Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Cell SeparationTransplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Mice, Inbred C57BLEmbryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Embryoid Bodies: Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigens: Cell-surface molecules that exhibit lineage-restricted patterns of expression during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. The antigens are useful markers in the identification of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Feeder Cells: Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Busulfan: An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Keratin-15: A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Polycomb Repressive Complex 1: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (1/16085)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (2/16085)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (3/16085)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (4/16085)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. (5/16085)

Lack of JunB, an immediate early gene product and member of the AP-1 transcription factor family causes embryonic lethality between E8.5 and E10.0. Although mutant embryos are severely retarded in growth and development, cellular proliferation is apparently not impaired. Retardation and embryonic death are caused by the inability of JunB-deficient embryos to establish proper vascular interactions with the maternal circulation due to multiple defects in extra-embryonic tissues. The onset of the phenotypic defects correlates well with high expression of junB in wild-type extra-embryonic tissues. In trophoblasts, the lack of JunB causes a deregulation of proliferin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene expression, resulting in a defective neovascularization of the decidua. As a result of downregulation of the VEGF-receptor 1 (flt-1), blood vessels in the yolk sac mesoderm appeared dilated. Mutant embryos which escape these initial defects finally die from a non-vascularized placental labyrinth. Injection of junB-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells into tetraploid wild-type blastocysts resulted in a partial rescue, in which the ES cell-derived fetuses were no longer growth retarded and displayed a normal placental labyrinth. Therefore, JunB appears to be involved in multiple signaling pathways regulating genes involved in the establishment of a proper feto-maternal circulatory system.  (+info)

Cloning of a novel gene specifically expressed in clonal mouse chondroprogenitor-like EC cells, ATDC5. (6/16085)

We cloned a full-length cDNA encoding a novel mouse protein, A-C2, by differential display method using mouse embryonic fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cells and mouse chondroprogenitor-like EC cells, ATDC5. The deduced amino acid sequence of A-C2 consisted of 106 amino acids with no significant homology to the sequences previously reported. Northern blot analysis showed two major bands of 2.1 and 1.8 kb sizes. Expression of A-C2 mRNA was exclusive to ATDC5 cells at their undifferentiated stage. None of ATDC5 cells at their differentiated stage and adult mice tissues examined expressed A-C2 gene.  (+info)

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (7/16085)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Endothelial cells modulate the proliferation of mural cell precursors via platelet-derived growth factor-BB and heterotypic cell contact. (8/16085)

Embryological data suggest that endothelial cells (ECs) direct the recruitment and differentiation of mural cell precursors. We have developed in vitro coculture systems to model some of these events and have shown that ECs direct the migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (10T1/2 cells) and induce their differentiation toward a smooth muscle cell/pericyte lineage. The present study was undertaken to investigate cell proliferation in these cocultures. ECs and 10T1/2 cells were cocultured in an underagarose assay in the absence of contact. There was a 2-fold increase in bromodeoxyuridine labeling of 10T1/2 cells in response to ECs, which was completely inhibited by the inclusion of neutralizing antiserum against platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B. Antisera against PDGF-A, basic fibroblast growth factor, or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta had no effect on EC-stimulated 10T1/2 cell proliferation. EC proliferation was not influenced by coculture with 10T1/2 cells in the absence of contact. The cells were then cocultured so that contact was permitted. Double labeling and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that ECs and 10T1/2 cells were growth-inhibited by 43% and 47%, respectively. Conditioned media from contacting EC-10T1/2 cell cocultures inhibited the growth of both cell types by 61% and 48%, respectively. Although we have previously shown a role for TGF-beta in coculture-induced mural cell differentiation, growth inhibition resulting from contacting cocultures or conditioned media was not suppressed by the presence of neutralizing antiserum against TGF-beta. Furthermore, the decreased proliferation of 10T1/2 cells in the direct cocultures could not be attributed to downregulation of the PDGF-B in ECs or the PDGF receptor-beta in the 10T1/2 cells. Our data suggest that modulation of proliferation occurs during EC recruitment of mesenchymal cells and that heterotypic cell-cell contact and soluble factors play a role in growth control during vessel assembly.  (+info)

Introduction. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Summary 3. What are stem cells? 3.1 Adult stem cells 3.2 Core blood stem cells 3.3 Embryonic stem cells 4. Potentially of embryonic stem cells 5. UK Stem Cell bank. 6. Controversial Issues 7. Bibliography 1. Introduction This is a report on stem cells and the stem cell bank The aim of this report to overview stem cell research, including stem cell banks and pitched at general readers of non scientific background. 2 Summary This report consists of brief information on what stem cells are and their sources, the UK Stem Cell Bank and the controversy surrounding embryonic stem cell research. The main point of this report is the potential for treatment of illness using embryonic stem cells. 3. What are Stem Cells? Stem cells are unspecialized (cells of no particular function) that reproduce themselves continually and under the right conditions develop from simple to more complex cells which are specialized to perform particular functions, this is termed cell ...
During asymmetric stem cell division, both the daughter stem cell and the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell inherit cytoplasm from their parental stem cell. Thus, proper specification of intermediate progenitor cell identity requires an efficient mechanism to rapidly extinguish the activity of self-renewal factors, but the mechanisms remain unknown in most stem cell lineages. During asymmetric division of a type II neural stem cell (neuroblast) in the Drosophila larval brain, the Brain tumor (Brat) protein segregates unequally into the immature intermediate neural progenitor (INP), where it specifies INP identity by attenuating the function of the self-renewal factor Klumpfuss (Klu), but the mechanisms are not understood. Here, we report that Brat specifies INP identity through its N-terminal B-boxes via a novel mechanism that is independent of asymmetric protein segregation. Brat-mediated specification of INP identity is critically dependent on the function of the Wnt destruction ...
Stem cell transplantation has the long history of more than 50 years from the first bone marrow transplantation in 1957. From the 2000s, clinical applications of stem cells significantly increased with more diseases and more patients treated with stem cells. Both autologous stem cells and allogeneic stem cells as well as adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and both in vitro non-expanded stem cells and in vitro expanded stem cells were clinically applied. For adult stem cells, besides hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), neural stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, limbal stem cells... also were used in the treatment of some diseases. To the year 2015, applications of MSCs have dramatically increased when some MSCs-based drugs that were approved and commercialized in some countries. About iPSCs, Japanese scientists also firstly applied the iPSCs in treatment of ophthalmological diseases. Currently, the European Medicines Agency approved the ...
AMSBIO has expanded its wide and varied catalogue of primary and progenitor cell types and media with a new range of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC).. Read More ...
Stem cells cells of the body (somatic cells) which can divide and become differentiated.[1]. When an organism grows, stem cells specialize, and take specific functions. For instance, mature tissues like skin, muscle, blood, bone, liver, nerves, all have different types of cells. Because stem cells are not yet differentiated, they can change to become some kind of specialized cells. Organisms also use stem cells to replace damaged cells.. Stem cells are found in most, if not all, plants and animals. They divide and differentiate into a range of cell types.Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings in the 1960s.[2][3]. The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells, and adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialised embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of blood, ...
There are two basic stem cell types. The first is called unlimited stem cells (also known as embryonic stem cells). These can turn into any kind of cell, while the second type is termed limited stem cells (also known as adult stem cells).. With the unlimited type of stem cells, the cells have the potential to become any human cell type. They can be replicated outside the body and have applications for many human diseases.. Limited stem cells, though, do not have the same limitless potential and cannot be replicated outside the body. They need to be either frozen or immediately transplanted into the body.. R3 stem cell clinics do not work with embryonic stem cells, only adult stem cells that exist in two varieties:. 1) Hematopoietic Stem Cells - these exist in human bone marrow and are able to differentiate into most cell types.. 2) Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) - MSCs have been isolated from placenta, adipose tissue, lung, bone marrow and blood. They are able to differentiate into many ...
Stem cells play an essential role in embryonic development, cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. Tissue homeostasis in adults is maintained by adult stem cells resident in the niches of different tissues. As one kind of adult stem cell, epidermal stem cells have the potential to generate diversified types of progeny cells in the skin. Although its biology is still largely unclarified, epidermal stem cells are widely used in stem cell research and regenerative medicine given its easy accessibility and pluripotency. Despite the same genome, cells within an organism have different fates due to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In this review, we will briefly discuss the current understanding of epigenetic modulation in epidermal stem cells.
The treating doctor will determine the use of cord blood for treatment, depending on many factors, including the patients medical condition, the quality of the cord blood sample, if the patients own cord blood can be used or an adequately matched donors cord blood.The use of cord blood has been established in stem cell transplantation and has been used to treat more than 80 diseases. The use of cord blood in regenerative medicine is still being researched and there is no guarantee that treatments being studied in the laboratory, clinical trials, or other experimental treatments will be available in the future.The use of cord tissue stem cells is still in early research stages, and there is no guarantee that treatments using cord tissue stem cells will be available in the future. Cord tissue stem cells are found in the cord tissue which is stored whole. Additional processing will be required to isolate the stem cells from the tissue for use. CELVI (Pty) Ltd outsources all cord blood and tissue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β1-integrin is a cell-autonomous factor mediating the Numb pathway for cardiac progenitor maintenance. AU - Gibbs, Brian C.. AU - Shenje, Lincoln. AU - Andersen, Peter. AU - Miyamoto, Matthew. AU - Kwon, Chulan. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Proper control of multipotent/stem cell number and fate is essential for ensuing organ formation during development. β1-integrin, a subfamily of cell surface receptors, has a conserved role in maintenance of multipotent/stem cells, including renal progenitor cells, follicle stem cells, epidermal stem cells and neural stem cells. However, it remains unclear whether β1-integrin has a role in cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) development. Here we show that a mesodermal deletion of β1-integrin decreases Isl1+ cell number in the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), where CPCs undergo renewal and expansion. Mesp1 lineage-specific mosaicism revealed that β1-integrin-deleted Isl1+ cells do not proliferate in the PA2. Consistently, β1-integrin-deleted ...
Adult neural stem cells are the source for restoring injured brain tissue. We used repetitive imaging to follow single stem cells in the intact and injured adult zebrafish telencephalon in vivo and found that neurons are generated by both direct conversions of stem cells into postmitotic neurons and via intermediate progenitors amplifying the neuronal output. We observed an imbalance of direct conversion consuming the stem cells and asymmetric and symmetric self-renewing divisions, leading to depletion of stem cells over time. After brain injury, neuronal progenitors are recruited to the injury site. These progenitors are generated by symmetric divisions that deplete the pool of stem cells, a mode of neurogenesis absent in the intact telencephalon. Our analysis revealed changes in the behavior of stem cells underlying generation of additional neurons during regeneration.. ...
Tissue-specific Blood Stem Cells Established From Embryonic Stem Cells Monday, 28 April 2008 A research team at the Umeå Center for Molecular Medicine (UCMM) in Sweden, led by Professor Leif Carlsson, has managed to specifically establish and isolate the tissue-specific stem cell that produces blood cells (blood stem cell) by using genetically modified embryonic stem cells. A deeper understanding of the regulation of blood stem cells is important if we are to be able to further develop treatments for diseases that require bone marrow transplants, such as leukaemia, immune deficiencies, and anaemia disorders. Blood stem cells are unique in that they can both continually generate all types of blood cells and also produce new stem cells, so-called self-regeneration. These two properties are the basic reason why we have a functioning blood system throughout our lives and why bone marrow transplants are a functional treatment method. An understanding of how tissue-specific stem cells are produced ...
Asymmetric stem cell divisions provide an efficient mechanism for maintaining a steady stem cell pool while generating progenitor cells that give rise to differentiated progeny within the tissue where the stem cells reside (Morrison and Kimble, 2006; Pontious et al., 2008; Kriegstein and Alvarez-Buylla, 2009; Knoblich, 2010; Weng and Lee, 2011). Progenitor cells possess restricted developmental potential and function to protect the genomic integrity of stem cells by minimizing their proliferation. Since both daughter cells inherit the cellular content from their parental stem cell during asymmetric division, proper specification of sibling cell identity requires precise control of stem cell determinants. Failure to properly downregulate stem cell determinants in presumptive progenitor cells might allow them to acquire stem cell-like functional properties, and can perturb tissue homeostasis and contribute to tumor formation (Krivtsov et al., 2006; Wei et al., 2008). Thus, mechanistic insight into ...
Stem Cells go where your body needs them to go and become what your body needs them to become. You could take your own fat tissue, bone marrow, or blood and get stem cells. However, this is a surgical procedure and cost could range from $5,000-$40,000. Also, you may not be able to learn how many stem cells from your fat tissue or bone marrow are actually injected into your body. The good part is the stem cells are your own so you dont have to worry about allergic reactions. The bad information is that at birth you have 1 stem cell for every 10,000 cells; at 16 you have 1 stem cell for every 100, 000 cells; and at 60 you have 1 stem cell for every 2-3 million cells. So, the younger you are the more likely you will have a good outcome.. Another option is to try placental cell stem cells. Placental stem cells per milliliter range from 1,000 to 3,000 stem cells per mL. You will need a lot of fluid. Amniotic fluid has stem cells but the government has not given a number of stem cells per mL because ...
When I was doing the chapter 5 guided reading, I spent most of my time reading about stem cells. I wanted to know more about what they are able to do and the controversy in using embryonic stem cells. The main characteristics of stem cells, that you most likely know, are as follows: they can renew themselves and they can differentiate. These two characteristics are what most scientists agree on. There are also two different types of stem cells used for research. They are adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells. Adult stem cells are more likely to be rejected than embryonic stem cells, so embryonic stem cells seem better to research with. This is where the controversy comes in. When taking these cells from an embryo, scientists are killing the human child it would have been developed into. So far, these embryonic stem cells come from unwanted embryos. Politicians are trying to make this type of research illegal because they think it kills human life. Im not saying whether this is right or ...
Stem Cell Therapy For Oral Cancer.How Stem Cells Limit The Negative Effects Of Brain Cancer . Targeted Therapy In Breast Cancer. Candidiasis In Febrile Neutropenia. Best Gallery Images for Your Reference and Informations
Video: Plant Stem Cell Therapy - English. Most of us are familiar with Human Stem Cells.. Stem cells are biological cells found in all multi-cellular organisms, that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self renew to produce more stem cells.. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenished in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.. HOWEVER - the use of Human stem cells in medicine has many complications. Problems with rejection by the immune system has been common. Plus there are political, moral and ethical problems connected with using stem ...
Hamilton, Ont. May 29, 2012-Actium Research Inc., ("Actium" or the "Company") Toronto, and McMaster University ("McMaster"), Hamilton, have entered into a landmark collaboration covering McMasters proprietary adult human stem cell lines, cancer stem cells and the directed differentiation platform developed by Dr. Mick Bhatia and his team at the McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute ("The Stem Cell Institute"). Together these technologies and the expertise at The Stem Cell Institute provide leading edge tools for drug discovery and better treatments for serious illnesses. Actium is a drug discovery and development company targeting two types of stem cells; cancer stem cells to improve survival and health outcomes and normal tissue stem cells to promote healing and address the need for cure in chronic diseases. Actium was founded by Dr. David Young and Helen Findlay. Dr. Bhatia joined as the scientific founder in 2012. The team will put their experience with managing drug discovery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enrichment in c-Kit improved differentiation potential of amniotic membrane progenitor/stem cells. AU - Resca, E.. AU - Zavatti, M.. AU - Maraldi, T.. AU - Bertoni, L.. AU - Beretti, F.. AU - Guida, M.. AU - La Sala, G. B.. AU - Guillot, P. V.. AU - David, A. L.. AU - Sebire, N. J.. AU - De Pol, A.. AU - De Coppi, P.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Introduction Human term placenta has attracted increasing attention as an alternative source of stem cells for regenerative medicine since it is accessible without ethical objections. The amniotic membrane (AM) contains at least two stem cell types from different embryological origins: ectodermal amniotic epithelial stem cells, and mesodermal mesenchymal stromal cells. Among the second group we studied the characteristics of amniotic mesenchymal cells (AMC) versus the ones enriched for the commonly used surface marker c-Kit (amniotic progenitor/stem cells-ASC), a stem cell factor receptor with crucial functions in a variety of ...
Hu Y, Hung AC, Cui H, Dawkins E, Foa L, et al., APP stimulates neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation by increasing cystatin C secretion. (Poster), 33rd Annual Meeting Australian Neuroscience Society, January, Melbourne, Australia (2013) [Conference Extract ...
A number of current stem cell treatments already. their ability to make choices explains why they stay as stem cells in culture.Stap cells: research paper on stem cell breakthrough was partly falsified.This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics.In five pages this research paper considers embryonic stem cells and current research in this.Humans Clinical outcome after stem cell mobilization with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: 5-year results of the STEMMI trial Bookmark Download by.This walkthrough for stem cells are you need your access is central storage warehouse co.Humans The Clinical Impact of Vascular Growth Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Bookmark Download by.. HOW IS THE ETHICS OF STEM CELL RESEARCH DIFFERENT. in order to make stem cells1 are very early embryos. Thomson can easily be seen in her paper.This differential in replicative ...
Researchers have identified the gene which controls the critical self-renewal function of stem cells. Both adult and embryonic stem cells are able to repeatedly renew themselves, which allows them to be grown up in large numbers in the laboratory before being differentiated into specific tissue types. Although both types of stem cell - adult and embryonic - are able to do this, embryonic stem cells are able to differentiate into a broader range of cell types than adult stem cells. A team of scientists led by Boris Reizis of Columbia University Medical Center in New York, working on mouse cells, found that the gene Zfx controls self-renewal in both embryonic stem cells and in haematopoietic stem cells - adult blood precursor cells. The researchers published their findings in the journal Cell.. Other genes have previously been found that promote self renewal in embryonic cells - Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 - but Zfx is the first to control the same function in both adult and embryonic stem cells. Reizis ...
ABSTRACT. Advances in regenerative medicine have been concentrated in Stem cells research and its clinical applications. Embryonic and adult stem cells have been widely studied and characterized; cells lines and therapies have been developed since the first evidence of the existence of stem cells was obtained in 1963. This review examines the history and evolution of the stem cells research and gives understanding concepts on the topic.. Introduction. Over the past years, advances in stem cells therapy have occurred as a source of regeneration and repairing of damaged tissue. Stem cells characteristics of unlimited self-renewal and multilineage potential have led to efforts of developing clinical trials in a variety of biomedical disciplines. In general, there are two major types of stem cells, embryonic and adult stem cells.. Embryonic stem cells can be obtained from a fertilized oocyte, which are called totipotent for their capacity to produce a blastocyst that eventually could develop an ...
What are stem cells and why are they so controversial? In this BrainPOP movie, two characters give you the rundown on what makes stem cells different from regular cells. Theyll show you how stem cells may one day be used to cure diseases and grow new organs and limbs. Youll also learn the differences between the various types of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and adult stem cells. Do you support stem cell research? Watch the movie to learn the basics and decide for yourself!
What you wont hear about stem cell technology is that it is a flop. Despite billions of dollars of investment money, it is going nowhere. In fact, what is going on today in research labs doesnt even involve stem cells. You can read more about it at Dr. William Prathers article entitled "The Unrealized Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy." [DDD Magazine Oct 2013]. A problem with the stem cell industry is that it becomes so difficult to scuttle a research program that employs so many people at a time when unemployment is a national embarrassment. There are an estimated 6100 full-time employees working in regenerative medicine and over 100 companies involved in stem cell therapies. There were 537 patents filed for stem cell technology in 2007. The National Institutes of Health is reported to have spent $546 million on embryonic stem cell research. [StemCellAction.org] This perpetually promising industry is only in operation as long as it is government subsidized.. Dr. George Daley, a founder of the ...
Stem cells have great potential value for treating a number of diseases and conditions, including diabetes, Parkinsons, and spinal cord injuries. Applying stem cells for therapeutic purposes will require an in-depth understanding of their biology, not only of the genes they express, but also the functions of the proteins encoded by the genes. The goal of the project presented in this thesis was to develop a method for high-throughput analyses of protein localization in mouse stem cells. Localization information can provide insight into the functions and biological roles of proteins. ,br /,,br /, One means of studying protein localization involves creating proteins with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene and analyzing their localization using fluorescence microscopy. The research outlined in this thesis focused on developing a system to create a large number of GFP-tagged proteins by constructing a cDNA?GFP fusion library. This involved exploring methods for optimizing cDNA ...
Gene delivery is essential for genetic manipulation in stem cells. Efficient gene delivery to stem cells is required for studies of gene function, control of stem cell differentiation, cellular labeling and purification, and cellular secretion of therapeutic drugs. Because of safety issues, non-viral gene delivery to stem cells (so called stem cell transfection) is highly sought. A key challenge in stem cell transfection is to deliver genes to stem cells with high efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Efficient stem cell transfection is the key to achieving the full potential of stem cells. Nanotechnology provides invaluable tools for stem cell transfection. For example ...
Human stem cells, both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, offer exciting opportunities for cell-based therapies in injured or diseased human brains or spinal cords. The clinical efficacy of grafted progenitor cells critically depends on their ability to migrate to the appropriate sites in the adult central nervous system without unwanted proliferation and tumor formation. However, little is known about the cellular behavior of human neural progenitor cells derived from human stem cells or how their proliferation and migration are coordinated. During this reporting period, we continued to study human neural progenitor cells derived from human stem cells, a cell culture system established during the prior reporting period. We focused on microRNAs, a class of small, noncoding RNAs of ~21-23 nucleotides that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. These small RNAs mostly destabilize target mRNAs or suppress their translation by binding to complementary sequences in the ...
Any discussion on stem cells would be incomplete without a full discussion on stem cell plasticity and the present controversy in the stem cell field. Traditionally, adult stem cells have been viewed as committed to a particular cell fate. For example, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) were viewed to only contribute to lineages that are part of the hematopoietic system i.e. RBCs and WBCs and not unrelated tissues, such as hepatocytes or neurons. (Verfaillie et al., 2002) Many studies question this belief or dogma by demonstrating that cells from a given tissue might differentiate into cells of a different tissue. (LaBarge and Blau, 2002). If true this would suggest that understanding that postnatal stem cells give rise to only cells of the tissue of origin may not be correct. HSC besides giving rise to blood cells, may also give rise to hepatocytes. NSC may not only give rise to nerve cells but also to early hematopoietic precursors. This ability of a tissue-specific stem cell to acquire the fate ...
cytokines and chemokines, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Endogenous stem and progenitor cells are among the cell populations that are involved in the injury responses. In normal steady-state conditions, an equilibrium is maintained in which endogenous stem cells intrinsic to the tissue replenish dying cells. After tissue injury, stem cells in organs, such as the liver and skin, have a remarkable ability to regenerate the organ, whereas other stem cell populations, such as those in the heart and brain, have a much more limited capability for self-repair. In rare circumstances, circulating stem cells may contribute to regenerative responses by migrating into a tissue and differentiating into organ-specific cell types. The goal of stem cell therapies is to promote cell replacement in organs that are damaged beyond their ability for self-repair. ...
Stem cell therapy has recently emerged as an innovative strategy over conventional cardiovascular treatments to restore cardiac function in patients affected by ischemic heart disease. Various stem cell populations have been tested and their potential for cardiac repair has been analyzed. Embryonic stem cells retain the greatest differentiation potential, but concerns persist with regard to their immunogenic and teratogenic effects. Although adult somatic stem cells are not tumourigenic and easier to use in an autologous setting, they exist in small numbers and possess reduced differentiation potential. Traditionally the heart was considered to be a post-mitotic organ; however, this dogma has recently been challenged with the identification of a reservoir of resident stem cells, defined as cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). These endogenous progenitors may represent the best candidates for cardiovascular cell therapy, as they are tissue-specific, often pre-committed to a cardiac fate, and display a
Researchers Make Stem Cells from Developing Sperm Thursday, 06 August 2009 The promise of stem cell therapy may lie in uncovering how adult cells revert back into a primordial, stem cell state, whose fate is yet to be determined. Now, cell scientists at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have identified key molecular players responsible for this reversion in fruit fly sperm cells. Reporting online this week in Cell Stem Cell, researchers show that two proteins are responsible redirecting cells on the way to becoming sperm back to stem cells. "We knew from our previous work that cells destined to be sperm could revert back to being stem cells, but we didnt know how," says Erika Matunis, Ph.D., an associate professor of cell biology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. "Since, dedifferentiation is an interesting phenomenon probably occurring in a lot of different stem cell populations, we wanted to know more about the process." Like all stem cells, each of the nine ...
The majority of studies on stem cell differentiation have so far been based in vivo, on live animal models. The usefulness of such models is limited, since it is much more technically challenging to conduct molecular studies and genetic manipulation on live animal models compared to in vitro cell culture. Hence, it is imperative that efficient protocols for directing stem cell differentiation into well-defined lineages in vitro are developed. The development of such protocols would also be useful for clinical therapy, since it is likely that the transplantation of differentiated stem cells would result in higher engraftment efficiency and enhanced clinical efficacy, compared to the transplantation of undifferentiated stem cells. The in vitro differentiation of stem cells, prior to transplantation in vivo, would also avoid spontaneous differentiation into undesired lineages at the transplantation site, as well as reduce the risk of teratoma formation, in the case of embryonic stem cells. Hence, ...
The adult mammalian brain retains niches for neural stem cells (NSCs), which can generate glial and neuronal components of the brain tissue. However, it is barely established how chronic neuroinflammation, as it occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease, affects adult neurogenesis and, therefore, modulates the brains potential for self-regeneration. Neural stem cell culture techniques, intraventricular tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α infusion and the 6-hydroxydopamine mouse model were used to investigate the influence of neuroinflammation on adult neurogenesis in the Parkinsons disease background. Microscopic methods and behavioral tests were used to analyze samples. Here, we demonstrate that differences in the chronicity of TNF-α application to cultured NSCs result in opposed effects on their proliferation. However, chronic TNF-α treatment, mimicking Parkinsons disease associated neuroinflammation, shows detrimental effects on neural progenitor cell activity.
Figure: 3D rendering of a clone (in red) originating from a basal epidermal stem cell. The cells are proliferating and moving towards the direction of the wound (on the right). (Credit: Mariaceleste Aragona, Sophie Dekoninck and Cedric Blanpain). Using state of the art genetic mouse models to trace different stem cells populations, we mark stem cells and follow the fate of their progeny over time. Interestingly, we found that stem cells coming from different epidermal compartments present a very similar response during wound repair, despite the fact that they are recruited from different regions of the epidermis. We provide the molecular profiling of different regions surrounding the wound to uncover the gene expression signature of the cells that actively divide and those that migrate to repair the wound. The data suggests that the migrating leading edge cells are protecting the stem cells from the infection and mechanical stress allowing a harmonious healing process.. Altogether, this study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental Impact on Intestinal Stem Cell Functions in Mucosal Homeostasis and Tumorigenesis. AU - Augenlicht, Leonard H.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Multiple cell compartments at or near the base of the intestinal crypt have been identified as contributing intestinal stem cells for homeostasis of the rapidly turning over intestinal mucosa and cells that can initiate tumor development upon appropriate genetic changes. There is a strong literature establishing the importance of the frequently dividing Lgr5+ crypt base columnar cells as the fundamental cell in providing these stem cell-associated functions, but there are also clear data that more quiescent cells from other compartments can be mobilized to provide these stem cell functions upon compromise of Lgr5+ cells. We review the data that vitamin D, a pleiotropic hormone, is essential for Lgr5 stem cell functions by signaling through the vitamin D receptor. Moreover, we discuss the implications of this role of ...
Recent studies suggest that ovarian germ line stem cells replenish oocyte-pool in adult stage, and challenge the central doctrine of fixed germ cell pool in mammalian reproductive biology. Two distinct populations of spherical stem cells with high nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio have been recently identified in the adult mammalian ovary surface epithelium (OSE) including nuclear OCT-4A positive very small embryonic-like (VSELs) and cytoplasmic OCT-4 expressing ovarian germ stem cells (OGSCs). Three weeks culture of scraped OSE cells results in spontaneous differentiation of the stem cells into oocyte-like, parthenote-like, embryoid body-like structures and also embryonic stem cell-like colonies whereas epithelial cells attach and transform into a bed of mesenchymal cells. Present study was undertaken, to further characterize ovarian stem cells and to comprehend better the process of spontaneous differentiation of ovarian stem cells into oocyte-like structures in vitro. Ovarian stem cells were enriched by
The Core is only available for working on projects involving stem cells except for using the Luminex 200 and Sales and Services, which are open to other researchers on campus.. Principal Investigators, who are interested in using the UCR Stem Cell Core have to first notify the Stem Cell Core Director and Academic Coordinator of their intention to use the Core facility. Subsequently, they will receive an application form to fill in and submit back via e-mail to the Core Academic Coordinator. Based on the submitted information, they will be guided through the steps necessary to obtain all documentation required for working with stem cells and/or using stem cell Core services. For more information on documentation please refer to Work in the Stem Cell Core Facility part in Regulatory Review Requirements for Human Stem Cells table.. All investigators who use the Stem Cell Core have to read and understand the UCR Stem Cell Core Policy.The Policy can be downloaded on the Core website ...
In most organ systems, regeneration is a coordinated effort that involves many stem cells, but little is known about whether and how individual stem cells compensate for the functional deficiencies of other stem cells. Functional compensation between stem cells is critically important during disease progression and treatment. Here, we show how individual hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in a mouse heterogeneously compensate for the deficiencies of other HSCs during lymphopoiesis by increasing their clonal expansion at specific differentiation stages. This compensation rescues the overall blood supply and influences blood cell types outside of the deficient lineages in distinct patterns. We have identified the molecular regulators and signaling pathways in HSCs that are involved in this process. Our data demonstrate how stem cells interact with each other to constitute a coordinated network that is robust enough to withstand minor functional disruptions. Exploiting the innate compensation capacity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trafficking of stem cells.. AU - Magnon, Claire. AU - Lucas, Daniel. AU - Frenette, Paul S.. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Stem cells undergo regulated trafficking from the developmental stages to the adulthood. Stem cell migration is critical to organize developing organs and likely contributes postnatally to tissue regeneration. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying migration of hematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells, and primordial germ cells, revealing common operative pathways.. AB - Stem cells undergo regulated trafficking from the developmental stages to the adulthood. Stem cell migration is critical to organize developing organs and likely contributes postnatally to tissue regeneration. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying migration of hematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells, and primordial germ cells, revealing common operative pathways.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80052638111&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
How stem cells are recruited to and maintained in their niches is crucial to understanding their regulation and use in regenerative medicine. Here, we demonstrate that DE-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion is required for anchoring germline stem cells (GSCs) in their niches in the Drosophila ovary. Two major components of this adhesion process, DE-cadherin and Armadillo/β-catenin, accumulate at high levels in the junctions between GSCs and cap cells, one of the niche components. Removal of these proteins from GSCs results in stem cell loss. Furthermore, DE-cadherin is required for recruiting GSCs to their niche. Our study demonstrates that anchorage of GSCs in their niche by DE-cadherin-mediated adhesion is important for stem cell maintenance and function. |P /|
Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow. They are multipotent, which describes the ability to give rise to many cell types, whereas a pluripotent stem cell can give rise to all types. ESCs have the characteristic properties of a stem cell: self-renewal and differentiation. These parent stem cells, ESCs, give rise to progenitor cells, which are intermediate stem cells that lose potency. Progenitor stem cells are committed to differentiating along a particular cell developmental pathway. ESCs will eventually produce endothelial cells (ECs), which create the thin-walled endothelium that lines the inner surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels. ECs were first thought to arise from extraembryonic tissues because blood vessels were observed in the avian and mammalian embryos. However, after histological analysis, it was seen that ECs were in the embryo. This meant that blood vessels come from an intraembryonic source, the mesoderm. Stem cells have ...
Stem cell bank. Labelled vials of embryonic stem cells at a stem cell bank, a place for storing the stem cells (by freezing) until they are needed. Stem cells are precursor cells from which all the bodys specialized tissue cells develop. Stem cell specialization can be initiated in the laboratory by the use of chemical growth factors. Stem cell research involves trying to use stem cells to repair or replace diseased tissues or organs. All the cells in young embryos are stem cells, and these cells were obtained from embryos that died of natural causes. Photographed at the Besta Neurological Institute, Milan, Italy. - Stock Image G442/0140
TY - JOUR. T1 - Isolation of CD133+ liver stem cells for clonal expansion. AU - Bart Rountree, C.. AU - Ding, Wei. AU - Dang, Hein. AU - van Kirk, Colleen. AU - Crooks, Gay M.. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Liver stem cell, or oval cells, proliferate during chronic liver injury, and are proposed to differentiate into both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In addition, liver stem cells are hypothesized to be the precursors for a subset of liver cancer, Hepatocellular carcinoma. One of the primary challenges to stem cell work in any solid organ like the liver is the isolation of a rare population of cells for detailed analysis. For example, the vast majority of cells in the liver are hepatocytes (parenchymal fraction), which are significantly larger than non-parenchymal cells. By enriching the specific cellular compartments of the liver (i.e. parenchymal and non-parenchymal fractions), and selecting for CD45 negative cells, we are able to enrich the starting population of stem cells by over ...
Neural stem cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) continue to generate new neurons in the adult brain. SVZ cells exposed to EGF in culture grow to form neurospheres that are multipotent and self-renewing. We show here that the majority of these EGF-responsive cells are not derived from relatively quiescent stem cells in vivo, but from the highly mitotic, Dlx2(+), transit-amplifying C cells. When exposed to EGF, C cells downregulate Dlx2, arrest neuronal production, and become highly proliferative and invasive. Killing Dlx2(+) cells dramatically reduces the in vivo response to EGF and neurosphere formation in vitro. Furthermore, purified C cells are 53-fold enriched for neurosphere generation. We conclude that transit-amplifying cells retain stem cell competence under the influence of growth factors ...
The potential of stem cells in clinics and as a diagnostic tool is still largely unmet, partially due to a lack of in vitro models that efficiently mimic the in vivo stem cell microenvironment-or niche-and thus would allow reproducible propagation of stem cells or their controlled differentiation in vitro. The current methodological challenges in studying and manipulating stem cells have spurred intense development and application of microfabrication and micropatterning technologies in stem cell biology. These approaches can be readily used to dissect the complex molecular interplay of stem cells and their niche and study single-cell behavior in high-throughput. Increased merging of microfabrication with advanced biomaterials technologies may ultimately result in functional artificial niches capable of recapitulating extrinsic stem cell regulation in vitro and on a single-cell level.. Keywords: stem cell ; microenvironment ; artificial niche ; microfabrication ; high-throughput ; single-cell ...
AbstractAims: To study the effect of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) treatment on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats and elucidate possible mechanisms.Method: The rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) EPC group: ICH + EPC, 2) PBS group: ICH + PBS, and 3) Sham group. EPCs were transplanted intravenously 6 h after ICH. Modified neurological severity score (mNSS) was used to evaluate neurological function. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity was evaluated. Dead cells, inflammatory cytokines, and neuroprotective cytokines were assessed to investigate possible mechanisms.Results: The animals in the EPC group showed significant improvement in neurological function at 48 h, 72 h, and 7 d after ICH, compared with those in the PBS group. EPC transplantation significantly reduced brain edema and the number of dead cells in the hematoma boundary areas. The intensity of Evans Blue was decreased, and expression levels of ZO-1 and claudin-5 were increased in the EPC group. Proinflammatory cytokines,
The identification and application of resident cardiac stem cells for regeneration of damaged myocardium challenges the previous dogma of a terminally differentiated, nonrepairable heart. Recent human phase I clinical trials in adult myocardial ischemic patients have demonstrated the beneficial regenerative abilities of 2 different resident cardiac stem cells: c-kit+ cardiac stem cells and cardiosphere-derived cells (CDCs).1,2 C-kit+ cells, which express the surface receptor tyrosine kinase, are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent, with the ability to differentiate into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscles, and endothelial cells.3,4 In the Cardiac Stem Cells in Patients with Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (SCIPIO) trial, c-kit+ cell treatment in adult heart failure patients improved left ventricle function and reduced infarct size 12 months after treatment. On the other hand, CDCs contain a heterogeneous pool of differentiated and undifferentiated cells, which include c-kit+ cells.5 CDCs similarly ...
1. Volarevic V, Ljujic B, Stojkovic P. et al. Human stem cell research and regenerative medicine: present and future. Br Med Bull. 2011;99:155-168 2. Volarevic V, Erceg S, Bhattacharya SS. et al. Stem cell-based therapy for spinal cord injury. Cell Transplant. 2013;22:1309-1323 3. Turner L, Knoepfler P. Selling Stem Cells in the USA: Assessing the Direct-to-Consumer Industry. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;19:154-157 4. Smith AG. Embryo-derived stem cells: of mice and men. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2001;17:435-462 5. Zhang X, Stojkovic P, Przyborski S. et al. Derivation of human embryonic stem cells from developing and arrested embryos. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2669-2676 6. Thomson JA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Shapiro SS. et al. Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. Science. 1998;28:1145114-1145117 7. Reubinoff BE, Pera MF, Fong CY. et al. Embryonic stem cell lines from human blastocysts: somatic differentiation in vitro. Nat Biotechnol. 2000;18:399-404 8. De Trizio E, Brennan CS. The business of ...
Stem cell research. Cultures of embryonic stem cells in an incubator. Stem cells are the precursor cells from which all the bodys specialized cell types develop. It may be possible to implant human stem cells into people to repair or replace diseased tissues or organs. Stem cells can be converted into specialized cells in the laboratory using chemical growth factors. All the cells in young embryos are stem cells. Stem cells are also found in children and adults. The blood stem cells of the bone marrow, for example, form all the types of blood cell. Photographed at the Centre for Genome Research at Edinburgh University, Scotland. - Stock Image G442/0112
Who really discovered stem cells?. Is it even possible that one scientific team all by themselves discovered something so ubiquitous as stem cells?. In theory "yes", but after much historical research including this great historical article in Cell Stem Cell, I would argue that no one group really discovered stem cells.. Instead I believe the "discovery" of stem cells was an ongoing team effort over a period of many decades and there is much credit to go around.. Who gets the credit now according to most people now for "discovering" stem cells?. Canada rightly takes pride in the work of their scientists Drs. James Till and Ernset McCulloch, who did pioneering studies in hematopoietic stem cell research.. In Canada, Till and McCulloch are unambiguously called the worlds discoverers of stem cells. Period. No ambiguity.. But is that correct?. Nope.. Based on the answers that I found, I believe that Till and McCulloch did not discover stem cells.. But what they did do-publish the first clonal ...
Our laboratory employs multidisciplinary approaches to understand how haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) chose to self-renew or differentiate and how these cell fate decisions are affected under pathological conditions to generate leukaemic stem cells. This knowledge is central to clinical applicability of stem cells and will be harnessed to achieve stem cell expansion for transplantation purposes and leukaemic stem cell eradication.. HSCs serve as a paradigm for understanding somatic stem cells, their immense clinical potential, and involvement in ageing and cancer formation. HSCs reside in niches within the bone marrow (BM) and sustain life-long haematopoiesis. HSCs are largely quiescent, undergo self-renewal, and generate progenitor cells, which differentiate to multiple blood lineages. The strict regulation of these fate decisions is essential for haematopoiesis and their dysregulation in haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells generates leukaemic stem cells, which drive blood cancer ...
fuses elements from Emcyte systems with the Global Stem cells Group SVF protocols.The kit can provide a low cost, rapid and simple alternative to traditional methods of isolating ASCs, particularly when smaller quantities are needed.. "The Progenikine kit is the newest product designed to help Global Stem Cells Groups mission to provide accessible products to our member clients, ensuring that more patients will be able to gain access to stem cell therapies," says Benito Novas, GSCG CEO.. For more information on Global Stems Cell Group, visit the Global Stem Cells Group website,email bnovas(at)stemcellsgroup(dot)com, or call +1 305 560 5337.. About Global Stem Cells Group:. Global Stem Cells Group, Inc. is the parent company of six wholly owned operating companies dedicated entirely to stem cell research, training, products and solutions. Founded in 2012, the company combines dedicated researchers, physician and patient educators and solution providers with the shared goal of meeting the growing ...
Post doc position on spinal cord neural stem cells at the institute for neuroscience of montpellier, France =20 Our group (1) has recently characterized the human and mice spinal = cord stem cell niches (2-3). A 2 year post doc position is now open in our = lab to conduct a new project on this stem cell niche especially with regards = to pathways involved in stem cell maintenance and activation. Experience in = the neural stem cell field is appreciated for this position. Send CV and references to: JP Hugnot, hugnot from univ-montp2.fr=20 =20 1- ,http://www.inmfrance.com/us/1_team4_gp2_Hugnot.php, http://www.inmfrance.com/us/1_team4_gp2_Hugnot.php 2- ,http://www.intechopen.com/books/neural-stem-cells-and-therapy/the-spinal= -co rd-neural-stem-cell-niche, http://www.intechopen.com/books/neural-stem-cells-and-therapy/the-spinal-= cor d-neural-stem-cell-niche 3- Stem Cells. ,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19785035, 2009 Nov;27(11):2722-33. + Front Biosci. 2011 Jan 1;16:1044-59. =20 JP Hugnot ...
Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells-ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. There is a discussion within the medical research community revolving around where embryonic cells are found. Our Doctors education and research at a very prominent school in Europe believe the stem cells our clinic uses and are harvested from the umbilical cord of a healthy ...
Stem Cell Therapy. Stem cells are cells that havent differentiated into specific cell types. These cells can be found in humans throughout life. Stem cells can become specialized to help degenerating tissues and increase growth factors to accelerate repair damaged tissues. Stem cell function declines over time. The potential for one stem cell from a 60 year old person is to make 200 more stem cells. The potential for a newborn is that one stem cell makes a billion cells.. At Metta Health Care, we use mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). These cells are stripped off the umbilical cord of a live birth Cesarean section baby. The umbilical cord would be discarded otherwise. The blood bank tests the mother for infections and sexually transmitted diseases. Only about 1 in 100 cords passes the tests to be able to be administered to patients. ...
article{99446455-4e11-4b3a-9112-863766f7908e, abstract = {Stem cells undergo self-renewal and differentiate into multiple lineages of mature cells. The identification of stem cells in diverse adult tissues and the findings that human embryonic stem cells can be proliferated and differentiated has kindled the imagination of both scientists and the public regarding future stem cell technology. These cells could constitute an unlimited supply of diverse cell types that can be used for cell transplantation or drug discovery. The new options raise several fundamental ethical issues. This review gives an overview of the scientific basis underlying the hope generated by stem cell research and discusses current ethical and funding regulations.}, author = {Paul-Visse, Gesine and Li, Jia-Yi and Brundin, Patrik}, issn = {1878-5832}, keyword = {Neurosciences,Stem Cells,Ethics}, language = {eng}, number = {5}, pages = {295--302}, publisher = {Elsevier}, series = {Drug Discovery Today}, title = {Stem cells: ...
To conduct the study, researchers obtained a small amount of heart tissue during normal cardiac surgery from 43 neonates and 13 adults. The cells were expanded in a growth medium yielding millions of cells. The researchers developed a consistent way to isolate and grow neonatal stem cells from as little as 20 milligrams of heart tissue. Adult and neonate stem cell activity was observed both in the laboratory and in animal models. In addition, the animal models were compared to controls that were not given the stem cells. Dr. Kaushal says it is not clear why the neonatal stem cells performed so well. One explanation hinges on sheer numbers: there are many more stem cells in a babys heart than in the adult heart. Another explanation: neonate-derived cells release more growth factors that trigger blood vessel development and/or preservation than adult cells. "This research provides an important link in our quest to understand how stem cells function and how they can best be applied to cure disease ...
Autologous stem cells are vital, most especially in auto-transplantation. They are the undifferentiated stem cells that are harvested from an individual, preserved, and then returned to the same individual. The cells have the ability to develop into the different type of cells or tissues. The cells will be referred to as allogenic, when theyre removed from a person A, stored, then planted in another person. Autologous stem cells are different from other types of cells, in that they are gotten, stored, then given to the same person. Autologous essentially means cells from the same individual while allogenic on the other hand means cells from a different person.. AUTOLOGOUS STEM CELLS COUNT. The process of harvesting stem cells is not very complex. In fact, it can be done without any form of anesthesia. Patients can actually go back to their normal lives after the harvesting. Doctors typically get these stem cells from the bloodstream. The stem cells present in the bloodstream, are usually in ...
In parallel to work carried out in ESCs, numerous studies focusing on the differentiation of somatic stem cells have yielded considerable insights into the requirement for miRNAs in regulating homeostasis of somatic tissues (Fig. 2D-F).. In mammalian skin, miR-203 is the most abundantly expressed miRNA (Yi et al., 2008). When the spatiotemporal expression of miR-203 was visualized by in situ hybridization, it was shown that this miRNA is rapidly switched on when epidermal stem cells begin to differentiate (Yi et al., 2008). Illustrating the functional significance of this expression pattern, premature activation of miR-203 in epidermal stem cells depletes the stem cell pool by restricting their proliferative potential and promoting their exit from the cell cycle. Conversely, transient inhibition of endogenous miR-203 by a chemically modified antisense oligonucleotide (an antagomir) resulted in normally differentiating suprabasal cells that proliferated and showed upregulation of the key miR-203 ...
Sorry to have been gone for so long, but I wanted to take extra time on this topic because….well, because it needs extra time and attention to detail.. In growing numbers, people are taking their autistic children to "clinics" - in Costa Rica, in Germany, in Russia - to get "stem cell" injections. I put "stem cell" inside inverted commas because it is not entirely clear that what these children are receiving are actual stem cells.. And that might be the "good news" in this post - more about that later.. Stem cells have been in the news a lot, especially the past year, since President Obama cleared the way for embryonic stem cell research. So, today, almost everybody above the age of three has heard of them - but how many people really know what they are and what they can (and cant) do? Not so many, I think (based on what Ive heard people say about stem cells).. What are stem cells?. Judging by the many and varied things that the lay press have said about stem cells, you might be forgiven for ...
Human Adult Cardiac Stem Cell Culture Extra-cellular Differentiation Matrix is essential for Differentiation of Human Adult Cardiac Stem Cell Cultures. This product requires Human Adult Cardiac Stem Cell Culture Media Cat#M36099-26 and Cells Cat# 36099-26. Also available Products ...
Human Adult Cardiac Stem Cell Culture Extra-cellular Differentiation Matrix is essential for Differentiation of Human Adult Cardiac Stem Cell Cultures. This product requires Human Adult Cardiac Stem Cell Culture Media Cat#M36099-26 and Cells Cat# 36099-26. Also available Products ...
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In previous studies we found strong evidence for the existence and activation in human liver of putative progenitor cells resembling oval cells in rat liver. In view of the known role of rat oval cells in regeneration and hepatocarcinogenesis, we investigated a possible correlation between human putative progenitor cells and different types of dysplastic foci. METHODS: We determined the immunohistochemical phenotype of dysplastic foci found in 20 cirrhotic liver explants of various etiology, using specific antibodies against hepatocyte-type cytokeratin (CK) 8 and CK18, bile duct-type CK7 and CK19, chromogranin-A (chrom-A) and rat oval cell marker OV-6. RESULTS: All 12 foci of large cell dysplasia had a phenotype similar to that of surrounding parenchyma. Oncocytic foci showed a strong cytoplasmic staining for CK7. Three out of six of these foci contained progenitor cells, which are small cells immunoreactive for CK18, CK7, CK19, OV-6, chrom-A and stained more intensely for CK8 ...
Stem cell therapy faces many problems including poor survival rates and low viability. Enhancing the biological functions of stem cells improves efficacy of therapies. Estrogen, whose levels are elevated during pregnancy, affects the properties of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Evidence suggests that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are a type of adult mesenchymal stem cells, can be used in regenerative medicine. In fact, ADSCs from pregnant animals have been used in clinical therapies. However, the effect of the donors reproductive status on proliferation of ADSCs is unknown. We investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) on the in vitro proliferation of ADSCs from laboratory rats. ADSCs were obtained from five different groups of 15 rats each - non-pregnant, pregnant, in perinatal period, non-pregnant and treated with E2, and non-pregnant and treated with P. Adhesion and viability of ADSCs were determined by MTT assay, and cell cycle was followed by flow ...
A team of researchers at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) is the first in Africa to establish groundbreaking biomedical stem cell technology, which could hold the key to finding cures for some of Africas most prevalent diseases.. The CSIR Department of Biological Sciences Gene Expression and Biophysics Group, led by Dr Musa Mhlanga, success- fully generated the first induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells in Africa, in December last year.. The iPS cell technology involves inducing adult cells (like skin cells) to revert back to stem cells that can differentiate into specialised cell types. This means that the early stem cells can be programmed to become any type of adult cell, such as skin, heart, brain and blood cells.. Dr Janine Scholefield, one of the key researchers involved in generating iPS cells at the CSIR, was the first biologist in South Africa to record video footage of cardiomyocytes, or heart muscle cells, generated from adult skin cells.. Scholefield was ...
Using an epigenetic mark associated specifically with the histones of enhancers, first author Rene Adam, a graduate student in the lab, and colleagues, identified 377 of these high-powered gene-amplifying regions in hair follicle stem cells. The majority of these super-enhancers were bound by at least five transcription factors, often including Sox9. Then, they compared the stem cell super-enhancers to those of short-lived stem cell progeny, which have begun to choose a fate, and so lost the plasticity of stem cells. These two types of cells shared only 32 percent of their super-enhancers, suggesting these regions played an important role in skin cell identity. By switching off super-enhancers associated with stem cell genes, these genes were silenced while new super-enhancers were being activated to turn on hair genes ...
CURRENT STEM CELL NEWS. 1. Stem cell therapy enriched with a hormone for fractures that dont heal. In a novel study, Mesenchymal stem cells enriched with Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has found to heal non union fractures in animal studies. Click to read more... 2. Fat derived stem cells to repair skull defects after brain surgery Stem cells derived from abdominal fat combined with a synthetic bone grafting material have been proved to be potentially useful for repairing skull defects after brain surgery, according to the results of a study done by researchers from Finland. Click to read more... 3. A new approach identified to eliminate blood cancer stem cells. As a fore-runner of targeted therapies to achieve complete cancer remission, researchers from London have identified that if two specific proteins are suppressed, leukemic stem cells can be abolished. Click to read more... 4. Blood stem cells multiplied 10000 folds- A breakthrough. Researchers from Stony Brook University School of ...
Title:Endothelial Progenitor Cells as Mediators of the Crosstalk between Vascular Repair and Immunity: Lessons from Systemic Autoimmune Diseases. VOLUME: 25 ISSUE: 35. Author(s):Javier Rodríguez-Carrio*, Patricia López and Ana Suárez. Affiliation:Area of Immunology, Department of Functional Biology, University of Oviedo, Asturias, Area of Immunology, Department of Functional Biology, University of Oviedo, Asturias, Area of Immunology, Department of Functional Biology, University of Oviedo, Asturias. Keywords:Endothelial progenitor cells, systemic diseases, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammation, vitamin D.. Abstract:From the discovery of Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPC), these bone marrowderived precursors have been placed as crucial mediators of the endothelial repair. Accordingly, altered levels and function of EPC have been found in different scenarios of CV risk. Despite the fact that EPC exhibit important characteristics which ...
Stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis by replacing damaged or worn‐out cells and the deterioration of stem‐cell functions, including self‐renewal capacity, is one of the key components of organismal ageing (Janzen et al, 2006; Molofsky et al, 2006; Rossi et al, 2007, 2008). Distinct metabolic programmes in stem cells are necessary to protect genomic stability and to generate precursors for macromolecular synthesis to facilitate continued self‐renewal. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the functional decline in stem cells by inflicting chronic damage to cellular macromolecules, including genomic DNA, which accumulates during cellular division, ultimately leading to cytostasis or cytotoxicity (Rossi et al, 2008). In addition, excessive ROS drives stem cells out of quiescence and eventually lead to depletion of stem‐cell reserves (Rossi et al, 2008). Animal models of precocious stem‐cell depletion or dysfunction consistently emphasize the role of key molecules involved in ...
At least three different therapeutic concepts for cell replacement can be envisaged (Fig. 90e-1). One therapeutic approach involves direct administration of stem cells. The cells may be injected directly into the damaged organ, where they can differentiate into the desired cell type. Alternatively, stem cells may be injected systemically since they have the capacity to home in on damaged tissues by following gradients of cytokines and chemokines released by the diseased organ. A second approach involves transplantation of differentiated cells derived from stem cells. For example, pancreatic islet cells can be generated from stem cells before transplantation into diabetic patients, and cardiomyocytes can be generated to treat ischemic heart disease. A third approach involves stimulation of endogenous stem cells to facilitate repair. This goal might be accomplished by administration of appropriate growth factors and drugs that amplify the number of endogenous stem/progenitor cells and/or direct ...
Stem cells are one of several varieties of cell that have the ability to renew themselves through division, and differentiate themselves into specialized cell types. There is a gradient that corresponds to how well a particular stem cell can differentiate. The two most common types, adult and embryonic, are multipotent and pluripotent respectively. Multipotent means that a stem cell can differentiate into similar types of cells, for instance blood cells only. Pluripotent means that they can turn into any of the 3 germ layer types.[1] Even though embryonic stem cells can differentiate into more cell types than can adult stem cells, like with in vitro fertilization, they require the destruction of the embryo, i.e. abortion. After harvesting embryonic stem cells, they can be cultured for an extended period of time and induced to proliferate without the need to destroy more embryos, though stem cell lines tend to drift genetically and become unusable after years of continuous culturing. New human ...
Stem cell therapy involves transfer of stem cells to patients. Transferring stem cells from a donor to a patient holds particular promise, because the stem cells may be reliably modified to rectify a specific defect and restore a particular function. This approach is limited by the patients immune response, which may reject the foreign transplant. Immune suppressive drugs can be used to prevent rejection of the stem cell, but these drugs leave patients sensitive to infections. We aim to find new, less debilitating methods to facilitate transplantation of foreign stem cell derived tissues. One approach is to establish a state of immune tolerance in the patient, by transplanting blood cells to generate blood cell mixing, called chimerism- that the patient tolerates. Once that is successful, stem cells of other tissues will also be tolerated, as long as they are from the same donor as the donor blood cells. Our efforts have focused on enabling patients to accept foreign blood cells-the first step ...
Understanding stem cell classification systems is essential to understanding stem cell transplantation. We discuss 3 ways stem cells are classified.
Retinol, the alcohol form of vitamin A is a key dietary component that plays a critical role in vertebrate development, cell differentiation, reproduction, vision and immune system. Natural and synthetic analogs of retinol, called retinoids, have generally been associated with the cell differentiation via retinoic acid which is the most potent metabolite of retinol. However, a direct function of retinol has not been fully investigated. New evidence has now emerged that retinol supports the self-renewal of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), germ line stem cells (GSCs) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) by activating the endogenous machinery for self-renewal by a retinoic acid independent mechanism. The studies have also revealed that stem cells do not contain enzymes that are responsible for metabolizing retinol into retinoic acid. This new function of retinol may have important implications for stem cell biology which can be exploited for quantitative production of pure population of
Stem cells are immature cells that are undifferentiated (i.e., they have not yet "decided" what kind of cell to be). A stem cell divides into two cells: (1) a duplicate of itself and (2) a cell that develops into a more specialized cell type (i.e., an eye, liver, skin or blood cell). Since stem cells replace themselves every time they divide, they are capable of long-term self-renewal.[i]. Because they are immature, stem cells can be used to treat injuries or diseases. Scientists can make stem cells reach their full healing potential by developing procedures that mature them into the correct type of stable tissue that functions normally, then by making them safe for transplantation, and finally by developing surgical procedures that maximize their ability to treat or cure diseases or injuries.. The instruction Dignitas personae provides guidance on which types of stem cells may be used for research and treatment: "Methods which do not cause serious harm to the subject from whom the stem cells ...
Potential Stem Cell Therapy for HIV Reported From Nature Biotech An advance online article from Nature Biotechnology reports the creation of genetically modified human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells which when injected and engrafted in mice confer some resistance to HIV. Specifically, Holt et al disrupted CCR5, the major HIV-1 co-receptor using engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and compared to control mice, the mice which received such cells showed significantly lower HIV-1 levels.
The information provided by R3 Stem Cell is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Individual results may vary and only your medical professional can explain all the risks and potential benefits of any therapy based on your circumstances. R3 Stem Cell does not recommend or endorse any specific tests, products, procedures, opinions, or other information that may be mentioned on this website. Reliance on any information provided by R3 Stem Cell, its employees, others appearing on this website at the invitation of R3 Stem Cell, or other visitors to the website is solely at your own risk. R3 Stem Cell is not responsible for the outcome of your procedure. The FDA considers stem cell therapy experimental at this point.. R3 Stem Cell Offers Resources in These Cities: ...
PRP injections work by releasing growth factors which are present in the platelets and they work to regenerate and repair the damaged part of the body. Now the reason why platelets and plasma are used is because as we have already mentioned, they contain growth factors. Growth factors are bioactive proteins which encourage the growth of tissue.. There are thousands of growth factors present in platelets and they work together to initiate and control the natural healing process when there is injury, inflammation or degenerative changes hence robust healing.. Bone Marrow Stem Cell Injections. Stem cells can be defined as "blank slate" cells. These cells have the remarkable ability to differentiate and develop into various types of cells in the body.. Bone marrow stem cells are one of the most widely used stem cells and these are injected into the body to help repair damaged cells and organs within the body. The process of deriving bone marrow stem cells is quite different from the extraction of ...
Autologous stem cells are theorized to have the ability to self-renew, or divide, to replenish dying tissue of specialized cell types. They are considered by some to be our own built-in repair systems that regenerate cells damaged by disease, injury, and every day wear-and-tear. Once stem cells are administered to the body, they appear to respond to inflammatory signals secreted by damage cells. Ultimately, adult stem cells are thought to replenish these damaged cells.. Attempts at stem cell therapy for autism spectrum disorder targets the brain. In autism, areas of brain regulating memory, concentration, attention, speech etc. are damaged. Stem cell management aims to improve blood and oxygen flow to the brain (improved perfusion), replaces damaged neurons and stimulates formation of the new arteries. In experiments, after some time, stem cells appear to acquire properties of cells surrounding them and multiply into these cells, which results in white and gray matter restoration. It has been ...
BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Inc. (OTCBB: BCLI), a leading developer of adult stem cell technologies and therapeutics, announced today that the prestigious Experimental Neurology Journal, published an article indicating that preclinical studies using cells that underwent treatment with Brainstorms NurOwn™ technology show promise in an animal model of Huntingtons disease. The article was published by leading scientists including Professor Melamed and Professor Offen of the Tel Aviv University.. In these studies, bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells secreting neurotrophic factors (MSC-NTF), from patients with Huntingtons disease, were transplanted into the animal model of this disease and showed therapeutic improvement.. "The findings from this study demonstrate that stem cells derived from patients with a neurodegenerative disease, which are processed using BrainStorms NurOwn™ technology, may alleviate neurotoxic signs, in a similar way to cells derived from healthy donors. This is ...
Publication in Nature Neurosci. in June 2012, 15:962-969. The group of Verdon Taylor at the Laboratory of Embryology and Stem Cell Biology Department of Biomedicine Mattenstrasse demonstrated that Notch-dependent adult neural stem cells in the hippocampus generate differentiated neurons in a multistep process over several weeks. They identified a novel intermediate progenitor cell type and demonstrated the amplification of the lineage at the Tbr2(+) stage. In a second paper they demonstrated a novel function for the RNAse Drosha in the maintenance of neural stem cells that involves miRNA-independent destabilization of proneural mRNAs (including Neurog2 ...
Given our recent discovery that it is possible to separate human epidermal stem cells of the skin from their more committed progeny (i.e., transit-amplifying cells and early differentiating cells) using FACS techniques, we sought to determine the comparative tissue regeneration ability of these keratinocyte progenitors. We demonstrate that the ability to regenerate a fully stratified epidermis with appropriate spatial and temporal expression of differentiation markers in a short-term in vitro organotypic culture system is an intrinsic characteristic of both epidermal stem and transit-amplifying cells, although the stem cell fraction is most capable of achieving homeostasis. Early differentiating keratinocytes exhibited limited short-term tissue regeneration under specific experimental conditions in this assay, although significant improvement was obtained by manipulating microenvironmental factors, that is, coculture with minimally passaged dermal cells or exogenous supply of the ECM protein ...
A team led by neuroscientist Khalid Shah, who recently demonstrated the value of stem cells loaded with cancer-killing herpes viruses, now has a way to genetically engineer stem cells so that they can produce and secrete tumour-killing toxins.. In the AlphaMed Press journal Stem Cells, Shahs team shows how the toxin-secreting stem cells can be used to eradicate cancer cells remaining in mouse brains after their main tumour has been removed. The stem cells are placed at the site encapsulated in a biodegradable gel. This method solves the delivery issue that probably led to the failure of recent clinical trials aimed at delivering purified cancer-killing toxins into patients brains. Shah and his team are currently pursuing FDA approval to bring this and other stem cell approaches developed by them to clinical trials.. "Cancer-killing toxins have been used with great success in a variety of blood cancers, but they dont work as well in solid tumours because the cancers arent as accessible and ...
Ebenezer Yamoah is conducting research that has critical implications for rehabilitating severe cases of hearing loss.. Posted Aug. 4, 2010. UC Davis Health System experts gave presentations on stem cell research during a community forum on Wednesday, July 28, on the UC Davis Sacramento campus. The evening discussion highlighted the latest research into the use of regenerative medicine for treating hearing and vision impairment.. The event was part of the health systems ongoing discussion series entitled "Stem Cell Dialogues," which offers opportunities for the public to learn about the stem cell therapies that UC Davis is developing to address a wide array of diseases and injuries.. "The potential for stem cells to be used in treating eye disease and hearing disorders is very exciting, and stem cells have already been used to restore vision in patients for certain forms of blindness," said Jan Nolta, director of the UC Davis Institute for Regenerative Cures and the universitys stem cell ...
Rationale: Autologous bone marrow- or cardiac-derived stem cell therapy for heart disease has demonstrated safety and efficacy in clinical trials but functional improvements have been limited. Finding the optimal stem cell type best suited for cardiac regeneration is key toward improving clinical outcomes. Objective: To determine the mechanism by which novel bone-derived stem cells support the injured heart. Methods and Results: Cortical bone stem cells (CBSCs) and cardiac-derived stem cells (CDCs) were isolated from EGFP+ transgenic mice and were shown to express c-kit and Sca-1 as well as 8 paracrine factors involved in cardioprotection, angiogenesis and stem cell function. Wild-type C57BL/6 mice underwent sham operation (n=21) or myocardial infarction (MI) with injection of CBSCs (n=67), CDCs (n=36) or saline (n=60). Cardiac function was monitored using echocardiography. Only 2/8 paracrine factors were detected in EGFP+ CBSCs in vivo (basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial ...
The results of this study suggest a radically different approach for endothelial progenitor cell-based therapies that may be applicable in the treatment of ischemic diseases and more broadly in regenerative medicine, in which vascular progenitor cell populations are delivered on a bioactive material that provides a microenvironment enhancing cell survival, and the sustained release and repopulation of the surrounding tissue by outwardly migrating cells. The feasibility of this approach was examined by using endothelial progenitors isolated from human cord blood to treat ischemic muscle tissue. This system was demonstrated to dramatically improve vascularization and perfusion of ischemic murine hindlimb musculature, and prevented toe and foot necrosis. These results suggest that endothelial progenitor cell utility highly depends on the mode of delivery and control over cell fate after transplantation.. A macroporous polymer scaffold (37) provided the delivery vehicle, and the inclusion of cell ...
Epigenetic therapies demonstrate significant clinical activity in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplasia (MDS) and constitute an important new class of therapeutic agents. However hematological responses are not durable and disease relapse appears inevitable. Experimentally, leukemic stem/progenitor cells (LSC) propagate disease in animal models of AML and it has been postulated that their relative chemo-resistance contributes to disease relapse. We serially measured LSC numbers in patients with high-risk AML and MDS treated with 5-azacitidine and sodium valproate (VAL-AZA). Fifteen out of seventy-nine patients achieved a complete remission (CR) or complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi) with VAL-AZA therapy. There was no significant reduction in the size of the LSC-containing population in non-responders. While the LSC-containing population was substantially reduced in all patients achieving a CR/CRi it was never eradicated and expansion of this population antedated
Title:Notch Signaling in Mammalian Intestinal Stem Cells: Determining Cell Fate and Maintaining Homeostasis. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):Shao-jie Liang, Xiang-guang Li and Xiu-qi Wang*. Affiliation:College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control/National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, Guangzhou, 510642, School of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, College of Animal Science, South China Agricultural University/Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition Control/National Engineering Research Center for Breeding Swine Industry, Guangzhou, 510642. Keywords:Notch signaling, cell fate decision, intestinal stem cells, Paneth cells, Hes1, Atoh1.. Abstract:The intestine serves mainly as a place for digestion and absorption and functions as an immune and endocrine organ. Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) play critical roles in the ...
The skin is a self-renewing organ constantly exposed to environmental influences, such as injury, UV rays and toxic substances. To maintain a functional tissue, stem cells differentiate to replace cells that are lost through damage or normal turnover. The group led by Dr. Wickström works to identify mechanisms that regulate stem cell differentiation. The central focus is on characterizing fundamental mechanisms of this process and in understanding why skin loses regenerative power as we age, and how stem cell dysregulation promotes the genesis of skin cancer. Our research: Due to its self-renewing nature skin is optimally suited for stem cell research. Stem cells play key roles in replenishing tissues with differentiated cells that are lost during homeostatic renewal or during injury. Furthermore, stem cell dysfunction leads to tissue degeneration, aging and cancer. Therefore, understanding how stem cells function is critical for understanding how these diseases develop and how they might be ...
Rats with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been completely cured of the disease, using neuronal stem cells that have been modified to produce insulin. This approach should work in humans, too, and all it involves is shoving a needle up your nose into your brain. Yay!. Stem cells are near-universally acknowledged to be the Next Big Thing in medicine, and the only reason that we havent used them to cure every single disease already is that we cant all agree on a reasonable, ethical place to go get them from. But weve got stem cells all over the place in our own bodies, we just have to go and harvest them, which is easier said than done, but definitely not impossible.. Our brains, for example, are home to neural stem cells, which (with a little prodding) can transform themselves to perform all kinds of helpful tasks. One of these tasks is producing insulin, which researchers at the Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology in Tsukuba Science City, Japan have shown can totally ...
The intestinal epithelium withstands continuous mechanical, chemical and biological insults despite its single-layered, simple epithelial structure. The crypt-villus tissue architecture in combination with rapid cell turnover enables the intestine to act both as a barrier and as the primary site of nutrient uptake. Constant tissue replenishment is fuelled by continuously dividing stem cells that reside at the bottom of crypts. These cells are nurtured and protected by specialized epithelial and mesenchymal cells, and together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. Intestinal stem cells and early progenitor cells compete for limited niche space and, therefore, the ability to retain or regain stemness. Those cells unable to do so differentiate to one of six different mature cell types and move upwards towards the villus, where they are shed into the intestinal lumen after 3-5 days. In this Review, we discuss the signals, cell types and mechanisms that control homeostasis and regeneration in the
In the early stages of brain development prior to birth, brain stem cells, also known as neural stem cells, will differentiate into neurons," explained Larry Sherman, Ph.D., an associate scientist in the Division of Neuroscience at the Oregon National Primate Research Center and an adjunct associate professor of cell and developmental biology in the OHSU School of Medicine. "In later stages, these same stem cells suddenly start becoming glial cells, which perform a number of functions that include supporting the neurons. We wanted to find out what factors cause this switch in differentiation. We also wanted to determine if the process can be controlled and used as a possible therapy. What amazed us is that it turns out a single gene may be responsible for this incredibly important task ...
Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) contribute to the angiogenesis-dependent growth of tumors in mice and humans. EPCs regulate the angiogenic switch via paracrine secretion of proangiogenic growth factors and by direct luminal incorporation into sprouting nascent vessels. miRNAs have emerged as key regulators of several cellular processes including angiogenesis; however, whether miRNAs contribute to bone marrow-mediated angiogenesis has remained unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of miRNA-processing enzyme Dicer, specifically in the bone marrow, decreased the number of circulating EPCs, resulting in angiogenesis suppression and impaired tumor growth. Furthermore, genome-wide deep sequencing of small RNAs revealed tumor EPC-intrinsic miRNAs including miR-10b and miR-196b, which have been previously identified as key regulators of HOX signaling and adult stem cell differentiation. Notably, we found that both miR-10b and miR-196b are responsive to vascular endothelial growth
At the time of blood donation, 10mL of blood will be used to calculate the concentration of circulating endothelial progenitor cells CD34+144+CD14- et CD34+VEGF-R2+CD14- , and the ratio of circulating endothelial progenitor cells CD34+144+CD14- et CD34+VEGF-R2+CD14- / all circulating endothelial progenitor cells in order to determine reference values ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact .. In adult, tissues are maintained and repaired by stem cells, which divide and differentiate to generate more specialized progeny. The mechanisms that regulate the balance between stem cell proliferation and differentiation promise fundamental insights into the origin and design of multi-cellular organisms. However, stem cells are difficult to distinguish from their more differentiated offspring, and resolving these mechanisms has proved challenging. Applied to genetic cell lineage tracing and in vivo live-imaging studies, we discuss how concepts from non-equilibrium statistical physics and population dynamics are providing surprising new insights into common patterns of stem cell regulation in mammalian tissues. As well as undermining some accepted paradigms in stem cell biology, we show how these methods provide a novel platform to explore factors leading to dysregulation and the initiation of diseased states.. This talk is part of the ...
We at Science-Based Medicine (SBM) have written about dubious stem cell treatments on many occasions. Stem cells, of course, are cutting edge science. The problem, of course, is that that cutting edge science, with very few exceptions, has not yet been translated into safe and effective treatments for the conditions that it has promise to treat. Enter the quacks, who make what Ive referred to as magical claims for stem cells. Are Stemedica and Novastem like this? Lets find out. After all, just because Novastem is in Mexico does not necessarily mean its one of these dubious stem cell hucksters, although a first glance at the Novastem website most definitely did not allay my suspicions.. There are two types of stem cells, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. The first (and potentially most useful for the widest variety of conditions) are pluripotent, which means that, given the right signals, they are able to differentiate into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers in the ...
Ischemic stroke, caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion, leads to long-lasting formation of new striatal neurons from neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of adult rodents. Concomitantly with this neurogenic response, SVZ exhibits activation of resident microglia and infiltrating monocytes. Here we show that depletion of circulating monocytes, using the anti-CCR2 antibody MC-21 during the first week after stroke, enhances striatal neurogenesis at one week post-insult, most likely by increasing short-term survival of the newly formed neuroblasts in the SVZ and adjacent striatum. Blocking monocyte recruitment did not alter the volume of the ischemic lesion but gave rise to reduced astrocyte activation in SVZ and adjacent striatum, which could contribute to the improved neuroblast survival. A similar decrease of astrocyte activation was found in and around human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived NSPCs transplanted into striatum at one week after ...
Stem cell research involves animals in two senses. First, stem cells must originally be isolated from an animal. Second, although it is possible to investigate the differentiation of stem cells into different cell types in vitro, for stem cells to be of any use in human medicine it is essential to determine whether these cells can function normally when transplanted into an animal. I could write a more detailed explanation of stem cell research, but there is a terrific site on this subject from the National Institutes of Health: http://stemcells.nih.gov/index.asp This site contains basic information, literature citations, and glossary, and other resources. I highly recommend it. Yours, Paul Szauter Mouse Genome Informatics ...
This new stem cell population, reported March 30 in the journal Cell, appears to be relatively quiescent (inactive) - in contrast to the recent discovery of intestinal stem cells that multiply rapidly - and is marked by a protein, Lrig1, that may act as a "brake" on cell growth and proliferation.. The researchers have also developed a new and clinically relevant mouse model of colorectal cancer that investigators can now use to better understand where and how the disease arises, as well as for probing new therapeutic targets.. Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. These tumors are thought to arise from a series of mutations in intestinal stem cells, which are long-lived, self-renewing cells that gives rise to all cell types in the intestinal tract.. For more than 30 years, scientists believed that intestinal stem cells were primarily quiescent, proliferating only rarely in order to protect the tissue against cancer. Then, in 2007, researchers ...
... A huge scientific breakthrough in stem cell technology has taken place in a recent study carried out by the University of Cambridge.. For the first time ever, scientists have managed to replicate the transformation of a fertilised egg into a living embryo in mice; the critical starting point to all human and animal life.. The process was carried out using embryonic stem cells which are able to develop into any cells in the body. The cells were grown outside of the mouse in a gel solution for 7 days where they morphed into primitive embryos; separated by 2 anatomical sections which, if allowed to develop further, would go on to develop into the placenta and the embryonic mouse.. The study cut out the need for a fertilised egg which would usually be needed in this type of study. These are often in short supply as they require IVF clinic donations. Using stem cells could open up a multitude of possibilities in terms of future ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Combined therapy with sonic hedgehog gene transfer and bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells enhances angiogenesis and myogenesis in the ischemic skeletal muscle. AU - Palladino, Mariangela. AU - Gatto, Ilaria. AU - Neri, Valentina. AU - Stigliano, Egidio. AU - Smith, Roy C.. AU - Pola, Enrico. AU - Straino, Stefania. AU - Gaetani, Eleonora. AU - Capogrossi, Maurizio. AU - Leone, Giuseppe. AU - Hlatky, Lynn. AU - Pola, Roberto. PY - 2012/8. Y1 - 2012/8. N2 - We have previously demonstrated that sonic hedgehog (Shh) gene transfer improves angiogenesis in the setting of ischemia by upregulating the expression of multiple growth factors and enhancing the incorporation of endogenous bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). In this study, we hypothesized that combined therapy with Shh gene transfer and BM-derived EPCs is more effective than Shh gene therapy alone in an experimental model of peripheral limb ischemia. We used old mice, which have a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells. T2 - Therapeutic Potential for Perinatal Patients with Intractable Neurological Disease. AU - Ochiai, Daigo. AU - Masuda, Hirotaka. AU - Abe, Yushi. AU - Otani, Toshimitsu. AU - Fukutake, Marie. AU - Matsumoto, Tadashi. AU - Miyakoshi, Kei. AU - Tanaka, Mamoru. PY - 2018/12/26. Y1 - 2018/12/26. N2 - Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated great interest in the fields of regenerative medicine and immunotherapy because of their unique biological properties. Among MSCs, amniotic fluid stem cells (AFS) have a number of characteristics that make them attractive candidates for tissue engineering and cell replacement strategies, particularly for perinatal medicine. If various neonatal conditions, including birth asphyxia, preterm birth, and congenital abnormalities, which result in long-lasting severe impairments, could be predicted during pregnancy, it would allow collection of small samples of amniotic fluid cells by amniocentesis. In vitro ...
Multipotent adult progenitor cells are a recently described population of stem cells derived from the bone marrow stroma. multipotent adult progenitor cells along mesodermal lineages and exhibited the enhanced expression of alkaline phosphatase and production of calcium-containing mineral debris by multipotent adult progenitor cells, necessary precursors for osteogenesis. In combination with a demineralized bone matrix scaffold, multipotent adult progenitor cells exhibited enhanced revascularization and new bone formation in vivo in an orthotopic defect model when compared to mesenchymal stem cells on demineralized bone matrix or demineralized bone matrixConly control groups. The potent combination of angiogenic and osteogenic properties provided by multipotent adult progenitor cells appears to create a synergistic amplification of the bone healing process. Our results indicate that multipotent adult progenitor cells have the potential to better promote tissue regeneration and healing and to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ethanol alters the osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells. AU - Hipp, Jennifer A.. AU - Hipp, Jason D.. AU - Atala, Anthony. AU - Soker, Shay. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - Background: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a set of developmental defects caused by prenatal alcohol exposure. Clinical manifestations of FASD are highly variable and include mental retardation and developmental defects of the heart, kidney, muscle, skeleton, and craniofacial structures. Specific effects of ethanol on fetal cells include induction of apoptosis as well as inhibition of proliferation, differentiation, and migration. This complex set of responses suggests that a bioinformatics approach could clarify some of the pathways involved in these responses. Methods: In this study, the responses of fetal stem cells derived from the amniotic fluid (AFSCs) to treatment with ethanol have been examined. Large-scale transcriptome analysis of ethanol-treated AFSCs ...
Ocular surface is composed of corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. Normal cornea is essential for normal vision. Defects in renewal and repair of ocular surface as a result of limbal stem cell deficiency are now known to cause varying ocular surface morbidity including persistent photophobia, repeated and persistent surface breakdown and overt conjunctivalisation of the cornea. Restoring ocular health in these eyes has traditionally been frustrating. Ex vivo cultured limbal epithelial stem cells have been used successfully to treat limbal stem cell deficiency. Ex-vivo limbal stem cell allograft transplantation is achieved by harvesting limbal corneal tissue from donor eyes (either matched living relatives or cadaveric donors). The donor stem cells are obtained by excising a small area of the conjunctiva at the limbus and are a minor procedure. The tissue so obtained is then grown in tissue culture and once the cells have multiplied sufficiently, small sheets are transplanted on to the ...
Purpose: : To describe the outcome of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in patients who had previously undergone cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation. Methods: : Medical records of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency who underwent PKP after cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation were reviewed for demographics, primary etiology, type of surgical procedure, best corrected visual acuity, ocular surface conditions and complications. Results: : Thirty-eight patients with limbal stem cell deficiency underwent PKP at a mean interval of 23.5 months (range: 6-92 months) following cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation. Twenty-one patients (55.3%) underwent PKP, 17 patients (44.7%) PKP combined with cataract extraction. Preoperative best-corrected visual acuity was less than 1/10 in 29 of the 38 eyes (76.3%). At a mean follow-up of 27.5 months (range: 1-92 months) after PKP, the best-corrected visual acuity improved in 33 patients (86.8%), worsened in 3 (7.9%) and remained unchanged in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypoxia-preconditioned adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell increase the survival and gene expression of engineered neural stem cells in a spinal cord injury model. AU - Oh, Jin Soo. AU - Ha, Yoon. AU - An, Sung Su. AU - Khan, Momin. AU - Pennant, William A.. AU - Kim, Hyo Jin. AU - Yoon, Do Heum. AU - Lee, Minhyung. AU - Kim, Keung Nyun. PY - 2010/3/26. Y1 - 2010/3/26. N2 - Hypoxic preconditioning (HP) is a novel strategy to make stem cells resistant to the ischemic environment they encounter after transplantation into injured tissue; this strategy improves survival of both the transplanted cells and the host cells at the injury site. Using both in vitro and in vivo injury models, we confirmed that HP-treated adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HP-AT-MSCs) increased cell survival and enhanced the expression of marker genes in DsRed-engineered neural stem cells (NSCs-DsRed). Similar to untreated AT-MSCs, HP-AT-MSCs had normal morphology and were positive for ...
Stem Cell Transplantation. Stem cell transplantation, also referred as bone marrow transplantation, is currently being performed in the treatment of leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, various cancers, poorly functioning bone marrow, hereditary anemia, immunodeficiencies and hereditary metabolic diseases.. Stem cells can be obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood or cord blood. Although bone marrow has been used historically as a stem cell source in the first transplantations, peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is currently performed in 75% of cases. Stem cell from the cord blood is collected as soon as the baby is born. Collected stem cells are stored in sterile conditions.. Stem cell transplants are defined as autologous or allogeneic transplantation.. Autologous transplantation is the process by which the patients own stem cells are collected and stored frozen, then given back to the patient. The most common uses for autologous stem cell transplantation are solid tumors such as ...
Background: Developing efficient methods to isolate and identify human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) remains to be one of the major challenges in tissue engineering.. Methods: We demonstrate here a method by isolating hADSCs from abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue harvested during caesarian section. The hADSCs were isolated from human adipose tissue by collagenase digestion and adherence to flasks.. Results: The yield reached around 1 x 10(6) hADSCs per gram adipose tissue. The following comprehensive identification and characterization illustrated pronounced features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The fibroblast-like hADSCs exhibited typical ultrastructure details for vigorous cell activities. Karyotype mapping showed normal human chromosome. With unique immunophenotypes they were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD105 and CD166, but negative for CD31, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR. The growth curve and cell cycle analysis revealed high capability for self-renewal and ...
"Peripheral blood stem cells for allogeneic transplantation: a review". Stem Cells. 19 (2): 108-17. doi:10.1634/stemcells.19-2- ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ...
Stem cell treatment[edit]. Autologous stem-cell transplantation using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been used to improve ... MSCs are multipotent stem cells, meaning they can differentiate into multiple cell types. In the case of mesenchymal stem cells ... these cell types include osteoblasts (bone cells), adipocytes (fat cells), and chondrocytes (cartilage cells). Ligament tissue ... Ligament cells differ in size, respond to different cues in the cell environment, and express different cell surface markers, ...
Talent supported federal legislation that would ban embryonic stem cell research or federal funding for embryonic stem cell ... "Stem Cell Bill Gets Bush's First Veto". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved March 14, 2015.. ... Kristen Hinman (July 17, 2006). "A wedge issue that helps Democrats: Stem cell research is dividing Missouri's GOP". Salon.com. ... Stem cell research[edit]. After joining the Senate in 2002, ... "Talent changes stem-cell stance". The Kansas City Star. ...
Stem cell based gene therapy[edit]. In the past 7 years, scientists have been using different approaches of stem cell based ... hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells (GM-HSPC). Though this study does involve several early stage clinical trials ... Stem cell transplantation[edit]. In 2007, Timothy Ray Brown,[12] a 40-year-old HIV-positive man, also known as "the Berlin ... One study done in 2011 achieves successful CD4+ T-cell reconstitution as a result of CCR5Δ32/Δ32 stem cell transplantation at ...
"Epidermal stem cells and skin tissue engineering in hair follicle regeneration". World Journal of Stem Cells. 7 (4): 711-727. ... Stem cell therapy[edit]. Main article: Hair cloning. Although follicles were previously thought gone in areas of complete ... Hair follicle with mesenchymal dermal papilla, labelled at top, location of hair follicle stem cells and thought to be site of ... Radiation induces hair loss through damage to hair follicle stem cell progenitors and alteration of keratin expression.[23][24] ...
... perhaps a stem cell.. In later work, Till and McCulloch were joined by graduate student Andy Becker. They cemented their stem ... "A stochastic model of stem cell proliferation, based on the growth of spleen colony-forming cells". Proceedings of the National ... Stem cells[edit]. Harold Johns recruited Till to the Ontario Cancer Institute at Princess Margaret Hospital shortly after he ... Till is a founding member of the Board of Directors of the Canadian Stem Cell Foundation. ...
Stem cell transplant and gene therapy[edit]. A 2005 study achieved successful regrowth of cochlea cells in guinea pigs.[119] ... using stem cells. Also reported in 2013 was regrowth of hair cells in deaf adult mice using a drug intervention resulting in ... "Human embryonic stem cells restore gerbil hearing". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2012.11402. Archived from the original on ... as the sensory cells may or may not make connections with neurons that carry the signals from hair cells to the brain. A 2008 ...
... and cell survival". Stem Cells. 28 (3): 501-12. doi:10.1002/stem.294. PMID 20049900.. ... cell junction. • cell nucleus. Biological process. • dopaminergic neuron differentiation. • regulation of insulin secretion ... positive regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin. • anatomical structure morphogenesis. • chromatin organization ... 2008). "Hepatic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells by tetracycline-regulated hepatocyte ...
Lei M, Chuong CM (2016). "STEM CELLS. Aging, alopecia, and stem cells". Science. 351 (6273): 559-60. Bibcode:2016Sci...351.. ... hair follicle renewal is maintained by the stem cells associated with each follicle. Aging of the hair follicle appears to be ... "Hair follicle aging is driven by transepidermal elimination of stem cells via COL17A1 proteolysis". Science. 351 (6273): ... primed by a sustained cellular response to the DNA damage that accumulates in renewing stem cells during aging.[46] This damage ...
... mammary gland increases stem cell self-renewal and estrogen receptor negative tumors". Stem Cells. 32 (3): 649-61. doi:10.1002/ ... the effects of ionizing radiation on mammary stem cell subpopulation dynamics,[35] inflammation,[36] [37] and the human immune ... "Molecular Biology of the Cell. 25 (22): 3643-3653. doi:10.1091/mbc.E14-06-1065. PMC 4230623 . PMID 25253717.. ... stem.1533. PMID 24038768.. *^ Tang, Jonathan; Ley, Klaus; Hunt, C. Anthony (2007). "Dynamics of in silico leukocyte rolling, ...
Goodsell DS (2002). "The molecular perspective: restriction endonucleases". Stem Cells. 20 (2): 190-1. doi:10.1634/stemcells.20 ... "Cell. 157 (6): 1262-78. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.010. PMC 4343198. PMID 24906146.. ... "Cell. 134 (4): 587-598. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.06.032. PMC 2626626. PMID 18724932.. ... The host cell, in this example E. coli K, is known as the restricting host and appears to have the ability to reduce the ...
2018-10-16: Stem Cell Research (journal). *2018-10-16: Stem Cells (journal) ...
... or maintain the embryonic stem cell (ESC) phenotypic via epigenetic approach. Adult stem cells like bone marrow stem cells have ... In mammals, most cells terminally differentiate, with only stem cells retaining the ability to differentiate into several cell ... totipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo, which in turn become fully differentiated cells ... Costa S, Shaw P (March 2007). "'Open minded' cells: how cells can change fate" (PDF). Trends Cell Biol. 17 (3): 101-6. PMID ...
Stem cell therapy may represent a treatment for promoting healing of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetic foot ulcers develop their ... In addition to the importance of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, all phases of wound healing are controlled by a wide ... "Topical stem and progenitor cell therapy for diabetic foot ulcers". Ali Gholamrezanezhad (Ed.). doi:10.5772/19070. Di Rocco, G ... Blumberg, SN; Berger, A; Hwang, L; Pastar, I; Warren, SM; Chen, W (April 2012). "The role of stem cells in the treatment of ...
by whole cells: cell therapy (cytotherapy) *by stem cells: stem cell therapy ... In cancer, this means chasing after any malignant cells that may be left. ...
... preleukemic stem cells: molecular biology and clinical implications of the precursors to leukemia stem cells.. „Stem Cells ... Normal and leukemic hematopoiesis: are leukemias a stem cell disorder or a reacquisition of stem cell characteristics?. „Proc ... a b c FaridehF. Miraki-Mouda FaridehF. i inni, Acute myeloid leukemia does not deplete normal hematopoietic stem cells but ... blood stem cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning compared to autologous peripheral blood stem cell ...
The adipocytes in this depot are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which can give rise to fat cells, bone cells as well ... stem cells from both human and animals reportedly can be efficiently reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells without ... "Stem Cells and Development. 22 (16): 2298-314. doi:10.1089/scd.2012.0647. PMC 3730538 . PMID 23517218.. ... "Stem Cells Translational Medicine. 3 (2): 206-17. doi:10.5966/sctm.2013-0125. PMC 3925056 . PMID 24361924.. ...
"BMP-11 and myostatin support undifferentiated growth of human embryonic stem cells in feeder-free cultures". Cloning and Stem ... reversed functional impairments and restored genomic integrity in aged muscle stem cells (satellite cells). Increased GDF11 ... "Cell. 153 (4): 828-39. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.04.015. PMC 3677132. PMID 23663781.. ... cell development. • negative regulation of cell differentiation. • positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein ...
... "a mound of stem cells from which regeneration begins".[21] Dedifferentiation of cells means that they lose their tissue- ... Macrophages are a type of repairing cell that devour dead cells and pathogens, and trigger other immune cells to respond to ... the use of adult somatic stem cells and the dedifferentiation and/or transdifferentiation of cells, and more than one mode can ... "Stem Cells and Development. 22 (16): 2298-314. doi:10.1089/scd.2012.0647. PMC 3730538 . PMID 23517218.. ...
"Cloning and Stem Cells". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. "ISSCR Officers". International Society for Stem Cell ... when in fact the cells were germ cells from a fetal rat. In 2003 he was appointed a Personal Chair as Professor of Stem Cell ... a former Professor of Stem Cell Sciences and the Director of the Monash Immunology and Stem Cell Laboratories at Monash ... international headlines when he led the team which discovered that nerve stem cells could be derived from embryonic stem cells ...
Zammit, PS; Partridge, TA; Yablonka-Reuveni, Z (November 2006). "The skeletal muscle satellite cell: the stem cell that came in ... "Stem Cells and Development. 22 (16): 2298-2314. doi:10.1089/scd.2012.0647. ISSN 1547-3287. PMC 3730538. PMID 23517218.. .mw- ... Another source of skeletal muscle and progenitors is provided by the directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells .[11] ... Another group of cells, the myosatellite cells are found between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of muscle fibers.[2] ...
"Stem Cells Translational Medicine. 2 (3): 175-84. doi:10.5966/sctm.2012-0117. PMC 3659762. PMID 23413375.. ... Two efforts being studied are the use stem cells[156] and gene therapy.[158][159] Other methods being studied include the use ... Cell-free fetal DNA From 10 wks[84] 96-100%[85] 0.3%[86] A blood sample is taken from the mother by venipuncture and is sent ... new paradigms for Down syndrome research using induced pluripotent stem cells: tackling complex human genetic disease". ...
"Stem Cells in Asexual Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates". In Baruch Rinkevich; Valeria Matranga (eds.). Stem Cells in Marine ... The cell lengthens. Then, the equatorial plane of the cell constricts and separates the plasma membrane such that each new cell ... For E. coli, cells typically divide about every 20 minutes at 37 °C.[7] Because the new cells will, in turn, undergo binary ... First, the cell's DNA is replicated. The replicated DNA copies then move to opposite poles of the cell in an energy-dependent ...
... and represents a marker for murine pluripotent stem cells, in which it plays an important role in adhesion and migration of the ... The presence of these cells is diagnostic of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Reed-Sternberg cells display a characteristic pattern of CD15 ... but does stain almost all other lymphoid cells. CD15 is also present in about 50% of adenocarcinoma cells and can be used to ... CD15 mediates phagocytosis and chemotaxis, found on neutrophils;[2] expressed in patients with Hodgkin disease, some B-cell ...
endothelial cell migration. • positive regulation of cell proliferation. • T cell activation. • cell adhesion. • Viral entry. • ... cell projection. • cell junction. • lamellipodium. • apical plasma membrane. • membrane. • focal adhesion. • cell surface. • ... regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by integrin. • locomotory exploration behavior. • ... T cell costimulation. • psychomotor behavior. • behavioral fear response. • negative regulation of extracellular matrix ...
... researchers realised that ordinary cells could be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells which can be grown into any ... where the cell nucleus from an adult cell is transferred into an unfertilized oocyte (developing egg cell) that has had its ... "Cell. 172 (4): 881. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.01.020. Retrieved 24 January 2018.. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ... The cell used as the donor for the cloning of Dolly was taken from a mammary gland, and the production of a healthy clone ...
T cells associate with and predict leukemia relapse in AML patients post allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood Cancer ... T Cells to protect tumour cells. Nature Communications. March 2018, 9 (1): 948. PMC 5838096. PMID 29507342. doi:10.1038/s41467- ... 细胞毒性T细胞(CTLs, killer T cells)负责杀伤被病毒感染的细胞和癌细胞,在对器官移植的免疫排斥中也有参与。其特点在于细胞表面的CD8蛋白质。它通过识别所有有核细胞表
... differential admixture and its potential impact on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation". Bone Marrow Research. 2012: 1-13. ... "Cell. 162 (5): 1051-65. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.07.048. PMC 4556133. PMID 26300125.. ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.11.037. PMID 18160035.. *^ Redon R, Ishikawa S, Fitch KR, Feuk L, Perry GH, Andrews TD, et al. ( ... CCR5 gene is absent on the surface of cell due to mutation. Without CCR5 gene on the surface, there is nothing for HIV viruses ...
... may have a role to play in the proliferation of stem cells. Click Lactate Influences Hair Follicle Stem Cells for complete ... Lactate Influences Hair Follicle Stem Cells. New study suggests that Lactate may influence hair follicle stem cells in a dose ...
Stem cell characteristics of amniotic epithelial cells. Stem Cells 2005; 23(10): 1549-1559 doi: 10.1634/stemcells.2004-0357 ... Mesenchymal stem cells in the Whartons jelly of the human umbilical cord. Stem Cells 2004; 22(7): 1330-1337 doi: 10.1634/ ... Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a unique, accessible, and non-controversial source of early stem cells that ... In vitro and in vivo differentiation of human umbilical cord derived stem cells into endothelial cells. J Cell Biochem 2007; ...
P263 Nosocomial pneumonia caused by legionella pneumophila in a paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient ... P263 Nosocomial pneumonia caused by legionella pneumophila in a paediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient ... caused by Legionella pneumophilaserogroup 2oc-14oc curred in a 7-year-old patient following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell ...
Central nervous system graft-versus-host disease (CNS-GvHD) after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. * ... stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a matched unrelated donor for acute myeloid leukaemia. Clinical, biological and ...
Embryonic Stem Cell Research That Doesnt Destroy Human Life Cites Embryonic Stem Cell Research at UGA As Proof That Its ... Isakson Pushes Senate to Consider Another Alternative on Stem Cells: Embryonic Stem Cell Research That Doesnt Destroy Human ... Although stem cell research wont come up again this year, Isakson said the Senate must continue to address it and keep the ... "There is a way that we can invest in embryonic stem cell research without involving the destruction of an embryo that could be ...
Cancer Stem Cell News A blog of news items related to cancer stem cells, with an emphasis on recent research and articles that ... The editor is a member of the Board of Directors of the Cancer Stem Cell Consortium (CSCC), which is based in Ottawa, Canada.. ... A recent news item: Flatworms can shed new light on cancer, stem cells, News Track India, Sep 18, 2008. Excerpts:. During a ... The article is: Planarian PTEN homologs regulate stem cells and regeneration through TOR signaling, Néstor J. Oviedo, Bret J. ...
... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.).[37][38] Muse cells ( ... Stem cell division and differentiation A: stem cell; B: progenitor cell; C: differentiated cell; 1: symmetric stem cell ... Main article: Stem cell line. To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and ... Human embryonic stem cells A: Stem cell colonies that are not yet differentiated. B: Nerve cells, an example of a cell type ...
... cant advances in stem cell research and their potentials for therap- tic applications have attracted the attention of the ... The uproar over stem cells really began in 1998 with the s- cessful derivation of pluripotent human embryonic stem (ES) cells ... Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Embryoid Bodies: An In Vitro Model of Eutherian Pregastrulation Development and Early Gastrulation ... Neural Stem Cells: On Where They Hide, in Which Disguise, and How We May Lure Them Out ...
Troy+ brain stem cells cycle through quiescence and regulate their number by sensing niche occupancy Onur Basak, Teresa G. ... Regulatory discrimination of mRNAs by FMRP controls mouse adult neural stem cell differentiation Botao Liu, Yue Li, Emily E. ... Noggin rescues age-related stem cell loss in the brain of senescent mice with neurodegenerative pathology María Díaz-Moreno, ... VEGF preconditioning leads to stem cell remodeling and attenuates age-related decay of adult hippocampal neurogenesis Tamar ...
... still not seeing any definitive call on the stem cell vote in Missouri, but the pro side is ... ... Stem Cells posted by Alan Greenblatt At nearly 3 am, still not seeing any definitive call on the stem cell vote in Missouri, ... At nearly 3 am, still not seeing any definitive call on the stem cell vote in Missouri, but the pro side is up 51-49. ...
... Dissuading the Biomedical Community From Creating Human Embryos Is a Big Win By Corine Gatti , 2018-02-09 05:00:00 ...
Stem cells and Regenerative Technologies Stem cells are undifferentiated cells of various origin with the unique characteristic ... embryonic and non-embryonic induced stem cells are thought to potentially repair organs or replenish important cell losses such ... stem cells have been shown to have the potential for treatment of a wide variety of ailments. A lot of what we know about the ... To date the most widespread use of stem cell transplantation are from autologo. us and allogeneic peripheral and bone marrow. ...
... decision to ban federal funding for new embryonic stem-cell … ... Stem cells for research are drawn from blastocysts-embryos that ... decision to ban federal funding for new embryonic stem-cell lines. "In recent years, when it comes to stem-cell research, ... who was figuring out how to use a preëxisting stem-cell line to develop glial cells, which support the spinal cord and nervous ... Whether these excess blastocysts are simply discarded, as the opponents of stem-cell research would apparently prefer, or ...
... hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, and cancer stem cells. It helps us understand the ... Visvader J, Lindeman G. cancer stem cells: current status and evolving complexities. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10(6):717.CrossRef ... FoxOs cooperatively regulate diverse pathways governing neural stem cell homeostasis. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;5(5):540-53.CrossRef ... Human mesenchymal stem cells support unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cells and suppress T-cell activation. Bone Marrow ...
Understanding of leukemic stem cells and their clinical implications Since leukemic stem cells (LSCs) or cancer stem cells ( ... Cancer Stem Cells. * Content type: Research. Regulation of stem-like cancer cells by glutamine through β-catenin pathway ... Cancer stem cell niche models and contribution by mesenchymal stroma/stem cells The initiation and progression of malignant ... Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells ( ...
Keeping up with stem-cell research and the issues surrounding it can be a challenge. We examine some of the science basics and ... FAQ: Whats Up With Stem Cells?. You probably know the difference between a stem cell and a fuel cell. But if your ... Have adult stem cells been used to treat any diseases?. Doctors have been using adult stem cells, such as the blood-forming ... Embryonic stem-cell research is in the early stages. The first embryonic stem cells were isolated only recently - in 1998, by ...
... and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. ... Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. ... Stem cell chip. References[edit]. *^ Mahla RS (2016). "Stem cells application in regenerative medicine and disease threpeutics" ... to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells. ...
Human stem cells can come from an embryo or an adult human. They have many possible uses in science and medicine, yet ... Stem cells are basic cells that can become almost any type of cell in the body. ... What are stem cells and why are they important? Stem cells are a type of cell that we all produce. They are nonspecific cells ... At this stage, stem cells begin to differentiate.. Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into more cell types than adult stem ...
Expression of p63 by Stem and TA Cells of Epidermal Cultures.. In the epidermis, stem cells and TA cells are not segregated as ... This engraftment of stem cells will also be essential for successful gene therapy. Second, stem cells are thought to be ... Expression of p63 by Human Limbal/Corneal Stem and TA Cells.. Identification of epithelial stem cells may rely on label- ... Some polypeptides are more abundant in putative epidermal stem cells than in TA cells, but no polypeptide confined to the stem ...
Stem cells: Court allows federal funding for embryonic stem.... April 29, 2011 ... that might move public consensus toward a more comprehensive stem cell policy that includes supporting work on any stem cell ... Stem cells, the next step. The Obama administrations draft rules for federally funded research move the science forward, but ... The viewpoint of those who oppose embryonic stem cell research is that it ends human life by destroying embryos made up of just ...
... Stem Cell Training course: Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Culture. 2017-2018 - Course ... basic cell culture training course focusing on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The ... Lecture 4: Stem cells in cell therapy and drug discovery. • Lecture 5: The effect of reduced oxygen tension on feeder and ... Ludmila Ruban, Cell Therapy Research Facilitator and Training Coordinator and author of Human pluripotent stem cells in ...
When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a ... Stem Cells News and Research. RSS Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the ... Purification scheme allows collection of elusive blood stem cells from zebrafish Hematopoietic stem cells are multipotent cells ... Patients own stem cells offer a step toward improving motor, sensory function after spinal cord injury Stem cells derived from ...
Stem cell approaches for diabetes: towards beta cell replacement Stem cells hold great promise for pancreatic beta cell ... Human pluripotent cells such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and their in ... Focus on stem cells. The explosion of interest in stem cells, over the past decade or so, in both basic and translational ... Stem cell biology and drug discovery There are many reasons to be interested in stem cells, one of the most prominent being ...
Cancer stem cells. Definition. Cancer stem cells are rare immortal cells within a tumour that can both self-renew by dividing ... Autophagy and cancer stem cells: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic applications Autophagy and mitophagy are deregulated in ... Nivolumab-induced encephalitis post allogeneic stem cell transplant in a patient with Hodgkins disease *Alejandro De la Hoz ... LEAM versus CBV for conditioning in autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for lymphoma *Kelli Borges dos Santos ...
Adult stem cells reside in niches that maintain, regulate and protect them. Fresh light has now been shed on how the need for ... Figure 1 , Stem cells under an umbrella. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which give rise to blood-cell ... Cell umbrella protects stem cells from DNA damage. Adult stem cells reside in niches that maintain, regulate and protect them. ... presumably both to prevent stem-cell exhaustion (in which stem cells lose the ability to regenerate cell lineages) and to ...
  • Endothelial cells from the vein of the umbilical cord which are usually termed as HUVEC are also of interest to researchers as it can be manipulated in vitro to study endothelial cells behaviour and vascular-associated diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, it is suggested that HUVEC exhibited some stem cells characteristics and could be further investigated for possible application in research as well as in future cells therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • and one that was passed by the House, H.R.810, that would allow federal funding for embryonic stem cell research on human embryos that could have been implanted in the womb. (senate.gov)
  • Frist's package does not include a proposal offered by Isakson that would have allowed federal funding for embryonic stem cell research involving only non-viable embryos, meaning embryos that never could be implanted in a womb or become a fetus. (senate.gov)
  • Dr. Steve Stice of UGA is conducting research on three stem cells that were derived from non-viable embryos. (senate.gov)
  • "There is a way that we can invest in embryonic stem cell research without involving the destruction of an embryo that could be transferable to the womb and become a fetus," Isakson said. (senate.gov)
  • Not so long ago, the study of most stem cells, other than those that regenerated the haematopoietic system, was rather obscure and limited to a relatively small number of researchers and laboratories. (springer.com)
  • Two years later, Michael Specter took a look at the Bush Administration's approach to science , and found that, despite Proposition 71 and other small-bore efforts, stem-cell researchers were foundering under federal constraints. (newyorker.com)
  • They also believe embryonic stem cells can provide models to teach researchers about disease progression, and how to stop it. (wired.com)
  • Additionally, researchers believe that studying stem cells can help them understand how primordial cells transform into all the different types of cells in the human body. (wired.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Georgia, Emory University School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh have received a $2.9 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to test a novel method of producing viable sperm cells from skin cells. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers have published the results of their work where stem cell therapy has shown promise in a case of spinal cord injury. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers used genetic engineering to generate zebrafish lacking melanocytes, and found that HSPCs developed normally, indicating that the pigmented cells are not essential for HSPC maintenance. (nature.com)
  • Researchers have been looking into ways of using a patient's own cells to create embryonic stem cells, as this would ensure that the genetic material in any cells used therapeutically would match the patient's DNA. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers report that previous attempts to produce embryonic stem cells using this technique have failed, as the cells stopped dividing before they reached an advanced enough stage. (www.nhs.uk)
  • During their experiments, researchers identified two reasons for this inability to sufficiently grow the cells and developed techniques to overcome these limiting factors. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This study will no doubt be very exciting for researchers working with stem cells, but we're still a long way from the findings of this study being translated into new treatments for conditions such as Parkinson's disease or heart disease . (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers used a technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to transfer genetic material from adult human skin cells into a human egg cell in order to produce embryonic stem cells. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers then optimised methods to prompt the egg cell to start and continue to divide using electricity and chemical compounds, including caffeine. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The researchers use a laboratory based culture system to generate new blood from pluripotent stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • When investigating why the derived blood cells did not function as well as donor blood cells, the Lund University researchers found high levels of reactive oxygen species (a class of molecules that cause oxidation) in the newly derived blood cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers have also developed a cocktail of factors that could reduce oxidative damage in the cells, and when used resulted in over twenty times more newly generated blood stem cells that could grow. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers have only studied cells from mice, and human iPS cells may not trigger the same reaction. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers from the University of California, San Diego, tested the theory by creating both embryonic stem cells and iPS cells from mice and then transplanting the cells into genetically identical mice. (technologyreview.com)
  • Researchers emphasize that iPS cells still relatively little studied compared to embryonic stem cells, and extesnvie research is needed before using them in therapies. (technologyreview.com)
  • In addition to these widely studied stem cell types, researchers have used other extra cardiac stem cell types such as adipose derived stem cells [ 5 ], cortical bone derived stem cells [ 6 ], and cord blood stem cells for cardiac repair. (hindawi.com)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Japanese researchers who invented a way to make powerful stem cells out of ordinary cells say they have now found a safer way to do it. (reuters.com)
  • The researchers induced mouse cells to produce extra quantities of Nanog. (theregister.co.uk)
  • Led by Nam-Young Kang and Young-Tae Chang, the researchers discovered that their probe, named TiY (for tumor-initiating cell probe yellow), recognizes vimentin, which is a molecule in the cytoskeleton. (eurekalert.org)
  • Medical researchers at University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill announced Monday that they have made strides in the technology to rebuild damaged bone tissue using stem cells. (redorbit.com)
  • When they extracted bone marrow from these glow-in-the-dark mice, they got glow-in-the-dark stem cells, which the researchers then injected into ordinary mice with bone fractures. (redorbit.com)
  • And the researchers were able to grow the IPSCs into cell lines. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In each patient, researchers at University of California, San Francisco, transplanted 75 million neural stem cells into each of four sites in the brain and followed that with immunosuppressive therapy so the recipient wouldn't reject the foreign cells. (freerepublic.com)
  • University of Michigan ( UM ) researchers recently reported the discovery of a new method that could produce cardiac muscle patches from stem cells. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers believe that the stem biology findings will be beneficial to those who suffer from common but life-threatening heart diseases. (redorbit.com)
  • Chapters include information that will assist researchers in obtaining, characterizing and studying these cells or adapting them to the stem cells of choice. (worldcat.org)
  • Bovine mastitis is typically treated with antibiotics, but with the potential threat of antimicrobial resistance and the disease's long-term harm to the animal's teat, researchers at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine are laying the foundation for alternative therapies derived from stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers also found that the secreted factors were more effective against toxins produced by gram-negative bacteria, which are generally more resistant to antibodies because of their thicker cell walls. (eurekalert.org)
  • But now researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have turned their attention to another cell type in abundant supply: fat cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Other researchers in the field will be watching to see what further tests might reveal about the practicality of using fat cells instead of skin cells for iPS research. (scientificamerican.com)
  • A team of researchers has corrected a faulty gene in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from skin cells of people with an inherited metabolic liver disease. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The researchers then developed the stem cells into something resembling liver cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Stem cells cultured in labs are known to build up mutations (see Gene defects plague stem-cell lines), so, to check that their changes weren't making things worse, the researchers sequenced the genome of one of the corrected iPS cell lines and compared it to the genomes of the parental skin cells and the uncorrected iPS cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Before the cells can be developed into a clinical therapy, researchers must understand the biological consequences of these mutations, he says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Researchers are unable to guarantee that their work with stem cells will produce beneficial results. (pbs.org)
  • Now Canadian researchers have found a safe way to generate stem cells without using viruses to modify the genome, a process that can have its own dangers. (slashdot.org)
  • The ethical debate over embryonic stem cell use may soon be moot, thanks to a Canadian team of researchers who, together with a team out of Scotland, has found a safe way to grow stem cells from a patient's own skin. (slashdot.org)
  • The researchers found that fasting dramatically improves stem cells' ability to regenerate, in both aged and young mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • After mice fasted for 24 hours, the researchers removed intestinal stem cells and grew them in a culture dish, allowing them to determine whether the cells can give rise to "mini-intestines" known as organoids. (scienceblog.com)
  • Using new gene-editing technology, researchers have rewired mouse stem cells to fight inflammation caused by arthritis and other chronic conditions. (scienceblog.com)
  • The cells were developed at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Shriners Hospitals for Children-St. Louis, in collaboration with investigators at Duke University and Cytex Therapeutics Inc., both in Durham, N.C. The researchers initially worked with skin cells taken from the tails of mice and converted those cells into stem cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • The researchers also encoded the stem/cartilage cells with genes that made the cells light up when responding to inflammation, so the scientists easily could determine when the cells were responding. (scienceblog.com)
  • Japanese researchers have last week transplanted stem cells into a patient's brain as part of an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease. (news-medical.net)
  • The researchers further found that a stem cell shortage accelerates cellular ageing in the womb. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The researchers also looked at the effects of stretching stem cells on a smooth membrane with no microgrooves. (berkeley.edu)
  • After two days of this cellular exercise regimen, the researchers found a significant increase in the expression of a group of genes that control tensile strength, compared with cells that were not stretched. (berkeley.edu)
  • As for cell positioning, the researchers found that without the microgrooves, the stem cells would align themselves perpendicular to the direction of the stretch. (berkeley.edu)
  • In addition to finding that the perpendicular orientation significantly diminished the expression of genes for tensile strength, the researchers also saw a slight increase in cell proliferation when cells were aligned parallel to the axis of strain. (berkeley.edu)
  • LOS ANGELES - A treatment for eye diseases that is derived from human embryonic stem cells might have improved the vision of two patients, bolstering the beleaguered field, researchers reported Monday. (nytimes.com)
  • In this case, researchers at Advanced Cell Technology turned embryonic stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells. (nytimes.com)
  • On Tuesday an appeals court gave US stem cell researchers a boost by permanently lifting a ban imposed on their work in August by a federal judge, reports CNN . (newscientist.com)
  • The decision by the three appeals court judges following oral evidence from both sides on Monday means that, for now, federally funded researchers can continue their work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), which have the potential to turn into all tissues of the body. (newscientist.com)
  • Researchers in the medical school at the University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego) in a 2016 study repurposed the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to track RNA in live cells in a method called RNA-targeting Cas9 (RCas9). (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Toronto's Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME) and the Donnelly Centre have discovered a population of cells - dubbed to be "elite" - that play a key role in the process of transforming differentiated cells into stem cells. (utoronto.ca)
  • Some researchers believe that all cells have the capacity to be reprogrammed into an embryonic stem cell-like state, while others believe that only a specific subset of cells have this elite ability. (utoronto.ca)
  • The researchers hypothesize that the neural crest cells are "fated to be fit. (utoronto.ca)
  • Temporary squishiness could help drive blood-forming stem cells out of the bone marrow and into the blood, but the cells need to be stiff to stay put and replenish the blood and immune system, the researchers have found. (eurekalert.org)
  • Japanese researchers said Friday they have transplanted stem cells into the brain of a patient in the first stage of an innovative trial to cure Parkinson s disease. (freerepublic.com)
  • The researchers injected 2.4 million iPS cells into the left side of the patient s brain, in an operation that took about three hours. (freerepublic.com)
  • But other stem cell researchers said there was no choice but to retract the papers, now that fraud has been discovered. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Researchers in Jaenisch's lab immediately tried to create stem cells the same way, but they could not get the method to work. (bostonglobe.com)
  • Researchers at the Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnológica (iBET) in Portugal have tested the suitability of the Eppendorf DASbox ® Mini Bioreactor System for the cultivation of the human tumor cell line H157 as 3D cell aggregates. (eppendorf.com)
  • Researchers at Pluristem ® have gained a lot of experiences with packed-bed bioreactors and are using this technology for stem cell bioprocessing. (eppendorf.com)
  • The Stem Cell Community Day connects researchers from all over the world to review recent advances in the area of stem cells, with a special focus on cultivation in stirred-tank bioreactors. (eppendorf.com)
  • In January 2007, researchers at Wake Forest University reported that "stem cells drawn from amniotic fluid donated by pregnant women hold much of the same promise as embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to modern stem cell researchers, Spain is one of the leaders in stem cell research and currently has one of the most progressive legislations worldwide with respect to hESC research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Being able to skip the mouse feeder cell step necessary with skin cells, along with the shortened culturing period, may make the new method more palatable to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which must approve such treatments for human use and prefers methods that reduce opportunities for contamination. (scientificamerican.com)
  • HPCs are used in the treatment of many malignant (e.g., leukemia, lymphoma) and non-malignant (e.g., sickle cell disease) diseases to replace or rebuild a patient's hematopoietic system. (aabb.org)
  • So, vast amounts of stem cells could be made from a patient's own differentiated cells, like skin cells. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Her group's proposed strategy is to surgically remove the problematic blood vessels and replace the damaged RPE cells with new RPE cells derived from a patient's own cells. (freerepublic.com)
  • Since the iPS approach uses the patient's own cells, they avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs. (freerepublic.com)
  • These iPS cells come from healthy donors and are expected to develop into dopamine-producing brain cells that have been damaged in the patient's own brain. (news-medical.net)
  • This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The initiation and progression of malignant tumors is driven by distinct subsets of tumor-initiating or cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) which develop therapy/apoptosis resistance and self-renewal capacity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Self-renewal: the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. (slideshare.net)
  • Cancers frequently arise as the consequence of changes in cells' self-renewal pathways. (stanford.edu)
  • The Program postulates that self-renewal is a critical function of both cancer stem cells and their normal counterparts and that self-renewal pathways may be co-opted in the process of oncogenesis to support tumor growth. (stanford.edu)
  • This tumor cell-of-origin originates from a stem/progenitor or more differentiated cell via acquisition of oncogenic mutations that dysregulate or allow reacquisition of self-renewal mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • The classical definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties: Self-renewal: the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unipotent cells can produce only one cell type, their own, but have the property of self-renewal, which distinguishes them from non-stem cells (e.g. progenitor cells, which cannot self-renew). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the salutary effects of cell therapy have been attributed to these few surviving cells and recent efforts have focused on boosting the survival, proliferation, and cardiac commitment of the donated stem cell population. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the clinical efficacy of trastuzumab may relate to its ability to target the cancer stem cell population in HER2-amplified tumors. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The paper comes two months after the Geron Corporation cast a pall over the field by abruptly halting the world's first clinical trial based on embryonic stem cells - one aimed at treating spinal cord injury. (nytimes.com)
  • CMS will consider only prospective clinical trials that examine allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation's effect on the outcomes of relapse-free mortality, progression-free survival, relapse, and overall survival. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In a Phase I clinical trial in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD), a fatal myelination disorder in children, the Company has shown preliminary evidence of progressive and durable donor-derived myelination in all four patients transplanted with HuCNS-SC cells. (cnbc.com)
  • These cell lines will be used as an experimental pre-clinical model to study disease mechanisms unique to PD. (thepi.org)
  • 78:7634-7638, 1981) or from fetal germ cells (Matsui, et al. (google.es)
  • Dr Robert Iacono tried this, with fetal stem cells, back in 1989, and since he couldn't find a hospital in the US that would permit it, he dragged his patient, one Max Truex, to a clinic in Zhengzhou, China, where he had no problem in 'acquiring' fetal cells. (freerepublic.com)
  • Most of the iPS cells, by contrast, were not able to form teratomas, or made teratomas that were attacked or rejected by the immune systems of the host mice. (technologyreview.com)
  • The stem cells grew in culture and could form bone when implanted into mice. (howstuffworks.com)
  • When neural stem stems were injected into in mice, they showed 'robust engraftment and migration, the formation of new myelin,' Tsukamoto said. (freerepublic.com)
  • Injections of the cells into mice triggered no tumors, she also reported, and the cells survived for more than 6 months when transplanted into monkeys. (freerepublic.com)
  • Now, Yang Xu and colleagues from UC San Diego show how mice have rejected their transplanted iPS cells. (zdnet.com)
  • Further studies, including sequencing the messenger RNA of stem cells from the mice that fasted, revealed that fasting induces cells to switch from their usual metabolism, which burns carbohydrates such as sugars, to metabolizing fatty acids. (scienceblog.com)
  • The mutant mice were very sensitive to chemotherapy drugs, but it was also easier to spur blood stem cells out of their bone marrow. (eurekalert.org)
  • Blood stem cells from mutant mice could more easily squeeze through narrow pores. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, they showed that treating normal mice with blebbistatin, which interferes with parts of a cell's internal skeleton, also results in mobilization of stem cells into the blood. (eurekalert.org)
  • Obokata is now continuing her experiments to see if the technique will also work with cells from adult mice (she previously used newborns) as well as humans. (care2.com)
  • Embryonic stem cells were isolated in mice in 1981, and in humans in 1998. (wikipedia.org)
  • If I am reading correctly, the only "production-ready" stem cell treatments are involving cancer (specifically leukemia and other blood-related cancers) - there's been some success at replenishing bone marrow after a round of chemo knocks out all of the existing marrow. (slashdot.org)
  • Such stem cells are seen as potential treatments for conditions such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and paralysis. (bostonglobe.com)
  • 60 Minutes" worked with Gary and Judy Susser, parents of Adam, who has cerebral palsy, to investigate one of the online purveyors of stem cell treatments, Stem Tech Labs of Ecuador. (cbsnews.com)
  • The last ten years however has seen an explosion of cell based therapeutic approaches stimulating cardiac regeneration and in the process augmenting function in the heart following injury. (hindawi.com)
  • These cells must be eliminated to achieve a complete therapeutic response. (stanford.edu)
  • Introduction The search for an ideal stem cell population for therapeutic pur- poses has been a challenge for years and remains elusive. (slideshare.net)
  • ANN ARBOR, Mich., July 14 -- Malignant stem cells appear to fuel the growth and spread of aggressive HER2-positive breast cancer, suggesting clues for new therapeutic strategies, investigators here reported. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Sweden forbids reproductive cloning, but allows therapeutic cloning and authorized a stem cell bank. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University in Japan and colleagues invented a new way to transform ordinary cells into embryonic-like stem cells called iPS cells, using a ring of genetic material called a plasmid. (reuters.com)
  • A method of collecting embryonic-like stem cells from a placenta which has been treated to remove residual cord blood by perfusing the drained placenta with an anticoagulant solution to flush out residual cells, collecting the residual cells and perfusion liquid from the drained placenta, and separating. (google.com.au)
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 further comprising separating said embryonic-like stem cells from said residual cells and anticoagulant perfusion solution. (google.com.au)
  • 5 . The method of claim 2 including said embryonic-like stem cells are separated from said residual cells and anticoagulant perfusion solution by centrifugation. (google.com.au)
  • 8 . The method of claim 6 wherein the residual cells and embryonic-like stem cells are collected over a period of 24 to 48 hours after birth. (google.com.au)
  • Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cancer stem cells are rare immortal cells within a tumour that can both self-renew by dividing and give rise to many cell types that constitute the tumour, and can therefore form tumours. (nature.com)
  • Autophagy and mitophagy are deregulated in many types of cancer stem cells (CSCs). (nature.com)
  • Cancer stem cells", also known as tumor-initiating cells (TIC), appear to cause relapses after radiation and chemotherapy because a single surviving TIC can cause a new tumor to grow. (eurekalert.org)
  • To this end, a "probe" that marks these cancer stem cells would be useful so that they become visible. (eurekalert.org)
  • Although there are markers that also recognize TICs associated with some types of cancer, no universal, selective probe for cancer stem cells has been found. (eurekalert.org)
  • Breast cancer cells that overexpressed HER2 had four to five times as many cancer stem cells compared with HER2-negative breast cancer cells, Hasan Korkaya, Ph.D., of the University of Michigan, and colleagues reported online in Oncogene . (medpagetoday.com)
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that many types of cancer, including breast cancer, may be driven by a small subset of tumor-initiating cells or cancer stem cells that exhibit stem cell-like properties. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The experiments showed that HER2 exerts its effects on breast cancer via the cancer stem cells. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The undifferentiated character of brain tumor cells and recent reports of cancer stem cells prompt questions regarding the involvement of normal stem/progenitor cells in brain tumor biology, their potential contribution to the tumor itself, and whether they are the cause or the consequence of tumor initiation and progression. (nih.gov)
  • Several hepatic stem/progenitor markers are useful for isolating a subset of liver cells with stem cell features, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). (jci.org)
  • A population of keratinocyte stem cells in defined locations governs the renewal of mammalian stratified epithelia ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • In vivo , keratinocyte stem cells are usually slow-cycling and retain labeled DNA precursors, whereas TA cells divide rapidly and dilute their label quickly ( 4 - 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Diseases and conditions where stem cell treatment is promising or emerging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells also show promise for treating some diseases that currently have no cure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Here is a list of diseases for which stem cell transplant may be an option. (aabb.org)
  • Now that you have a good idea of what stems cells are and how they work, let's see how they can be used to treat diseases. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Because they are responsible for the body's natural ability to fight diseases, heal and recover, or fail and succumb to various maladies, it has become increasingly important to adapt or devise new methods to identify and obtain these cells in quantity and purity for further study. (worldcat.org)
  • This capacity may make them valuable in treating diseases caused by the malfunction or degeneration of a particular kind of cell (e.g. (pbs.org)
  • Recently, Guilak's team has begun testing the engineered stem cells in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. (scienceblog.com)
  • In a new study, published Aug. 10 in Cell , the team took RCas9 a step further, using the technique to correct molecular mistakes that lead to microsatellite repeat expansion diseases, which include myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2, the most common form of hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • Microsatellite repeat expansion diseases arise because there are errant repeats in RNA sequences that are toxic to the cell, in part because they prevent production of crucial proteins. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • In this proof-of-concept study, Yeo's team used RCas9 to eliminate the problem-causing RNAs associated with microsatellite repeat expansion diseases in patient-derived cells and cellular models of the diseases in the laboratory. (drugdiscoverynews.com)
  • Dr. Joanne Kurtzberg of Duke University tells Scott Pelley that stem cells purchased from one of the hundreds of websites promising stem cell cures for incurable diseases could actually cause a patient serious harm. (cbsnews.com)
  • Kurtzberg decries the websites offering unproven stem cell remedies for what are currently incurable diseases like autism, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and every kind of cancer. (cbsnews.com)
  • She hears from patients who see those websites and has to inform them that thus far, stem cells have been used to successfully treat leukemia and a few rare genetic diseases and nothing else. (cbsnews.com)
  • The existence of niches has long been predicted from mammalian studies, but identifying stem. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As described today in two papers ( 1 , 2 ) published in the journal Nature , mammalian cells can be exposed to very low levels of acid and a few other factors. (care2.com)