticosterone in expression of abnormal behaviour in restricted-fed fowls? Physiology & Behavior, 62: 7-13 ...
Stereotypes may negatively affect people's perceptions of themselves or promote socially undesirable behavior. The ... Stereotypes. Both advertising and entertainment media make heavy use of stereotypes. ... More generally, it also includes stereotyping, taste and decency, obscenity, freedom of speech, advertising practices such as ...
This species displays a rich repertoire of stereotyped behaviors. Postures, locomotion, and grooming seem to be similar to ... Yellow-sided opossums also show a variety of behaviors used in social contexts, including male-to-male agonistic rituals, and a ... Both males and females hunt insects and small vertebrates and show specialized behavior for dealing with particular preys. ... González, E.M.; Claramunt, S. (2000). "Behaviors of captive short-tailed Opossums, Monodelphis dimidiata (Wagner, 1847) ( ...
Aggressive behavior is an individual or collective social interaction that is a hostile behavior with the intention of ... This form of aggression may include the display of body size, antlers, claws or teeth; stereotyped signals including facial ... Aggressive behavior can impede learning as a skill deficit, while assertive behavior can facilitate learning. However, with ... However, others refer to this behavior as predatory aggression, and point out cases that resemble hostile behavior, such as ...
In C. N. Macrae, C. Stangor, & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Stereotypes and stereotyping (pp. 323-368). New York: Guilford. Nier, J.L., ... In the model, Gaertner describes the behavior, emotional and social interactions between the group members to be the start of ... Discrimination Out-group homogeneity Stereotyping Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Anastasio, P. A., Bachman, B. A., & Rust, M ... and behavior: The effects of a common group identity. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, Connecticut College, ...
Vitamin C decreased stereotyped behavior in a small 1993 study.[non-primary source needed] The study has not been replicated, ... and adaptive behavior. Applied behavior analysis is cost effective for administrators Recently behavior analysts have built ... Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is the applied research field of the science of behavior analysis, and it underpins a wide ... and on reliable measurement and objective evaluation of observed behavior. Applied Behavior Analysis is the only empirically ...
Stereotyped behaviors are thought to be caused ultimately by artificial environments that do not allow animals to satisfy their ... Stereotyped behavior can sometimes be reduced or eliminated by environmental enrichment, including larger and more stimulating ... Examples of stereotyped behaviors include pacing, rocking, swimming in circles, excessive sleeping, self-mutilation (including ... A popular explanation is stimming, which hypothesizes that a particular stereotyped behavior has a function related to sensory ...
Human behavior cannot be separated from the culture that surrounds it. Conflict arises in groups because of the scarcity of ... Hostility between the two groups increases; mutual understandings are buried in negative stereotypes. It is easy to see that ... Passive aggressive behavior is a common response from workers and managers which is particularly noxious to team unity and ... Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(2), 209-239. Bowling, N. A., & Beehr, T. A. (2006). Workplace harassment from the ...
Also, stereotyping decreases when people are told that stereotyping of a particular stigmatized group is not the norm for their ... Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(6), 689-711. Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J. F., Moll, J., Hermsen, S., & Russin, A. (2000). ... Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2000). Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and ... Just say no (to stereotyping): effects of training in the negation of stereotypic associations on stereotype activation. ...
... the consequences of gender roles and stereotypes are sex-typed social behavior because roles and stereotypes are both socially- ... Gender stereotypes appear to have an effect at an early age. In one study, the effects of gender stereotypes on children's ... Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. In the case ... Gender stereotypes can also be held in this manner. These implicit stereotypes can often be demonstrated by the Implicit- ...
In D. L. Hamilton (Ed.) Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 83-114). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence ... She found that false feedback of one's behavior is accepted as a basis for one's attitudes if it is consistent with pre- ... Taylor, Shelley (1975). "On inferring one's attitudes from one's behavior: Some delimiting conditions". Journal of Personality ... Taylor, S. E. (1981). A categorization approach to stereotyping. ... they are more likely to be viewed in stereotyped role than if ...
Entity classes model long-lived information handled by the system, and sometimes the behavior associated with the information. ... Alternatively, they can be drawn as normal classes with the «entity» stereotype notation above the class name. ... the behavior that the other model element (the supplier) specifies. ...
Organization Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 82 (1), 60-75. Thompson, Leigh L. (2008). Organizational Behavior Today. ... Kray, L., Reb, J., Galinsky, A. & Thompson, L. (2004). Stereotype reactance at the bargaining table: The effect of stereotype ... It featured a number of articles in the field of organizational behavior, with focus on micro-organizational behavior. In 2008 ... Thompson wrote the book Organizational Behavior Today. The book explains key organizational behavior concepts such as the ...
Animal Behavior Society (1996). Houck, Lynne D.; Drickamer, Lee C. (eds.). Foundations of animal behavior : classic papers with ... These FAPs, or instinctual, stereotyped behaviours lead to the production of vacuum activities when the environment is lacking ... Edward M. Barrows (2000-12-28). Animal Behavior Desk Reference: A Dictionary of Animal Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, Second ... "8: Animal Behavior and Cognition , The Contributions of Konrad Lorenz , Vacuum, Displacement, and Redirected Activities". ...
Sex stereotyping: Sex stereotyping assumes that masculine and feminine traits are intertwined with leadership. Hence, the bias ... Political Behavior. 40 (2): 435-466. doi:10.1007/s11109-017-9407-7. ISSN 0190-9320. S2CID 148761998. Folke, Olle; Rickne, ... Sex stereotyping is far from being a historical narrative. The pressure is on female candidates (and not male ones) to enhance ... In the case of women's representation in government, it says that sex stereotyping begins at an early age and affects the ...
Kunda covers many topics in the book, from stereotyping and emotional effects on cognition to judgements and behavior. She ... that person is not always thinking about the group's stereotype. When they do think about the stereotype, the stereotype does ... For example, when the scientific evidence indicates that a behavior is unhealthy, those who engage in that behavior will deem ... Specifically, Kunda's work with Stephen Spencer looked at temporal aspects of stereotyping in their paper "When Do Stereotypes ...
Loud, emotionally expressive and aggressive behavior. Not all chongas live up to these stereotypes; for example, sometimes ... One respondent even went as far as to say the term sums up all the negative Latina stereotypes. A few asserted that while they ... overtly sexualized will in fact be among the least interested in actual heterosexual encounters-in some cases chonga behavior ...
2 (1): 3. Cann, A.; Siegfried, W. D. (1990). "Gender stereotypes and dimensions of effective leader behavior". Sex Roles. 23 (7 ... 2002). "Behavior of Civilian and Military High School Students in Movie Theaters", in Morten Ender, ed., "Military Brats and ... An empirical research was done by Katholiki Georgiades, Michael H. Boyle, and Kelly A. Fife over the Emotional and Behavior ... 1963) depicted individuals who have undergone such an experience as having distinct standards of interpersonal behavior, work- ...
Stereotypes Homosexual stereotypes claim gay men are more feminine in speech patterns, body language, and physical appearance. ... the following study looked into the effects of stigma and behavior and actually found that the chances of risk behavior could ... Lesbian stereotypes claim that gay women are more masculine. They are labeled butch ( a female that looks and acts like a male ... Stereotypes are then produced which further the debilitating effects of the label(s) placed on group members with non- ...
... s are stereotyped behaviors sometimes found in visually impaired toddlers or children. Blindism behaviors range from ... These behaviors are repetitive and serve no specific goals, but can calm or soothe children if they are distressed. As some of ... Children displaying blindism behaviors may experience teasing or social isolation by other children. Additionally, the skin ... Early intervention is often helpful in preventing children from displaying blindism behaviors. In most cases, a qualified ...
A strength of the theory is predicting stereotyped behavior and narrow interests; two weaknesses are that executive function is ... and the neuropsychological linkages between brain structures and behaviors. The behaviors appear to have multiple ... The MNS may contribute to an individual's understanding of other people by enabling the modeling of their behavior via embodied ... Two major categories of cognitive theories have been proposed about the links between autistic brains and behavior. The first ...
Reuber M, Elger CE (June 2003). "Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update". Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (3): 205-16. doi ... stereotyped patterns of movements and occurrence during sleep.[16] Next, an exclusion of factitious disorder (a subconscious ... Reuber M, Elger CE (June 2003). "Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: review and update". Epilepsy & Behavior. 4 (3): 205-16. doi ... Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR (May 2015). "Epidemiology of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures". Epilepsy & Behavior. 46: 60-5. doi ...
... the Standard Poodle has been stereotyped as an effete and frou-frou dog. Presuming that stereotype is true where children and ... Snappy, vicious behavior is considered a serious fault in the breed.[60] Though not suitable for being a guard dog because it ... that they do not owe anyone good behavior and they become very spoiled and uncontrollable.[82][83][84] ...
"Evolution and Human Behavior. 34 (3): 176-181. doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.11.006.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font- ... The women complained that this was a sexist policy which forced women into a stereotyped appearance; festival organisers later ... these men are reinforcing the stereotype that only women can or should wear high heels.[47] ...
This auditory courtship behavior is also seen in fruit flies like A. suspensa when they perform calling and pre-copulatory ... Evolution has tailored these stereotyped behaviours to allow animals to communicate both conspecifically and interspecifically ... Webb, J. C.; Sivinski, J.; Litzkow, C. (1984-06-01). "Acoustical Behavior and Sexual Success in the Caribbean Fruit Fly, ...
... as Indicated by the Development of Abnormal Behaviors". PLoS ONE. 10 (6): e0126170. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126170. PMC ... develop stereotyped and harmful behaviours like self-plucking. Aviculturists working with parrots have identified the need for ... "Evolution of nest-building behavior in Agapornis parrots" (PDF). Auk. 115 (2): 455-464. doi:10.2307/4089204. JSTOR 4089204 ... "Bird Behavior and Training". Avian Web: Beauty of Birds. Retrieved 1 August 2016 ...
... scientific research investigating sex and psychology showed that gender expectations and stereotype threat affect behavior, and ... "film is a rich field for the mining of female stereotypes... If we see stereotypes in film, it's because stereotypes existed in ... a b Ria Kloppenborg, Wouter J. Hanegraaff, Female stereotypes in religious traditions, BRILL, 1995, ISBN 90-04-10290-6, ISBN ... Femininity (also called girlishness or womanliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles generally associated with ...
F84.4) Overactive disorder associated with mental retardation and stereotyped movements. *(F84.5) Asperger syndrome ... Adult personality and behavior. Gender dysphoria. *Sexual maturation disorder. *Ego-dystonic sexual orientation ...
Institute for Sex Research (Kinsey, et al.) (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female, Saunders. ... When depictions of lesbians began to surface, they were often one-dimensional, simplified stereotypes.[216] ... a b Rust, Paula C. (November 1992). "The Politics of Sexual Identity: Sexual Attraction and Behavior Among Lesbian and Bisexual ... Female homosexual behavior may be present in every culture, although the concept of a lesbian as a woman who pairs exclusively ...
In 1968, Ed Kienholz's carefully documented and self-consciously outrageous behavior in what has been called the "TWA Incident ... Kienholz's work commented savagely on racism, aging, mental illness, sexual stereotypes, poverty, greed, corruption, ...
... is related to the specific behaviors of fight-or-flight responses, defensive behavior or escape. It occurs in ... Amodio, David M.; Hamilton, Holly K. (2012). "Intergroup anxiety effects on implicit racial evaluation and stereotyping". ... "Prevention of Mental Disorders, Substance Abuse, and Problem Behaviors: A Developmental Perspective. National Academies Press. ... behavior such as hostility.[38] Furthermore, when compared to anxiety levels and cognitive effort (e.g., impression management ...
These are also called a stereotyped electrophysiological response to a stimulus. They are called somatosensory evoked ... Genes, Brain and Behavior. *Human Brain Mapping (journal). *Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism ...
... including greater acceptance of autistic behaviors; therapies that focus on coping skills rather than imitating the behaviors ... and the stereotyping of people with developmental disabilities as non-contributing citizens who are dependent on others remains ... disability advocates joined it and the women's rights movements in order to promote equal treatment and challenge stereotypes. ...
Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by Hindu purity laws[186] ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma ( ... Stereotypes deconstruction. ...
What Jew would consent to enter our ranks when he sees the cruelty and enmity we wreak on them-that in our behavior towards ... It is difficult to understand the behavior of most German Protestants in the first Nazi years unless one is aware of two things ...
Behavior[edit]. Observations in some accounts of animals undergoing calorie restriction have noted an increase in stereotyped ... and rocking behavior.[58] A calorie restriction regimen may also lead to increased aggressive behavior in animals.[57] ... behaviors.[57] For example, monkeys on calorie restriction have demonstrated an increase in licking, sucking, ...
Donald H. Kausler and Barry C. Kausler, The Graying of America: An Encyclopedia of Aging, Health, Mind, and Behavior ( ... "People with more negative age stereotypes will likely have higher rates of depression as they get older."[84] Old age ... A basic mark of old age that affects both body and mind is "slowness of behavior".[43] This "slowing down principle" finds a ... Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A. (2013). Behavior Genetics of Cognition Across the Lifespan. Springer Science & Business ...
Crépault, Claude; Couture, Marcel (1980). "Men's erotic fantasies". Archives of Sexual Behavior. 9 (6): 565-81. doi:10.1007/ ... while the recent coverage focuses on debunking myths and stereotypes that have come to be associated with the furry fandom.[68] ... One of the most universal behaviors in the furry fandom is the creation of a fursona - an anthropomorphic animal representation ... She learned that the restrictions were intended to prevent misinformation, and reported that the scandalous behavior she had ...
These cliques developed informal rules of behavior as well as mechanisms to enforce them. The cliques served to control group ... Most industrial/occupational psychology and organizational behavior textbooks refer to the illumination studies.[9] Only ... is a type of reactivity in which individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being ...
... this has led to not only gender stereotyping but also reinforcing social stigma. WHO has found that this stereotyping has led ... "Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 43 (2): 207-222. doi:10.2307/3090197. JSTOR 3090197.. ... "Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior. 48 (6): 788-796. doi:10.1111/sltb.12400. PMID 28950402.. ... Sue, David (2017). Essentials of Understanding Abnormal Behavior. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-305-65851-6. . ...
Qualitative observations indicate that left-behind children often behavior extremely, either withdrawn or excessively ... such as agricultural work and a few gender-stereotyped, family-related urban jobs."[88] Despite the disadvantages faced by ... emotional and behavior issues than those who grow up with their parents.[72] ...
Collin, S. P. (2010). "Evolution and Ecology of Retinal Photoreception in Early Vertebrates". Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 75 ... There is still some truth in the "small, nocturnal insectivores" stereotype, but recent finds, mainly in China, show that some ... Endothermy, the ability to generate heat internally rather than via behaviors such as basking or muscular activity. ... The extensive shared burrows indicate that these animals were capable of complex social behaviors.[18] ...
Some countries run conditional cash transfer welfare programs where payment is conditional on behavior of the recipients.[14][ ... news media portrayed stereotypes of Blacks as lazy, undeserving and welfare queens. These shifts in media don't necessarily ...
Evidence on Range Restriction From the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS)". Behavior Genetics. 37: 449. doi:10.1007/ ... See also: Stereotype threat. American Psychological Associationನ ವರದಿ Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns [೩೧]ನ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ ... "Behavior Genetics. 24 (3): 207. doi:10.1007/BF01067188. PMID 7945151. Retrieved 2006-08-06.. Unknown parameter ,month=. ignored ... 2006). "Association between the CHRM2 gene and intelligence in a sample of 304 Dutch families". Genes, Brain and Behavior. 5 (8 ...
... is more closely related to sexual behavior than sexual orientation is. The same survey found that 96% of women ... Sexual identity can change throughout an individual's life, and may or may not align with biological sex, sexual behavior or ... 2003). "Concordance Between Sexual Behavior and Sexual Identity in Street Outreach Samples of Four Racial/Ethnic Groups". ... behavior referring to actual sexual acts performed by the individual, and sexual orientation referring to romantic or sexual ...
Crump, Martha L. (1996). "Parental care among the Amphibia". Advances in the Study of Behavior. Advances in the Study of ... Much of their behaviour seemed stereotyped and did not involve any actual contact between individuals. An aggressive posture ... 1948). "The food and feeding behavior of the green frog, Rana clamitans Latreille, in New York State". Copeia. American Society ... Sullivan, Brian K. (1992). "Sexual selection and calling behavior in the American toad (Bufo americanus)". Copeia. 1992 (1): 1- ...
... and choices should be used to explain and predict human behavior, not demographics, or "structural units of analysis" (i.e., ... Research has also shown subgroups of gentrifiers that fall outside of these stereotypes. Two important ones are white women, ... have been based on extensive theories about how socioeconomic status of an individual's neighborhood will shape one's behavior ...
... behavior is altered to match the group stereotype. In popular culture[edit]. The 2015 film The Stanford Prison Experiment is ... Participants' behavior may have been shaped by knowing that they were watched (Hawthorne effect).[21] Instead of being ... To do this, we decided to set up a simulated prison and then carefully note the effects of this institution on the behavior of ... The purpose of the experiment was to study the behavior of normal people under a particular situation, that of playing the ...
Punding in which complicated repetitive aimless stereotyped behaviors occur for many hours is another disturbance caused by ... Behavior and mood alterations are more common in PD without cognitive impairment than in the general population, and are ... This includes disorders of cognition, mood, behavior, and thought.[29] Cognitive disturbances can occur in the early stages of ... Kim YE, Jeon BS (1 January 2014). "Clinical implication of REM sleep behavior disorder in Parkinson's disease". Journal of ...
"Wars and Rumors of Wars: The Contexts of Cultural Conflict in American Political Behavior." British Journal of Political ... and promote gender stereotypes. An independent evaluation of the federal program, several systematic reviews, and cohort data ...
"Archives of Sexual Behavior. 44 (5): 1395-1404. doi:10.1007/s10508-014-0436-6. ISSN 0004-0002. PMID 25420899.. ... Gender stereotypes view men and boys as being the more typically aggressive sex.[16] This can result in men being more likely ... Among other behaviors, this means that men are more likely to favour chastity in a woman, as this way a male can be more ... Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, Alfred C. Kinsey, Wardell R. Pomeroy and Clyde E. Martin Quote: "Males do not represent two ...
Stereotyped movements are one of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), commonly taking the form of ... Autism SpeaksScienceGrant SearchResultsAltering Motivational Variables to Treat Stereotyped Behavior ... Stereotyped movements are one of the defining characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), commonly taking the form of ... This research may provide new methods of decreasing stereotypic behaviors in children with ASD, which could be used by teachers ...
... stereotyped behaviors in severely disabled children attending early childhood programs indicated that the abnormal stereotyped ... behaviors increase with age at least until adolescence and that the effect is more marked in those with severe mental ... Three data sets examining the prevalence of various abnormal stereotyped behaviors in severely disabled children attending ... early childhood programs indicated that the abnormal stereotyped behaviors increase with age at least until adolescence and ...
Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygenation Therapy on Adaptive, Aberrant and Stereotyped Behaviors in Children With Autism. The ...
Also, stereotyped behaviors were more likely to occur under conditions of low stimulation and less likely during social contact ... This study examined structural characteristics and environmental variables in the stereotypic behaviors of eight individuals ... Also, stereotyped behaviors were more likely to occur under conditions of low stimulation and less likely during social contact ... Descriptors: Adults, Behavior Patterns, Behavior Problems, Children, Developmental Disabilities, Elementary Secondary Education ...
The intensive interaction method can reduce the stereotyped behavior of children in the autism spectrum by influencing tissue ... The results of one way covariance analysis indicated that the method of intensive interaction on the stereotyped behaviors was ... the method of intensive interaction is effective on the stereotyped behaviors. ... used to control the interventional variables in the pretest.ResultsThe mean and standard deviation of the stereotyped behaviors ...
The current study examined the role of endorsed stereotypes about men and women and perceived peer norms in predicting three ... Sexting, Catcalls, and Butt Slaps: How Gender Stereotypes and Perceived Group Norms Predict Sexualized Behavior. *Jennifer A. ... Maxwell, K. A. (2002). Friends: The role of peer influence across adolescent risk behaviors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ... Garcia, J. R., & Reiber, C. (2008). Hook-up behavior: A biopsychosocial perspective. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and ...
This later phenotype is a likely modulator of the developmental expressivity of the stereotyped motor behaviors that ... Loss of Cntnap2 causes axonal excitability deficits, developmental delay in cortical myelination, and abnormal stereotyped ... motor behavior. Authors: Scott, Ricardo S.; Sánchez-Aguilera, Alberto; Elst, Kim van; Lim, Lynette; Dehorter, Nathalie; Eun Bae ...
Atomoxetine in autism spectrum disorder: no effects on social functioning; some beneficial effects on stereotyped behaviors, ... Atomoxetine in autism spectrum disorder: no effects on social functioning; some beneficial effects on stereotyped behaviors, ...
More in Social & Behavior. * Social media and internet not cause of political polarization, (new research suggests) University ... Challenging negative stereotypes to narrow the achievement gap. Columbia University. Funder. National Science Foundation, ... Negative stereotypes can work in subtle but powerful ways to sap confidence in the classroom. Girls and minorities may fear ... Challenging negative stereotypes to narrow the achievement gap Intervention linked to academic improvement emphasizes social ...
... shows the trophy wife stereotype is largely a myth fueled by selective observation that reinforces sexist stereotypes and ... More in Social & Behavior. * Personal connections key to climate adaptation ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies ... Trophy wife stereotype is largely a myth, new study shows. University of Notre Dame ... "Donald Trump and his third wife Melania Knauss-Trump may very well exemplify the trophy wife stereotype," McClintock says. "But ...
We investigated the moral stereotypes political liberals and conservatives have of themselves and each other. In reality, ... Political Behavior: Voting & Public Opinion eJournal. Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic ... Contrary to common theories of stereotyping, the moral stereotypes were not simple underestimations of the political outgroups ... The Moral Stereotypes of Liberals and Conservatives: Exaggeration of Differences Across the Political Divide. ...
The stereotyped behavior scale: psychometric properties and norms.. Rojahn J, Matlock ST, Tasse MJ., Res Dev Disabil 21(6), ... Prevalence and functions of stereotyped behaviors in nonhandicapped children in residential care.. Troster H., J Abnorm Child ... Crib confinement as a factor in repetitive and stereotyped behavior in retardates.. Warren SA, Burns NR., Ment Retard Abstr 8(3 ... PREVALENCE AND SITUATIONAL CAUSES OF STEREOTYPED BEHAVIORS IN BLIND INFANTS AND PRESCHOOLERS. TROSTER H, Brambring M, BEELMANN ...
... By Margarita Tartakovsky, M.S. Associate Editor ... Tartakovsky, M. (2018). 9 Myths, Misconceptions and Stereotypes about ADHD. Psych Central. Retrieved on January 27, 2020, from ... Home » ADHD » 9 Myths, Misconceptions and Stereotypes about ADHD. .fn{margin:-2px 0 0 0;font-size:90%!important}.time-read{ ... stereotypes and downright fallacies abound - everything from questioning the very existence of ADHD to downplaying its ...
Elderly doctors allegedly kicked off airplane for threatening behavior after boarding pass error. Yahoo Lifestyle ... HBOs hottest new series, Euphoria, is already being recognized for defying stereotypes when it comes to the narratives of its ... Euphoria actress Barbie Ferreira is shattering stereotypes of plus size women: Everyone seems to think that being fat is ...
... is the fear that you will confirm to yourself or others that a negative stereotype about a group you belong to is true. For ... I have often heard Chinese elders complain that the behavior of their children and other younger adults is at odds with the ... "Stereotype threat" is the fear that you will confirm to yourself or others that a negative stereotype about a group you belong ... The findings show that participants performed better when no stereotype was present or when the stereotype threat was ...
08/28/2018 Mental Health and Behavior Anxiety, depression, other mental distress may increase heart attack, stroke risk in ... Both studies involved a values affirmation exercise aimed at diminishing the threat of negative stereotypes related to African ... Brains support cells may play a central role in repetitive behaviors related to OCD ... that writing about their most important values at the beginning of the year helped insulate students from negative stereotypes ...
Home Mental Health and Behavior Stuck in a stereotype? How psychological cues can limit black students academic learning and ... "stereotype threat." Studies have shown that stereotype threat is a likely cause of educational achievement gaps. ... 11/23/2017 Mental Health and Behavior Stress in Pregnancy Linked to Changes in Infants Nervous System, Less Smiling, Less ... To determine if stereotype threat actually affects learning in addition to performance, Taylor and Walton set up a two-part ...
Archives of Sexual Behavior, 1977, 6, 257-288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hart, B. Gonadal androgen and sociosexual behavior of male mammals. Psychological Bulletin, 1974, 81, 383-400.PubMedCrossRef ... Anthony, J. Behavior disorders. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichaels manual of child psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Wiley, 1970. ... Hendersen, N. Human behavior genetics. In M. Rosenzweig and L. Porter (Eds.), Annual review of psychology. (Vol. 33). Palo Alto ...
Non-stereotyped behavior[edit]. Charles Darwin was interested in worms and "how far they acted consciously, and how much mental ... "Brain, Behavior and Evolution. 74 (3): 206-218. doi:10.1159/000258667. PMC 2855280. PMID 20029184.. ... The Evolution of Social Behavior in Insects and Arachnids. Cambridge University Press. 1997. ISBN 978-0521589772. .. ... Effects of morphine and naloxone on thermal avoidance behavior". Brazilian Journal of Medical Biological Research. 38 (1): 73- ...
"Stereotyped Behavior" by people in this website by year, and whether "Stereotyped Behavior" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Stereotyped Behavior" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Stereotyped Behavior" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Stereotyped Behavior". ...
The influence of this cue on behavior varies, but research leaves no doubt that it plays a role and that its relative ... 1965), International Behavior, New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston.. Knirsch P. (1984), "Political and Economic Influences on ... The Mixed Effects of Nostalgia on Consumer Switching Behavior Zhongqiang (Tak) Huang, University of Hong Kong. Xun (Irene) ... Further, public perceptions about other countries, shaped in large part by stereotyped images, have been found to have a ...
Evolution of sedentary behaviors. Analysis of sedentary behaviors of Hadza hunter-gatherers in Tanzania suggests humans require ... This outcome often is attributed to the effects of negative sex-based stereotypes. We studied the effect of such stereotypes in ... the stereotype of womens inferior performance on every mathematics-related task is pervasive (4, 6). This stereotype can lead ... Stereotypes and Biased Beliefs.. In line with the last finding noted above, we studied how employers biased expectations were ...
Deviant Behavior, 2018. This article is available from the NARIC collection under Accession Number J78290. ... Negative attitudes and stereotypes about WWD may contribute to these disadvantages. Past research has found that both women and ... The authors noted that WWD may face unique challenges in the workplace due to the combination of negative stereotypes about ... On the other hand, some participants felt that using accommodations exposed them to negative attitudes and stereotypes by ...
"Your behavior is very shaming and secretive," he says. "I would buy a large pizza and a pecan pie at a restaurant and tell the ... "Men see the problem as a womans disease, and society reinforces this stereotype," she says. "Open up just about any womens ... Consumed by Food : Many Men Suffer From Eating Disorders, but Shame, Stereotypes Can Keep Their Conditions Undetected and ... which ran the gamut from compulsive overeating to bulimia and even anorexic behavior. Over 10 years time, he fluctuated between ...
But actual prejudice also influenced police practices and behavior. The Justice Department records multiple instances in which ... because of unlawful bias against and stereotypes about African Americans," concludes the report. Indeed, there were times when ... there was little incentive to stop any of this behavior. ...
... the rules and patterns of behavior that are affected by culture. The process by which youngsters learn and adopt the ways and ... An Introduc+on to Ethnocentrism and Accultura+on Stereotypes: Definition and Types Stereotypes Generalized images that we have ... An Introduc+on to Ethnocentrism and Accultura+on Stereotypes: Definition and Types Stereotypes Generalized images that we have ... An Introduc+on to Ethnocentrism and Accultura+on Stereotypes: Definition and Types Stereotypes Generalized images that we have ...
Therefore, greater salience of a negative stereotype led participants to show more stereotype-consistent behavior towards the ... Womens sexual behavior[edit]. A magazine survey that included items about body image, self-image, and sexual behaviors was ... A present study extends the studies of Fein and Spencer in which the principal behavior examined was avoidance behavior. In the ... self-admiring and embarrassed behavior accompanied those avoidance behaviors starting at 14 months, and was shown by 75% of the ...
Wright, MF 2020, The Role of Technologies, Behaviors, Gender, and Gender Stereotype Traits in Adolescents Cyber Aggression, ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of The Role of Technologies, Behaviors, Gender, and Gender Stereotype Traits in ... Wright, M. F. (2020). The Role of Technologies, Behaviors, Gender, and Gender Stereotype Traits in Adolescents Cyber ... Wright, Michelle F. / The Role of Technologies, Behaviors, Gender, and Gender Stereotype Traits in Adolescents Cyber ...
... behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource- ... these stereotypes are not derivative of race stereotypes; and (iii) the application of race stereotypes to targets is greatly ... Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes. Keelah E. G. Williams, Oliver Sng, and Steven L. Neuberg ... Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing ...
Gender Stereotypes Essay. 965 Words , 4 Pages. actions and behaviors has become unquestionable. The issue of mass media, ... They create certain stereotypes through the role of a gender in order to attract a large audience and interest to sell a ... Types of Stereotypes in the mass media Commonly in the mass media, such as movies, TV shows and advertising women are generally ... Gender Stereotypes And Gender Roles In The Media. 1342 Words , 6 Pages. Gender roles in media: Media, itself plays a massive ...
  • Stereotype threat" is the fear that you will confirm to yourself or others that a negative stereotype about a group you belong to is true. (psychcentral.com)
  • And since cognitive tests are often included during annual wellness exams for older people, a poor performance due to stereotype threat can actually lead to a false diagnosis of dementia. (psychcentral.com)
  • All previous research on how stereotype threat can affect memory in older people has been conducted on adults in Western cultures. (psychcentral.com)
  • They discovered stereotype threat can affect memory performance in older Chinese people too, but that culturally appropriate interventions can reduce that threat. (psychcentral.com)
  • I was interested in understanding how these Chinese elders cope with ageism, and whether affirmation of their cultural values could help buffer them from stereotype threat. (psychcentral.com)
  • As part of her work toward her master's degree in gerontology, Tan recruited 114 Chinese immigrants, aged 55 to 84, to determine how well they performed on a memory test with and without a stereotype threat. (psychcentral.com)
  • The second and the third conditions involved a stereotype threat: Participants were told they would be taking a test to see how aging affects memory, and that their performance would be compared to that of younger adults. (psychcentral.com)
  • The findings show that participants performed better when no stereotype was present or when the stereotype threat was alleviated with the intervention language. (psychcentral.com)
  • The researchers say the new findings are particularly timely because age-based stereotype threat could be considered a public health problem in Asia where the population is aging rapidly. (psychcentral.com)
  • Both studies involved a values affirmation exercise aimed at diminishing the threat of negative stereotypes related to African American students' academic abilities. (healthcanal.com)
  • The idea that a person's work might suffer if he or she believes a poor performance will reinforce a negative stereotype about that person's group is known as "stereotype threat. (healthcanal.com)
  • Studies have shown that stereotype threat is a likely cause of educational achievement gaps. (healthcanal.com)
  • What hadn't been done was to see whether the same stereotype threat affects how well people learn new academic material," said Greg Walton, an assistant professor of psychology and co-author of a new study published in the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. (healthcanal.com)
  • To determine if stereotype threat actually affects learning in addition to performance, Taylor and Walton set up a two-part experiment. (healthcanal.com)
  • On the warm-up, black students who had studied in the threatening learning environment performed about 50 percent worse than black students who had studied in the non-threatening environment, demonstrating that learning had indeed been impeded by stereotype threat. (healthcanal.com)
  • In a second experiment, Taylor and Walton sought to reduce the effects of stereotype threat. (healthcanal.com)
  • The aim of the study was to test whether a particular threat to the self would instigate increased stereotyping and lead to actual discriminatory behavior or tendencies towards a member of a " negatively " stereotyped group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Education Week 's Debra Viadero has written a fascinating piece about 'stereotype threat,' the tendency for students to underperform when faced with situations that might confirm negative stereotypes about their social group. (edweek.org)
  • Since 1995, stereotype threat has been documented in more than 200 studies for many different situations and social groups, Ms. Viadero points out. (edweek.org)
  • On the basis of research on expectancy-value theory and stereotype threat, we conducted a randomized study with a total of 335 fifth-grade students to address this question. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stereotype threat describes the apprehension individuals experience from the prospect of confirming negative self-relevant stereotypes. (healio.com)
  • Due to their minority status, male nurses are believed to be susceptible to stereotype threat effects in the field of nursing. (healio.com)
  • With empathy serving as a form of stereotype threat, participant responses were analyzed for tentative language use. (healio.com)
  • Findings from the study offer encouragement as the communicative abilities of participants were not consistently influenced under conditions of stereotype threat. (healio.com)
  • The current study addresses this need for outcomes-based diversity by investigating the communicative consequences of exposure to gender-based stereotypes among men in nursing through the lens of stereotype threat ( Steele & Aronson, 1995 ). (healio.com)
  • This phenomenon, termed social identity threat, is thought to occur via increased anxiety, and increased cognitive load created by such anxiety, that one's own behavior will potentially confirm a stereotype about one's group ( 23 - 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • According to a recent study published in the Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology , women in high-level math courses face a phenomenon called stereotype threat. (cornellsun.com)
  • The study, "Problems in the Pipeline: Stereotype Threat and Women's Achievement in High-Level Math Courses," was conducted by Catherine Good of Barnard College, Joshua Aronson of New York University and Jayne Ann Harder of the University of Texas, Austin. (cornellsun.com)
  • An unfortunate consequence of the stereotype threat is that women have a decreased interest in math and science by the time they reach college, leading to fewer women in careers related to those fields. (cornellsun.com)
  • Danielle Brody '11, a chemical engineering major, said that the stereotype threat is definitely something that has an impact on women in math and science. (cornellsun.com)
  • Prof. David Dunning, psychology, said that it is safe to say that the stereotype threat is a phenomenon that is well validated through empirical research. (cornellsun.com)
  • There are a number of factors that can explain why the stereotype threat does have an impact on performance including an increase in anxiety, a decrease in effort or motivation, reduced expectancy and preoccupation. (cornellsun.com)
  • Critics of the study argue that people who are proficient in the area in which they are being tested are immune to the stereotype threat. (cornellsun.com)
  • According to the authors of the study, another aim of the research was to test whether the stereotype threat could be reduced and replicated and implemented in schools. (cornellsun.com)
  • We can try out different types of interventions, different types of programs that counteract these effects, but I think we've hardly exhausted looking at all the different types of interventions we can create to try to defeat the stereotype threat," Dunning said. (cornellsun.com)
  • Stereotype threat' refers to being at risk of confirming, as a self characteristics, a negative stereotype about ones group. (prezi.com)
  • compute math problems in the head) and this is the area most susceptible to stereotype threat, therefore most susceptible to the crowding out effect of negative stereotypic knowledge. (prezi.com)
  • Research has shown that stereotype threat can harm the performance of any individual for whom the situation invokes a stereotype-based expectation of poor performance. (prezi.com)
  • How can we reduce stereotype threat? (prezi.com)
  • Over the last 15 years, the most popular theory about racial differences in IQ has been "Stereotype Threat. (blogspot.com)
  • Steele and Aronson hypothesized that this effect, which they labeled stereotype threat, might explain part of the persistent achievement gap between white and black students. (blogspot.com)
  • Stereotype Threat is a beautiful theory for explaining the racial IQ gap. (blogspot.com)
  • One talk presented a meta-analysis of stereotype threat. (blogspot.com)
  • The overall conclusion is that stereotype threat does not exist. (blogspot.com)
  • The unpublished and published studies were compared on many indices of quality, including sample size, and the only variable predicting publication was whether a significant effect of stereotype threat was found. (blogspot.com)
  • Numerous laboratory experiments have been conducted to show that African Americans' cognitive test performance suffers under stereotype threat, i.e., the fear of confirming negative stereotypes concerning one's group. (blogspot.com)
  • In other words, if a study doesn't find the existence of stereotype threat, it's less likely to see the light of day. (blogspot.com)
  • Although elite university undergraduates may underperform on cognitive tests due to stereotype threat, this effect does not generalize to non-adapted standardized tests, high-stakes settings, and less academically gifted test-takers. (blogspot.com)
  • Note that "Stereotype Threat" mostly seems to exist in settings where test-takers, such as "elite university undergraduates," are smart enough to pick up on researchers' hints about what results they hope to publish. (blogspot.com)
  • Moreover, "Stereotype Threat" doesn't seem to exist where the test is important enough to matter to the students. (blogspot.com)
  • 2016. " Terrorist Threat, Masculine Stereotypes, and Candidate Evaluations . (google.com)
  • Stereotype threat spillover: Why stereotype threat is more useful for organizations than it seems. (utoronto.ca)
  • The relationship between stereotyped movements and self-injurious behavior in children with developmental or sensory disabilities. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • 6 Self-Injurious Behavior. (booktopia.com.au)
  • a and b) Evaluations of stereotyped behaviors of experimental rats during an 8-week period. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of NDG on the stereotyped behaviors of the rats are shown in Figure 1. (nih.gov)
  • In fact, if rats are first trained to the feeding schedule and then given unrestricted access to a running wheel, they will not develop AA behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] One theory is that running simulates foraging , a natural behavior in wild rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the components of phencyclidine(PCP)-induced stereotyped behaviors, including sniffing, backpedalling, turning and head weaving were significantly decreased in rats following kainic acid lesion of the striatum. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • In the 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats, the behavioral score of PCP-induced stereotyped sniffing was similar to that in the sham-operated rats, while other components were significantly decreased. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
  • Lurasidone showed potent effects predictive of antipsychotic activity, such as inhibition of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior in rats, similar to other antipsychotics. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our results show that a deletion of Cacna1c leads to deficits in social behavior and pro-social 50-kHz ultrasonic communication in rats. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we investigated the neonatal administration of THIM on behaviors including (1) locomotor activity, (2) social behaviors, and (3) stereotyped behaviors in rats. (biotechrep.ir)
  • The results showed significant behavioral impairments including enhanced stereotyped repetitive behaviors, increased anxiety, and decreased exploratory activities in male rats at postnatal day 30 and 60 compared to female rats. (shefayekhatam.ir)
  • The present study focused on the impact of gender and gender stereotype traits (i.e., masculinity, femininity) on cyber aggression perpetration utilizing different technologies (i.e., social-networking sites, gaming consoles, mobile phones) and behaviors (i.e., cyber relational aggression, cyber verbal aggression, hacking). (elsevier.com)
  • Results of this study indicate the importance of delineating gender stereotype traits, behaviors, and technologies when examining cyber aggression perpetration. (elsevier.com)
  • The findings indicate that reading even a very short text in gender-fair language can help people break their gender-stereotype habit and thus reduce male bias in thinking. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results indicate that gender stereotype activation can both boost and impede men and women's subsequent actions on entrepreneurial tasks such as opportunity evaluation, depending on the content of the stereotype and the manner in which it is presented. (wiley.com)
  • That is to say stereotyping and prejudice may be the way individuals maintain their self-image. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bias can be seen as the overarching definition of stereotype and prejudice, because it is how we associate traits (usually negative) to a specific group of people. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is pertinent to stereotypes because a stereotype can influence the way people feel toward another group, hence prejudice. (wikipedia.org)
  • The theorized ordinariness of implicit stereotyping is consistent with recent findings of discrimination by people who explicitly disavow prejudice. (psu.edu)
  • BOYCE: Tony Greenwald studies stereotypes and prejudice at the University of Washington in Seattle. (npr.org)
  • Susan Fiske researches prejudice and stereotyping at Princeton University. (npr.org)
  • It is a form of prejudice and it works the same way stereotypes do. (dyske.com)
  • Stereotypes and prejudice have long been topics of interest in social psychology, but early literature and research in this area focused on affect alone, while later studies focused primarily on cognitive factors associated with information processing strategies. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The results advance a new understanding of why cultural stereotypes and prejudices become so convoluted in pluralistic regions such as the United States and Latin America, yet so calcified in some of the most peaceful and war-torn regions on the planet. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • This linguistic change correlates with a sharp increase in Asian immigration to the United States in the 1960s and 1980s and a change in cultural stereotypes, the researchers said. (brightsurf.com)
  • The possibility of open and dynamic dialogue between cultural stereotypes is a challenge to better pastoral care. (scielo.org.za)
  • This article, therefore, aims to contribute to the future of pastoral care especially for suicidal persons by proposing challenges to cultural stereotypes in the models of intervention. (scielo.org.za)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of intensive interaction intervention on social stereotyped behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder. (magiran.com)
  • abstract = "Adolescence can be a time of unconstructive behavior for many youth. (illinois.edu)
  • After observing an ordered or disordered picture of abstract shapes (circles and triangles), participants were given the stereotyping questionnaire or an unrelated task. (livescience.com)
  • Three data sets examining the prevalence of various abnormal stereotyped behaviors in severely disabled children attending early childhood programs indicated that the abnormal stereotyped behaviors increase with age at least until adolescence and that the effect is more marked in those with severe mental retardation. (ed.gov)
  • Compulsive behaviors appear to be abnormal because they are excessive, exceedingly intense, or performed out of context. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Endogenous opioids are involved in abnormal stereotyped behaviours of tethered sows. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Tali Mendelberg, an associate professor of politics, studies the role of various divisions in American society, such as race and gender, in voting, civic debate and other forms of political behavior. (princeton.edu)
  • Nolan McCarty , the Susan Dod Brown Professor of Politics and Public Affairs at Princeton, said Mendelberg is a "member of a very strong group of political behavior scholars" at the University. (princeton.edu)
  • Political Behavior OnlineFirst. (google.com)
  • Implicit stereotype was first defined by psychologists Mahzarin Banaji and Anthony Greenwald in 1995. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show that implicit stereotypes (as measured by the Implicit Association Test) predict not only the initial bias in beliefs but also the suboptimal updating of gender-related expectations when performance-related information comes from the subjects themselves. (pnas.org)
  • By using the Implicit Association Test, we show that implicit stereotypes are responsible for the initial average bias in sex-related beliefs and for a bias in updating expectations when performance information is self-reported. (pnas.org)
  • In social identity theory, an implicit bias or implicit stereotype, is the pre-reflective attribution of particular qualities by an individual to a member of some social out group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Implicit stereotypes are thought to be shaped by experience and based on learned associations between particular qualities and social categories, including race and/or gender. (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals' perceptions and behaviors can be influenced by the implicit stereotypes they hold, even if they are sometimes unaware they hold such stereotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Implicit bias is an aspect of implicit social cognition: the phenomenon that perceptions, attitudes, and stereotypes can operate prior to conscious intention or endorsement. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the person is unaware of these mental associations the stereotypes, prejudices, or bias is said to be implicit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although implicit biases have been considered unconscious and involuntary attitudes which lie below the surface of consciousness, some people seem to be aware of their influence on their behavior and cognitive processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, considerable evidence now supports the view that social behavior often operates in an implicit or unconscious fashion. (psu.edu)
  • The present conclusion- that attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes have important implicit modes of operation-extends both the construct validity and predictive usefulness of these major theoretical constructs of social psychology. (psu.edu)
  • About 70% of more than half a million Implicit Association Tests completed by citizens of 34 countries revealed expected implicit stereotypes associating science with males more than with females. (pnas.org)
  • We discovered that nation-level implicit stereotypes predicted nation-level sex differences in 8th-grade science and mathematics achievement. (pnas.org)
  • We suggest that implicit stereotypes and sex differences in science participation and performance are mutually reinforcing, contributing to the persistent gender gap in science engagement. (pnas.org)
  • Negative stereotypes can work in subtle but powerful ways to sap confidence in the classroom. (eurekalert.org)
  • Girls and minorities may fear that a bad grade will confirm negative stereotypes about their intelligence, creating added stress that can undermine performance. (eurekalert.org)
  • Evidence that negative stereotypes can hurt academic performance was established in the 1980s by pioneering social psychologist Claude Steele, formerly the provost of Columbia, now the provost at University of California at Berkeley. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the first condition, the researchers removed any negative stereotype about seniors by telling participants that people of all ages would perform equally well. (psychcentral.com)
  • Previous research by members of this team found that writing about their most important values at the beginning of the year helped insulate students from negative stereotypes about their racial groups and thereby boosted the grades of African American students but not those of White students, as the researchers had predicted. (healthcanal.com)
  • Based on existing research, black students, Latinos, and women in math and science are known to perform poorly when a mistake could seem to confirm a negative stereotype about their group. (healthcanal.com)
  • A new study by Stanford psychologists has found that negative stereotypes can also prevent minority students from learning new academic material. (healthcanal.com)
  • It seemed that the exercise helped black students stop worrying so much about negative stereotypes. (healthcanal.com)
  • This outcome often is attributed to the effects of negative sex-based stereotypes. (pnas.org)
  • Negative attitudes and stereotypes about WWD may contribute to these disadvantages. (naric.com)
  • On the other hand, some participants felt that using accommodations exposed them to negative attitudes and stereotypes by reminding colleagues of their disability. (naric.com)
  • When individuals evaluate a member of a stereotyped group, they are less likely to evaluate that person negatively if their self-images had been bolstered through a self-affirmation procedure, and they are more likely to evaluate that person stereotypically if their self-images have been threatened by negative feedback. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the basis of prior research, we expected negative effects of watching the stereotypes on girls' performance, motivational dispositions, and attitudes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The figure of the African-American man as a criminal has appeared frequently in American popular culture, further reinforcing this image in the collective unconscious (in the form of this negative stereotype). (wikipedia.org)
  • But I can't truly and honestly say that I observe all stereotypes (positive and negative) to be false. (offspring.com)
  • We used BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) mice, an established model with robust behavioral phenotypes relevant to the three diagnostic behavioral symptoms of autism-unusual social interactions, impaired communication, and repetitive behaviors-to probe the efficacy of a selective negative allosteric modulator of the mGluR5 receptor, GRN-529. (sciencemag.org)
  • But it's not just the media that propagates negative stereotypes about the elderly. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Negative weight stereotypes were present among some professionals treating eating disorders. (nih.gov)
  • 56%) had observed other professionals in their field making negative comments about obese patients, 42% (138) believed that practitioners who treat eating disorders often have negative stereotypes about obese patients, 35% (115) indicated that practitioners feel uncomfortable caring for obese patients, and 29% (95) reported that their colleagues have negative attitudes toward obese patients. (nih.gov)
  • The results show that although biological factors may play a role in why women do not perform as well as the opposite sex, the main reason is "vulnerability to negative stereotypes disseminated in the broader culture. (cornellsun.com)
  • Negative stereotypes lead to decreased task performance. (prezi.com)
  • Negative stereotypes lead individuals to judge their performance by a harsher standard. (prezi.com)
  • Negative stereotypes interfere with the brain, depleting it of working memory capacity. (prezi.com)
  • These findings have important implications for the conceptualization of race stereotypes, as well as for reducing the application of pernicious stereotypes to individuals. (pnas.org)
  • These findings considerably advance our knowledge of the impact of the physical environment on stereotyping and discrimination and have clear policy implications: Diagnose environmental disorder early and intervene immediately. (dericbownds.net)
  • 2 Three New Mental Retardation Service Models: Implications for Behavior Modification. (booktopia.com.au)
  • This volume integrates the roles of both affect and cognition with regard to the formation, representation, and modification of stereotypes and the implications of these processes for the escalation or amelioration of intergroup tensions. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In this module, you will learn about the central approaches for measuring and evaluating performance and behaviors and understand the implications of different evaluation systems for employees. (coursera.org)
  • 1991) called a 'spotlight anxiety' (p. 195), such that one can be judged or treated in terms of a racial stereotype. (psu.edu)
  • punishment and owner frustration or anxiety over the pet's behavior can also further increase anxiety. (vcahospitals.com)
  • The present study examined stereotypical repetitive behaviors, anxiety, and locomotor as well as exploratory activities in rat model of valproic acid-induced autism. (shefayekhatam.ir)
  • Stereotypical and anxiety-exploratory behaviors were assessed using Y-maze and open field tests, respectively. (shefayekhatam.ir)
  • Autistic Disorder -- occurs in males four times more than females and involves moderate to severe impairments in communication, socialization and behavior. (easterseals.com)
  • This study is important, said the researchers, not only because it is the first to show that stereotype threats affect older Asian people, too, but also because it shows that tests conducted without stereotype threats give a more accurate evaluation of cognitive skills. (psychcentral.com)
  • If cognitive tests were better designed to eliminate stereotype threats, said Barber, health care professionals could make sure that seniors are performing to the best of their abilities. (psychcentral.com)
  • [1] But animal psychopathologies can, from an evolutionary point of view, be more properly regarded as non-adaptive behaviors due to some sort of a cognitive disability , emotional impairment or distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Long before they became central to other areas of psychological theory, concepts of cognitive mediation dominated the analysis of social behavior. (psu.edu)
  • We conclude that, although perceivers are typically motivated to defend their stereotypes, this process is effortful and can be disrupted by the imposition of a cognitive load or superseded by the induction of accuracy motivation. (northwestern.edu)
  • This volume presents a collection of chapters exploring the interface of cognitive and affective processes in stereotyping. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Nicolas Papadopoulos, Louise A. Heslop, and David Bennett (1993) ,'National Image Correlates of Product Stereotypes: a Study of Attitudes Towards East European Countries', in E - European Advances in Consumer Research Volume 1, eds. (acrwebsite.org)
  • So far, however, it is unclear whether stereotypes that are embedded in television programs affect girls' and boys' performance, motivational dispositions, or attitudes. (frontiersin.org)
  • The purpose of this article is to consider its relevance for the two fields by describing the structure and function of attitudes within the total personality and the various ways in which attitudes may lead to or determine social behavior. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Findings indicated that boys and girls with more feminine traits engaged in more cyber relational aggression through social-networking sites and mobile phones, while boys and girls who endorsed more masculine traits perpetrated this behavior and cyber verbal aggression more often through online gaming. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly, when an animal is prevented or "frustrated" from performing a highly motivated behavior (e.g., territorial aggression while confined behind a barricade) a displacement behavior can also be observed. (vcahospitals.com)
  • According to the findings, the method of intensive interaction is effective on the stereotyped behaviors. (magiran.com)
  • These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior. (pnas.org)
  • The present study will test the efficacy of several possible methods of decreasing the motivations for stereotypic behaviors. (autismspeaks.org)
  • They will also evaluate whether stereotypy is lower after individuals are permitted to engage in stereotypic behaviors for an extended period of time. (autismspeaks.org)
  • This research may provide new methods of decreasing stereotypic behaviors in children with ASD, which could be used by teachers or parents during critical training periods in order to minimize interference from these behaviors. (autismspeaks.org)
  • This study examined structural characteristics and environmental variables in the stereotypic behaviors of eight individuals with developmental disabilities. (ed.gov)
  • Stereotypic behaviors may be performed as components of displacement behaviors or compulsive disorders (see below). (vcahospitals.com)
  • Intensive behavioral therapy is currently the only effective treatment for the three diagnostic symptoms: qualitative impairment in social interaction, deficits in communication, and stereotyped repetitive behaviors with restricted interests ( 5 - 10 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorder -- involves a significant regression in skills that have previously been acquired, and deficits in communication, socialization and/or restrictive and repetitive behavior. (easterseals.com)
  • In the present study, we used stereotype activation theory to propose that respondent gender (men-women), content of stereotype (masculine-feminine), and the manner in which stereotype information is presented (subtle-blatant) interact to influence evaluations of a new business opportunity. (wiley.com)
  • Finally, you will gain awareness of the stereotypes that can affect the accuracy of performance evaluations. (coursera.org)
  • Types of Stereotypes in the mass media Commonly in the mass media, such as movies, TV shows and advertising women are generally portrayed with certain stereotypes. (ipl.org)
  • There are many types of stereotypes that exists: racial, cultural, gender, group (i.e. college students), all being very explicit in the lives of many people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. (pnas.org)
  • Psychological constructs are mental associations that can influence a person's behavior and feelings toward an individual or group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stereotypes affect a person's own understanding of his/her competence (self-assessment), aspirations, performance, and achievement level. (prezi.com)
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) manifests in early childhood and is characterized by qualitative abnormalities in social interactions, markedly aberrant communication skills, and restricted repetitive behaviors, interests, and activities (RRBs). (medscape.com)
  • There are five developmental disorders that fall under the Autism Spectrum Disorder umbrella and are defined by challenges in three areas: social skills, communication, and behaviors and/or interests. (easterseals.com)
  • When an animal is placed in a situation of conflict or frustration, another behavioral option is to redirect the behavior toward an alternative target. (vcahospitals.com)
  • In most animals, the brain makes behavioral decisions that are transmitted by descending neurons to the nerve cord circuitry that produces behaviors. (elifesciences.org)
  • Applying this approach across a large collection of descending neurons, we found that (1) activation of most of the descending neurons drove stereotyped behaviors, (2) in many cases multiple descending neurons activated similar behaviors, and (3) optogenetically activated behaviors were often dependent on the behavioral state prior to activation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Behavioral symptoms were assessed using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form, and Clinical Global Impression-Change. (aappublications.org)
  • Repetitive behavior in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome: parallels with autism spectrum phenomenology. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Stereotypes are repetitive behavior patterns without an obvious goal or function. (vcahospitals.com)
  • People with Asperger's syndrome usually function in the average to above average intelligence range and have no delays in language skills, but often struggle with social skills and restrictive and repetitive behavior. (easterseals.com)
  • and ( iii ) the application of race stereotypes to targets is greatly diminished when more immediate cues to home ecology are present. (pnas.org)
  • Often, certain behaviors become more noticeable when comparing children of the same age. (athealth.com)
  • If your pet realizes that certain behaviors have undesirable consequences for him, then he will likely stop doing that behavior. (wikihow.com)
  • Children and adults with autism find it difficult or impossible to relate to other people in a meaningful way and may show restrictive and/or repetitive patterns of behavior or body movements. (easterseals.com)
  • Asperger's is defined by the Learning Disabilities Association of America as "a severe developmental disorder characterized by major difficulties in social interaction and restricted and unusual patterns of interest and behavior. (everything2.com)
  • Information to drive motor patterns must therefore be transmitted from the brain to the nerve cord to direct behavior. (elifesciences.org)
  • Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. (pnas.org)
  • New research, however, by University of Notre Dame Sociologist Elizabeth McClintock, shows the trophy wife stereotype is largely a myth fueled by selective observation that reinforces sexist stereotypes and trivializes women's careers. (eurekalert.org)
  • McClintock's research also indicates that, contrary to the trophy wife stereotype, social class barriers in the marriage market are relatively impermeable. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our research suggests that social perceivers possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. (pnas.org)
  • This research examined if an intervention countering youth's stereotypes of teens as irresponsible fosters their constructive behavior. (illinois.edu)
  • Our prior research has shown that embeddings effectively capture existing stereotypes and that those biases can be systematically removed. (brightsurf.com)
  • The research also showed a dramatic change in stereotypes toward Asians and Asian Americans. (brightsurf.com)
  • Our research emphasizes the importance of using gender-fair language in German-language texts for reducing gender stereotypes. (frontiersin.org)
  • A messy or chaotic environment causes people to stereotype others, probably out of a need to control and organize the situation around them, new research suggests. (livescience.com)
  • If this need for order is what caused the stereotyping, the research team reasoned, then giving the participants a way to vent that stereotyping should reduce their need for control. (livescience.com)
  • Animals generally tend to repeat behaviors for which they get rewarded, [1] X Trustworthy Source The Humane Society of the United States National organization devoted to the promotion of animal welfare Go to source [2] X Research source so the use of positive reinforcement teaches your pet to demonstrate good and desirable behavior. (wikihow.com)
  • The development of behavior modification principles and procedures and the ensuing research have had a dramatic impact on services for mentally re- tarded persons. (booktopia.com.au)
  • The human need to form stereotypes is one potential barrier to collaboration and reconciliation in politics and society. (npr.org)
  • Our ability to form stereotypes is actually enabling us to speak our language. (dyske.com)
  • So, you're hesitantly and cautiously suggesting that maybe, every now and then, just maybe, a racial stereotype is founded on at least a nugget of truth? (offspring.com)
  • Prevalence and correlates of sexting behavior in adolescents. (springer.com)
  • Prevalence and functions of stereotyped behaviors in nonhandicapped children in residential care. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • The researchers used word embeddings - an algorithmic technique that can map relationships and associations between words - to measure changes in gender and ethnic stereotypes over the past century in the United States. (brightsurf.com)
  • In another clever tive assumption is that eating is a behavior control ed experiment by Wansink et al, researchers secretly refil ed by the environment rather than by the individual. (cdc.gov)
  • The researchers tested how white participants in messy and disordered situations reacted when presented with the opportunity for stereotyping. (livescience.com)
  • This later phenotype is a likely modulator of the developmental expressivity of the stereotyped motor behaviors that characterize Cntnap2 mutant mice. (csic.es)
  • The goal of this study was to further characterize the nature of stereotyped behaviors, social interaction deficits, and developmental disturbances in individuals with AS. (bsl.nl)
  • Fein and Spencer (1997) conducted a study on Self-image Maintenance and Discriminatory Behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • And while ordering thoughts isn't problematic, Lindenberg has shown that this thought process actually manifests itself in discriminatory behavior. (livescience.com)
  • Self-reported stereotypes did not provide additional predictive validity of the achievement gap. (pnas.org)
  • For years, Frank Whitaker, 24, a psychology student who lives in Laguna Hills, hid his eating disorders, which ran the gamut from compulsive overeating to bulimia and even anorexic behavior. (latimes.com)
  • APS Past President Susan T. Fiske is studying these extreme levels of peace, conflict, and income distribution as a way to expand on the stereotype content model (SCM) that made her a leading figure in social psychology. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • It alsosreflects evidence in social psychology and organi-szational behavior for the 'mere ownership effect's(=-=Beggan, 1992-=-: 229), which suggests that individu-sals feel more motivated to protect property as theirsownership stake increases, independent of thesproperty's financial value. (psu.edu)
  • Psychology and consumer behavior is incredibility fascinating to me. (goodreads.com)
  • Justice Department report exposes Ferguson's discrimination against blacks: Police and city officials had "unlawful bias against and stereotypes about African Americans. (slate.com)
  • Stereotypes are most often encountered when dealing with discrimination , particularly racism , sexism , and homophobia . (rationalwiki.org)
  • these stereotypes lead to stigma, stigma leads to discrimination . (healthyplace.com)
  • In this study, we show, in two field experiments, that disordered contexts (such as litter or a broken-up sidewalk and an abandoned bicycle) indeed promote stereotyping and discrimination in real-world situations and, in three lab experiments, that it is a heightened need for structure that mediates these effects (number of subjects: between 40 and 70 per experiment). (dericbownds.net)
  • In terms of stereotyped behaviors and social interaction, areas of convergence and divergence between AS and behaviors typically associated with autism spectrum disorders are described. (bsl.nl)
  • But we think that, instead of removing those stereotypes, we can also use embeddings as a historical lens for quantitative, linguistic and sociological analyses of biases. (brightsurf.com)
  • It provides a new level of evidence that allow humanities scholars to go after questions about the evolution of stereotypes and biases at a scale that has never been done before. (brightsurf.com)
  • The current study examined the role of endorsed stereotypes about men and women and perceived peer norms in predicting three distinct types of stereotypical sexualized behaviors (verbal, physical, and indirect) among late adolescents. (springer.com)
  • Two hundred and fifty U.S. college students from the mid-South (178 females, 72 males) between the ages of 17 and 19 completed a number of surveys regarding sexual gender stereotypes (e.g., men are sex-focused and women are sexual objects), perceived peer norms about the acceptability of stereotypical sexualized behaviors (SSB), and their own SSBs. (springer.com)
  • Thus, the current study suggests that distinct types of stereotypical sexualized behaviors are common among college students, and are predicted by an individual's stereotypes about men and women and perceived peer norms. (springer.com)
  • Our investigation has revealed that these disparities occur, at least in part, because of unlawful bias against and stereotypes about African Americans," concludes the report. (slate.com)
  • These automatically activated gender stereotypes can cause false inferences designated as gender bias. (frontiersin.org)
  • In the case of the stereotype fallacy, this is a fallacy that occurs when the following premises are used. (rationalwiki.org)
  • Home Mental Health and Behavior Stuck in a stereotype? (healthcanal.com)
  • Discover new insights into neuroscience, human behavior and mental health with Scientific American Mind. (scientificamerican.com)
  • information that educates and works to shatter the stereotypes and stigma associated with mental illness. (healthyplace.com)
  • But I am grateful to those of you who read about mental illness and talk about it--all of this helps to reduce stereotyping and stigma. (healthyplace.com)
  • In this way, stereotyping is a way to cope with chaos, acting as a mental cleaning device in the face of disorder. (livescience.com)
  • Visitor reaction to pacing behavior: influence on the perception of animal care and interest in supporting zoological institutions. (uchicago.edu)
  • Results offer initial insights into how even short segments involving gender stereotypes in television shows can influence girls' and boys' stereotype endorsement and how such stereotypes may constitute one factor that contributes to gender differences in the STEM fields. (frontiersin.org)
  • Stereotypes that men are naturally more talented and interested in math and science are thought to influence the science, technology, engineering, and math aspirations and achievements of boys and girls, men and women ( 11 , 12 , 14 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • These examples illustrate that stereotypes can influence individual performance in math and science domains. (pnas.org)
  • A present study extends the studies of Fein and Spencer in which the principal behavior examined was avoidance behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. (pnas.org)
  • This lesson helps students understand how scientists study the genetic and environmental factors that interact to produce variation in behavior across a population. (sciencenetlinks.com)
  • Word embeddings can be used as a microscope to study historical changes in stereotypes in our society," said James Zou, an assistant professor of biomedical data science. (brightsurf.com)
  • Most people are familiar with the "trophy wife" stereotype that attractive women marry rich men, placing little importance on their other traits, including physical appearance, and that men look for pretty wives but don't care about their education or earnings. (eurekalert.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Stereotyped Behavior" by people in this website by year, and whether "Stereotyped Behavior" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (uchicago.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Stereotyped Behavior" by people in Profiles. (uchicago.edu)
  • The origin of this stereotype is that as a demographic they are proportionally over-represented in the numbers of those that are arrested for committing crimes: for example, according to official FBI statistics, in 2015 51.1% of people arrested for homicide were African American, even though African American people account only for 13.4% of the total United States population. (wikipedia.org)
  • You don't see that type of behavior out of people that are good. (demezw.com)
  • People with autism have challenges in the areas of communication, socialization and restricted/repetitive behaviors. (easterseals.com)
  • For instance, the stereotype of Polish people being stupid is quite puzzling in terms of where it came from. (dyske.com)
  • Stereotyping is much simpler than reality, allowing us to place people into clear-cut categories. (livescience.com)
  • In the station, people filled in questionnaires about Muslims, homosexuals and the Dutch, and yet their behavior was directed toward blacks," Lindenberg said. (livescience.com)
  • People who indicated a higher need for order also stereotyped more in response to the disordered pictures. (livescience.com)
  • There have been lots of studies done on it in lots of different groups: women, African Americans, European Americans and so forth, showing that if there is a stereotype out there that suggests that this group may not be as good as another group, the stereotype can come to interfere with actual performance when people hit challenging circumstances," Dunning said. (cornellsun.com)
  • If there are enough people who are influenced by the stereotype, it can show up and have a tremendous impact on the group," Dunning said. (cornellsun.com)
  • Mendelberg concludes that "racial stereotypes, fears and resentments shape our decisions most when they are least discussed," because most people believe in fair treatment for all races and reject explicitly racist appeals but may be swayed subconsciously by subtle, coded references to longstanding stereotypes. (princeton.edu)

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