Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.Cell SeparationMice, Inbred C57BLCell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Embryoid Bodies: Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigens: Cell-surface molecules that exhibit lineage-restricted patterns of expression during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. The antigens are useful markers in the identification of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred BALB CNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Feeder Cells: Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Chimerism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from different individuals. This contrasts with MOSAICISM in which the different cell populations are derived from a single individual.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Money NP (October 2002). "Mushroom stem cells". BioEssays. 24 (10): 949-52. doi:10.1002/bies.10160. PMID 12325127. ... Willensdorfer M (February 2009). "On the evolution of differentiated multicellularity". Evolution; International Journal of ... Daniels KJ, Srikantha T, Lockhart SR, Pujol C, Soll DR (May 2006). "Opaque cells signal white cells to form biofilms in Candida ... In contrast, similar-looking organisms, such as filamentous green algae, grow by repeated cell division within a chain of cells ...
Pintacuda, G; Cerase, A (October 2015). "X Inactivation Lessons from Differentiating Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells". Stem cell ... "Identification of Spen as a Crucial Factor for Xist Function through Forward Genetic Screening in Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells ... Cell. 161 (2): 404-16. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.025. PMC 4425988 . PMID 25843628. Minajigi, A; Froberg, JE; Wei, C; Sunwoo, H ... Failure to turn up PRC2 proteins in function screens may be due to cells not being able to survive or compete without PRC2 or ...
AK2 protein allows hematopoietic stem cells to differentiate and proliferate. Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to blood cells ... Patients who suffer from RD will now have more stem cells that can differentiate into immune cells. Recombinant granulocyte- ... Stem cells are taken from an affected child's blood or bone marrow. Then in laboratory conditions the stem cells are ... Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) involves intravenous infusion of stem cells to those who have either a damaged ...
found that these teratocarcinoma stem cells, when in the presence of retinoic acid (RA), differentiated into nontumorigenic ... They found that these teratocarcinoma stem cells expressed high levels of Rex1, and that they resembled pluripotent stem cells ... Also, Rex1−/Oct3/4+ cells differentiate into cells of primitive ectoderm, the somatic cell lineage. Studies have shown that ... doi:10.1634/stemcells.2004-0123. PMID 15790780. Mongan NP, Martin KM, Gudas LJ (2007). "The putative human stem cell marker, ...
MSCs are multipotent stem cells, meaning they can differentiate into multiple cell types. In the case of mesenchymal stem cells ... Autologous stem-cell transplantation using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been used to improve recovery time from ACL ... these cell types include osteoblasts (bone cells), adipocytes (fat cells), and chondrocytes (cartilage cells). Ligament tissue ... Ligament cells differ in size, respond to different cues in the cell environment, and express different cell surface markers, ...
... divides and becomes a transit amplifying cell. Transit amplifying cells are slightly more differentiated than neural stem cells ... Neuroblasts are formed when a neural stem cell, which can differentiate into any type of mature neural cell (i.e. neurons, ... A neuroblast, a daughter cell of a transit amplifying cell, is initially a neural stem cell that has reached the "point of no ... and one cell that becomes the Ganglion Mother Cell (GMC), which goes on to divide into 4 differentiated cells (neurons or glia ...
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate to become different types of cells. The hope is that stem cells transplanted into ... Types of cells being researched for use in SCI include embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, ... olfactory ensheathing cells, Schwann cells, activated macrophages, and induced pluripotent stem cells. When stem cells are ... Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent; they can develop into every type of cell in a fetus. Neural stem cells (NSCs) are ...
Certain patterns are able to induce stem cells to differentiate down specific pathways. Notable results include osteogenic ... Nanotopography is readily applied to cell culture and has been shown to have a significant impact on cell behavior across ... Subjected solely to topographical cues, a wide variety of cells demonstrate responses including changes in cell growth and gene ... "Nanotopographical Control of Stem Cell Differentiation". Journal of Tissue Engineering. 1 (1): 120623-120623. doi:10.4061/2010/ ...
Osteochondroprogenitor cells differentiate under the influence of growth factors, although isolated mesenchymal stem cells in ... Osteoblasts are specialized, terminally differentiated products of mesenchymal stem cells. They synthesize dense, crosslinked ... Bone is a highly vascular tissue, and active formation of blood vessel cells, also from mesenchymal stem cells, is essential to ... Osteoblasts arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). MSC give rise to osteoblasts, adipocytes, and myocytes among other cell ...
Cancer cells are generally less differentiated and more stem cell-like; they reproduce more than most healthy differentiated ... Fractionation allows normal cells time to recover, while tumor cells are generally less efficient in repair between fractions. ... Single-strand DNA damage is then passed on through cell division; damage to the cancer cells' DNA accumulates, causing them to ... Fractionation also allows tumor cells that were in a relatively radio-resistant phase of the cell cycle during one treatment to ...
"Regeneration of Thyroid Function by Transplantation of Differentiated Pluripotent Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 17 (5): 527-542 ... University that was the first to generate thyroid cell progenitors and thyroid follicular organoids from pluripotent stem cells ... doi:10.1016/j.stem.2015.09.004. ISSN 1934-5909. PMC 4666682 . PMID 26593959. Kotton, Darrell (August 9, 2015). "Statement on ... PSCs) in mice, and thyroid cell progenitors from induced PSCs in humans. This was achieved by establishing the signalling ...
These cells are a neural stem cell population responsible for repopulating lost cells during injury. These cells have the ... capacity to differentiate into progenitor glial populations. During injury, a factor entitled Akhirin is secreted in the FP ... During spinal cord development, Akhirin is expressed solely on ependymal stem cells with latent stem cell properties and plays ... An alternative view proposes that neural tube floor plate cells stem from precursor cells which migrate directly from axial ...
These domains are usually found in embryonic stem cells and are pivotal for proper cell differentiation. H3K27me3 and H3K4me3 ... "Genome-scale DNA methylation maps of pluripotent and differentiated cells". Nature. 454 (7205): 766-70. doi:10.1038/nature07107 ... "A bivalent chromatin structure marks key developmental genes in embryonic stem cells". Cell. 125 (2): 315-26. doi:10.1016/j. ... Kouzarides T (February 2007). "Chromatin modifications and their function". Cell. 128 (4): 693-705. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.02. ...
... more indirectly the protein could drive an endogenous stem cell to differentiate in a desired way. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is ... and they are impermeable to the cell membrane. Once within the cell, they must then leave the cell's transport mechanism to ... Different mRNAs within the same cell have distinct lifetimes (stabilities). In bacterial cells, individual mRNAs can survive ... Cell. 146 (4): 645-658. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.06.051. ISSN 0092-8674. PMC 3160626 . Wells, S.E.; Hillner, P.E.; Vale, R.D.; ...
Stem Cells. 2003;21(1):50-60. Wharton's Jelly, Hair Follicles New Sources of Adult Stem Cells, Studies Find StemCellNews.com, ... They can be extracted, cultured, and induced to differentiate into mature cell types such as neurons. Wharton's jelly is ... Cells in Wharton's jelly express several stem cell genes, including telomerase. ... "Immunomodulatory effect of human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on lymphocytes". Cell Immunol. ...
"Sonic hedgehog and other soluble factors from differentiating embryoid bodies inhibit pancreas development". Stem Cells. 25 (5 ... doi:10.1634/stemcells.2006-0720. PMID 17272496. Voet JG, Voet D (1995). Biochemistry. New York: J. Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471- ... Small molecules can have a variety of biological functions or applications, serving as cell signaling molecules, drugs in ... which allows for the possibility to rapidly diffuse across cell membranes so that it can reach intracellular sites of action. ...
This also provided the basis for differentiating stem cells in insulin-producing cells. Upon taking office, Gruss was regarded ... He has been able to produce insulin using stem cells. Gruss grew up in the town of Alsfeld in the German state of Hesse. After ... Pax genes and their roles in cell differentiation and development, in: Current Opinion in Cell Biology 8 (1996), Pages 851-857 ... In 1986, Gruss was appointed a scientific member and director of the Department of Molecular Cell Biology at the Max Planck ...
Therefore, the upregulation of white blood cells causes fewer stem cells to differentiate into red blood cells. This effect may ... Bone marrow produces both white blood cells and red blood cells from the same precursor stem cells. ... the effect of locking up iron stores is to reduce the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. These cells ... Hepcidin in turn causes increased internalisation of ferroportin molecules on cell membranes which prevents release from iron ...
The body contains a variety of stem cell types that have the capacity to differentiate into neurons. A report in Nature ... researchers have converted connective tissue cells found in skin into heart cells, blood cells, and liver cells. Missing or ... Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells that have also been observed to turn into neurons by virtue of the stem cell ... Granule cells, a type of Golgi II neuron. Anterior horn cells, motoneurons located in the spinal cord. Spindle cells, ...
miRNAs play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cell progenitors differentiating into adipocytes. Studies to determine what ... and cell cycle in mice lacking miRNA-1-2". Cell. 129 (2): 303-17. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.03.030. PMID 17397913. Thum T, ... B-cell migration/adhesion, cell-cell interactions in immune niches and the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins. ... In malignant B cells miRNAs participate in pathways fundamental to B cell development like B-cell receptor (BCR) signalling, ...
An increase in ID expression is seen in embryonic and adult stem cells. ID proteins also promote cell cycle progression, ... In contrast, inappropriate regulation of ID proteins in differentiated cells can contribute to tumorigenesis. Generally, IDs ... Lasorella A, Benezra R, Iavarone A (February 2014). "The ID proteins: master regulators of cancer stem cells and tumour ... ID proteins are key regulators of development where they function to prevent premature differentiation of stem cells. By ...
The shoot apical meristem consists of 4 distinct cell groups: Stem cells The immediate daughter cells of the stem cells A ... In general, differentiated plant cells cannot divide or produce cells of a different type. Therefore, cell division in the ... WUS is expressed in the cells below the stem cells of the meristem and its presence prevents the differentiation of the stem ... Cells of this zone have a stem cell function and are essential for meristem maintenance. The proliferation and growth rates at ...
Embryonic stem cells incorporate the altered gene, which replaces the already present functional copy. These stem cells are ... Selectable markers are used to easily differentiate transformed from untransformed cells. These markers are usually present in ... Cloning and stem cell research, although not considered genetic engineering, are closely related and genetic engineering can be ... In animals it is necessary to ensure that the inserted DNA is present in the embryonic stem cells. Bacteria consist of a single ...
Primary cells are from an organism. Secondary cells are from a cell bank. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the ... These cells can differentiate into a variety of tissue types, including bone, cartilage, fat, and nerve. A large number of ... According to their source stem cells are divided into "adult" and "embryonic" stem cells, the first class being multipotent and ... Schwann cells, hair follicle cells) into the printed cell construct, the behavior of these cells in a 3D in vitro ...
The osteoblast cell is derived from the Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) which can also differentiate into a chondrocyte. The cell ... J Cell Physiol 226(5):1353-1366 Carroll SH, Ravid K (2013) Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts and ... doi:10.1017/erm.2013.2 Carroll SH, Ravid K (2013) Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts and chondrocytes: a ... It allows for the inhibition of growth in human melanoma cells. Specific antagonists include MRS1191, MRS1523 and MRE3008F20, ...
Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... Association of emerin with nuclear and cytoplasmic actin is regulated in differentiating myoblasts. Biochem. Biophys. Res. ... M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic anaphase. · mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular ... J. Cell. Sci. October 2000, 113 (19): 3473-84. PMID 10984438.. *^ Dreuillet C, Tillit J, Kress M, Ernoult-Lange M. In vivo and ...
Gene expression profiling and secretome analysis differentiate adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells and human ... Home» Gene expression profiling and secretome analysis differentiate adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells and human ... Gene expression profiling and secretome analysis differentiate adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells and human ... INTRODUCTION:Adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSC) are isolated after primary culture of liver parenchymal ...
Many stem cell types have been shown to differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs); however, their specification to arterial or ... These results represent the first demonstration of adult stem cells with the potential to be differentiated into different ... 2) Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis. (3) Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, ... We tested whether a specific arterial or venous EC fate could be induced in human multipotent adult progenitor cells (hMAPCs) ...
Capacity of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into sweat gland-like cells: a preclinical ... Stem cell characteristics of amniotic epithelial cells. Stem Cells 2005; 23(10): 1549-1559 doi: 10.1634/stemcells.2004-0357 ... Mesenchymal stem cells in the Whartons jelly of the human umbilical cord. Stem Cells 2004; 22(7): 1330-1337 doi: 10.1634/ ... Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a unique, accessible, and non-controversial source of early stem cells that ...
... whereby they mature from an unspecialized cell into a specialized cell that has distinct functions and form. These signals ... Stem cells use signals to begin the process of differentiation, ... that all cells come from other cells and that cells are the ... Stem cells use signals to begin the process of differentiation, whereby they mature from an unspecialized cell into a ... What limits cell division?. A: Cell division is limited by a process called cellular senescence, during which cells in culture ...
Researchers at the RIKEN Brain Science Institute have used human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to identify a ... Schizophrenic stem cells do not differentiate properly into neurons. RIKEN. Journal. Translational Psychiatry. Keywords. * ... clusters of cells in culture that contain neural stem cells and progenitor cells. The first thing the team noticed was that ... Since the cells in neurospheres can become neurons or glia--another type of brain cell--the team also looked at the proportions ...
The Science of Stem Cells. Welcome to The Science of Stem Cells! You will begin with a basic overview of stem cells--what they ... the history of stem cell research, and the ... ... Why are Stem Cells Important?5:28. Stem Cells in Other ... Introduction to Stem Cells. Welcome to The Science of Stem Cells! You will begin with a basic overview of stem cells--what they ... Cell differentiation is the process by which a stem cell becomes a specialized cell type. ...
... start out from stem cells that differentiate into different kinds of cells. This process is controlled ... start out from stem cells that differentiate into different kinds of cells. This process is controlled by groups of cells that ... Microfluidic Chip Allows Embryonic Stem Cells to Differentiate. July 2nd, 2019 Medgadget Editors Cardiac Surgery, Dermatology, ... The device can carefully deliver morphogens to groups of embryonic stem cells living and growing within its interior. The cells ...
A jagged little protein appears to be key to how cancer stem cells differentiate and enable metastasis, according to ... A small protein plays key role in how cancer stem cells differentiate. *Download PDF Copy ... A jagged little protein appears to be key to how cancer stem cells differentiate and enable metastasis, according to ... Epithelial cells form tissues that line the outer surfaces of organs. Mesenchymal cells are motile cells that are normally ...
Researchers at the UCLA Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research have discovered that a ... As they differentiate into specialized cells, pluripotent stem cells undergo a shift in their metabolism, and they begin ... Home Health Metabolic molecule speeds up process by which stem cells differentiate ... Pluripotent stem cells have the ability to create any specialized cell in the body, such as skin, bone, blood or nervous system ...
2009) Induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells are distinguished by gene expression signatures. Cell Stem Cell 5 ... Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), are ... 2009) Pluripotent stem cells and disease modeling. Cell Stem Cell 5(3):244-247. ... 2012) Self-renewing endodermal progenitor lines generated from human pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 10(4):371-384. ...
Stem Cells - Cord Blood Stem Cells - Fundamentals Parkinsons Disease Surgical Treatment Genetics and Stem Cells Bone Marrow ... Stem Cell Therapy. Stem cell therapy or regenerative medicine uses undifferentiated cells for the treatment of conditions like ... Stem Cells - Fundamentals. Encyclopedia section of medindia gives general info about Stem Cells ... Preferred Term is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In this stem cell from bone marrow are injected into a recipient ...
... as well as the involvement of short-range-acting molecules between differentiated and stem cells contribute to stem cell ... because of their stem cell-like properties. Adipose tissue represents a potential alternative reservoir of cells with stem cell ... Clonogenic multipotent stem cells in human adipose tissue differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells. Larissa V. ... Clonogenic multipotent stem cells in human adipose tissue differentiate into functional smooth muscle cells ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are continuously growing stem cell lines of embryonic origin, first isolated from the inner cell mass ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate in vitro into cardiomyocytes representing sinusnodal, atrial and ventricular cell types. ... Human embryonic stem cells can differentiate into myocytes with structural and functional properties of cardiomyocytes. Izhak ... Genetically selected cardiomyocytes from differentiating embryonic stem cells form stable intracardiac grafts. J Clin Invest ...
Human dermis contains cells that are nonpigmented but can differentiate... ... but a melanocyte stem cell reservoir in glabrous skin has not yet been found. ... The dermal stem cells grow as three-dimensional spheres in human embryonic stem cell medium and express some neural crest stem ... 2006). Defining the conditions for the generation of melanocytes from human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells, 24, 1668-1677. ...
... derived from human neural stem cells. Both these cell types are essential for correct brain function. ... A mixed culture of neurons (green) and astrocytes (red) derived from human neural stem cells. Both these cell types are ...
Human stem cells are considered a major new hope in the field of medicine. In the future, it is expected that they will make it ... Stem Cells Track and monitor developments in stem cell research and commercial development. Follow the tabs above to read the ... Manipulating Water Content in Stem Cells Influences Differentiation Fate *Global Mesenchymal Stem Cells Markets 2018-2022: ... differentiate and freeze stem cells. The cell models produced can be used for toxicity tests and drug development. ...
Murine induced pluripotent stem cells can be derived from and differentiate into natural killer T cells. ... Murine induced pluripotent stem cells can be derived from and differentiate into natural killer T cells. ... Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold tremendous potential for cell-replacement therapy, but whether it is possible to ... These iPSCs could be differentiated into NKT cells in vitro and secreted large amounts of the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ. Importantly, ...
An embryonic stem cell-like gene expression signature in poorly differentiated aggressive human tumors.. Ben-Porath I1, Thomson ... An embryonic stem cell-like gene expression signature in poorly differentiated aggressive human tumors ... An embryonic stem cell-like gene expression signature in poorly differentiated aggressive human tumors ... An embryonic stem cell-like gene expression signature in poorly differentiated aggressive human tumors ...
Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate to a Cardiomyocyte Phenotype in the Adult Murine Heart. Catalin Toma, Mark F. ... Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate to a Cardiomyocyte Phenotype in the Adult Murine Heart ... Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate to a Cardiomyocyte Phenotype in the Adult Murine Heart ... Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiate to a Cardiomyocyte Phenotype in the Adult Murine Heart ...
Research has confirmed that mesenchymal stem cells could differentiate into... ... Endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are important aspects of vascularization in vaginal reconstruction. ... 2004). Mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into endothelial cells in vitro. Stem Cells, 22, 377-384.CrossRefGoogle ... The Methods and Mechanisms to Differentiate Endothelial-Like Cells and Smooth Muscle Cells from Mesenchymal Stem Cells for ...
doi: 10.1002/stem.1413. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... doi: 10.1002/stem.1413.. Very small embryonic-like stem cells from the murine bone marrow differentiate into epithelial cells ... Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells from the Murine Bone Marrow Differentiate into Epithelial Cells of the Lung ... Very Small Embryonic-Like Stem Cells from the Murine Bone Marrow Differentiate into Epithelial Cells of the Lung ...
... differentiating type 1 type 2 diabetes mellitus quizlet, free diabetes screening louisville ky purge, new type 2 diabetes ... te de type 2 surveillance kit Diabetes cured testimonials videos Stem cell therapy for type 2 diabetes in india vs Miracle ... T1D is caused by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas leading to insulinopenia. In type 1A, individuals ... Differentiating type 1 type 2 diabetes mellitus quizlet,january transfer window update fifa 14,january 4 1981 chinese zodiac ...
STEMCELL Technologies is pleased to introduce STEMdiff™, our new line of products specifically optimized for the ... a defined and serum-free medium for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to neural progenitor cells within 12 ... our new line of products specifically optimized for the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Learn about two new ... STEMCELL Technologies is pleased to introduce STEMdiff™, ... STEMCELL Technologies * Products * Product Types *Cell Culture ...
Challenges for stem cell-based therapies. Patient-derived pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) hold promise in the treatment of injury ... Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells in replacement therapy for treating disease ... Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells in replacement therapy for treating disease ... Use of differentiated pluripotent stem cells in replacement therapy for treating disease ...
Proof of the principle is still lacking, however, in malignancies of differentiated B-cells. We review here the current ... We propose two models accounting for cancer stem cells in these contexts: a ... The concept of cancer stem cells has revolutionized our current vision of cancer development and was validated in solid tumors ... literature, which nevertheless suggests hierarchical organizations of the tumor clone for mostly incurable B-cell cancers such ...
  • In vitro, in the presence of VEGF(165), hAC133(+) cells only adopted a venous and microvascular EC phenotype, while hMAPCs differentiated into both arterial and venous ECs, possibly because hMAPCs expressed significantly more sonic hedgehog (Shh) and its receptors as well as Notch 1 and 3 receptors and some of their ligands. (cun.es)
  • These results represent the first demonstration of adult stem cells with the potential to be differentiated into different types of ECs in vitro and in vivo and provide a useful human model to study arteriovenous specification. (cun.es)
  • AIMS&METHODS:In the current work, we strived to extensively compare both cell populations and to propose tools demonstrating their singularity. (uclouvain.be)
  • CONCLUSION:Our study demonstrates that, even sharing several phenotypic characteristics, ADHLSC and HSC are distinct liver fibroblastic cell populations as they exhibit significant different intrinsic gene expression and secretion profiles. (uclouvain.be)
  • You will hear from Museum scientists, medical researchers at the frontiers of the field, and a panel of bioethics experts who will address the ethical implications of stem cell research and therapy. (coursera.org)
  • Finally, the researchers have made skin cells. (coursera.org)
  • Now, researchers at École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland have managed to create a special device through which they can guide stem cells in different spots to turn into the specific cells they want. (medgadget.com)
  • A jagged little protein appears to be key to how cancer stem cells differentiate and enable metastasis, according to researchers at Rice University and the Duke University School of Medicine. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers saw similar results when they added alpha-ketoglutarate to other cocktails of molecules that are used to produce other cell types. (scienceblog.com)
  • With LabBag®, researchers have developed an all-in-one system in the form of a transparent bag that provides a cheap, fast and sterile way for scientists to grow, differentiate and freeze stem cells. (bioportfolio.com)
  • For both types of diabetes, finding new ways to provide functioning beta cells has been an area of great interest for researchers. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Researchers at Case Western Reserve University have discovered how to quickly and accurately predict which lung cancer patients will benefit from chemotherapy by analyzing how immune cells the body sends out to fight the disease are arranged. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Published in Cell Reports , the article is the fruit of collaboration between researchers at IRB Barcelona and CSIC. (phys.org)
  • The study shows a new discovery in the development of blood stem cells whilst offering new findings that could lead to further development of artificial hepatopoietic niches that could help researchers understand the defects that originate from the placenta. (doctortipster.com)
  • Scientists grow retina cells from skin-derived stem cells - WASHINGTON - University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers have successfully grown multiple types of retina cells from two types of stem cells, giving new ho. (blogspot.com)
  • Using chicken eggs and a state-of-the-art imaging device which can reveal how cells move in three dimensions, the researchers demonstrated a key difference in the way gastrulation occurs between higher vertebrate species and less evolutionarily advanced animals. (thaindian.com)
  • Using skin cells, researchers were able to stem cell techniques to create neurons of children affected with autism, revealing a different pathology of those children unaffected with Autism Spectrum Disorder. (wespeakscience.com)
  • As proof, researchers report they created two mouse pups from a type of blood cell that itself is incapable of dividing to produce a second generation of its own kind. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the first demonstration that an animal can be derived directly from a fully differentiated cell, report lead researchers Xiangzhong (Jerry) Yang, Ph.D., of the University of Connecticut, and Tao Cheng, M.D., of the University of Pittsburgh, in the journal Nature Genetics. (eurekalert.org)
  • COURTESY MARCENE ROBINSON, UNIVERSITY OF BUFFALO Simply by altering the amount of water in mouse stem cells, researchers have changed the cells' fates. (the-scientist.com)
  • Stiffness is known to affect the fate of stem cells, so the researchers undertook another set of experiments using mesenchymal stem cells to see what role water flow out of the cell plays in this relationship. (the-scientist.com)
  • Bone marrow stem cells continue to surprise researchers with their plasticity and ability to become other cell types. (wordpress.com)
  • This study focuses on the generation of insulin-expressing cells from hPSCs and compares their gene expression, as assayed by transcriptional gene products, to that of insulin-expressing β cells from human fetal and adult samples. (pnas.org)
  • We employ a new method to isolate and profile insulin-expressing cells and conclude that several different hPSC lines generate very similar insulin-expressing cells, cells whose transcripts resemble fetal rather than adult β cells. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we report that mild electrical stimulation strongly influences embryonic stem cells to assume a neuronal fate. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The direct generation of induced neuronal cells (iN) from human fibroblasts has been previously demonstrated in several papers ( Ambasuhan et al , Caiazzo et al , Pang et al , Pfisterer et al , Qiang et al , Son et al and Yoo et al . (stemcellsportal.com)
  • The study, published as a short article in Cell Stem Cell demonstrates the direct conversion of mouse hepatocytes to iN cells and analyses the reprogramming process, demonstrating the faithful silencing of the hepatocyte expression program and the expression of the neuronal expression program ( Marro et al ). (stemcellsportal.com)
  • Tau-EGFP-positive cells were not detectable, but upon replating of primary liver cultured cells, infection with doxycycline (dox)-inducible lentiviruses containing the cDNAs of Brn2 (B), Ascl1 (A) and Myt1l (M) and 13 days of dox treatment, Tau-EGFP/Tuj1-positive cells with a complex neuronal morphology were readily detected. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • These cells were also positive for PSA-NCAM (Poly-Sialated Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule), NeuN, Mtap2, and Synapsin with a fraction of cells positive for the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 ( vGlut1 ), but were negative for Gad1 , Th , Chat , or serotonin, suggesting that these induced neuronal cells from hepatocytes (Hep-iN cells) were excitatory neurons. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • QPCR analysis confirmed that 3 weeks after infection, the iN cells had not only induced neuronal transcripts, but efficiently silenced transcripts characteristic of the starting hepatocyte population. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • From a starting population of 60% EGFP-positive (hepatocytes) and 40% tdTomato-positive cells, reprogramming with BAM factors and 13 days of dox induction produced both red and green fluorescent cells with neuronal morphology, with EGFP-positive cells also expressing the neuronal markers Tuj1 and PSA-NCAM. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • When Hep-iN cells were FACS-sorted 7 days after dox treatment and cultured together with mouse cortical neuronal cultures for another 4 weeks, postsynaptic responses could be evoked by extracellular stimulation of surrounding neurons. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • One suggestion has been the utilization of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) for production of neuronal cells which would offer a patient-specific cell source for these treatments. (scirp.org)
  • Patch clamp analysis has been reported from hDPSC-derived neuronal cells showing typical voltage-activated sodium and potassium currents [16,but no actual action potentials have been shown. (scirp.org)
  • Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived neuronal cells were used as a positive control. (scirp.org)
  • Weruaga and his group grafted bone marrow cells into mutant mice that suffered from degeneration of specific neuronal populations at different ages. (wordpress.com)
  • B-D: VSELs were sorted from this gate (R1) as lineage-negative and Sca-1 positive cells (R2), that are also CD45-negative (R3), while HSPC are CD45-positive (R4). (nih.gov)
  • The current understanding of the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis includes the assignment of a critical role to cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (ahajournals.org)
  • Intermediates ramify into multiple states over time, and specialize their behaviors, ultimately producing a lineage tree that defines each mature cell type by a particular sequence of intermediates. (elifesciences.org)
  • This was first appreciated through classical lineage tracing and cell ablation studies. (elifesciences.org)
  • To address these questions, MSC were differentiated into adipogenic lineage cells, followed by dedifferentiation. (eurekamag.com)
  • Interestingly, gene profiling and bioinformatics demonstrated that upregulation ( DHCR 24, G 0 S 2, MAP 2 K 6, SESN 3) and downregulation ( DST , KAT 2, MLL 5, RB 1, SMAD 3, ZA K) of distinct genes have an association with cell cycle arrest in adipogenic-differentiated cells and perhaps narrow down the lineage potency. (eurekamag.com)
  • Employing cellular lineage tracking, Dr. Talchai and her colleagues followed beta cells in Type 2 diabetic mice models. (nyscf.org)
  • And yet they share the same genome or set of genes with lineage-committed cells, cells fated to be or do one thing. (redorbit.com)
  • The question has been: how much do the epigenomes of hESCs and lineage-committed cells differ? (redorbit.com)
  • In a paper published in the May 7 issue of Cell Stem Cell, Bing Ren, PhD, a professor of cellular and molecular medicine at the University of California, San Diego and a member of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, reports with colleagues that the epigenomic landscapes of hESCs and lineage-committed cells are, in fact, drastically different. (redorbit.com)
  • We've found evidence that lineage-committed cells are characterized by significantly expanded domains of repressive chromatin that selectively affect genes involved in pluripotency and development. (redorbit.com)
  • Three-dimensional assemblies of hPSCs facilitate interactions between cells and their microenvironment to promote morphogenesis, analogous to the multicellular organization that accompanies embryogenesis. (ca.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have developed an effective strategy to purify human hepatic cells from cultures of differentiating hPSCs, producing a novel tool that could be used not only for cell therapy but also for in vitro applications such as drug screening. (inserm.fr)
  • The chemical probe in question, Kyoto probe 1 (KP-1), passively enters cells and selectively accumulates in hPSCs , but not other cells, due to the absence of the ABCB1 (MDR1) and ABCG2 (BCRP) transmembrane transporter proteins. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • H) Western blot analysis and time course of hESCs differentiated for 6 days with recombinant MDK alone (100 ng/mL) or a combination of the DAP cocktail and MDK (25 or 100 ng/mL) suggest that MDK specifically promotes neural commitment of hPSCs. (blogspot.com)
  • Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the scientific term for cloning, involves creating an embryo by using a nucleus that's been removed from a somatic cell - any cell other than a reproductive cell - and transferring it into an unfertilized egg that has had its chromosomes removed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Dermal spheres, embedded in the reconstructed dermis consisting of collagen with fibroblasts, can migrate to the basement membrane, where they become pigmented in the same way as epidermal melanocytes suggesting that dermal stem cells can give rise to epidermal melanocytes. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we successfully derived iPSCs both from embryonic fibroblasts from mice harboring functional NKT cell-specific rearranged T cell receptor loci in the germline and from splenic NKT cells from WT adult mice. (jci.org)
  • however fibroblasts represent a heterogeneous mixture of cells, potentially including cells of the neural crest, and so the reprogrammed cell of origin remains undefined. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • To compare these epigenomic landscapes, Ren and colleagues looked at chromatin-modification profiles and DNA methylomes in hESCs and primary fibroblasts, the latter a type of cell commonly found in animal connective tissues. (redorbit.com)
  • B) Western blot showing that MDK was not detected in HS27 fibroblasts but was expressed in WA09 hESCs and hiPSCs from HS27 fibroblasts, and was upregulated in differentiating cells (EBs and hNSCs from hESCs). (blogspot.com)
  • A new modelling approach suggests stemness within colorectal tumours is defined by microenvironmental cues secreted from cancer-associated fibroblasts rather than cell-intrinsic properties. (nature.com)
  • Our findings may help overcome that challenge and let scientists more easily create cells to treat disease. (scienceblog.com)
  • The scientists have observed that the cells that enter the endocycle lose the capacity to reactivate as stem cells. (phys.org)
  • Scientists previously discovered that the placenta is the place where numerous blood stem cells reside in an undifferentiated state until needed. (doctortipster.com)
  • Scientists have long suspected that the distinct properties of different cells were attributable to their particular epigenomes "" the collection of attendant molecules, compounds and chemicals that direct and influence the behaviors and functions of genes. (redorbit.com)
  • Reporting in PNAS this week (September 25), the scientists found that removing water from mesenchymal stem cells-making them stiffer-aimed the cells toward becoming bone, while adding water and making the cells softer directed them to become fat. (the-scientist.com)
  • We also demonstrate that sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and a chemopreventive agent, not only limits the growth of oral tumor cells, but also aids in cancer cell elimination by NK cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Sulindac treatment prevents synergistic induction of VEGF secretion by the tumor cells after their co-culture with untreated NK cells since non-activated NK cells lack the ability to efficiently kill tumor cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Moreover, sulindac is able to profoundly reduce VEGF secretion by tumor cells cultured with IL-2 activated NK cells, which are able to significantly lyse the tumor cells. (jcancer.org)
  • Implanting tumor cells secreting SDF-1 was therefore necessary and sufficient to incorporate marrow-derived precursors into tumor endothelium. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cell division is limited by a process called cellular senescence, during which cells in culture divide more slowly before stopping entirely. (reference.com)
  • 5 This approach provides a genetically tractable cellular system for studying myeloid cell function without requiring the generation of a mouse. (ahajournals.org)
  • Genetic studies in Muse cells indicate a highly conserved cellular mechanism as seen in more primitive organisms (yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Caenorhabditis elegans , chlamydomonas , Torpedo californica , drosophila , etc.) in response to cellular stress and acute injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Now, Ali Brivanlou and colleagues describe how isogenic stem cell lines with HTT repeat expansions give insights into the disease's cellular aetiology. (biologists.org)
  • RSCs can give rise to rhodopsin positive-cells, which can integrate into early postnatal retina, and represent a potentially useful option for cellular therapy. (biologists.org)
  • For the first time, we're beginning to understand the importance of cell volume and cellular water content in the mechanical properties and physiological functions of cells," MIT's Ming Guo, the lead author of the study, says in a press release . (the-scientist.com)