Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.
Recurrent narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery following surgical procedures performed to alleviate a prior obstruction.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.
Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Stainless steel. A steel containing Ni, Cr, or both. It does not tarnish on exposure and is used in corrosive environments. (Grant & Hack's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Agents that interact with TUBULIN to inhibit or promote polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.
NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The new and thickened layer of scar tissue that forms on a PROSTHESIS, or as a result of vessel injury especially following ANGIOPLASTY or stent placement.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
Drugs or agents which antagonize or impair any mechanism leading to blood platelet aggregation, whether during the phases of activation and shape change or following the dense-granule release reaction and stimulation of the prostaglandin-thromboxane system.
The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.
A family of percutaneous techniques that are used to manage CORONARY OCCLUSION, including standard balloon angioplasty (PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY), the placement of intracoronary STENTS, and atheroablative technologies (e.g., ATHERECTOMY; ENDARTERECTOMY; THROMBECTOMY; PERCUTANEOUS TRANSLUMINAL LASER ANGIOPLASTY). PTCA was the dominant form of PCI, before the widespread use of stenting.
Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
The restoration of blood supply to the myocardium. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Tracheal stenosis is a narrowing or obstruction of the trachea, the airway that carries air from the mouth and nose to the lungs.
A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
An effective inhibitor of platelet aggregation commonly used in the placement of STENTS in CORONARY ARTERIES.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
Complete blockage of blood flow through one of the CORONARY ARTERIES, usually from CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The hindering of output from the STOMACH into the SMALL INTESTINE. This obstruction may be of mechanical or functional origin such as EDEMA from PEPTIC ULCER; NEOPLASMS; FOREIGN BODIES; or AGING.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Genetically developed small pigs for use in biomedical research. There are several strains - Yucatan miniature, Sinclair miniature, and Minnesota miniature.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.
Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.
Pathological processes involving the URETERS.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Conditional probability of exposure to a treatment given observed covariates.
A broad family of synthetic organosiloxane polymers containing a repeating silicon-oxygen backbone with organic side groups attached via carbon-silicon bonds. Depending on their structure, they are classified as liquids, gels, and elastomers. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Subspecialty of radiology that combines organ system radiography, catheter techniques and sectional imaging.
Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
Hindrance of the passage of luminal contents in the DUODENUM. Duodenal obstruction can be partial or complete, and caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Simple obstruction is associated with diminished or stopped flow of luminal contents. Strangulating obstruction is associated with impaired blood flow to the duodenum in addition to obstructed flow of luminal contents.
One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the KIDNEY PELVIS to the URINARY BLADDER.
Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Any impairment, arrest, or reversal of the normal flow of INTESTINAL CONTENTS toward the ANAL CANAL.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A vein on either side of the body which is formed by the union of the external and internal iliac veins and passes upward to join with its fellow of the opposite side to form the inferior vena cava.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Percutaneous transluminal procedure for removing atheromatous plaque from the coronary arteries. Both directional (for removing focal atheromas) and rotational (for removing concentric atheromatous plaque) atherectomy devices have been used.
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.

PlA polymorphism of platelet glycoprotein IIIa and risk of restenosis after coronary stent placement. (1/7427)

BACKGROUND: Platelets play a central role in the process of restenosis after percutaneous coronary interventions. A polymorphism of platelet glycoprotein IIIa (PlA) has been associated with a higher risk of coronary thrombosis. We designed this prospective study to test the hypothesis that PlA polymorphism of glycoprotein IIIa is associated with an increased risk for restenosis after coronary stent placement. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 1150 consecutive patients with successful coronary stent placement and 6-month follow-up with coronary angiography. The end point of the study was the incidence of angiographic restenosis (>/=50% diameter stenosis) at follow-up. Of the 1150 patients, 72.5% were homozygous for PlA1, 24.7% were heterozygous (PlA1/A2), and 2.8% were homozygous for PlA2. Patients with the PlA2 allele demonstrated a significantly higher restenosis rate than did those without (47% versus 38%; OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.84). The risk was highest in homozygous carriers of PlA2 (53.1% restenosis rate). After adjustment for several clinical and angiographic characteristics, the presence of the PlA2 allele remained a significantly independent risk factor for restenosis (adjusted OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.70). The influence of the PlA2 allele on restenosis was stronger in women. Women with PlA2 had a restenosis rate of 52% compared with the 33% incidence among women homozygous for PlA1 (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.27 to 3.85). CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a significant association between the PlA polymorphism of glycoprotein IIIa and the risk of restenosis after coronary stent placement. The risk was more pronounced in patients homozygous for PlA2 allele and in female patients.  (+info)

In-stent neointimal proliferation correlates with the amount of residual plaque burden outside the stent: an intravascular ultrasound study. (2/7427)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residual plaque burden after coronary stent implantation and the development of late in-stent neointimal proliferation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between January 1996 and May 1997, 50 patients underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) interrogation at 6+/-1.2 months after coronary stent implantation in native coronary arteries. IVUS images were acquired with a motorized pullback, and cross-sectional measurements were performed within the stents at 1-mm intervals. The following measurements were obtained: (1) lumen area (LA), (2) stent area (SA), (3) area delimited by the external elastic membrane (EEMA), (4) percent neointimal area calculated as (SA-LA/SA)x100, and (5) percent residual plaque area calculated as (EEMA-SA)/EEMAx100. Volume measurements within the stented segments were calculated by applying Simpson's rule. In the pooled data analysis of 876 cross sections, linear regression showed a significant positive correlation between percent residual plaque area and percent neointimal area (r=0.50, y= 45.03+0.29x, P<0.01). There was significant incremental increase in mean percent neointimal area for stepwise increase in percent residual plaque area. Mean percent neointimal area was 16.3+/-10.3% for lesions with a percent residual plaque area of <50% and 27.7+/-11% for lesions with a percent residual plaque area of >/=50% (P<0.001). The volumetric analysis showed that the percent residual plaque volume was significantly greater in restenotic lesions compared with nonrestenotic lesions (58.7+/-4.3% versus 51.4+/-5.7%, respectively; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Late in-stent neointimal proliferation has a direct correlation with the amount of residual plaque burden after coronary stent implantation, supporting the hypothesis that plaque removal before stent implantation may reduce restenosis.  (+info)

Comparison of quantitative coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound, and coronary pressure measurement to assess optimum stent deployment. (3/7427)

BACKGROUND: Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is the present standard for the evaluation of optimum stent deployment, this technique is expensive and not routinely feasible in most catheterization laboratories. Coronary pressure-derived myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFRmyo) is an easy, cheap, and rapidly obtainable index that is specific for the conductance of the epicardial coronary artery. In this study, we investigated the usefulness of coronary pressure measurement to predict optimum and suboptimum stent deployment. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 30 patients, a Wiktor-i stent was implanted at different inflation pressures, starting at 6 atm and increasing step by step to 8, 10, 12, and 14 atm, if necessary. After every step, stent deployment was evaluated by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), IVUS, and coronary pressure measurement. If any of the 3 techniques did not yield an optimum result, the next inflation was performed, and all 3 investigational modalities were repeated until optimum stent deployment was present by all of them or until the treating physician decided to accept the result. Optimum deployment according to QCA was finally achieved in 24 patients, according to IVUS in 17 patients, and also according to coronary pressure measurement in 17 patients. During the step-up, a total of 81 paired IVUS and coronary pressure measurements were performed, of which 91% yielded concordant results (ie, either an optimum or a suboptimum expansion of the stent by both techniques, P<0.00001). On the contrary, QCA showed a low concordance rate with IVUS and FFRmyo (48% and 46%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, using a coil stent, both IVUS and coronary pressure measurement were of similar value with respect to the assessment of optimum stent deployment. Therefore, coronary pressure measurement can be used as a cheap and rapid alternative to IVUS for that purpose.  (+info)

The endovascular management of blue finger syndrome. (4/7427)

OBJECTIVES: To review our experience of the endovascular management of upper limb embolisation secondary to an ipsilateral proximal arterial lesion. DESIGN: A retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 3 years, 17 patients presented with blue fingers secondary to an ipsilateral proximal vascular lesion. These have been managed using transluminal angioplasty (14) and arterial stenting (five), combined with embolectomy (two) and anticoagulation (three)/anti-platelet therapy (14). RESULTS: All the patients were treated successfully. There have been no further symptomatic embolic episodes originating from any of the treated lesions, and no surgical amputations. Complications were associated with the use of brachial arteriotomy for vascular access. CONCLUSIONS: Endovascular techniques are safe and effective in the management of upper limb embolic phenomena associated with an ipsilateral proximal focal vascular lesion.  (+info)

Balloon-artery interactions during stent placement: a finite element analysis approach to pressure, compliance, and stent design as contributors to vascular injury. (5/7427)

Endovascular stents expand the arterial lumen more than balloon angioplasty and reduce rates of restenosis after coronary angioplasty in selected patients. Understanding the factors involved in vascular injury imposed during stent deployment may allow optimization of stent design and stent-placement protocols so as to limit vascular injury and perhaps reduce restenosis. Addressing the hypothesis that a previously undescribed mechanism of vascular injury during stent deployment is balloon-artery interaction, we have used finite element analysis to model how balloon-artery contact stress and area depend on stent-strut geometry, balloon compliance, and inflation pressure. We also examined superficial injury during deployment of stents of varied design in vivo and in a phantom model ex vivo to show that balloon-induced damage can be modulated by altering stent design. Our results show that higher inflation pressures, wider stent-strut openings, and more compliant balloon materials cause markedly larger surface-contact areas and contact stresses between stent struts. Appreciating that the contact stress and contact area are functions of placement pressure, stent geometry, and balloon compliance may help direct development of novel stent designs and stent-deployment protocols so as to minimize vascular injury during stenting and perhaps to optimize long-term outcomes.  (+info)

Surgical transluminal iliac angioplasty with selective stenting: long-term results assessed by means of duplex scanning. (6/7427)

PURPOSE: The safety of iliac angioplasty and selective stenting performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons was evaluated, and the short- and long-term results were assessed by means of serial duplex scanning. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1996, 281 iliac stenotic or occlusive lesions in 235 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia were treated by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone (n = 214) or PTA with stent (n = 67, 23.8%). There were 260 primary lesions and 21 restenosis after a first PTA, which were analyzed separately. Stents were implanted in selected cases, either primarily in totally occluded arteries or after suboptimum results of PTA (ie, residual stenosis or a dissection). Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Results were reported in an intention-to-treat basis. Clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptom assessment, ankle brachial pressure index, and duplex scanning at discharge and 1, 3, 6, and every 12 months after angioplasty. To identify factors that may affect outcome, 12 clinical and radiological variables, including the four categories of lesions defined by the Standards of Practice Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, were analyzed separately. The statistical significances of life-table analysis of patency were determined by means of the log-rank test. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or amputations. Local, general, and vascular complications occurred in 2.1%, 1.3% and 4.7% of cases, respectively (total, 8.1%). The mean follow-up period was 29.6 months. The cumulative patency rates +/- SE of the 260 PTAs (including 55 PTAs plus stents) were 92.9% +/- 1.5% at 1 month, 86. 5% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 81.2% +/- 2.3% at 2 years, 78.8% +/- 2.9% at 3 years, and 75.4% +/- 3.5% at 5 and 6 years. The two-year patency rate of 21 redo PTAs (including 11 PTAs plus stents) was 79.1% +/- 18.2%. Of 12 predictable variables studied in the first PTA group, only the category of the lesion was predictive of long-term patency. The two-year patency rate was 84% +/- 3% for 199 category 1 lesions and 69.7% +/- 6.5% for 61 category 2, 3, and 4 lesions together (P =. 02). There was no difference of patency in the stented and nonstented group. CONCLUSION: Iliac PTA alone or with the use of a stent (in cases of occlusion and/or suboptimal results of PTA) offers an excellent long-term patency rate. Categorization of lesions remains useful in predicting long-term outcome. PTA can be performed safely by vascular surgeons in the operating room and should be considered to be the primary treatment for localized iliac occlusive disease.  (+info)

Relief of obstructive pelvic venous symptoms with endoluminal stenting. (7/7427)

PURPOSE: To select patients for percutaneous transluminal stenting of chronic postthrombotic pelvic venous obstructions (CPPVO), we evaluated the clinical symptoms in a cohort of candidates and in a series of successfully treated patients. METHODS: The symptoms of 42 patients (39 women) with CPPVO (38 left iliac; average history, 18 years) were recorded, and the venous anatomy was studied by means of duplex scanning, subtraction venography, and computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Successfully stented patients were controlled by means of duplex scanning and assessment of symptoms. RESULTS: The typical symptoms of CPPVO were reported spontaneously by 24% of patients and uncovered by means of a targeted interview in an additional 47%. Of 42 patients, 15 had venous claudication, four had neurogenic claudication (caused by dilated veins in the spinal canal that arise from the collateral circulation), and 11 had both symptoms. Twelve patients had no specific symptoms. Placement of a stent was found to be technically feasible in 25 patients (60%), was attempted in 14 patients, and was primarily successful in 12 patients. One stent occluded within the first week. All other stents were fully patent after a mean of 15 months (range, 1 to 43 months). Satisfaction was high in the patients who had the typical symptoms, but low in those who lacked them. CONCLUSION: Venous claudication and neurogenic claudication caused by venous collaterals in the spinal canal are typical clinical features of CPPVO. We recommend searching for these symptoms, because recanalization by means of stenting is often feasible and rewarding.  (+info)

Endovascular repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm: a tip for systemic pressure reduction. (8/7427)

A proposed technique for systemic pressure reduction during deployment of a stent graft was studied. A 67-year-old man, who had a descending thoracic aneurysm, was successfully treated with an endovascular procedure. An occluding balloon was introduced into the inferior vena cava (IVC) through the femoral vein. The balloon volume was manipulated with carbon dioxide gas to reduce the venous return, resulting in a transient and well-controlled hypotension. This IVC-occluding technique for systemic pressure reduction may be safe and convenient to minimize distal migration of stent grafts.  (+info)

Coronary restenosis is a condition in which a previously narrowed or blocked coronary artery becomes partially or completely blocked again after a procedure to open or bypass the artery. This can occur due to the formation of scar tissue or the growth of new blood vessels that can occlude the artery again. Restenosis is a common complication of coronary artery bypass surgery and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), also known as angioplasty. It can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms of heart disease. Treatment options for coronary restenosis include medications, repeat PCI, or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Sirolimus is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called immunosuppressants. It is primarily used to prevent organ rejection in people who have received a kidney, liver, or heart transplant. Sirolimus works by inhibiting the growth of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. By suppressing the immune system, sirolimus helps to prevent the body from attacking the transplanted organ as a foreign object. It is also used to treat certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma.

Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary is a medical procedure used to treat narrowed or blocked coronary arteries in the heart. The procedure involves inserting a thin, flexible tube called a catheter into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threading it up to the coronary arteries. A small balloon is then attached to the end of the catheter and inflated to widen the narrowed or blocked artery, allowing blood to flow more freely to the heart muscle. This procedure is also known as percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary balloon angioplasty. It may be performed alone or in combination with a stent, a small mesh-like device that is left in the artery to keep it open.

In the medical field, metals are materials that are commonly used in medical devices, implants, and other medical applications. These metals can include stainless steel, titanium, cobalt-chromium alloys, and other materials that are known for their strength, durability, and biocompatibility. Metals are often used in medical devices because they can withstand the rigors of the human body and provide long-lasting support and stability. For example, metal implants are commonly used in orthopedic surgery to replace damaged or diseased joints, while metal stents are used to keep blood vessels open and prevent blockages. However, metals can also have potential risks and complications. For example, some people may be allergic to certain metals, which can cause skin irritation, inflammation, or other adverse reactions. Additionally, metal implants can sometimes cause tissue damage or infection, which may require additional medical treatment. Overall, the use of metals in the medical field is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires careful consideration of the benefits and risks involved.

In the medical field, alloys are typically used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants. Alloys are mixtures of two or more metals, or metals and non-metals, that have been combined to create a new material with unique properties that are not found in the individual metals. For example, stainless steel is an alloy that is commonly used in medical implants such as hip and knee replacements, dental crowns, and surgical instruments. The combination of iron, chromium, and nickel in stainless steel provides strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion, making it an ideal material for medical applications. Other alloys used in the medical field include titanium alloys, cobalt-chromium alloys, and nickel-titanium alloys. These alloys are often used in orthopedic implants, cardiovascular devices, and dental restorations due to their unique properties such as biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and high strength-to-weight ratio. Overall, the use of alloys in the medical field has revolutionized the way medical devices and implants are designed and manufactured, allowing for improved patient outcomes and quality of life.

Coated materials that are biocompatible are materials that have been designed and formulated to be safe and non-reactive with living tissues in the human body. These materials are typically used in medical devices, implants, and other medical applications where it is important to minimize the risk of adverse reactions or tissue damage. Biocompatible coatings are often applied to the surface of medical devices to improve their performance and reduce the risk of complications. For example, a biocompatible coating may be used to reduce friction and wear on an artificial joint, or to prevent corrosion and infection on an implant. To be considered biocompatible, a material must meet certain criteria, including being non-toxic, non-allergenic, and non-immunogenic. It must also be able to withstand the harsh conditions of the human body, including exposure to bodily fluids and enzymes. Overall, the use of biocompatible coated materials in the medical field is an important step in improving patient outcomes and reducing the risk of complications associated with medical devices and implants.

Paclitaxel is a chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancer, including ovarian, breast, lung, and pancreatic cancer. It works by interfering with the normal functioning of the microtubules, which are structures in the cell that help it divide and grow. By disrupting the microtubules, paclitaxel can slow or stop the growth of cancer cells. It is usually administered intravenously, either alone or in combination with other chemotherapy drugs.

Coronary thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms in one of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to a blockage of blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), heart attack, or even sudden death. Coronary thrombosis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. It is often caused by the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which can rupture and form a blood clot. Risk factors for coronary thrombosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of heart disease. Treatment for coronary thrombosis may include medications to dissolve the clot or surgery to open the blocked artery.

Cardiovascular agents are drugs that are used to treat conditions related to the heart and blood vessels, such as high blood pressure, heart failure, angina, and arrhythmias. These agents can be classified into several categories, including diuretics, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and nitrates. These drugs work by affecting various physiological processes in the body, such as blood pressure regulation, heart rate, and blood vessel dilation, to improve cardiovascular function and reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat coronary artery disease (CAD). It involves injecting a contrast dye into the coronary arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle. The dye makes the arteries visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see any blockages or narrowing of the arteries. During the procedure, a small catheter (a thin, flexible tube) is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guided to the coronary arteries. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the arteries. Coronary angiography is often used to diagnose CAD, which is a common condition that can lead to heart attacks. It can also be used to guide treatment, such as angioplasty or stent placement, to open up blocked or narrowed arteries and improve blood flow to the heart.

Coronary stenosis is a medical condition in which the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked. This can occur due to the buildup of plaque, a fatty substance that can accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. When the arteries become narrowed, it can reduce the amount of blood and oxygen that reaches the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Coronary stenosis is a common condition, particularly in older adults, and can be a serious health concern if left untreated. Treatment options for coronary stenosis may include medications, lifestyle changes, and procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. Over time, CAD can also lead to a heart attack if the blood flow to the heart is completely blocked. CAD is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for CAD may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Absorbable implants are medical devices that are designed to be absorbed or degraded by the body over time, rather than remaining in the body indefinitely. These implants are typically made from materials such as hydrogels, polymers, and metals that are biodegradable or resorbable, meaning that they can be broken down and absorbed by the body's natural processes. Absorbable implants are used in a variety of medical procedures, including orthopedic surgery, dental surgery, and plastic surgery. They are often used as temporary scaffolds to support tissue growth and healing, and are then gradually absorbed by the body as the tissue becomes stronger and more stable. Examples of absorbable implants include absorbable sutures, which are used to close wounds and incisions, and absorbable screws and plates, which are used to stabilize fractures and other bone injuries. Absorbable mesh implants are also used in plastic surgery to repair soft tissue damage, such as hernias or breast reconstruction. Overall, absorbable implants offer a number of advantages over traditional, non-absorbable implants, including reduced risk of complications, improved patient comfort, and faster recovery times. However, they may not be suitable for all medical procedures, and their use should be carefully considered by medical professionals based on the specific needs of each patient.

Coronary vessels, also known as coronary arteries, are blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries, the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery, which branch off from the aorta and travel through the heart muscle to supply blood to the heart's various chambers and valves. The coronary arteries are responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle, which is essential for its proper function. If the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked due to atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque), it can lead to a condition called coronary artery disease (CAD), which can cause chest pain, heart attack, and other serious cardiovascular problems. In some cases, coronary artery disease can be treated with medications, lifestyle changes, or procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and not smoking, to reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease and other cardiovascular problems.

Thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms within a blood vessel. This can occur when the blood flow is slow or when the blood vessel is damaged, allowing the blood to clot. Thrombosis can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the veins of the legs, which can lead to a condition called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombosis can also occur in the arteries, which can lead to a condition called(arterial thrombosis). Arterial thrombosis can cause serious complications, such as heart attack or stroke, if the clot breaks off and travels to the lungs or brain. Thrombosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the blood vessel, prolonged immobility, certain medical conditions such as cancer or diabetes, and the use of certain medications such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Treatment for thrombosis depends on the severity of the condition and the location of the clot, but may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, and in some cases, surgical removal of the clot.

Graft occlusion, vascular, refers to the blockage or narrowing of a blood vessel or graft that has been surgically implanted to bypass a blocked or narrowed artery or vein. This can occur due to various factors, including the formation of scar tissue, the buildup of plaque, or the development of blood clots. Graft occlusion can lead to reduced blood flow to the affected area, which can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tissue damage. Treatment options for graft occlusion may include medications to dissolve blood clots or prevent further clot formation, angioplasty to open up the blocked vessel, or surgery to replace the occluded graft.

Stainless steel is a type of steel that is resistant to corrosion and rust due to the presence of chromium in its composition. In the medical field, stainless steel is commonly used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion. Stainless steel is used in a variety of medical applications, including surgical instruments, dental equipment, orthopedic implants, and cardiovascular devices. It is also used in the construction of medical facilities, such as hospital beds, surgical tables, and examination tables. One of the key benefits of using stainless steel in the medical field is its biocompatibility. Stainless steel is generally considered to be non-toxic and non-reactive with human tissue, making it a safe material for use in medical devices and implants. Additionally, stainless steel is easy to clean and sterilize, which is important in preventing the spread of infection in healthcare settings. Overall, stainless steel is a versatile and reliable material that is widely used in the medical field due to its durability, biocompatibility, and resistance to corrosion.

Angioplasty, balloon is a medical procedure used to widen a narrowed or blocked blood vessel in the body. It is a minimally invasive procedure that involves threading a thin, flexible tube called a catheter through a small incision in the skin and into the narrowed blood vessel. A small balloon is then attached to the end of the catheter and inflated to widen the narrowed area of the blood vessel, allowing blood to flow more freely. This procedure is often used to treat conditions such as coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke. It is typically performed on an outpatient basis and can be done using local anesthesia or sedation.

Pathologic constriction refers to a medical condition in which a blood vessel or other tubular structure becomes narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow or obstruction of the flow of other substances through the vessel. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including inflammation, scarring, abnormal growths, or the presence of a foreign object. Pathologic constriction can have serious consequences, depending on the location and severity of the constriction, and may require medical intervention to treat.

Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, usually by a blood clot. This lack of blood flow can cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to serious complications and even death if not treated promptly. The most common cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. When a plaque ruptures or becomes unstable, it can form a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Other causes of heart attacks include coronary artery spasms, blood clots that travel to the heart from other parts of the body, and certain medical conditions such as Kawasaki disease. Symptoms of a heart attack may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, lightheadedness or dizziness, and pain or discomfort in the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach. If you suspect that you or someone else is having a heart attack, it is important to call emergency services immediately. Early treatment with medications and possibly surgery can help to reduce the risk of serious complications and improve the chances of a full recovery.

In the medical field, neointima refers to the layer of new tissue that forms inside a blood vessel after injury or surgery. This new tissue is made up of smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and extracellular matrix, and it is intended to help heal the damaged vessel and restore its normal function. Neointima can form in response to a variety of stimuli, including injury to the vessel wall, the placement of a stent or other medical device, or the development of atherosclerosis. In some cases, neointima can be a normal and necessary part of the healing process, but in other cases, it can lead to complications such as restenosis, in which the vessel becomes blocked again due to the formation of excessive neointima. Neointima is an important area of study in the field of cardiovascular medicine, as it plays a key role in the development and progression of many cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate neointima formation and proliferation is critical for the development of new treatments for these conditions.

Chromium alloys are a type of metal that are commonly used in the medical field due to their unique properties. These alloys are typically composed of chromium, which is combined with other metals such as molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt to create a strong, durable, and corrosion-resistant material. In the medical field, chromium alloys are often used to make orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and spinal implants. These implants are designed to be strong and long-lasting, and to withstand the wear and tear of daily use. They are also biocompatible, meaning that they are less likely to cause an adverse reaction in the body. Chromium alloys are also used in other medical applications, such as in the production of surgical instruments and medical devices. They are known for their high strength, corrosion resistance, and ability to withstand high temperatures, which makes them ideal for use in these applications. Overall, chromium alloys are an important material in the medical field due to their unique properties and versatility. They are used in a wide range of medical applications, and are known for their durability, strength, and biocompatibility.

In the medical field, polymers are large molecules made up of repeating units or monomers. Polymers are used in a variety of medical applications, including drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and medical devices. One common use of polymers in medicine is in drug delivery systems. Polymers can be used to encapsulate drugs and release them slowly over time, allowing for more controlled and sustained release of the drug. This can help to improve the effectiveness of the drug and reduce side effects. Polymers are also used in tissue engineering, where they are used to create scaffolds for growing new tissue. These scaffolds can be designed to mimic the structure and properties of natural tissue, allowing cells to grow and differentiate into the desired tissue type. In addition, polymers are used in a variety of medical devices, including implants, prosthetics, and surgical sutures. For example, polymers can be used to create biodegradable implants that are absorbed by the body over time, reducing the need for additional surgeries to remove the implant. Overall, polymers play an important role in the medical field, providing a range of useful materials for drug delivery, tissue engineering, and medical device applications.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used to replace or repair damaged or diseased blood vessels. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, polyurethane, or silicone, and is designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the blood vessel it is replacing. Blood vessel prostheses are used in a variety of medical procedures, including coronary artery bypass surgery, where a blocked or narrowed coronary artery is bypassed with a synthetic vessel, and peripheral artery bypass surgery, where a blocked or narrowed artery in the legs is bypassed with a synthetic vessel. Blood vessel prostheses can also be used to treat aneurysms, where a weakened or bulging blood vessel is repaired with a synthetic vessel, and to treat venous insufficiency, where the valves in the veins are damaged and the blood flows backwards, causing swelling and discomfort. Blood vessel prostheses are typically inserted into the body through a small incision and are secured in place with stitches or clips. They are designed to be biocompatible, meaning that they are not rejected by the body's immune system, and are intended to last for many years.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which a synthetic or biologic prosthesis is placed inside a blood vessel to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased section of the vessel. The prosthesis is typically made of materials such as polyester, silicone, or bovine jugular vein, and is designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the blood vessel it is replacing. The procedure is commonly used to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, and blocked or narrowed blood vessels. During the procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision in the skin and uses specialized instruments to access the blood vessel and implant the prosthesis. The procedure is typically performed under general anesthesia and may take several hours to complete. Recovery time and potential complications vary depending on the specific procedure and the individual patient.

Hyperplasia is a medical term that refers to an increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ. It is a normal response to various stimuli, such as injury, inflammation, or hormonal changes, and can be either physiological or pathological. In a physiological sense, hyperplasia is a normal process that occurs in response to growth factors or hormones, such as estrogen or testosterone, which stimulate the growth of cells in certain tissues. For example, during puberty, the ovaries and testes undergo hyperplasia to produce more hormones. However, in a pathological sense, hyperplasia can be a sign of disease or dysfunction. For example, in the prostate gland, benign hyperplasia (also known as BPH) is a common condition that occurs when the gland becomes enlarged due to an overproduction of cells. This can cause symptoms such as difficulty urinating or frequent urination. In the breast, hyperplasia can be a precursor to breast cancer, as it involves an increase in the number of cells in the breast tissue. Similarly, in the uterus, hyperplasia can be a sign of endometrial cancer. Overall, hyperplasia is a complex process that can have both normal and pathological consequences, depending on the tissue or organ involved and the underlying cause of the increase in cell number.

Coronary disease, also known as coronary artery disease (CAD), is a condition in which the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque. This can lead to reduced blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, and other symptoms. In severe cases, coronary disease can lead to a heart attack, which occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is completely blocked, causing damage to the heart muscle. Coronary disease is a common condition that affects many people, particularly those who are middle-aged or older, and is often associated with other risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, and diabetes. Treatment for coronary disease may include lifestyle changes, medications, and in some cases, procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery.

Tracheal stenosis is a medical condition in which the trachea (windpipe) becomes narrowed or blocked, making it difficult for air to flow in and out of the lungs. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, or scarring. Symptoms of tracheal stenosis may include difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath. Treatment options for tracheal stenosis may include medications, breathing exercises, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.

Esophageal stenosis is a medical condition in which the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach, becomes narrowed or blocked. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, infection, inflammation, or scarring. Esophageal stenosis can cause difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and other symptoms, and may require medical treatment to manage. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the blockage or repair the damaged tissue.

In the medical field, recurrence refers to the reappearance of a disease or condition after it has been treated or has gone into remission. Recurrence can occur in various medical conditions, including cancer, infections, and autoimmune diseases. For example, in cancer, recurrence means that the cancer has come back after it has been treated with surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other treatments. Recurrence can occur months, years, or even decades after the initial treatment. In infections, recurrence means that the infection has returned after it has been treated with antibiotics or other medications. Recurrence can occur due to incomplete treatment, antibiotic resistance, or other factors. In autoimmune diseases, recurrence means that the symptoms of the disease return after they have been controlled with medication. Recurrence can occur due to changes in the immune system or other factors. Overall, recurrence is a significant concern for patients and healthcare providers, as it can require additional treatment and can impact the patient's quality of life.

Prosthesis failure refers to the malfunction or breakdown of a medical device or implant, such as a prosthetic limb, heart valve, or joint replacement, that is intended to replace or support a missing or damaged body part. Prosthesis failure can occur due to a variety of factors, including design flaws, manufacturing defects, inappropriate use or care, or the natural wear and tear of the device over time. Symptoms of prosthesis failure may include pain, swelling, infection, movement restrictions, or the device becoming loose or dislodged. Treatment for prosthesis failure may involve repairing or replacing the device, adjusting the device's fit or function, or administering medications or other therapies to manage symptoms or complications.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a body cavity or blood vessel to allow access for medical treatment or diagnostic testing. The catheter is typically inserted through a small incision or puncture in the skin and guided to its destination using imaging guidance such as X-rays or ultrasound. There are many different types of catheterizations, including: 1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter into the bladder to drain urine. 2. Venous catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter into a vein to allow for the administration of medication, blood draws, or other treatments. 3. Arterial catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter into an artery to allow for the measurement of blood pressure or the administration of medication. 4. Central venous catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter into a large vein near the heart to allow for long-term access to the bloodstream for treatments such as chemotherapy or fluid replacement. Catheterization is a common medical procedure that can be performed in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, and ambulatory care centers. It is typically performed by a trained healthcare professional, such as a nurse or physician, and is generally considered safe when performed properly. However, like any medical procedure, catheterization carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, and damage to surrounding tissues.

Angioplasty is a medical procedure used to treat narrowed or blocked blood vessels in the body. It involves using a balloon catheter to inflate a small balloon inside the narrowed or blocked blood vessel, which helps to widen the opening and improve blood flow. This procedure is often used to treat conditions such as coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and stroke. In some cases, a stent may be placed inside the blood vessel to keep it open and prevent it from narrowing again. Angioplasty is typically performed on an outpatient basis and can be done using local anesthesia or sedation.

Ticlopidine is a medication that is used to prevent blood clots in people who have had a heart attack or stroke. It works by inhibiting the formation of platelet clumps, which can lead to the formation of blood clots. Ticlopidine is typically prescribed to people who are unable to take aspirin or other antiplatelet medications due to an allergy or other medical condition. It is usually taken in combination with aspirin or another blood thinner to reduce the risk of blood clots. Ticlopidine can cause side effects such as bleeding, stomach pain, and an increased risk of infection. It is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare provider when taking ticlopidine and to report any side effects to your healthcare provider.

Arterial occlusive diseases refer to a group of medical conditions in which the arteries become narrowed or blocked, leading to reduced blood flow to the affected area. This can result in a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the blockage. The most common types of arterial occlusive diseases include: 1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. 2. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition that affects the arteries in the legs, causing pain, cramping, and weakness in the legs, especially during physical activity. 3. Coronary artery disease (CAD): A condition that affects the arteries that supply blood to the heart, leading to chest pain, shortness of breath, and other symptoms. 4. Carotid artery disease: A condition that affects the arteries in the neck, leading to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which can cause stroke. Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further progression of the disease. In some cases, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary to open or bypass blocked arteries.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition in which a foreign object, such as a piece of food, a splinter, or a surgical implant, moves from its original location in the body to a new location. This can occur due to various factors, including the body's natural movements, changes in the shape or size of the foreign object, or the body's immune response to the object. Foreign-body migration can be a serious medical problem, as it can cause inflammation, infection, or damage to surrounding tissues. In some cases, the foreign object may become trapped in a narrow passage or obstruct a vital organ, leading to serious complications. Treatment for foreign-body migration depends on the location and size of the object, as well as the severity of any associated complications. In some cases, the object may be able to be removed through minimally invasive procedures, such as endoscopy or laparoscopy. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the object and repair any damage caused by its migration.

In the medical field, plastics refer to a wide range of synthetic materials that are used to make medical devices, implants, and other equipment. These materials are typically lightweight, durable, and resistant to corrosion, making them ideal for use in medical applications. Plastics are used in a variety of medical devices, including catheters, syringes, surgical instruments, and prosthetic devices. They are also used to make medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and pacemakers. Plastics can be made from a variety of materials, including polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyurethane. These materials are chosen based on their specific properties, such as their strength, flexibility, and biocompatibility. It is important to note that not all plastics are safe for medical use, and some may even be toxic or cause adverse reactions in the body. Therefore, medical devices made from plastics must be carefully tested and regulated to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Coronary occlusion refers to the blockage or narrowing of the coronary arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This blockage can occur due to the buildup of plaque, a fatty substance that can harden and narrow the arteries over time. When a coronary artery becomes completely blocked, it can lead to a heart attack, as the heart muscle is unable to receive the oxygen it needs to function properly. Coronary occlusion is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.

Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a medical condition in which there is a blockage or narrowing of the passage through which food and liquid pass from the stomach to the small intestine. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including tumors, inflammation, or scar tissue. Symptoms of GOO may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Treatment options for GOO depend on the underlying cause and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, or surgery.

Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and lower fever. It is also used to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Aspirin works by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are chemicals that cause inflammation and pain. It is available over-the-counter in various strengths and is also used as a prescription medication for certain medical conditions. Aspirin is generally considered safe when taken as directed, but it can cause side effects such as stomach pain, nausea, and bleeding.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in the medical field due to its unique properties. It is a non-stick, non-toxic, and highly resistant material that is commonly used in medical implants, such as prosthetic joints, heart valves, and blood vessels. PTFE is also used in medical devices, such as catheters, guidewires, and endoscopes, due to its low friction and non-stick properties. It is also used in surgical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps, due to its durability and resistance to wear and tear. In addition to its use in medical devices, PTFE is also used in surgical implants, such as hernia patches and artificial ligaments, due to its biocompatibility and ability to withstand the rigors of the body. Overall, PTFE is a versatile material that has many applications in the medical field due to its unique properties, including its non-stick, non-toxic, and highly resistant nature.

Angiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels in the body. It involves injecting a contrast dye into a blood vessel, usually through a small puncture in the skin, and then using an X-ray machine or other imaging device to capture images of the dye as it flows through the blood vessels. This allows doctors to see any blockages, narrowing, or other abnormalities in the blood vessels, which can help them diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Angiography is often used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to provide a more complete picture of the patient's condition.

Coronary Artery Bypass (CABG) is a surgical procedure used to treat narrowed or blocked coronary arteries, which can lead to heart disease. During the surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a new path for blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle. This can help to reduce symptoms such as chest pain (angina) and improve overall heart function. The procedure is typically performed under general anesthesia and may involve the use of a heart-lung machine to support the patient's circulation during the surgery. Recovery time can vary depending on the individual and the extent of the surgery, but most people are able to return to normal activities within a few weeks.

A foreign-body reaction is a type of immune response that occurs when the body recognizes a foreign substance, such as a foreign particle or implant, as a threat and mounts an inflammatory response to try to remove it. This response can lead to the formation of scar tissue around the foreign body, which can cause pain, swelling, and other symptoms. In some cases, the foreign body may also cause an infection or other complications. Foreign-body reactions can occur in response to a wide range of foreign substances, including medications, metals, plastics, and biological materials. They are a common occurrence in the medical field and can be managed with a variety of treatments, depending on the specific cause and severity of the reaction.

Ureteral diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the ureters, which are the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder. The ureters are approximately 10 inches long and are located in the pelvis. Ureteral diseases can be acute or chronic and can range from mild to severe. Some common ureteral diseases include: 1. Ureteral stones: Small, hard deposits that form in the ureters and can cause pain, blood in the urine, and difficulty urinating. 2. Ureteral strictures: Narrowing of the ureter that can occur due to injury, infection, or other medical conditions. 3. Ureteral tumors: Benign or malignant growths that can occur in the ureter and cause symptoms such as blood in the urine, pain, and difficulty urinating. 4. Ureteral infections: Infections that can occur in the ureter and cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and pain. 5. Ureteral obstructions: Blockages that can occur in the ureter and prevent urine from flowing normally. 6. Ureteral diverticula: Outpouchings of the ureter that can occur due to weakened or damaged walls of the ureter. Treatment for ureteral diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, surgery, or other medical procedures. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of a ureteral disease, as prompt treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Angioscopy is a medical procedure that involves using a specialized instrument called an angioscope to examine the inside of blood vessels, such as arteries and veins. The angioscope is a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, which is inserted into the blood vessel through a small incision. The camera allows the doctor to view the inside of the blood vessel on a screen, and any abnormalities or blockages can be seen in real-time. Angioscopy is often used to diagnose and treat a variety of cardiovascular conditions, including peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and venous insufficiency. During the procedure, the doctor may use a variety of tools, such as balloons, stents, or clips, to treat any issues that are found. Angioscopy is a minimally invasive procedure that typically requires only local anesthesia and has a shorter recovery time than more invasive procedures.

Silicones are a group of synthetic polymers that are widely used in various medical applications due to their unique properties, such as biocompatibility, chemical stability, and thermal stability. They are typically composed of silicon, oxygen, and carbon atoms, and can be further modified to include other elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, and fluorine. In the medical field, silicones are used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Implants: Silicones are commonly used in medical implants such as breast implants, artificial joints, and heart valves due to their biocompatibility and durability. 2. Wound dressings: Silicones are used in wound dressings due to their ability to prevent bacterial growth and promote healing. 3. Drug delivery systems: Silicones are used in drug delivery systems such as microspheres and nanoparticles to improve the delivery of drugs to specific areas of the body. 4. Medical devices: Silicones are used in medical devices such as catheters, syringes, and endoscopes due to their non-stick properties and ability to reduce friction. 5. Cosmetics: Silicones are used in cosmetics such as lotions, creams, and shampoos due to their ability to provide a smooth and silky texture. Overall, silicones are a versatile and important material in the medical field due to their unique properties and wide range of applications.

Biodegradable plastics are plastics that can be broken down by microorganisms in the environment into natural compounds such as water, carbon dioxide, and biomass. In the medical field, biodegradable plastics are used to make a variety of medical devices and implants, such as sutures, stents, and drug delivery systems. These plastics are designed to break down in the body over time, reducing the risk of complications and minimizing the need for surgical removal. Biodegradable plastics are also used in packaging for medical equipment and supplies, as they can be safely disposed of in the environment without causing harm to wildlife or the ecosystem.

Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.

Diabetic Angiopathies refer to a group of circulatory disorders that affect the blood vessels of people with diabetes. These disorders can occur in any part of the body, but are most commonly seen in the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and heart. The most common type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic retinopathy, which affects the blood vessels in the retina of the eye. This can lead to vision loss or blindness if left untreated. Another type of diabetic angiopathy is diabetic nephropathy, which affects the blood vessels in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure. Diabetic neuropathy, which affects the nerves, is also a common type of diabetic angiopathy. Diabetic angiopathies are caused by damage to the blood vessels that occurs as a result of high blood sugar levels over a long period of time. This damage can lead to the formation of abnormal blood vessels, which can become blocked or leaky, leading to a range of complications. Treatment for diabetic angiopathies typically involves managing blood sugar levels through diet, exercise, and medication, as well as addressing any underlying risk factors such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat more severe cases of diabetic angiopathy.

Jaundice, obstructive is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) due to the buildup of bilirubin in the body. Bilirubin is a yellow pigment produced when red blood cells are broken down and is normally processed by the liver and excreted in the bile. Obstructive jaundice occurs when there is a blockage in the bile ducts, which are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine. This blockage can be caused by a variety of factors, including gallstones, tumors, inflammation, or injury to the bile ducts. When bile cannot flow freely from the liver, it builds up in the liver and eventually leaks into the bloodstream, causing jaundice. Other symptoms of obstructive jaundice may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dark urine. Treatment for obstructive jaundice depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, endoscopic procedures, surgery, or radiation therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Duodenal obstruction is a medical condition in which there is a blockage or narrowing of the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including tumors, inflammation, adhesions, or hernias. Symptoms of duodenal obstruction may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. In severe cases, the obstruction can lead to a buildup of fluid in the abdomen, which can be life-threatening. Diagnosis of duodenal obstruction typically involves imaging studies such as an X-ray or CT scan, as well as a physical examination and medical history. Treatment options may include medications to relieve symptoms, endoscopic procedures to remove the obstruction, or surgery to repair or remove the cause of the blockage.

Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde (ERCP) is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat problems with the bile ducts and pancreas. It involves inserting a thin, flexible tube (endoscope) through the mouth and into the small intestine, where a dye is injected to highlight the bile ducts and pancreas on an X-ray. This allows doctors to see any blockages or abnormalities in the ducts and to take samples of tissue for further testing. ERCP is often used to diagnose and treat conditions such as gallstones, pancreatitis, and bile duct cancer. It is a minimally invasive procedure that is generally considered safe, although there are some risks associated with it.

Beta particles are high-energy electrons or positrons that are emitted from the nucleus of an atom during a nuclear decay process. In the medical field, beta particles are commonly used in radiation therapy to treat cancerous tumors. They can be targeted directly at the tumor, delivering a high dose of radiation to kill cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. Beta particles can also be used in diagnostic imaging, such as in positron emission tomography (PET) scans, to visualize and measure the activity of certain organs or tissues in the body.

An intracranial aneurysm is a bulge or balloon-like dilation of a blood vessel in the brain. It occurs when a weakened area in the wall of the blood vessel balloons out and forms a sac. This can cause the blood vessel to become stretched and prone to rupture, which can lead to a life-threatening brain hemorrhage. Intracranial aneurysms are most commonly found in the arteries that supply blood to the brain, particularly the anterior communicating artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the internal carotid artery. They can occur at any age, but are more common in people over the age of 50. Risk factors for developing an intracranial aneurysm include smoking, high blood pressure, a family history of the condition, and certain genetic disorders. Treatment options for intracranial aneurysms include surgery to clip or coagulate the aneurysm, or endovascular coiling, which involves inserting a catheter through a blood vessel in the groin and threading it up to the aneurysm, where a coil is placed to fill the aneurysm and prevent it from rupturing.

In the medical field, the chi-square distribution is a statistical tool used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables. It is often used in medical research to determine whether there is a significant association between two variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. The chi-square distribution is a probability distribution that describes the sum of the squared differences between the observed and expected frequencies of a categorical variable. It is commonly used in hypothesis testing to determine whether the observed frequencies of a categorical variable differ significantly from the expected frequencies. In medical research, the chi-square test is often used to analyze the relationship between two categorical variables, such as the presence of a disease and a particular risk factor. For example, a researcher may want to determine whether there is a significant association between smoking and lung cancer. To do this, the researcher would collect data on the smoking habits of a group of people and their incidence of lung cancer. The chi-square test would then be used to determine whether the observed frequencies of lung cancer among smokers differ significantly from the expected frequencies based on the overall incidence of lung cancer in the population. Overall, the chi-square distribution is a valuable tool in medical research for analyzing the relationship between categorical variables and determining whether observed frequencies differ significantly from expected frequencies.

Brachytherapy is a type of radiation therapy that involves placing radioactive sources directly into or near a tumor or cancerous tissue. The sources are usually small pellets or seeds that are inserted into the body using a catheter or other device. The radiation emitted by the sources kills cancer cells and slows the growth of tumors. Brachytherapy is often used in combination with other types of cancer treatment, such as surgery or chemotherapy. It can be used to treat a variety of cancers, including breast cancer, prostate cancer, cervical cancer, and head and neck cancer. There are two main types of brachytherapy: low-dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy and high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. LDR brachytherapy involves the placement of a single radioactive source that emits a low dose of radiation over a longer period of time. HDR brachytherapy involves the use of a remote-controlled afterloader that can deliver a high dose of radiation in a shorter period of time. Brachytherapy is generally considered to be a safe and effective treatment for cancer, but it can have side effects, such as skin irritation, fatigue, and nausea. The specific risks and benefits of brachytherapy will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the individual patient's overall health.

Cholestasis is a medical condition characterized by the impaired flow of bile in the liver and bile ducts. Bile is a greenish-yellow fluid that is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. In cholestasis, the bile flow is either reduced or blocked, leading to the accumulation of bile in the liver and bile ducts. This can cause a range of symptoms, including jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes), itching, abdominal pain, and dark urine. Cholestasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including liver diseases such as viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, and primary biliary cholangitis. It can also be a complication of pregnancy, known as obstetric cholestasis. Treatment for cholestasis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to improve bile flow, dietary changes, and in severe cases, liver transplantation. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as liver damage and liver failure.

Intestinal obstruction is a medical condition in which there is a blockage or narrowing of the small or large intestine, preventing the normal passage of food and waste through the digestive system. This can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, constipation, and abdominal distension. There are several types of intestinal obstruction, including mechanical obstruction, which occurs when a physical blockage, such as a tumor or adhesions from previous surgery, prevents the passage of food and waste through the intestine. Functional obstruction, on the other hand, occurs when the muscles of the intestine contract abnormally, preventing the passage of food and waste. Intestinal obstruction can be a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Treatment options may include conservative management, such as fasting and fluid replacement, or surgical intervention, such as the removal of the blockage or the resection of the affected portion of the intestine.

Antineoplastic agents, phytogenic, are a class of drugs derived from plants that have been found to have anti-cancer properties. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, as well as by inducing apoptosis (cell death) in cancer cells. Examples of phytogenic antineoplastic agents include paclitaxel (Taxol), derived from the Pacific yew tree, and vinblastine and vincristine, derived from the Madagascar periwinkle plant. These agents are often used in combination with other chemotherapy drugs to treat a variety of cancers, including breast, ovarian, lung, and colorectal cancer.

Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a group of medical conditions that involve a sudden reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle. This reduction in blood flow can be caused by a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. ACS can be further classified into three main types: 1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe form of ACS and occurs when there is a complete blockage of a coronary artery, leading to a complete loss of blood flow to the heart muscle. STEMI is often accompanied by chest pain that can last for more than 30 minutes. 2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of ACS occurs when there is a partial blockage of a coronary artery, leading to a reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. NSTEMI is often accompanied by chest pain that can last for more than 20 minutes. 3. Unstable angina: This type of ACS occurs when there is a temporary blockage of a coronary artery, leading to a reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. Unstable angina is often accompanied by chest pain that can last for less than 20 minutes and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as shortness of breath, nausea, and sweating. ACS is a medical emergency and requires prompt medical attention. Treatment typically involves medications to dissolve or remove the blockage, procedures to open the blocked artery, and lifestyle changes to prevent future episodes.

Cerebral angiography is a medical imaging procedure used to visualize the blood vessels in the brain. It involves injecting a contrast dye into the bloodstream, which highlights the blood vessels on X-ray images. This allows doctors to identify any blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms in the blood vessels that may be causing symptoms such as headaches, seizures, or stroke. Cerebral angiography is typically performed as an outpatient procedure and is used to diagnose and treat a variety of neurological conditions, including stroke, aneurysms, and tumors. It is considered a safe and effective diagnostic tool, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including bleeding, infection, and allergic reactions to the contrast dye.

Atherectomy, coronary refers to a medical procedure used to remove plaque buildup (atherosclerosis) from the coronary arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This procedure is typically performed to treat patients with stable or unstable angina, heart attack, or other heart-related conditions caused by plaque buildup in the coronary arteries. There are several types of coronary atherectomy procedures, including: 1. Rotational atherectomy: This procedure uses a small, diamond-tipped burr to grind away plaque buildup in the coronary arteries. 2. Laser atherectomy: This procedure uses a laser to vaporize plaque buildup in the coronary arteries. 3. Mechanical atherectomy: This procedure uses a small wire or blade to scrape away plaque buildup in the coronary arteries. Coronary atherectomy is typically performed under local anesthesia and may be done as an outpatient procedure or as part of a more extensive heart procedure. The procedure may be followed by stent placement to keep the coronary arteries open and prevent further plaque buildup.

Tantalum is a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. It is a hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and has a high melting point. In the medical field, tantalum is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Implants: Tantalum is used to make medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and pacemakers. It is a biocompatible material that is resistant to corrosion and has a low risk of rejection by the body. 2. Stents: Tantalum is used to make stents, which are small mesh tubes that are inserted into blood vessels or other body passages to keep them open. Tantalum stents are used to treat a variety of conditions, including coronary artery disease and peripheral artery disease. 3. Coatings: Tantalum is used to coat medical devices, such as catheters and guidewires, to make them more resistant to corrosion and wear. Tantalum coatings can also improve the biocompatibility of medical devices, reducing the risk of rejection by the body. 4. Radiation shielding: Tantalum is used to shield medical equipment from radiation, such as X-rays and gamma rays. Tantalum is highly effective at absorbing and scattering radiation, making it an ideal material for use in medical imaging and radiation therapy. Overall, tantalum is a versatile material that has many useful applications in the medical field. Its unique properties make it an ideal choice for a wide range of medical devices and implants.

Cholestasis, Extrahepatic refers to a condition in which bile flow is impaired outside of the liver. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including blockages in the bile ducts, damage to the bile ducts, or problems with the muscles that control the flow of bile. Symptoms of extrahepatic cholestasis may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), itching, abdominal pain, and dark urine. Treatment for extrahepatic cholestasis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blockage or damage, such as surgery to remove a tumor or medication to treat an infection. In some cases, a procedure called a biliary stent may be used to help restore bile flow.

... and whether two stents are better than one. ... A meta-analysis looking at the addition of trabecular stent ... "We also know any additional stent would reduce the medication. For us, on average, each stent reduces the need for about one ... About half the patients in the phacoemulsification-stent group had one stent, and 40% had two. The number of patients with ... the mean reduction in intraocular pressure was significantly better with two stents than with one stent (5.28 vs 4.75 mm Hg; P ...
Cardiac rehabilitation is linked with reduced mortality rates for patients who have had stents to treat coronary blockages, U.S ... "Patients need to know that once theyve had a coronary artery stent placed, they are not cured," Thomas said in a statement. " ... stent placement, also known as percutaneous coronary intervention -- and participated afterward in a cardiac rehabilitation ... Cardiac rehabilitation is linked with reduced mortality rates for patients who have had stents to treat coronary blockages, U.S ...
Carotid Artery Stenting in Post-Approval Studies (CAG-00259N). ... Carotid Artery Stenting in Post-Approval Studies. CAG-00259N. ... Page Help for NCA - Carotid Artery Stenting in Post-Approval Studies (CAG-00259N). ...
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MILWAUKEE -- Indiana center Luke Fischer has transferred to Marquette.The Golden Eagles announced Fischers transfer Monday.Fischer, a 6-foot-11, 230-pounder, will be eligible to play for Marquette on Dec. 14. Under NCAA rules, he will be able to practice with the team until then, but wont travel with the squad.Coach Buzz Williams says Fischer fits a need on Marquettes roster.Fischer played in 13 games off the bench as a freshman this season for the Hoosiers, chipping in 2.8 points and 2.1 rebounds per game. He scored a personal-best 10 points in a win against Kennesaw State on Dec.
... April 4th, 2013 Medgadget Editors Cardiac Surgery ... Press release: Medtronic Receives CE Mark for Sentrant Introducer Sheath, Complementing Market-Leading Aortic Stent Grafts. ... The sheath is compatible with Medtronics Archer Super Stiff Guidewire and Reliant Stent Graft Balloon Catheter, and is ... from the access site in the femoral artery up to the iliac for the companys Endurant II AAA and Valiant Captivia stenting ...
Drug-eluting stents are tiny mesh tubes that physicians use to prop open clogged arteries in order for blood to flow freely to ... "The complication that this stent helps out with is called In-Stent Restenosis, which is scar tissue that forms on the stent as ... A Stent in Time by Wynce Nolley. Drug-eluting stents are tiny mesh tubes that physicians use to prop open clogged arteries in ... The stents are usually composed of three parts: a metal structure, a drug coating that helps the body accept the stent after it ...
... clopidogrel-induced bone marrow toxicity manifesting with severe neutropenia in a patient treated with multiple coronary stents ... therapy with aspirin plus thienopyridines has become the standard treatment of patients undergoing coronary stenting. ... D. S. Jeon, K. D. Yoo, C. S. Park et al., "The effect of cilostazol on stent thrombosis after drug-eluting stent implantation ... b) After two stents implantation in a "t and small protrusion"(TAP) fashion, good angiographic result can be seen. (c) One year ...
Stent induced hemodynamic changes in the coronary arteries are associated with higher risk of adverse clinical outcome. The ... For this, 3D geometry of a coronary artery which is stented by a proximal drug-eluting stent and distal bare-metal stent was ... Transient Study on the Effect of Proximal Drug-eluting Stent on Distal Bare Metal Stent in Multi-stent Implantation Strategies ... The interventional cardiologist needs independent data to aid stent selection. Stent designers need data to improve stent ...
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Skipping one commonly taken step during a routine procedure to insert a wire mesh stent into a partially blocked carotid artery ... Carotid Stents Not Effective As Surgery in Preventing Strokes. Stents to keep blocked carotid arteries open are not as ... All patients underwent pre-stent ballooning. Seventy percent also underwent post-stent ballooning, while 30 percent did not. ... Carotid stents are designed to open up the neck arteries, which carry oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the brain but have ...
The stent inserted in the mans aorta lessens the risk of complications or death from damage to that key artery, doctors said. ... But that stent cant be used in the lower part of the aorta, because the fabric would block four vessels that carry blood from ... The stent was used ito repair the aorta of John Tanzi, 61, who suddenly felt weak and dizzy on a Sunday afternoon in January ... The stent "may prevent the aorta from bursting or blocking the blood supply to other areas of the body," an FDA statement on ...
... weighed in on a new absorbable stent recently cleared for commercial use by the FDA. ... Scripps Clinic cardiologist Paul Teirstein, MD, weighed in on a new absorbable stent recently cleared for commercial use by the ...
Filed under Antiplatelet Medications, Bare Metal Stents, Clinical Trials / Studies, Drug-Eluting Stents, Heart Attack, Meetings ... Called NORSTENT, short for the "Norwegian Coronary Stent Trial," this was the largest stent trial ever conducted, with 9,013 ... "Annual Report" of Stent Procedures Shows Big Increase in Wrist Angioplasty. Todays report from the ACC CathPCI Registry data ... NORSTENT: Drug-Eluting Stents - Doing What Theyre Supposed To August 31, 2016. At this weeks annual European Society of ...
The astronaut Frank Rubio broke the record for the longest in orbit mission by an American, spending more than 355 days aboard the International Space Station.The US record for most days in space over a lifetime is held by former astronaut Peggy Whitson, with 675 days during several missions. la/dw/st
OAPN coronary stenting app assists generalists and surgeons with the management of cardiac patients. Review of the Oxford ... American Pocket Notes Coronary Stenting App from MedHand for the iPhone/iPod Touch ...
Michele Gumabao confirms Binibining Pilipinas stint. By: Faye Orellana - Reporter / @FMOrellanaINQ INQUIRER.net / 07:37 AM ...
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Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS), partially covered SEMS and self-expandable plastic stents for the treatment ... Figure 2 A fluoroscopic image demonstrating the deployed stent in the esophagus with its distal end extending into the stomach ... Figure 3 A reconstructed sagittal image of the computed tomography scan demonstrating the proximal aspect of the metal stent in ... the use of esophageal self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) or self-expandable plastic stents (SEPS)[1-3] as method of occluding ...
Cook Medical touts FDA win for next-gen colonic stent. Cook Medical won FDA clearance for the latest of its Evolution line, the ... Filed Under: News Well, Stents Tagged With: BioMimetic Therapeutics Inc., Cook Medical, Regulatory Roundup, Restoration ... Cook Medical lands FDA win for Evolution colonic stent , Regulatory Roundup. July 11, 2012. By MassDevice staff ... Home » Cook Medical lands FDA win for Evolution colonic stent , Regulatory Roundup ...
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The feasibility of using a compressed interwoven Supera stent as a flow diverting device for popliteal aneurysms was recently ... B straight inlet with dual-lined Supera stent, C bent inlet with single Supera stent, D bent inlet with dual-lined Supera stent ... Stented Models. In the straight model, the helical trajectory of the single-lined Supera stent (Fig. 2) led to out-of-plane ... Single stent deployment with maximal strut compression in the aneurysm resulted in a helical stent trajectory and a simpler ...
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Tags: bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, Interventional Cardiology, restenosis, stents, target vessel revascularization. ... Tags: bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, Interventional Cardiology, restenosis, stents, target vessel revascularization. ... Tags: bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, Interventional Cardiology, restenosis, stents, target vessel revascularization. ... Tags: bare metal stents, drug-eluting stents, Interventional Cardiology, restenosis, stents, target vessel revascularization. ...
  • A drug-eluting stent is coated with a medicine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, white patients were more likely than black patients to receive a drug-eluting stent. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients were enrolled after they had undergone a coronary stent procedure in which a drug-eluting stent was placed. (nih.gov)
  • Dual antiplatelet therapy beyond 1 year after placement of a drug-eluting stent, as compared with aspirin therapy alone, significantly reduced the risks of stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events but was associated with an increased risk of bleeding. (nih.gov)
  • This observation states that Encrustation of held ureteral stents can prompt huge horribleness. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • When implanted in pig coronary arteries, I 125 angiopeptin was found adjacent to the stent at intervals up to 28 days. (medscape.com)
  • To assess efficacy, twelve angiopeptin-loaded DD-PC-coated stents, twelve non-loaded DD-PC stents, ten standard PC-coated stents and 8 uncoated stents were implanted into normal porcine coronary arteries. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Angiopeptin-Eluting Stents: Observation In Human Vessels and Pig Coronary Arteries - Medscape - May 01, 2002. (medscape.com)
  • Stents are often used to treat narrowed coronary arteries that provide the heart with oxygen-rich blood. (nih.gov)
  • Stents used for coronary arteries are made of metal mesh. (nih.gov)
  • Fabric stents, also called stent grafts, are used in larger arteries such as the aorta. (nih.gov)
  • Stent grafts are used in larger arteries, such as the aorta, and provide a stable channel for the blood to flow through. (nih.gov)
  • Some stents are used specifically in the coronary or carotid arteries. (nih.gov)
  • Bare metal stents are simple tubes made of metal mesh that can be used in both the coronary and carotid arteries. (nih.gov)
  • Drug-eluting stents are the most common type of stents used in the coronary arteries. (nih.gov)
  • Most of the time, stents are used when arteries become narrow or blocked. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 2003, approximately 84% of the 660,000 hospitalized patients who underwent a coronary angioplasty received a stent, a wire mesh tube inserted during angioplasty to reduce future narrowing of arteries. (cdc.gov)
  • Drug-eluting stents have been determined to reduce the probability of future narrowing of arteries. (cdc.gov)
  • Stents can be inserted to prop open collapsed or narrowed arteries, and deliver drugs inside vessels. (nih.gov)
  • For several years, stents (tiny mesh tubes made out of soft but the basic work in a number of different clinical areas with sturdy metals) have been used in surgical procedures to prop different partners and eventually sublicensed the lead coronary open arteries after the blood vessels have been cleared of stent application rights co-exclusively to Cook and Boston blockages by balloon angioplasty. (nih.gov)
  • Bypass surgery and stenting-commonly used to treat blocked arteries-are no better at reducing the risk for heart attack and death in patients with heart disease than medication and lifestyle changes alone. (nih.gov)
  • Covered self-expanding metal stents are available that have a thin layer of material such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on the exterior, which improves patency by preventing tumor ingrowth. (medscape.com)
  • The most widespread endoscopic treatment in the world so far is self-expanding metal stents. (usp.br)
  • With airway stents, problems can include the stent moving out of place or becoming blocked. (nih.gov)
  • Gildea and his team were applying for authorization from the FDA for compassionate use of their stents when they learned about a funding mechanism that could help make their technology widely available, potentially reaching the tens of thousands of patients who need airway stents each year. (nih.gov)
  • If you look at the time that's elapsed since 2006, when we first realized the issue of late stent thrombosis, it's really a remarkable advance in device technology. (medscape.com)
  • One of the advantages of the biodegradable polymer, said Rao, would be to reduce very late stent thrombosis, such as events that occur beyond one year. (medscape.com)
  • The coprimary efficacy end points were stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) during the period from 12 to 30 months. (nih.gov)
  • An elevated risk of stent thrombosis and myocardial infarction was observed in both groups during the 3 months after discontinuation of thienopyridine treatment. (nih.gov)
  • Two decades of metal stent development and demonstrated safety and effectiveness from multiple studies have helped make WallFlex Biliary Stents the most frequently implanted biliary metal stent throughout the U.S., Canada, and Europe. (bostonscientific.com)
  • Dr Stouffer provides a state of the art update on drug eluting cardiac stents. (reachmd.com)
  • Local delivery of I 125 angiopeptin into the vascular wall can be achieved using a PC-coated stent. (medscape.com)
  • Stent technology has been known for two decades to treat vascular diseases [2]. (aofoundation.org)
  • The pathological process results from either hyperplasia and collagen deposition within the stent or the narrowing of the vascular lumen at the portal venous end of the TIPS stent. (nih.gov)
  • This advantage is achieved by a design that enables placement with a relatively small delivery device (7 French) that contains the stent constrained by an outer sheath. (medscape.com)
  • The Advanix Biliary Stent with NaviFlex RX Delivery System is designed to maximize flow rates, improve pushability through tortuous anatomy, and be repositionable to aid in accurate placement. (bostonscientific.com)
  • Millions of people have gotten stents for stable coronary artery disease, yet we now know that for such patients, angioplasty and stent placement doesn't actually prevent heart attacks, doesn't even offer long-term angina pain relief, and doesn't improve survival. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • Stent placement and the blood-thinner drugs you have to go on can cause complications, including heart failure, stroke, and death. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • Patients with stable coronary disease undergoing angioplasty and stent placement are frequently misinformed. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • saw pics of the stent after placement and it truly did open the esophagus, but not sure if it didnt cause too much pressure on the tumor. (cancer.org)
  • [ 21 ] Angiopeptin-loaded stents reduced luminal narrowing in a pig model of in-stent stenosis compared to non-loaded stents, although the effect observed was due to inhibition of myointimal proliferation arising as a consequence of the poly(organo)phosphazene stent coating. (medscape.com)
  • Self-expanding metallic stents placed in the biliary tree have a luminal diameter of 10 mm, whereas plastic stents typically have a luminal diameter of only 2-4 mm. (medscape.com)
  • The Ultraflex Esophageal Stent System maintains luminal patency in esophageal strictures caused by intrinsic or extrinsic malignant tumors. (bostonscientific.com)
  • Stenting is a minimally invasive procedure, meaning it is not considered major surgery. (nih.gov)
  • After a stenting procedure , you may need to take certain medicines, such as aspirin and other antiplatelet medicines that prevent cells in your blood from forming clots. (nih.gov)
  • The most common problem after a stenting procedure is a blockage or blood clot in the stent. (nih.gov)
  • Since these stents dissolve, you don't need another procedure to remove them. (nih.gov)
  • When a stent is placed into the body, the procedure is called stenting. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This article outlines the procedure for biliary stenting. (medscape.com)
  • A team has concocted a sugar-heavy stent to reduce the margin of error in a delicate surgical procedure. (nih.gov)
  • STENT PATENCY AND STENOSIS IN TIPS NIH GUIDE, Volume 23, Number 29, August 5, 1994 PA NUMBER: PA-94-090 P.T. 34 Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases Hypertension National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases PURPOSE The purpose of this Program Announcement (PA) is to encourage research on the nonsurgical Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-Systemic Shunt (TIPS) procedure in the areas of stent patency and stent stenosis. (nih.gov)
  • Former President George W. Bush underwent a heart procedure Tuesday morning to place a stent in a blocked artery, Reuters reported. (ibtimes.com)
  • At 6 weeks after having been randomized to drug-eluting stents (DES) or a sham procedure, patients had similar improvements in exercise time (28.4 more seconds with PCI versus 11.8 more seconds with placebo, P =0.200), according to the late-breaking trial presented at the Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics meeting here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Coronary stenting is generally associated with lower rates of restenosis than balloon angioplasty. (medscape.com)
  • Black and white angioplasty patients were equally likely to receive a stent. (cdc.gov)
  • Between 11 and 17 percent of people who go through angioplasty or stenting come away with new brain lesions. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • Quoting from the Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine , when it comes to angioplasty and stents, "[t]rue informed consent rarely occurs. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • There are only a few contraindications for percutaneous biliary stenting in appropriately selected patients, and these are primarily related to bleeding. (medscape.com)
  • Clopidogrel, an adenosine diphosphate receptor blocker, is widely used as an adjunctive antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary stenting. (nih.gov)
  • Clopidogrel treatment in a patient with ticlopidine-induced hepatitis following percutaneous coronary stenting. (nih.gov)
  • Metallic stents, on the other hand, are generally permanent, but they have the advantage of a larger lumen and longer patency. (medscape.com)
  • Nevertheless, the patency of metallic stents is only 60-70% at 6 months, and nearly all are occluded by 1 year. (medscape.com)
  • At present the long term effectiveness of TIPS is related to shunt patency and stent stenosis. (nih.gov)
  • Studies related to technological advances that improve long term patency as well as studies on stent occlusion and fibrosis are encouraged. (nih.gov)
  • This PA, Stent Patency and Stenosis in TIPS, is related to the priority area of chronic disabling conditions. (nih.gov)
  • New technologies or advances in existing technologies to develop stent materials should be directed to improve long term patency. (nih.gov)
  • The latter studies could focus on the role of anticoagulation agents, anti-collagen or fibrotic agents, or anti-inflammatory regimens, such as cytokines, in the maintenance of stent patency. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, applications are requested that would improve the technology involving stent patency. (nih.gov)
  • Stents are also sometimes used to treat an aneurysm , which is a bulge in the wall of an artery, and to treat narrowed airways in the lungs. (nih.gov)
  • Your healthcare provider may recommend taking this medicine for a year or longer after receiving a stent in your artery to prevent serious complications . (nih.gov)
  • A coronary artery stent is a small, self-expanding, metal mesh tube. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This stent prevents the artery from re-closing. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like other coronary artery stents, it is left permanently in the artery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Boston Scientific later received exclusive worldwide often forms near the implanted stent that can cause the artery to rights for the TAXUS® stents in the field of coronary disease re-clog or restenose in approximately 10 to 40 percent of and developed it into a commercial product, while Cook patients. (nih.gov)
  • These stents are expected to substantially reduce coronary artery be dispensed or eluted into the tissue nearby. (nih.gov)
  • Biodegradable stents dissolve after a few months. (nih.gov)
  • SAN FRANCISCO, CA - The biolimus -eluting stent with a biodegradable polymer (Nobori, Terumo) is statistically noninferior to the zotarolimus -eluting coronary stent (Resolute Integrity, Medtronic) with regard to the primary end point of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12 months, according to a head-to-head comparison presented yesterday at TCT 2013 . (medscape.com)
  • At 12 months, the rate of cardiac death, MI, and target lesion revascularization was 5.3% in patients treated with the zotarolimus-eluting stent and 5.1% among those who received the biolimus-eluting stent (p=0.006 for noninferiority). (medscape.com)
  • Lead investigator Dr Bent Raungaard (Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark) presented the results of the 1502 patients who received the zotarolimus-eluting stent and the 1497 who received the biolimus-eluting stent. (medscape.com)
  • As the TCT panel noted during the press conference, the polymer in the stent is fully dissolved after about nine months, so follow-up of the SORT-OUT VI patients beyond one year is critical. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with malignant disease and a life expectancy of less than 6-12 months, metallic stents are more cost-effective and are associated with shorter hospital stays and fewer reinterventions. (medscape.com)
  • [ 8 ] Therefore, the use of metallic stents for biliary obstruction is reserved for patients who have inoperable malignant biliary obstruction and whose life expectancy is shorter than 6-12 months. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiologists are aware of how little they help, but studies have consistently demonstrated that patients think stents will reduce their risk of heart attack or death. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • More than 70 percent of patients erroneously believed that stents would extend their life expectancy or prevent future heart attacks. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • With the available stent lengths of 13, 15, and 20 mm, it is possible to treat levels from T5 to L5 in a comprehensive range of patients anatomies. (aofoundation.org)
  • We analyzed the treatment of patients with held stents. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Patients with held stents were recognized from a tentatively gathered stone library at a high volume community. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • By and large 66 patients with held, encrusted stents and 4,962 controls were recognized. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The company initiated the recall in response to information it recently obtained from the Valiant Evo global clinical trial which indicated that three patients in the trial experienced stent fractures, with two of which being confirmed type IIIb endoleaks. (massdevice.com)
  • Upon learning of the observations, an independent imaging laboratory reviewed all available images from the patients enrolled in the trial, finding that seven of 87 patients had stent ring enlargement beyond the design specification. (massdevice.com)
  • But complications can occur in a high percentage of patients, often because the stents come in generic shapes and sizes and don't fit perfectly in the airway. (nih.gov)
  • The money allowed the team to show how well the personalized stents could work in patients. (nih.gov)
  • One of his patients, whose condition was worsening, needed a stent readjustment every 42 days due to complications. (nih.gov)
  • Since then, the team and a handful of university and clinical partners have placed more than 20 stents in patients. (nih.gov)
  • We've seen similar things with other patients who go from being completely incapacitated, to having a stent put in and going back to work," says Gildea. (nih.gov)
  • Local drug delivery from polymer-coated coronary stents may reduce the incidence of in-stent restenosis. (medscape.com)
  • The Bio divYsio drug delivery stent (Biocompatibles Ltd., Farnham, United Kingdom) is a stainless-steel, balloon-expandable stent coated with a phosphorylcholine (PC) polymer. (medscape.com)
  • Made of a proprietary polymer blend that results in a stent that is both biocompatible and ultra smooth for patient comfort. (bd.com)
  • Cite this: Biolimus Stent With Disappearing Polymer Passes Test - Medscape - Oct 30, 2013. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, meaning far fewer return visits to the catheterization lab or paclitaxel-coated stents are finding their use in peripheral organs operating room for cardiac patients1. (nih.gov)
  • The stent graft is typically a tube made of leak-proof polyester with a metal mesh backbone. (nih.gov)
  • MDT ) announced today that it issued a voluntary recall of unused Valiant Navion thoracic stent graft systems. (massdevice.com)
  • These complications can be categorized according to those relating to transhepatic needle puncture, transvenous access to the portal vein, portal venous cannulation, portosystemic shunting and the stent. (nih.gov)
  • Dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended after coronary stenting to prevent thrombotic complications, yet the benefits and risks of treatment beyond 1 year are uncertain. (nih.gov)
  • After receiving a personalized stent, the patient avoided further complications for more than a year. (nih.gov)
  • The Cleveland Clinic spin off company that licensed the stents, VisionAir Solutions, is planning a small market release as well as a clinical study to measure patient-reported quality of life and stent complications in the near future. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors recommended a stent to open the blockage, and the surgery was completed at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital, hospital officials said. (ibtimes.com)
  • The Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE) has published standards of practice for biliary stenting. (medscape.com)
  • The covered stent can also be used for occlusion of concurrent esophageal fistula. (bostonscientific.com)
  • Stents used in the airways of the lungs are often made of silicone. (nih.gov)
  • Metal stents are made of bare metal or covered with another material such as silicone. (nih.gov)
  • Silicone stents are made of a material that can be molded to a certain shape. (nih.gov)
  • The 3D printed mold is used to form a silicone stent that matches the shape and size of the patient's airway. (nih.gov)
  • The most common indication for biliary stenting is for treatment of obstructive jaundice from either benign or malignant causes. (medscape.com)
  • Designed to offer the ultimate combination of delivery system access and stent construction to expand options available for patient treatment and management of colonic strictures caused by malignant neoplasms. (bostonscientific.com)
  • The stent is intended as a palliative treatment of malignant neoplasms in the biliary tree. (medtronic.com)
  • Starting those relationships early was absolutely instrumental in terms of helping us get through the process," says Gildea, who received 510(k) clearance through the FDA for the patient-specific stents in 2019 based on data from compassionate use cases. (nih.gov)
  • The other guy had it and Steve did not - and during one of our trips into have yet another dilation we passed the other fellow getting the stent taken out (it had caused severe irritation) but at least it had not migrated somewhere else. (cancer.org)
  • Common ways include surgery to repair or strengthen the bladder, using a bladder catheter to drain urine, dilating or widening the urethra (the duct that urine flows through when emptied) called having urethral dilation or stents, and giving certain medications. (cancer.org)
  • Further studies to develop research should be directed at elucidating methods to reduce fibrosis and or occlusion of the stent. (nih.gov)
  • The objectives of this study were to characterize the release kinetics and distribution of angiopeptin-loaded phosphorylcholine (PC)-coated drug delivery (DD) Bio divYsio stents and assess their safety and efficacy at reducing neointima formation. (medscape.com)
  • and 2) to investigate the safety and efficacy of angiopeptin-loaded PC-coated stents in porcine coronary restenosis. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital and MIT have designed a stretchable stent with pop-out needles for use in drug delivery in tubular organs, such as the airway and the gastrointestinal (GI) system. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Objectives: the aim of this study is to compare, through a systematic review and meta-analysis, endoscopic vacuum therapy versus self-expanding metal stent in the management of upper gastrointestinal transmural defects based on successful closure rate, mortality, duration of the treatment, hospital stay, and adverse events. (usp.br)
  • Dr Sunil Rao (Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC) made a similar statement but also emphasized the safety of stents used now in clinical practice. (medscape.com)
  • And although a clinical study assessing patient-reported quality of life has been postponed due to the pandemic, Gildea says the anecdotal evidence for how well the stents work is clear. (nih.gov)
  • Stents are made of either plastic or metal, and they are placed to provide internal drainage, eliminating the need for an external catheter. (medscape.com)
  • In 2002 Sebastian Fürderer first published the idea of implanting two balloon-expandable stents into fractured vertebral bodies [3], which has also been biomechanically assessed in comparison to simple balloon kyphoplasty [4]. (aofoundation.org)
  • After positioning, the stents can be balloon-expanded inside the collapsed vertebral body restoring its original height and the natural curvature of the spine. (aofoundation.org)
  • Ultra smooth surface may reduce the mechanical trauma at the tissue/stent interface and thus ureteral reactions such as ureteral ulcerations, epithelia hyperplasia, inflammation and edema. (bd.com)
  • Add to this an indwelling time of up to 365 days as well as an innovative solution to the problem of urine calcium salt accumulation and you have a product that can continue to live up to the Inlay™ stent name. (bd.com)
  • Uniquely formulated pHreeCoat coating stabilizes the pH level on the stent surface provides an innovative solution to the problem of urine calcium salt accumulation. (bd.com)
  • In vitro laboratory testing demonstrates the superior resistance to urine calcium salt accumulation vs. the leading competitive stents. (bd.com)
  • Because the most dangerous plaques-the ones most vulnerable to rupture leading to a heart attack-are not the ones doctors put stents in, not the ones often even seen on angiogram to be obstructing blood flow. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • The 15 percent risk of heart attack is only if your stent clogs off at a later date, which only happens in about 1 percent in the near-term. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • Some stents are used in the lung airways. (nih.gov)
  • To provide relief, he inserts a hollow tube called a stent into the lung airway. (nih.gov)
  • In doing so, researchers might be able find differences between stents. (medscape.com)
  • Paclitaxel is perhaps in facilitating approval of the paclitaxel-stent combination best known in the form offered by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) product because the drug's safety was already well established. (nih.gov)
  • Stents are used for different purposes and are made from several types of materials, depending on where they will go in the body. (nih.gov)
  • Market approval was made easier because the stent incorporated itself modifies the healing process, so that scar tissue does not the active agent from an approved drug like Taxol® rather than build," commented John Groetelaars, vice president for Boston an investigational drug. (nih.gov)
  • The stent designs are made using an online software package. (nih.gov)
  • No adverse tissue reactions were seen with any of the PC-coated stents. (medscape.com)
  • This review aims to provide a concise overview of the main strategies developed so far to design Fe-based stents with accelerated degradation, highlighting the fundamental mechanisms of corrosion and the methods to study them as well as the reported approaches to accelerate the corrosion rates. (bvsalud.org)
  • The new VBS small/medium/large (S/M/L) features a complete set of different stent sizes. (aofoundation.org)
  • Applications seeking support of technological improvements of stents may consider the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (R43) or the Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) program (R41) of the NIH, in which the NIDDK participates. (nih.gov)
  • Doctors are paid more for offering stents than common sense diet and lifestyle changes. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • Recent advances in Fe-based bioresorbable stents: Materials design and biosafety. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fe-based materials have received more and more interests in recent years as candidates to fabricate bioresorbable stents due to their appropriate mechanical properties and biocompatibility. (bvsalud.org)
  • Advanced stent technology that offers treatment options for palliation. (bostonscientific.com)
  • Boston Scientific stent technology is built on science and innovation to expand options available for patient treatment and management. (bostonscientific.com)
  • With the advent of metallic and plastic internal stents, further applications in the treatment of biliary diseases were developed. (medscape.com)
  • Resin surgical stent is an important device to transfer pre surgical planning to the operative moment of a dental implant or an orthognatic surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • A stent is a tiny tube placed into a hollow structure in your body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The stent is designed to pop out needles when the silicon-based tube is stretched. (siliconrepublic.com)
  • Rotter R, Martin H, Fuerderer S, et al (2010) Vertebral body stenting: a new method for vertebral augmentation versus kyphoplasty. (aofoundation.org)
  • Terapia endoscópica a vácuo versus stents metálicos autoexpansíveis para o tratamento. (usp.br)