Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)
Motor behavior that is repetitive, often seemingly driven, and nonfunctional. This behavior markedly interferes with normal activities or results in severe bodily self-injury. The behavior is not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance or a general medical condition. (DSM-IV, 1994)
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.

Viral gene delivery selectively restores feeding and prevents lethality of dopamine-deficient mice. (1/623)

Dopamine-deficient mice (DA-/- ), lacking tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons, become hypoactive and aphagic and die by 4 weeks of age. They are rescued by daily treatment with L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); each dose restores dopamine (DA) and feeding for less than 24 hr. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses expressing human TH or GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) were injected into the striatum of DA-/- mice. Bilateral coinjection of both viruses restored feeding behavior for several months. However, locomotor activity and coordination were partially improved. A virus expressing only TH was less effective, and one expressing GTPCH1 alone was ineffective. TH immunoreactivity and DA were detected in the ventral striatum and adjacent posterior regions of rescued mice, suggesting that these regions mediate a critical DA-dependent aspect of feeding behavior.  (+info)

Behavioral, toxic, and neurochemical effects of sydnocarb, a novel psychomotor stimulant: comparisons with methamphetamine. (2/623)

Sydnocarb (3-(beta-phenylisopropyl)-N-phenylcarbamoylsydnonimine) is a psychostimulant in clinical practice in Russia as a primary and adjunct therapy for a host of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. It has been described as a stimulant with an addiction liability and toxicity less than that of amphetamines. The present study undertook to evaluate the psychomotor stimulant effects of sydnocarb in comparison to those of methamphetamine. Sydnocarb increased locomotor activity of mice with reduced potency (approximately 10-fold) and efficacy compared with methamphetamine. Sydnocarb blocked the locomotor depressant effects of haloperidol at doses that were inactive when given alone. The locomotor stimulant effects of both methamphetamine and sydnocarb were dose-dependently blocked by the dopamine D1 and D2 antagonists SCH 39166 and spiperone, respectively; blockade generally occurred at doses of the antagonists that did not depress locomotor activity when given alone. In mice trained to discriminate methamphetamine from saline, sydnocarb fully substituted for methamphetamine with a 9-fold lower potency. When substituted for methamphetamine under self-administration experiments in rats, 10-fold higher concentrations of sydnocarb maintained responding by its i.v. presentation. Sydnocarb engendered stereotypy in high doses with approximately a 2-fold lower potency than methamphetamine. However, sydnocarb was much less efficacious than methamphetamine in inducing stereotyped behavior. Both sydnocarb and methamphetamine increased dialysate levels of dopamine in mouse striatum; however, the potency and efficacy of sydnocarb was less than methamphetamine. The convulsive effects of cocaine were significantly enhanced by the coadministration of nontoxic doses of methamphetamine but not of sydnocarb. Taken together, the present findings indicate that sydnocarb has psychomotor stimulant effects that are shared by methamphetamine while demonstrating a reduced behavioral toxicity.  (+info)

On the relation between object manipulation and stereotypic self-injurious behavior. (3/623)

Results from a number of studies have shown an inverse relationship between stereotypic behavior and object manipulation. The purposes of this study were to determine whether techniques similar to those used previously (prompting and reinforcement) would be effective in increasing object manipulation under both prompted and unprompted conditions, and to ascertain whether increases in object manipulation would result in decreases in stereotypic self-injurious behavior (SIB). Two individuals with developmental disabilities who engaged in SIB maintained by automatic reinforcement participated. Results showed that object manipulation increased from baseline levels when experimenters prompted participants to manipulate leisure items, but that object manipulation was not maintained under unprompted conditions, and rates of SIB stayed within baseline levels. We then attempted to increase object manipulation further by (a) reinforcing object manipulation, (b) blocking SIB while reinforcing manipulation, and (c) preventing SIB by applying protective equipment while reinforcing object manipulation. Reinforcing object manipulation alone did not affect levels of object manipulation. Blocking effectively reduced attempts to engage in SIB for 1 participant but produced no increase in object manipulation. When the 2nd participant was prevented from engaging in SIB through the use of protective equipment, rates of object manipulation increased dramatically but were not maintained when the equipment was removed. These results suggest that stimulation derived from object manipulation, even when supplemented with arbitrary reinforcement, may not compete with stimulation produced by stereotypic SIB; therefore, direct interventions to reduce SIB are required.  (+info)

SR146131: a new potent, orally active, and selective nonpeptide cholecystokinin subtype 1 receptor agonist. II. In vivo pharmacological characterization. (4/623)

SR146131 is a potent and selective agonist at cholecystokinin subtype 1 (CCK1) receptors in vitro. The present study evaluates the activity of the compound in vivo. SR146131 completely inhibited gastric and gallbladder emptying in mice (ED50 of 66 and 2.7 micrograms/kg p.o., respectively). SR146131 dose dependently reduced food intake in fasted rats (from 0.1 mg/kg p.o.), in nonfasted rats in which food intake had been highly stimulated by the administration of neuropeptide Y (1-36) (from 0.3 mg/kg p.o.), in fasted gerbils (from 0.1 mg/kg p.o.), and in marmosets maintained on a restricted diet (from 3 mg/kg p.o.). SR146131 (10 mg/kg p.o.) also increased the number of Fos-positive cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats. Locomotor activity of mice was reduced by orally administered SR146131 (from 0.3 mg/kg p.o.). When administered intrastriatally, SR146131 elicited contralateral turning behavior in mice. Furthermore, orally administered SR146131 (0.3-10 mg/kg), also reduced the levels of cerebellar cyclic GMP. Finally, SR146131 (0.1 microgram/kg to 1 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly and dose dependently antagonized fluphenazine-induced mouth movements in rats. The CCK1 antagonist SR27897B prevented all the effects of SR146131. Conversely, SR146131 was unable to elicit any agonist or antagonist effects in a model of CCK2 receptor stimulation in vivo. SR146131 is a very potent and selective nonpeptide CCK1 agonist in vivo. SR146131 is more potent than any other CCK1 agonists reported to date. Because pharmacodynamic studies suggest that SR146131 should have a high absolute bioavailability, it may be a promising drug for the treatment of eating and motor disorders in humans.  (+info)

Susceptibility to amphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization is modulated by environmental stimuli. (5/623)

We have previously reported that intravenous (i.v.) administrations of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg of amphetamine in the absence of any environmental stimuli predictive of drug administration failed to induce psychomotor sensitization whereas the same drug did produce robust sensitization when given in association with environmental novelty. These results were obtained by studying rotational behavior in animals with a unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the mesostriatal dopamine system. The purpose of this study was to determine if environmental novelty has a similar effect on sensitization to the locomotor activating effects of amphetamine in neurologically intact rats. Rats were implanted with i.v. catheters and divided in four groups. Two groups were housed in locomotor activity cages and given seven consecutive i.v. infusions of either saline (SAL-HOME group) or 0.375 mg/kg of amphetamine (AMPH-HOME group), using a remotely activated delivery system. Simultaneously, the other two groups were transported to the test cages and given the same treatment (SAL-NOVEL and AMPH-NOVEL groups). After one week withdrawal, all groups were given an amphetamine challenge (0.375 mg/kg, i.v.). Amphetamine sensitization developed when the drug was administered under NOVEL conditions, as indicated by a progressive increase in amphetamine-induced locomotor activity over test sessions and by a greater response to the amphetamine challenge in the AMPH-pretreated versus the SAL-pretreated group. In contrast, no sensitization was observed under HOME conditions. Similar results were obtained with the analysis of vertical activity.  (+info)

Behavioral effects of psychomotor stimulant infusions into amygdaloid nuclei. (6/623)

The role of amygdaloid nuclei in locomotion, stereotypy, and conditioned place preference (CPP) produced by psychomotor stimulants was examined. Five 2-day conditioning trials were conducted over 10 consecutive days. Rats received bilateral intracranial infusions of saline, cocaine (25-100 micrograms/side), or amphetamine (0.31-20 micrograms/side) into the ventricles (ICV), basolateral amygdala (BlA), or central amygdala (CeA) and were confined to a compartment. On alternating days, rats received sham infusions and were confined to a different compartment. Locomotion was measured daily, stereotypy was measured on trials 1 and 5, and CPP was measured 24 h after conditioning. ICV infusions of cocaine or amphetamine produced locomotion, rearing, and CPP. Intra-BlA and intra-CeA infusions of the highest dose of cocaine produced locomotion. In contrast, intra-CeA infusions of amphetamine potently produced locomotion and CPP. Intra-BlA infusions of amphetamine, however, did not produce any behavioral changes. These results suggest that the CeA, but not the BlA, is involved in initiating reward and locomotion produced by amphetamine.  (+info)

Contributions of tutor and bird's own song experience to neural selectivity in the songbird anterior forebrain. (7/623)

Auditory neurons of the anterior forebrain (AF) of zebra finches become selective for song during song learning. In adults, these neurons respond more to the bird's own song (BOS) than to the songs of other zebra finches (conspecifics) or BOS played in reverse. In contrast, AF neurons from young birds (30 d) respond equally well to all song stimuli. AF selectivity develops rapidly during song learning, appearing in 60-d-old birds. At this age, many neurons also respond equally well to BOS and tutor song. These similar neural responses to BOS and tutor song might reflect contributions from both song experiences to selectivity, because auditory experiences of both BOS and tutor song are essential for normal song learning. Alternatively, they may simply result from acoustic similarities between BOS and tutor song. Understanding which experience shapes selectivity could elucidate the function of song-selective AF neurons. To minimize acoustic similarity between BOS and tutor song, we induced juvenile birds to produce abnormal song by denervating the syrinx, the avian vocal organ, before song onset. We recorded single neurons extracellularly in the AF at 60 d, after birds had had substantial experience of both the abnormal BOS (tsBOS) and tutor song. Some neurons preferred the unique tsBOS over the tutor song, clearly indicating a role for BOS experience in shaping neural selectivity. In addition, a sizable proportion of neurons responded equally well to tsBOS and tutor song, despite their acoustic dissimilarity. These neurons were not simply immature, because they were selective for tsBOS and tutor song relative to conspecific and reverse song. Furthermore, their similar responses to tsBOS and tutor song could not be attributed to residual acoustic similarities between the two stimuli, as measured by several song analyses. The neural sensitivity to two very different songs suggests that single AF neurons may be shaped by both BOS and tutor song experience.  (+info)

OCD-Like behaviors caused by a neuropotentiating transgene targeted to cortical and limbic D1+ neurons. (8/623)

To study the behavioral role of neurons containing the D1 dopamine receptor (D1+), we have used a genetic neurostimulatory approach. We generated transgenic mice that express an intracellular form of cholera toxin (CT), a neuropotentiating enzyme that chronically activates stimulatory G-protein (Gs) signal transduction and cAMP synthesis, under the control of the D1 promoter. Because the D1 promoter, like other CNS-expressed promoters, confers transgene expression that is regionally restricted to different D1+ CNS subsets in different transgenic lines, we observed distinct but related psychomotor disorders in different D1CT-expressing founders. In a D1CT line in which transgene expression was restricted to the following D1+ CNS regions-the piriform cortex layer II, layers II-III of somatosensory cortical areas, and the intercalated nucleus of the amygdala-D1CT mice showed normal CNS and D1+ neural architecture but increased cAMP content in whole extracts of the piriform and somatosensory cortex. These mice also exhibited a constellation of compulsive behavioral abnormalities that strongly resembled human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These compulsive behaviors included episodes of perseverance or repetition of any and all normal behaviors, repetitive nonaggressive biting of siblings during grooming, and repetitive leaping. These results suggest that chronic potentiation of cortical and limbic D1+ neurons thought to induce glutamatergic output to the striatum causes behaviors reminiscent of those in human cortical-limbic-induced compulsive disorders.  (+info)

Stereotyped behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to repetitive, rigid, and invariant patterns of behavior or movements that are purposeless and often non-functional. These behaviors are not goal-directed or spontaneous and typically do not change in response to environmental changes or social interactions.

Stereotypies can include a wide range of motor behaviors such as hand flapping, rocking, head banging, body spinning, self-biting, or complex sequences of movements. They are often seen in individuals with developmental disabilities, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and some mental health conditions.

Stereotyped behaviors can also be a result of substance abuse, neurological disorders, or brain injuries. In some cases, these behaviors may serve as a self-soothing mechanism or a way to cope with stress, anxiety, or boredom. However, they can also interfere with daily functioning and social interactions, and in severe cases, may cause physical harm to the individual.

Autistic Disorder, also known as Autism or Classic Autism, is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects communication and behavior. It is characterized by:

1. Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, including:
* Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity;
* Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors used for social interaction;
* Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships.
2. Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, as manifested by at least two of the following:
* Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements, use of objects, or speech;
* Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns of verbal or nonverbal behavior;
* Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus;
* Hyper- or hyporeactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory aspects of the environment.
3. Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (but may not become fully manifest until social demands exceed limited capacities) and limit or impair everyday functioning.
4. Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or other psychotic disorders.

Autistic Disorder is part of the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which also include Asperger's Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). The current diagnostic term for this category of conditions, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), is Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Stereotypic Movement Disorder is a neurological condition characterized by the presence of repetitive, often rhythmic and seemingly driven movements that are apparently purposeless. These movements may include body rocking, head banging, hand wringing, or complex whole-body movements. The movements interfere with normal activities and development, and they are not better explained by a neurological condition or another mental disorder. Stereotypic Movement Disorder can occur in individuals of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in children and adolescents. The exact cause of the disorder is unknown, but it may be associated with genetic factors, brain abnormalities, or environmental influences.

In the context of human behavior, grooming typically refers to the act of cleaning or maintaining one's own or another person's appearance or hygiene. However, in the field of forensic psychology and child protection, "grooming" has a specific meaning. It refers to the process by which an abuser gradually gains the trust of a potential victim, or the victim's family or friends, with the intent to manipulate or coerce the victim into sexual activity.

This can involve various behaviors such as complimenting, giving gifts, attention, and affection, gradually increasing in intimacy and inappropriateness over time. The grooming process can take place in person, online, or a combination of both. It's important to note that grooming is a criminal behavior and is often used by abusers to exploit and victimize children and vulnerable adults.

Catalepsy is a medical condition characterized by a trance-like state, with reduced sensitivity to pain and external stimuli, muscular rigidity, and fixed postures. In this state, the person's body may maintain any position in which it is placed for a long time, and there is often a decreased responsiveness to social cues or communication attempts.

Catalepsy can be a symptom of various medical conditions, including neurological disorders such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, or brain injuries. It can also occur in the context of mental health disorders, such as severe depression, catatonic schizophrenia, or dissociative identity disorder.

In some cases, catalepsy may be induced intentionally through hypnosis or other forms of altered consciousness practices. However, when it occurs spontaneously or as a symptom of an underlying medical condition, it can be a serious concern and requires medical evaluation and treatment.

Apomorphine is a non-selective dopamine receptor agonist, which means that it activates dopamine receptors in the brain. It has a high affinity for D1 and D2 dopamine receptors and is used medically to treat Parkinson's disease, particularly in cases of severe or intractable motor fluctuations.

Apomorphine can be administered subcutaneously (under the skin) as a solution or as a sublingual (under the tongue) film. It works by stimulating dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, and difficulty with movement.

In addition to its use in Parkinson's disease, apomorphine has also been investigated for its potential therapeutic benefits in other neurological disorders, including alcohol use disorder and drug addiction. However, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in these conditions.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Methamphetamine is a powerful, highly addictive central nervous system stimulant that affects brain chemistry, leading to mental and physical dependence. Its chemical formula is N-methylamphetamine, and it is structurally similar to amphetamine but has additional methyl group, which makes it more potent and longer-lasting.

Methamphetamine exists in various forms, including crystalline powder (commonly called "meth" or "crystal meth") and a rocklike form called "glass." It can be taken orally, snorted, smoked, or injected after being dissolved in water or alcohol.

Methamphetamine use leads to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter responsible for reward, motivation, and reinforcement, resulting in euphoria, alertness, and energy. Prolonged use can cause severe psychological and physiological harm, including addiction, psychosis, cardiovascular issues, dental problems (meth mouth), and cognitive impairments.

Communication disorders refer to a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to receive, send, process, and understand concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and written communication. These disorders can be language-based, speech-based, or hearing-based.

Language-based communication disorders include:

1. Aphasia - a disorder that affects a person's ability to understand or produce spoken or written language due to damage to the brain's language centers.
2. Language development disorder - a condition where a child has difficulty developing age-appropriate language skills.
3. Dysarthria - a motor speech disorder that makes it difficult for a person to control the muscles used for speaking, resulting in slurred or slow speech.
4. Stuttering - a speech disorder characterized by repetition of sounds, syllables, or words, prolongation of sounds, and interruptions in speech known as blocks.
5. Voice disorders - problems with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice that make it difficult to communicate effectively.

Hearing-based communication disorders include:

1. Hearing loss - a partial or complete inability to hear sound in one or both ears.
2. Auditory processing disorder - a hearing problem where the brain has difficulty interpreting the sounds heard, even though the person's hearing is normal.

Communication disorders can significantly impact a person's ability to interact with others and perform daily activities. Early identification and intervention are crucial for improving communication skills and overall quality of life.

Haloperidol is an antipsychotic medication, which is primarily used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, or disordered thought. It may also be used to manage Tourette's disorder, tics, agitation, aggression, and hyperactivity in children with developmental disorders.

Haloperidol works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to regulate mood and behavior. It is available in various forms, including tablets, liquid, and injectable solutions. The medication can cause side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, muscle stiffness, and uncontrolled movements. In rare cases, it may also lead to more serious neurological side effects.

As with any medication, haloperidol should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will consider the individual's medical history, current medications, and other factors before prescribing it.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant drug that works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. It is used medically to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity, due to its appetite-suppressing effects.

Amphetamines can be prescribed in various forms, including tablets, capsules, or liquids, and are available under several brand names, such as Adderall, Dexedrine, and Vyvanse. They are also known by their street names, such as speed, uppers, or wake-ups, and can be abused for their euphoric effects and ability to increase alertness, energy, and concentration.

Long-term use of amphetamines can lead to dependence, tolerance, and addiction, as well as serious health consequences, such as cardiovascular problems, mental health disorders, and malnutrition. It is essential to use amphetamines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and follow their instructions carefully.

Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants are a class of drugs that increase alertness, attention, energy, and/or mood by directly acting on the brain. They can be prescribed to treat medical conditions such as narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression that has not responded to other treatments.

Examples of CNS stimulants include amphetamine (Adderall), methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), and modafinil (Provigil). These medications work by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain.

In addition to their therapeutic uses, CNS stimulants are also sometimes misused for non-medical reasons, such as to enhance cognitive performance or to get high. However, it's important to note that misusing these drugs can lead to serious health consequences, including addiction, cardiovascular problems, and mental health issues.

Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) are a group of conditions that affect the development and functioning of the brain, leading to delays in many areas of development. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) has replaced the term "pervasive developmental disorders" with "autism spectrum disorder" and "other neurodevelopmental disorders."

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction across multiple contexts, as well as restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. The symptoms of ASD can range from mild to severe, and the condition affects approximately 1 in 54 children in the United States.

Other neurodevelopmental disorders that were previously classified as PDDs include:

1. Intellectual disability (ID): a condition characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disorder used to be referred to as "mental retardation."
2. Communication disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's ability to communicate, including language disorders, speech sound disorders, and stuttering.
3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
4. Specific learning disorder: a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and use specific academic skills, such as reading, writing, or mathematics.
5. Motor disorders: these are disorders that affect an individual's movement and coordination, including developmental coordination disorder, stereotypic movement disorder, and tic disorders.

The medical definition of 'Child Development Disorders, Pervasive' has been replaced with more specific diagnoses in the DSM-5 to better reflect the diverse nature of these conditions and improve diagnostic accuracy and treatment planning.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

'Behavior' is a term used in the medical and scientific community to describe the actions or reactions of an individual in response to internal or external stimuli. It can be observed and measured, and it involves all the responses of a person, including motor responses, emotional responses, and cognitive responses. Behaviors can be voluntary or involuntary, adaptive or maladaptive, and normal or abnormal. They can also be influenced by genetic, physiological, environmental, and social factors. In a medical context, the study of behavior is often relevant to understanding and treating various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders.

Individuals' perceptions and behaviors can be influenced by the implicit stereotypes they hold, even if they are sometimes ... Implicit race stereotypes affect behaviors and perceptions. When choosing between pairs of questions to ask a black interviewee ... Stereotypes, Ethnic and racial stereotypes, Gender-related stereotypes, Unconscious). ... Without intention, or even awareness, implicit stereotypes affect human behavior and judgments. This has wide-ranging ...
... they are more motivated to control their behavior to counter stereotypes and appear truthful. However, because they try so hard ... The stereotype of a criminal African American has also been associated with racial profiling. In addition, a report from the U. ... The criminal stereotype of black individuals is not just limited to the United States. One study administered a survey to ... This stereotype is associated with the fact that African Americans are proportionally over-represented in the numbers of those ...
National stereotypes Consumer behavior Consumer culture Media culture Gender stereotypes Ethnic stereotype Stereotype threat ... Also, consumers use stereotypes as a resource to help inform their choices, because stereotypes are socially shared and provide ... Consumers use stereotypes as a resource to help inform their choices because stereotypes are socially shared and provide ... There is also a possibility of creating stereotypes through TV shows. TV shows such as the Simpsons are packed with stereotypes ...
Zivony, Alon; Lobel, Thalma (2014-02-21). "The Invisible Stereotypes of Bisexual Men" (PDF). Archives of Sexual Behavior. 43 (6 ... Violence against LGBT people Stereotypes of African Americans Stereotypes of Americans Stereotypes of Jews Blonde stereotype ... Another stereotype is that trans women are sexual predators seeking to assault women, analogous to the stereotype about gay men ... The stereotype of the submissive and feminine Asian man is reinforced by additional stereotypes, such as the expectation that ...
Graham S, Lowery BS (October 2004). "Priming unconscious racial stereotypes about adolescent offenders". Law and Human Behavior ... stereotype activation can also lead to performance enhancement through stereotype lift or stereotype boost. Stereotype lift ... Although stereotype boost is similar to stereotype lift in enhancing performance, stereotype lift is the result of a negative ... Stereotype boost suggests that positive stereotypes may enhance performance. Stereotype boost occurs when a positive aspect of ...
2002) showed that activated stereotypes about blacks can influence people's behavior. In a series of experiments, black and ... A person can embrace a stereotype to avoid humiliation such as failing a task and blaming it on a stereotype. Stereotypes are ... is a stereotype that needs to be called out". Stereotypes can affect self-evaluations and lead to self-stereotyping. For ... "Stereotypes and stereotyping." 1995, p. 4 McGarty, Craig; Spears, Russel; Yzerbyt, Vincent Y. (2002). "Conclusion: stereotypes ...
Tajfel and Turner (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. Chicago: Nelson-Hall. Hogg, M. A., & Turner, J. C ... "Comparing Self-stereotyping with In-group-stereotyping and Out-group-stereotyping in Unequal-status Groups: The Case of Gender ... Self-stereotyping by gender is seen in children as early as five-years-old. Research examining gender-based self-stereotyping ... Self-stereotyping can be characterized as negative and positive. Groups tend to be more accepting of positive stereotypes and ...
Levy, B.R., & Myers, L.M. (2004). Preventive health behaviors influenced by self-perceptions of aging. Preventive Medicine, 39 ... At some point, these age stereotype become "self stereotypes" about oneself as an aging individual. These self-stereotypes are ... such as race stereotypes among African Americans and gender stereotypes among women. Age stereotypes are internalized starting ... contrasting self-stereotyping and stereotype threat accounts of assimilation to age stereotypes. Social Cognition, 24, 338-58. ...
Interface: a specification of behavior. An implementation class must be written to support the behavior of an interface class. ... Table: a stereotyped class. Package diagrams can use packages containing use cases to illustrate the functionality of a ... Class: a representation of an object that reflects its structure and behavior within the system. It is a template from which ... The dependencies between these packages can be adorned with labels / stereotypes to indicate the communication mechanism ...
Stereotypes may negatively affect people's perceptions of themselves or promote socially undesirable behavior. The ... Stereotypes. Both advertising and entertainment media make heavy use of stereotypes. ... More generally, it also includes stereotyping, taste and decency, obscenity, freedom of speech, advertising practices such as ...
Aggressive behavior is an individual or collective social interaction that is a hostile behavior with the intention of ... This form of aggression may include the display of body size, antlers, claws or teeth; stereotyped signals including facial ... Aggressive behavior can impede learning as a skill deficit, while assertive behavior can facilitate learning. However, with ... However, others refer to this behavior as predatory aggression, and point out cases that resemble hostile behavior, such as ...
"Hollywood stereotypes: Why are Russians the bad guys?". BBC News. November 5, 2014. "Stereotypes of Italian Americans in Film ... In the 2016 film Moonlight, masculinity is portrayed as rigid and aggressive, amongst the behavior of young black males in ... "NYC; A Stereotype Hollywood Can't Refuse". The New York Times. July 30, 1999. "Hollywood's Stereotypes". ABC News. Davison, ... October 14, 2014 "5 Hollywood Villains That Prove Russian Stereotypes Are Hard to Kill". The Moscow Times. August 9, 2015. " ...
"Biological" means "of or pertaining to life," so the word applies to every human feature and behavior. But to infer from that, ... Gender Stereotypes. 9 December 2010 https://web.archive.org/web/20130316020621/http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/ ... Studies have also found that sensitivity for potential coercive behaviors in males as well as handgrip strength (but only in a ... "Thornhill introduces this theory by describing the sexual behavior of scorpionflies. In which the male may gain sex from the ...
South Asians are stereotyped as model minorities with certain expected behavior. These stereotypes are encouraged by media ... The warrior stereotype is growing in the United Kingdom. Some Brits stereotype Sikhs as warriors and Muslims as inbred, as ... Second, they were stereotyped as those who make fuss about nothing. Third, they were stereotyped as lacking 'normal maternal ... Many of these stereotypes did not lead to inter-ethnic bullying, but some did. Cultural stereotypes prevalent in American ...
Black brutes or black bucks are stereotypes for black men, who are generally depicted as being highly prone to behavior that is ... in the United States Stereotypes of South Asians Stereotypes of Jews Blonde stereotype LGBT stereotypes Ethnic stereotype ... This stereotype has also sometimes been conflated with the 'Black brute' or 'Black buck' stereotype, painting the picture of an ... The Jezebel stereotype contrasts with the Mammy stereotype, providing two broad categories for pigeonholing by whites. A ...
Stereotyped adjunctive pecking by caged pigeons. Animal Learning & Behavior, 8: 293-303 "Factors Affecting Water Intake of ... Physiology and Behavior, 27: 575-583 "Waterfowl diseases Domestic waterfowl Club". Archived from the original on 2011-04-29. ... Is there a role for corticosterone in expression of abnormal behaviour in restricted-fed fowls? Physiology & Behavior, 62: 7-13 ...
Automatism seizures occur with repetitive stereotyped behaviors. A non-motor seizure may begin with a sensory, cognitive, ... Descriptors are additional seizure behaviors or symptoms that are appended to the seizure diagnosis. Descriptors may be a non- ... In the field of neurology, seizure types are categories of seizures defined by seizure behavior, symptoms, and diagnostic tests ... Subclinical seizures cause no symptoms and either no altered behavior or very minimal behavioral changes; the clinician ...
Stereotypes of European Americans in the United States are misleading generalizations about the character, behavior, or ... For stereotypes about Americans by people of other nationalities, see Stereotypes of Americans. White Americans are stereotyped ... White American college students are stereotyped to not study, party all the time and are stereotyped to be ignorant of the ... The study's author noted that the white stereotype had decreased in favorability over the years while the black stereotype had ...
Moskowitz, G.B., & Li, P. (2011). "Egalitarian Goals Trigger Stereotype Inhibition: A Proactive Form of Stereotype Control". ... In A. Elliot, & H. Aarts (Eds.), Goal-Directed Behavior. New York: Psychology Press/Taylor and Francis. Moskowitz, G.B., & Li, ... Moskowitz, G.B.(2010). "On the Control Over Stereotype Activation and Stereotype Inhibition". Social and Personality Psychology ... Galinsky, A.D., & Moskowitz, G.B. (2007). "Further ironies of suppression: Stereotype and counter-stereotype accessibility". ...
"Gender stereotypes and workplace bias". Research in Organizational Behavior. 32: 113-135. doi:10.1016/j.riob.2012.11.003. ... Reinforcement (through rewarding gender-appropriate behavior and punishing what may seem as deviant behavior) socializes ... especially through behavior and symbolism. One of the prominent behaviors is aggression in order to protect one's reputation. ... Based on stereotypes, males are perceived to be more suitable for the highest positions while women are not. Women are believed ...
In D. L. Hamilton (Ed.) Cognitive processes in stereotyping and intergroup behavior (pp. 83-114). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence ... She found that false feedback of one's behavior is accepted as a basis for one's attitudes if it is consistent with pre- ... Taylor, Shelley (1975). "On inferring one's attitudes from one's behavior: Some delimiting conditions". Journal of Personality ... Taylor, S. E. (1981). A categorization approach to stereotyping. ... they are more likely to be viewed in stereotyped role than if ...
de Funiak, David (2012). "Tortitude! Unfair Stereotype or Genetic Characteristic?". Tree House News. Tree House Humane Society ... "The Relationship Between Coat Color and Aggressive Behaviors in the Domestic Cat". Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. ... Journal of Veterinary Behavior. 13 (1): 80-87. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2016.03.009. ...
When stereotyped behaviors cause significant impairment in functioning, an evaluation for stereotypic movement disorder is ... Stereotyped movements are common in infants and young children; if the child is not distressed by movements and daily ... To be classified as SMD, the behavior in question must not be due to the direct effects of a substance, autism, or another ... When diagnosing stereotypic movement disorder, DSM-5 calls for specification of: with or without self-injurious behavior; ...
This species displays a rich repertoire of stereotyped behaviors. Postures, locomotion, and grooming seem to be similar to ... Yellow-sided opossums also show a variety of behaviors used in social contexts, including male-to-male agonistic rituals, and a ... Both males and females hunt insects and small vertebrates and show specialized behavior for dealing with particular preys. ... González, E.M.; Claramunt, S. (2000). "Behaviors of captive Short-tailed Opossums, Monodelphis dimidiata (Wagner, 1847) ( ...
In C. N. Macrae, C. Stangor, & M. Hewstone (Eds.), Stereotypes and stereotyping (pp. 323-368). New York: Guilford. Nier, J.L., ... and behavior: The effects of a common group identity. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, Connecticut College, ... Discrimination Out-group homogeneity Stereotyping Gaertner, S. L., Dovidio, J. F., Anastasio, P. A., Bachman, B. A., & Rust, M ... Changing interracial evaluations and behavior: The effects of a common group identity. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations ...
Stereotypes Homosexual stereotypes claim gay men are more feminine in speech patterns, body language, and physical appearance. ... the following study looked into the effects of stigma and behavior and actually found that the chances of risk behavior could ... Lesbian stereotypes claim that gay women are more masculine. They are labeled butch ( a female that looks and acts like a male ... Stereotypes are then produced which further the debilitating effects of the label(s) placed on group members with non- ...
Vitamin C decreased stereotyped behavior in a small 1993 study. The study had not been replicated as of 2005, and vitamin C had ... Applied behavior analysis (ABA) is the applied research field of the science of behavior analysis, and it underpins a wide ... Recently, behavior analysts have built comprehensive models of child development (see Behavior analysis of child development) ... "Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)" at Therapist Neurodiversity Collective. "Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)". Autism Speaks. (CS1 ...
Stereotyped behaviors are thought to be caused ultimately by artificial environments that do not allow animals to satisfy their ... Stereotyped behavior can sometimes be reduced or eliminated by environmental enrichment, including larger and more stimulating ... Examples of stereotyped behaviors include pacing, rocking, swimming in circles, excessive sleeping, self-mutilation (including ... A popular explanation is stimming, which hypothesizes that a particular stereotyped behavior has a function related to sensory ...
Human behavior cannot be separated from the culture that surrounds it. Conflict arises in groups because of the scarcity of ... Hostility between the two groups increases; mutual understandings are buried in negative stereotypes. It is easy to see that ... Passive aggressive behavior is a common response from workers and managers which is particularly noxious to team unity and ... Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28(2), 209-239. Bowling, N. A., & Beehr, T. A. (2006). Workplace harassment from the ...
Also, stereotyping decreases when people are told that stereotyping of a particular stigmatized group is not the norm for their ... Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21(6), 689-711. Kawakami, K., Dovidio, J. F., Moll, J., Hermsen, S., & Russin, A. (2000). ... Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2000). Perspective-taking: decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and ... Just say no (to stereotyping): effects of training in the negation of stereotypic associations on stereotype activation. ...
... the consequences of gender roles and stereotypes are sex-typed social behavior because roles and stereotypes are both socially- ... Gender stereotypes appear to have an effect at an early age. In one study, the effects of gender stereotypes on children's ... Gender stereotypes can also be held in this manner. These implicit stereotypes can often be demonstrated by the Implicit- ... Stereotype threat involves the risk of confirming, as self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group. In the case ...
... article published in PLoS ONE examines the role of regional belongings in explaining different facets of pro-social behavior in ... Beyond the façade of generosity-Regional stereotypes within the same national culture influence prosocial behaviors. , PLoS ONE ... Beyond the façade of generosity-Regional stereotypes influence prosocial behaviors. Alin Gavreliuc, Dana Gavreliuc, Alin ... Results show that the more negative help-seekers are stereotyped, the less generous help-givers are, both in terms of their ...
Facing History shares educator resources that explore the impact of stereotypes in many of the histories we study. ... Steeles book exploring the power of stereotyping in shaping the behavior of individuals. ... How Stereotypes Affect Us and What We Can Do: An Introduction to Stereotype Threat Facing History shares educator resources ... social psychologist Claude Steele says in this video about the history of stereotypes and how negative stereotypes impact us ...
Individuals perceptions and behaviors can be influenced by the implicit stereotypes they hold, even if they are sometimes ... Implicit race stereotypes affect behaviors and perceptions. When choosing between pairs of questions to ask a black interviewee ... Stereotypes, Ethnic and racial stereotypes, Gender-related stereotypes, Unconscious). ... Without intention, or even awareness, implicit stereotypes affect human behavior and judgments. This has wide-ranging ...
EVENTS AND ACTIONS (en) > activity (en) > behaviour (en) > abnormal behaviour (en) > stereotyped behavior (en) ...
Stereotyped behavior is common among both genders. Stereotypes are caused by a host of factors such as cultural and ... To eliminate these behaviors and promote gender equality between both genders, parents need to work hard. ... In a world filled with several gender stereotypes, norms, and biases, it is common to see children grow up adopting gender ... To curb this harmful stereotype, girl leadership is something that should be promoted more often to achieve true equality. ...
Routines or repetitive behaviors, sometimes called stereotyped (pronounced STER-ee-uh-tahypt) behaviors ... Despite the range of possible symptoms, there are certain actions and behaviors that are common in ASD and could signal that a ...
Behavior Biochemistry Bioengineering Biology Cancer Research Chemistry Developmental Biology Engineering Environment Genetics ... Behavior Biochemistry Bioengineering Biology Cancer Research Chemistry Developmental Biology Engineering Environment Genetics ... Journal / Behavior / Belysa och minska effekterna av negativa åldrande tereotyper under äldre vuxnas kognitiva testning… ... Journal (Behavior). Using Practice Testing, Public Speaking, and Source Monitoring to Examine the Influences of Learning ...
title = "Emergence of long timescales and stereotyped behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans",. abstract = "Animal behaviors often ... Stephens, G. J., De Mesquita, M. B., Ryu, W. S., & Bialek, W. (2011). Emergence of long timescales and stereotyped behaviors in ... N2 - Animal behaviors often are decomposable into discrete, stereotyped elements, well separated in time. In one model, such ... AB - Animal behaviors often are decomposable into discrete, stereotyped elements, well separated in time. In one model, such ...
Offensive humor perpetuates stereotypes, normalizes harmful student behavior. Ellie Yuan, Social Media Editor,May 19, 2023 ... In a community as diverse as Palo Alto, these jokes can normalize unacceptable behaviors. For instance, jokes that hinge on an ... where a well-intended diversity seminar quickly escalates into a slew of stereotypes and prejudiced insults - garnered negative ... ethnic or racial trope often end up reinforcing stereotypes, hurting self-perception and well-being. ...
We stimulate the troubled doctor to consider the reasons for his behavior and the results that stem from it. ... Tackling health care conflicts and stereotyping. Deepak Gupta, MD * A physicians cry in light of world events. Fareeha Khan, ... Use awareness intervention to improve physician behavior 8 comments Comments are moderated before they are published. Please ... We also seek behavior between doctors and colleagues - and doctors and families - that is mutually respectful and reflects a ...
Keith Paynes work on racial stereotyping brings up an intriguing possibility. During the weapons identification task, viewers ... The other behavior: successfully categorizing an image thats consistent with a stereotype, only requires an automatic response ... So stereotyping blacks as more likely to be carrying a weapon, for example, might be separate from other stereotypes. ... I think stereotyping happens due to the media. Its what people see or hear in the news. Even if they do tests and studies, ...
... stereotypes can lead to prejudicial or discriminatory behavior.. Stereotypes are learned. Young children learn to stereotype ... Stereotypes do not take into account the great diversity of people within a group of people. Nor do stereotypes consider the ... Some stereotypes show up in television, music, books, school textbooks, and advertising. People may learn stereotypes by ... Anyplace where differences are found leaves room for stereotypes.. Stereotypes are generalizations about people usually based ...
IMD Prof Ina Toegel gives three tips to beat gender stereotypes ... Case Study Organizational Behavior General Management Human ... Gender stereotypes are one of them.. What are gender stereotypes?. While men are generally portrayed as having agency ... Stereotypes harm us all. Stereotypes are entrenched beliefs perpetuated by both men and women, present in our minds since ... Case Study Leadership Communication General Management Human Resources Organizational Behavior The power and practice of ...
People have been stereotyping outcasts since the beginning of time. This behavior is a crucial component of Nathaniel ... and plot of The Scarlet Letter show that Hawthorne believes the reader should look past gender stereotypes because not ... Stereotyping Outcasts In Nathaniel HawthornesThe Scarlet Letter?. ...
mostly unaffectionate English family, he ignores all "proper" Victorian body behavior. The Irish stereotype was driven by their ... Sociological Images » Stereotyping Scots as Cheap - July 4, 2009. [...] another example of stereotypes of European ethnic ... thesocietypages.org/socimages/2008/10/06/negative-stereotypes-of-the-irish/ Negative Stereotypes of the Irish - Sociological ... immigrants faced stereotypes that portrayed them as violent, drunken, and lazy. A collection of old political cartoons on the ...
And then I wondered what it would be like to live in a culture like Jesus did, where the shameful behavior wouldnt be the ... The Shameful Neighbor: Food Stamps, Stereotypes and the War on the Hungry (A Homily) July 24, 2013 David Roberts Patheos ... The Shameful Neighbor: Food Stamps, Stereotypes and the War on the Hungry (A Homily). July 24, 2013 by David Roberts ... And this process, of course, says nothing of the stereotypes some of us have and often perpetuate in our daily lives and our ...
Mental rigidity, stereotyped behavior. * Utilization behavior - Ie, a tendency to pick up and manipulate any object in the ... 5, 6, 55] At first, other aspects of cognitive function and behavior may seem entirely normal. Pick first described the ... 17] Anecdotally, some patients may improve in terms of memory, but others seem to worsen in behavior. Likewise, the drug ... Moretti R, Torre P, Antonello RM, Cazzato G, Bava A. Frontotemporal dementia: paroxetine as a possible treatment of behavior ...
13 Micro-Behaviors That Make People Respect You MoreUnlocking the power of subtle actions that earn respect.. 2 hours ago. ... Male Stereotype Number 27: Men Are Territorial. Male Stereotype Number 27: Men Are Territorial. 31 Days of Male Stereotypes: ... Filed Under: Ethics & Values, Featured Content Tagged With: breaking male stereotypes, breaking masculine stereotypes, chivalry ... Ethics and morality take a back seat when the amygdala is driving ones behavior. ...
Also called stereotyped behavior. Psychiatry. persistent mechanical repetition of speech or movement, sometimes occurring as a ...
... stereotypes, and groups. For your assessment, apply at least one theory o ... Examine how attitudes and behaviors of a group can contribute to prejudice and stereotyping.. ... Examine how attitudes and behaviors of a group can contribute to prejudice and stereotyping. ... Examine how attitudes and behaviors of a group can contribute to prejudice and stereotyping. ...
Mental rigidity, stereotyped behavior. * Utilization behavior - Ie, a tendency to pick up and manipulate any object in the ... 5, 6, 55] At first, other aspects of cognitive function and behavior may seem entirely normal. Pick first described the ... 17] Anecdotally, some patients may improve in terms of memory, but others seem to worsen in behavior. Likewise, the drug ... Moretti R, Torre P, Antonello RM, Cazzato G, Bava A. Frontotemporal dementia: paroxetine as a possible treatment of behavior ...
... stereotyped interests and behaviors. The ADI-R is appropriate for children and adults with mental ages about 18 months and ... Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS). Standardized tool for screening of communication and symbolic abilities up ... The instrument focuses on behavior in three main areas: reciprocal social interaction; communication and language; and ... descriptions of their childs development and a professionals observation of the childs behavior. ...
Sex differences in repetitive stereotyped behaviors in autism: implications for genetic liability.. Szatmari, Peter; Liu, Xiao- ... More importantly, males from female containing families had higher repetitive behavior scores than males from male-male ... at least on the repetitive behavior dimension of the disorder. These data also support the dissociation of the different ... females had lower repetitive behavior scores than males. ... and compared on the social reciprocity and repetitive behavior ...
Bilingual Children, Jealous Dogs, and Gender Stereotypes: Our Most Impactful Articles in 2021. Top 10 articles of 2021, ... Research Topic: Animal Behavior. * Research suggests that findings about human risk preferences also apply to risk-taking in ... APS Fellow Frans B. M. de Waal says that parallels in animal and human behaviors can deepen our understanding of our own ... APS Fellow Frans B. M. de Waal says that parallels in animal and human behaviors can deepen our understanding of our own ...
This blog reports new ideas and work on mind, brain, behavior, psychology, and politics - as well as random curious stuff. (Try ... Eaton et al. give us more data on the application of gender and race stereotypes in academia: The current study examines how ... intersecting stereotypes about gender and race influence faculty perceptions of post-doctoral candidates in STEM fields in the ...
... stereotypes advanced by the book. Especially since the latest scientific studies concerning sexual behavior do not back them up ... Joe, a friend of a friend who organizes a BDSM date night for over 100 people, says that is one of the stereotypes that bother ... Here are a few of the most brazen stereotypes seen in 50 Shades of Grey -- and what science has to say about them. ... In a 2008 study published in the Journal of Homosexuality, Finnish researchers found a wide range of behaviors under the BDSM ...
"Research" at the time links marijuana use to violence and criminal behavior. The perpetrators identified in these cases belong ... Marijuana Marketing: Can the Blossoming Cannabis Industry Overcome Stoner Stereotypes?. Erik Devaney ... And this stereotype casts a shadow of illegitimacy across not just businesses operating in the emerging recreational marijuana ... In order to further distance themselves from old stereotypes, the recreational side of the cannabis industry is taking a page ...
Ancestry-inclusive dog genomics challenges popular breed stereotypes. * Topic: Behavior Surveys, Breeds and Behavior ...
... stereotype; teacher-pupil relationship; Peer Group; Schülerin; peer group; gender-specific factors; social behavior; impression ... Schlagwörter:Weiterbildung; further education; Bildungsverhalten; education behavior; Bildungsbeteiligung; participation in ... Schlagwörter:Bildungsungleichheit; educational inequality; Bildungsverhalten; education behavior; Bildungsbeteiligung; ... and their problem behavior revealed significant effects of parents educational aspirations only. Whereas childrens age did ...
Stereotype threat: An individuals fear of confirming a negative belief about their identity regardless of if the belief is ... Harassment: To inflict hostile, prejudice, or intimidating behaviors on another individual. *Inclusion: Ensuring that all ... Minimize stereotype threat and social stigma,. *Recognize and value contributions from all students, including those from ... Such fear often manifests through low performance, despite the persons ability, and isolating behaviors. ...

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