Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.
Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).
A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.
Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.
Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from:
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.
The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.
Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.
Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Transplantation between animals of different species.
An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Cell-surface molecules that exhibit lineage-restricted patterns of expression during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. The antigens are useful markers in the identification of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.
An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.
Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.
A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.
An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.
The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.
An alkylating agent having a selective immunosuppressive effect on BONE MARROW. It has been used in the palliative treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (MYELOID LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC), but although symptomatic relief is provided, no permanent remission is brought about. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), busulfan is listed as a known carcinogen.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Clonal hematopoetic disorder caused by an acquired genetic defect in PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS. It starts in MYELOID CELLS of the bone marrow, invades the blood and then other organs. The condition progresses from a stable, more indolent, chronic phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, CHRONIC PHASE) lasting up to 7 years, to an advanced phase composed of an accelerated phase (LEUKEMIA, MYELOID, ACCELERATED PHASE) and BLAST CRISIS.

Inhibition of in vitro enteric neuronal development by endothelin-3: mediation by endothelin B receptors. (1/16085)

The terminal colon is aganglionic in mice lacking endothelin-3 or its receptor, endothelin B. To analyze the effects of endothelin-3/endothelin B on the differentiation of enteric neurons, E11-13 mouse gut was dissociated, and positive and negative immunoselection with antibodies to p75(NTR )were used to isolate neural crest- and non-crest-derived cells. mRNA encoding endothelin B was present in both the crest-and non-crest-derived cells, but that encoding preproendothelin-3 was detected only in the non-crest-derived population. The crest- and non-crest-derived cells were exposed in vitro to endothelin-3, IRL 1620 (an endothelin B agonist), and/or BQ 788 (an endothelin B antagonist). Neurons and glia developed only in cultures of crest-derived cells, and did so even when endothelin-3 was absent and BQ 788 was present. Endothelin-3 inhibited neuronal development, an effect that was mimicked by IRL 1620 and blocked by BQ 788. Endothelin-3 failed to stimulate the incorporation of [3H]thymidine or bromodeoxyuridine. Smooth muscle development in non-crest-derived cell cultures was promoted by endothelin-3 and inhibited by BQ 788. In contrast, transcription of laminin alpha1, a smooth muscle-derived promoter of neuronal development, was inhibited by endothelin-3, but promoted by BQ 788. Neurons did not develop in explants of the terminal bowel of E12 ls/ls (endothelin-3-deficient) mice, but could be induced to do so by endothelin-3 if a source of neural precursors was present. We suggest that endothelin-3/endothelin B normally prevents the premature differentiation of crest-derived precursors migrating to and within the fetal bowel, enabling the precursor population to persist long enough to finish colonizing the bowel.  (+info)

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (2/16085)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (3/16085)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Deletion analysis of the Drosophila Inscuteable protein reveals domains for cortical localization and asymmetric localization. (4/16085)

The Drosophila Inscuteable protein acts as a key regulator of asymmetric cell division during the development of the nervous system [1] [2]. In neuroblasts, Inscuteable localizes into an apical cortical crescent during late interphase and most of mitosis. During mitosis, Inscuteable is required for the correct apical-basal orientation of the mitotic spindle and for the asymmetric segregation of the proteins Numb [3] [4] [5], Prospero [5] [6] [7] and Miranda [8] [9] into the basal daughter cell. When Inscuteable is ectopically expressed in epidermal cells, which normally orient their mitotic spindle parallel to the embryo surface, these cells reorient their mitotic spindle and divide perpendicularly to the surface [1]. Like the Inscuteable protein, the inscuteable RNA is asymmetrically localized [10]. We show here that inscuteable RNA localization is not required for Inscuteable protein localization. We found that a central 364 amino acid domain - the Inscuteable asymmetry domain - was necessary and sufficient for Inscuteable localization and function. Within this domain, a separate 100 amino acid region was required for asymmetric localization along the cortex, whereas a 158 amino acid region directed localization to the cell cortex. The same 158 amino acid fragment could localize asymmetrically when coexpressed with the full-length protein, however, and could bind to Inscuteable in vitro, suggesting that this domain may be involved in the self-association of Inscuteable in vivo.  (+info)

JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. (5/16085)

Lack of JunB, an immediate early gene product and member of the AP-1 transcription factor family causes embryonic lethality between E8.5 and E10.0. Although mutant embryos are severely retarded in growth and development, cellular proliferation is apparently not impaired. Retardation and embryonic death are caused by the inability of JunB-deficient embryos to establish proper vascular interactions with the maternal circulation due to multiple defects in extra-embryonic tissues. The onset of the phenotypic defects correlates well with high expression of junB in wild-type extra-embryonic tissues. In trophoblasts, the lack of JunB causes a deregulation of proliferin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene expression, resulting in a defective neovascularization of the decidua. As a result of downregulation of the VEGF-receptor 1 (flt-1), blood vessels in the yolk sac mesoderm appeared dilated. Mutant embryos which escape these initial defects finally die from a non-vascularized placental labyrinth. Injection of junB-/- embryonic stem (ES) cells into tetraploid wild-type blastocysts resulted in a partial rescue, in which the ES cell-derived fetuses were no longer growth retarded and displayed a normal placental labyrinth. Therefore, JunB appears to be involved in multiple signaling pathways regulating genes involved in the establishment of a proper feto-maternal circulatory system.  (+info)

Cloning of a novel gene specifically expressed in clonal mouse chondroprogenitor-like EC cells, ATDC5. (6/16085)

We cloned a full-length cDNA encoding a novel mouse protein, A-C2, by differential display method using mouse embryonic fibroblast C3H10T1/2 cells and mouse chondroprogenitor-like EC cells, ATDC5. The deduced amino acid sequence of A-C2 consisted of 106 amino acids with no significant homology to the sequences previously reported. Northern blot analysis showed two major bands of 2.1 and 1.8 kb sizes. Expression of A-C2 mRNA was exclusive to ATDC5 cells at their undifferentiated stage. None of ATDC5 cells at their differentiated stage and adult mice tissues examined expressed A-C2 gene.  (+info)

Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. (7/16085)

It is not known whether subsets of dendritic cells provide different cytokine microenvironments that determine the differentiation of either type-1 T helper (TH1) or TH2 cells. Human monocyte (pDC1)-derived dendritic cells (DC1) were found to induce TH1 differentiation, whereas dendritic cells (DC2) derived from CD4+CD3-CD11c- plasmacytoid cells (pDC2) induced TH2 differentiation by use of a mechanism unaffected by interleukin-4 (IL-4) or IL-12. The TH2 cytokine IL-4 enhanced DC1 maturation and killed pDC2, an effect potentiated by IL-10 but blocked by CD40 ligand and interferon-gamma. Thus, a negative feedback loop from the mature T helper cells may selectively inhibit prolonged TH1 or TH2 responses by regulating survival of the appropriate dendritic cell subset.  (+info)

Endothelial cells modulate the proliferation of mural cell precursors via platelet-derived growth factor-BB and heterotypic cell contact. (8/16085)

Embryological data suggest that endothelial cells (ECs) direct the recruitment and differentiation of mural cell precursors. We have developed in vitro coculture systems to model some of these events and have shown that ECs direct the migration of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells (10T1/2 cells) and induce their differentiation toward a smooth muscle cell/pericyte lineage. The present study was undertaken to investigate cell proliferation in these cocultures. ECs and 10T1/2 cells were cocultured in an underagarose assay in the absence of contact. There was a 2-fold increase in bromodeoxyuridine labeling of 10T1/2 cells in response to ECs, which was completely inhibited by the inclusion of neutralizing antiserum against platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B. Antisera against PDGF-A, basic fibroblast growth factor, or transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta had no effect on EC-stimulated 10T1/2 cell proliferation. EC proliferation was not influenced by coculture with 10T1/2 cells in the absence of contact. The cells were then cocultured so that contact was permitted. Double labeling and fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis revealed that ECs and 10T1/2 cells were growth-inhibited by 43% and 47%, respectively. Conditioned media from contacting EC-10T1/2 cell cocultures inhibited the growth of both cell types by 61% and 48%, respectively. Although we have previously shown a role for TGF-beta in coculture-induced mural cell differentiation, growth inhibition resulting from contacting cocultures or conditioned media was not suppressed by the presence of neutralizing antiserum against TGF-beta. Furthermore, the decreased proliferation of 10T1/2 cells in the direct cocultures could not be attributed to downregulation of the PDGF-B in ECs or the PDGF receptor-beta in the 10T1/2 cells. Our data suggest that modulation of proliferation occurs during EC recruitment of mesenchymal cells and that heterotypic cell-cell contact and soluble factors play a role in growth control during vessel assembly.  (+info)

Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells: Development In Vivo and Derivation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells In Vitro for Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration -- Progenitor Cell Transplantation for Retinal Disease -- Negative Regulation of Endogenous Stem Cells in Sensory Neuroepithelia: Implications for Neurotherapeutics -- Epigenetic Control of Neural Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Specification -- Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenic Niche in the Adult Brain -- Progressing Neural Stem Cell Lines to the Clinic -- Human Neural Stem Cells for Biopharmaceutical Applications -- The Analysis of MicroRNAs in Stem Cells -- Optimized Growth of Human Embryonic Stem Cells -- Potential of Stem Cells in Liver Regeneration -- Cell Transplantation Therapy for Myocardial Repair: Current Status and Future Challenges -- Surgical Stem Cell Therapy for the Treatment of Heart Failure -- Use of Combinatorial Screening to Discover Protocols That Effectively Direct the Differentiation of Stem Cells -- Adult Stem Cell ...
Introduction. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Summary 3. What are stem cells? 3.1 Adult stem cells 3.2 Core blood stem cells 3.3 Embryonic stem cells 4. Potentially of embryonic stem cells 5. UK Stem Cell bank. 6. Controversial Issues 7. Bibliography 1. Introduction This is a report on stem cells and the stem cell bank The aim of this report to overview stem cell research, including stem cell banks and pitched at general readers of non scientific background. 2 Summary This report consists of brief information on what stem cells are and their sources, the UK Stem Cell Bank and the controversy surrounding embryonic stem cell research. The main point of this report is the potential for treatment of illness using embryonic stem cells. 3. What are Stem Cells? Stem cells are unspecialized (cells of no particular function) that reproduce themselves continually and under the right conditions develop from simple to more complex cells which are specialized to perform particular functions, this is termed cell ...
During asymmetric stem cell division, both the daughter stem cell and the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell inherit cytoplasm from their parental stem cell. Thus, proper specification of intermediate progenitor cell identity requires an efficient mechanism to rapidly extinguish the activity of self-renewal factors, but the mechanisms remain unknown in most stem cell lineages. During asymmetric division of a type II neural stem cell (neuroblast) in the Drosophila larval brain, the Brain tumor (Brat) protein segregates unequally into the immature intermediate neural progenitor (INP), where it specifies INP identity by attenuating the function of the self-renewal factor Klumpfuss (Klu), but the mechanisms are not understood. Here, we report that Brat specifies INP identity through its N-terminal B-boxes via a novel mechanism that is independent of asymmetric protein segregation. Brat-mediated specification of INP identity is critically dependent on the function of the Wnt destruction ...
Stem cell transplantation has the long history of more than 50 years from the first bone marrow transplantation in 1957. From the 2000s, clinical applications of stem cells significantly increased with more diseases and more patients treated with stem cells. Both autologous stem cells and allogeneic stem cells as well as adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and both in vitro non-expanded stem cells and in vitro expanded stem cells were clinically applied. For adult stem cells, besides hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), neural stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, limbal stem cells... also were used in the treatment of some diseases. To the year 2015, applications of MSCs have dramatically increased when some MSCs-based drugs that were approved and commercialized in some countries. About iPSCs, Japanese scientists also firstly applied the iPSCs in treatment of ophthalmological diseases. Currently, the European Medicines Agency approved the ...
Deficiency of corneal epithelium causes vision impairment or blindness in severe cases. Transplantation of corneal epithelial cells is an effective treatment but the availability of the tissue source for those cells is inadequate. Stem cells can be induced to differentiate to corneal epithelial cells and used in the treatment. Multipotent stem cells (mesenchymal stem cells) and pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells) are promising cells to address the problem. Various protocols have been developed to induce differentiation of the stem cells into corneal epithelial cells. The feasibility and efficacy of both human stem cells and animal stem cells have been investigated for corneal epithelium regeneration. However, some physiological aspects of animal stem cells are different from those of human stem cells, the protocols suited for animal stem cells might not be suitable for human stem cells. Therefore, in this review, only the investigations of corneal epithelial
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of NOX2 in mediating doxorubicin-induced senescence in human endothelial progenitor cells. AU - De Falco, Elena. AU - Roberto, Carnevale. AU - Pagano, Francesca. AU - Chimenti, Isotta. AU - Fianchini, Luca. AU - Bordin, Antonella. AU - Siciliano, Camilla. AU - Monticolo, Roberto. AU - Equitani, Francesco. AU - Carrizzo, Albino. AU - Peruzzi, Mariangela. AU - Vecchione, Carmine. AU - Rubattu, Speranza. AU - Sciarretta, Sebastiano. AU - Frati, Giacomo. PY - 2016/1/30. Y1 - 2016/1/30. N2 - Senescence exerts a great impact on both biological and functional properties of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), especially in cardiovascular diseases where the physiological process of aging is accelerated upon clinical administration of certain drugs such as doxorubicin. EPC impairment contributes to doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Doxorubicin accelerates EPC aging, although mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain to be fully clarified. Here we investigated if Nox2 ...
AMSBIO has expanded its wide and varied catalogue of primary and progenitor cell types and media with a new range of human endothelial progenitor cells (EPC).. Read More ...
Stem cells cells of the body (somatic cells) which can divide and become differentiated.[1]. When an organism grows, stem cells specialize, and take specific functions. For instance, mature tissues like skin, muscle, blood, bone, liver, nerves, all have different types of cells. Because stem cells are not yet differentiated, they can change to become some kind of specialized cells. Organisms also use stem cells to replace damaged cells.. Stem cells are found in most, if not all, plants and animals. They divide and differentiate into a range of cell types.Research in the stem cell field grew out of findings in the 1960s.[2][3]. The two broad types of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells, and adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialised embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of blood, ...
|strong|Rabbit anti Mouse stem cell factor antibody|/strong| recognizes mouse stem cell factor (SCF).|br||br|SCF is a stromal cell derived cytokine that synergizes with other haemapoietic growth facto…
Stem cells possess the unique ability to differentiate into many distinct cell types in the body, including brain cells, but they also retain the ability to produce more stem cells, a process termed self-renewal. There are multiple types of stem cell, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and adult or somatic stem cells. While various types of stem cells share similar properties there are differences as well. For example, ES cells and iPS cells are able to differentiate into any type of cell, whereas adult stem cells are more restricted in their potential. The promise of all stem cells for use in future therapies is exciting, but significant technical hurdles remain that will only be overcome through years of intensive research.. NINDS supports a diverse array of research on stem cells, from studies of the basic biology of stem cells in the developing and adult mammalian brain, to studies focusing on nervous system disorders such as ALS or spinal cord injury. ...
There are two basic stem cell types. The first is called unlimited stem cells (also known as embryonic stem cells). These can turn into any kind of cell, while the second type is termed limited stem cells (also known as adult stem cells).. With the unlimited type of stem cells, the cells have the potential to become any human cell type. They can be replicated outside the body and have applications for many human diseases.. Limited stem cells, though, do not have the same limitless potential and cannot be replicated outside the body. They need to be either frozen or immediately transplanted into the body.. R3 stem cell clinics do not work with embryonic stem cells, only adult stem cells that exist in two varieties:. 1) Hematopoietic Stem Cells - these exist in human bone marrow and are able to differentiate into most cell types.. 2) Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) - MSCs have been isolated from placenta, adipose tissue, lung, bone marrow and blood. They are able to differentiate into many ...
Stem cells play an essential role in embryonic development, cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. Tissue homeostasis in adults is maintained by adult stem cells resident in the niches of different tissues. As one kind of adult stem cell, epidermal stem cells have the potential to generate diversified types of progeny cells in the skin. Although its biology is still largely unclarified, epidermal stem cells are widely used in stem cell research and regenerative medicine given its easy accessibility and pluripotency. Despite the same genome, cells within an organism have different fates due to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In this review, we will briefly discuss the current understanding of epigenetic modulation in epidermal stem cells.
The treating doctor will determine the use of cord blood for treatment, depending on many factors, including the patients medical condition, the quality of the cord blood sample, if the patients own cord blood can be used or an adequately matched donors cord blood.The use of cord blood has been established in stem cell transplantation and has been used to treat more than 80 diseases. The use of cord blood in regenerative medicine is still being researched and there is no guarantee that treatments being studied in the laboratory, clinical trials, or other experimental treatments will be available in the future.The use of cord tissue stem cells is still in early research stages, and there is no guarantee that treatments using cord tissue stem cells will be available in the future. Cord tissue stem cells are found in the cord tissue which is stored whole. Additional processing will be required to isolate the stem cells from the tissue for use. CELVI (Pty) Ltd outsources all cord blood and tissue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - β1-integrin is a cell-autonomous factor mediating the Numb pathway for cardiac progenitor maintenance. AU - Gibbs, Brian C.. AU - Shenje, Lincoln. AU - Andersen, Peter. AU - Miyamoto, Matthew. AU - Kwon, Chulan. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Proper control of multipotent/stem cell number and fate is essential for ensuing organ formation during development. β1-integrin, a subfamily of cell surface receptors, has a conserved role in maintenance of multipotent/stem cells, including renal progenitor cells, follicle stem cells, epidermal stem cells and neural stem cells. However, it remains unclear whether β1-integrin has a role in cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) development. Here we show that a mesodermal deletion of β1-integrin decreases Isl1+ cell number in the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), where CPCs undergo renewal and expansion. Mesp1 lineage-specific mosaicism revealed that β1-integrin-deleted Isl1+ cells do not proliferate in the PA2. Consistently, β1-integrin-deleted ...
Title:Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors from Zebrafish Embryo: A Novel Strategy to Modulate the Fate of Normal and Pathological Human (Stem) Cells. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 9. Author(s):Pier M. Biava, Silvia Canaider, Federica Facchin, Eva Bianconi, Liza Ljungberg, Domenico Rotilio, Fabio Burigana and Carlo Ventura. Affiliation:Scientific Institute of Research and Care Multimedica, Milano, Italy.. Keywords:Stem cell differentiation stage factors, cancer stem cells, human adipose-derived stem cells, cell reprogramming, cancer therapies, psoriasis, anti-aging treatments, neurodegeneration.. Abstract:In spite of the growing body of evidence on the biology of the Zebrafish embryo and stem cells, including the use of Stem Cell Differentiation Stage Factors (SCDSFs) taken from Zebrafish embryo to impact cancer cell dynamics, comparatively little is known about the possibility to use these factors to modulate the homeostasis of normal human stem cells or to modulate the behavior of cells involved in ...
Adult neural stem cells are the source for restoring injured brain tissue. We used repetitive imaging to follow single stem cells in the intact and injured adult zebrafish telencephalon in vivo and found that neurons are generated by both direct conversions of stem cells into postmitotic neurons and via intermediate progenitors amplifying the neuronal output. We observed an imbalance of direct conversion consuming the stem cells and asymmetric and symmetric self-renewing divisions, leading to depletion of stem cells over time. After brain injury, neuronal progenitors are recruited to the injury site. These progenitors are generated by symmetric divisions that deplete the pool of stem cells, a mode of neurogenesis absent in the intact telencephalon. Our analysis revealed changes in the behavior of stem cells underlying generation of additional neurons during regeneration.. ...
Tissue-specific Blood Stem Cells Established From Embryonic Stem Cells Monday, 28 April 2008 A research team at the Umeå Center for Molecular Medicine (UCMM) in Sweden, led by Professor Leif Carlsson, has managed to specifically establish and isolate the tissue-specific stem cell that produces blood cells (blood stem cell) by using genetically modified embryonic stem cells. A deeper understanding of the regulation of blood stem cells is important if we are to be able to further develop treatments for diseases that require bone marrow transplants, such as leukaemia, immune deficiencies, and anaemia disorders. Blood stem cells are unique in that they can both continually generate all types of blood cells and also produce new stem cells, so-called self-regeneration. These two properties are the basic reason why we have a functioning blood system throughout our lives and why bone marrow transplants are a functional treatment method. An understanding of how tissue-specific stem cells are produced ...
New insights have been added to identification, behavior and cellular properties of embryonic and tissue-specific stem cells over the last few years. in the lung, can help to identify novel targets which will prevent and rescue the fatal lung disease in Rabbit Polyclonal to RPLP2 infancy and childhood and for lung regeneration after injury. Furthermore, identification of the molecular programs regulating the balance between the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous lung-specific stem cells is critical for developing techniques that harness the ability of these cells to regenerate diseased and damaged lungs. Despite its importance, little is known about ACD in epithelial stem cells in the lung. Undifferentiated epithelial stem cells undergo multiple division-linked cell fate decisions (symmetric and asymmetric) in the lung, which lead to an apparently homogeneous expansion of the stem cell populace (Lu et al., 2008; Rawlins, 2008). Multipotent epithelial stem cells localize within the ...
Asymmetric stem cell divisions provide an efficient mechanism for maintaining a steady stem cell pool while generating progenitor cells that give rise to differentiated progeny within the tissue where the stem cells reside (Morrison and Kimble, 2006; Pontious et al., 2008; Kriegstein and Alvarez-Buylla, 2009; Knoblich, 2010; Weng and Lee, 2011). Progenitor cells possess restricted developmental potential and function to protect the genomic integrity of stem cells by minimizing their proliferation. Since both daughter cells inherit the cellular content from their parental stem cell during asymmetric division, proper specification of sibling cell identity requires precise control of stem cell determinants. Failure to properly downregulate stem cell determinants in presumptive progenitor cells might allow them to acquire stem cell-like functional properties, and can perturb tissue homeostasis and contribute to tumor formation (Krivtsov et al., 2006; Wei et al., 2008). Thus, mechanistic insight into ...
Stem Cells go where your body needs them to go and become what your body needs them to become. You could take your own fat tissue, bone marrow, or blood and get stem cells. However, this is a surgical procedure and cost could range from $5,000-$40,000. Also, you may not be able to learn how many stem cells from your fat tissue or bone marrow are actually injected into your body. The good part is the stem cells are your own so you dont have to worry about allergic reactions. The bad information is that at birth you have 1 stem cell for every 10,000 cells; at 16 you have 1 stem cell for every 100, 000 cells; and at 60 you have 1 stem cell for every 2-3 million cells. So, the younger you are the more likely you will have a good outcome.. Another option is to try placental cell stem cells. Placental stem cells per milliliter range from 1,000 to 3,000 stem cells per mL. You will need a lot of fluid. Amniotic fluid has stem cells but the government has not given a number of stem cells per mL because ...
When I was doing the chapter 5 guided reading, I spent most of my time reading about stem cells. I wanted to know more about what they are able to do and the controversy in using embryonic stem cells. The main characteristics of stem cells, that you most likely know, are as follows: they can renew themselves and they can differentiate. These two characteristics are what most scientists agree on. There are also two different types of stem cells used for research. They are adult stem cells and embryonic stem cells. Adult stem cells are more likely to be rejected than embryonic stem cells, so embryonic stem cells seem better to research with. This is where the controversy comes in. When taking these cells from an embryo, scientists are killing the human child it would have been developed into. So far, these embryonic stem cells come from unwanted embryos. Politicians are trying to make this type of research illegal because they think it kills human life. Im not saying whether this is right or ...
Stem Cell Therapy For Oral Cancer.How Stem Cells Limit The Negative Effects Of Brain Cancer . Targeted Therapy In Breast Cancer. Candidiasis In Febrile Neutropenia. Best Gallery Images for Your Reference and Informations
What are Stem Cells?. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the potential to become specialized types of cells. Stem cells can be categorized as embryonic stem cells or adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are derived from a human fetus; there are many ethical concerns with embryonic stem cells, and these are not used in our practice.. Stem Cells are the seeds that grow into new muscle, tendon, ligament, cartilage and bone. These primitive cells are stored in our bodies in several places but they are very rich and easily accessible in bone marrow. In the case of PRP-Therapy, a few local stem cells can be triggered to help rebuild damaged tissue and more may trickle in over time. When Stem cells are actively harvested from bone marrow, concentrated in a centrifuge and mixed with a PRP injection, the results can be much more profound. This is because many thousands more cells are directly introduced to the injured area which can result in much faster and more extensive repair.. ...
Video: Plant Stem Cell Therapy - English. Most of us are familiar with Human Stem Cells.. Stem cells are biological cells found in all multi-cellular organisms, that can divide through mitosis and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self renew to produce more stem cells.. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells that are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells that are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenished in adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells, but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.. HOWEVER - the use of Human stem cells in medicine has many complications. Problems with rejection by the immune system has been common. Plus there are political, moral and ethical problems connected with using stem ...
Hamilton, Ont. May 29, 2012-Actium Research Inc., (Actium or the Company) Toronto, and McMaster University (McMaster), Hamilton, have entered into a landmark collaboration covering McMasters proprietary adult human stem cell lines, cancer stem cells and the directed differentiation platform developed by Dr. Mick Bhatia and his team at the McMaster Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute (The Stem Cell Institute). Together these technologies and the expertise at The Stem Cell Institute provide leading edge tools for drug discovery and better treatments for serious illnesses. Actium is a drug discovery and development company targeting two types of stem cells; cancer stem cells to improve survival and health outcomes and normal tissue stem cells to promote healing and address the need for cure in chronic diseases. Actium was founded by Dr. David Young and Helen Findlay. Dr. Bhatia joined as the scientific founder in 2012. The team will put their experience with managing drug discovery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enrichment in c-Kit improved differentiation potential of amniotic membrane progenitor/stem cells. AU - Resca, E.. AU - Zavatti, M.. AU - Maraldi, T.. AU - Bertoni, L.. AU - Beretti, F.. AU - Guida, M.. AU - La Sala, G. B.. AU - Guillot, P. V.. AU - David, A. L.. AU - Sebire, N. J.. AU - De Pol, A.. AU - De Coppi, P.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Introduction Human term placenta has attracted increasing attention as an alternative source of stem cells for regenerative medicine since it is accessible without ethical objections. The amniotic membrane (AM) contains at least two stem cell types from different embryological origins: ectodermal amniotic epithelial stem cells, and mesodermal mesenchymal stromal cells. Among the second group we studied the characteristics of amniotic mesenchymal cells (AMC) versus the ones enriched for the commonly used surface marker c-Kit (amniotic progenitor/stem cells-ASC), a stem cell factor receptor with crucial functions in a variety of ...
Everyone has heard of stem cell therapies, but few know much about the controversy and the reasons why we DO NOT HAVE a stem cell program in the US. But I, Tim Bolen, know why, and I am, with the assistance of some stem cell expert friends of mine, like David Steenblock DO, and Rick Jaffe Esq., going to tell you whats REALLY going on.. In short stem cells are magnificent. They repair damage to the body - bones, brains, muscle tissue - everything. Scientific proof, around the world, abounds. There is NO SCIENTIFIC ARGUMENT against them - THEY WORK. So why arent we embracing this technology in the US? Pure, unadulterated, greed and public malfeasance.. The controversy over stem cells is because there are two kinds of stem cells - embryonic and adult. (1) Embryonic stem cells are PATENTABLE and would make BIG Pharma another massive fortune. (2) Adult stem cells are natural, work extremely well, but THERE is NOTHING to patent.. Embryonic stem cells are made from aborted fetal tissue, and although ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of endogenous neural stem cells for multiple sclerosis therapy. AU - Michailidou, Iliana. AU - de Vries, Helga E. AU - Hol, Elly M. AU - van Strien, Miriam E. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, leading to severe neurological deficits. Current MS treatment regimens, consist of immunomodulatory agents aiming to reduce the rate of relapses. However, these agents are usually insufficient to treat chronic neurological disability. A promising perspective for future therapy of MS is the regeneration of lesions with replacement of the damaged oligodendrocytes or neurons. Therapies targeting to the enhancement of endogenous remyelination, aim to promote the activation of either the parenchymal oligodendrocyte progenitor cells or the subventricular zone-derived neural stem cells (NSCs). Less studied but highly potent, is the strategy of neuronal regeneration with endogenous NSCs that although being ...
Hu Y, Hung AC, Cui H, Dawkins E, Foa L, et al., APP stimulates neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation by increasing cystatin C secretion. (Poster), 33rd Annual Meeting Australian Neuroscience Society, January, Melbourne, Australia (2013) [Conference Extract ...
A number of current stem cell treatments already. their ability to make choices explains why they stay as stem cells in culture.Stap cells: research paper on stem cell breakthrough was partly falsified.This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics.In five pages this research paper considers embryonic stem cells and current research in this.Humans Clinical outcome after stem cell mobilization with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: 5-year results of the STEMMI trial Bookmark Download by.This walkthrough for stem cells are you need your access is central storage warehouse co.Humans The Clinical Impact of Vascular Growth Factors and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Bookmark Download by.. HOW IS THE ETHICS OF STEM CELL RESEARCH DIFFERENT. in order to make stem cells1 are very early embryos. Thomson can easily be seen in her paper.This differential in replicative ...
Researchers have identified the gene which controls the critical self-renewal function of stem cells. Both adult and embryonic stem cells are able to repeatedly renew themselves, which allows them to be grown up in large numbers in the laboratory before being differentiated into specific tissue types. Although both types of stem cell - adult and embryonic - are able to do this, embryonic stem cells are able to differentiate into a broader range of cell types than adult stem cells. A team of scientists led by Boris Reizis of Columbia University Medical Center in New York, working on mouse cells, found that the gene Zfx controls self-renewal in both embryonic stem cells and in haematopoietic stem cells - adult blood precursor cells. The researchers published their findings in the journal Cell.. Other genes have previously been found that promote self renewal in embryonic cells - Oct4, Nanog and Sox2 - but Zfx is the first to control the same function in both adult and embryonic stem cells. Reizis ...
Medically reviewed by Brett E. Glotzbecker, MD. A stem cell transplant is an infusion of healthy stem cells. Stem cells are located within the bone marrow and are the cells from which all other blood cells and the immune system are created.. There are several side effects that patients may experience as they undergo stem cell transplantation. Here are the side effects that may occur during the conditioning process, which prepares your immune system for the stem cell transplant, as well as how you may feel during and immediately after the infusion of new stem cells.. Conditioning. To prepare for a stem cell transplant, you will go through conditioning treatment, which may include chemotherapy and/or radiation. Side effects of conditioning may include mouth sores, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, dry mouth, hair loss, rashes and breathing problems.. Stem Cell Infusion. After conditioning comes the actual stem cell infusion, when you will receive your new stem cells. The most common side ...
ABSTRACT. Advances in regenerative medicine have been concentrated in Stem cells research and its clinical applications. Embryonic and adult stem cells have been widely studied and characterized; cells lines and therapies have been developed since the first evidence of the existence of stem cells was obtained in 1963. This review examines the history and evolution of the stem cells research and gives understanding concepts on the topic.. Introduction. Over the past years, advances in stem cells therapy have occurred as a source of regeneration and repairing of damaged tissue. Stem cells characteristics of unlimited self-renewal and multilineage potential have led to efforts of developing clinical trials in a variety of biomedical disciplines. In general, there are two major types of stem cells, embryonic and adult stem cells.. Embryonic stem cells can be obtained from a fertilized oocyte, which are called totipotent for their capacity to produce a blastocyst that eventually could develop an ...
What are stem cells and why are they so controversial? In this BrainPOP movie, two characters give you the rundown on what makes stem cells different from regular cells. Theyll show you how stem cells may one day be used to cure diseases and grow new organs and limbs. Youll also learn the differences between the various types of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and adult stem cells. Do you support stem cell research? Watch the movie to learn the basics and decide for yourself!
What you wont hear about stem cell technology is that it is a flop. Despite billions of dollars of investment money, it is going nowhere. In fact, what is going on today in research labs doesnt even involve stem cells. You can read more about it at Dr. William Prathers article entitled The Unrealized Potential Of Stem Cell Therapy. [DDD Magazine Oct 2013]. A problem with the stem cell industry is that it becomes so difficult to scuttle a research program that employs so many people at a time when unemployment is a national embarrassment. There are an estimated 6100 full-time employees working in regenerative medicine and over 100 companies involved in stem cell therapies. There were 537 patents filed for stem cell technology in 2007. The National Institutes of Health is reported to have spent $546 million on embryonic stem cell research. [] This perpetually promising industry is only in operation as long as it is government subsidized.. Dr. George Daley, a founder of the ...
Stem cells have great potential value for treating a number of diseases and conditions, including diabetes, Parkinsons, and spinal cord injuries. Applying stem cells for therapeutic purposes will require an in-depth understanding of their biology, not only of the genes they express, but also the functions of the proteins encoded by the genes. The goal of the project presented in this thesis was to develop a method for high-throughput analyses of protein localization in mouse stem cells. Localization information can provide insight into the functions and biological roles of proteins. ,br /,,br /, One means of studying protein localization involves creating proteins with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene and analyzing their localization using fluorescence microscopy. The research outlined in this thesis focused on developing a system to create a large number of GFP-tagged proteins by constructing a cDNA?GFP fusion library. This involved exploring methods for optimizing cDNA ...
Gene delivery is essential for genetic manipulation in stem cells. Efficient gene delivery to stem cells is required for studies of gene function, control of stem cell differentiation, cellular labeling and purification, and cellular secretion of therapeutic drugs. Because of safety issues, non-viral gene delivery to stem cells (so called stem cell transfection) is highly sought. A key challenge in stem cell transfection is to deliver genes to stem cells with high efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Efficient stem cell transfection is the key to achieving the full potential of stem cells. Nanotechnology provides invaluable tools for stem cell transfection. For example ...
Human stem cells, both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, offer exciting opportunities for cell-based therapies in injured or diseased human brains or spinal cords. The clinical efficacy of grafted progenitor cells critically depends on their ability to migrate to the appropriate sites in the adult central nervous system without unwanted proliferation and tumor formation. However, little is known about the cellular behavior of human neural progenitor cells derived from human stem cells or how their proliferation and migration are coordinated. During this reporting period, we continued to study human neural progenitor cells derived from human stem cells, a cell culture system established during the prior reporting period. We focused on microRNAs, a class of small, noncoding RNAs of ~21-23 nucleotides that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. These small RNAs mostly destabilize target mRNAs or suppress their translation by binding to complementary sequences in the ...
Any discussion on stem cells would be incomplete without a full discussion on stem cell plasticity and the present controversy in the stem cell field. Traditionally, adult stem cells have been viewed as committed to a particular cell fate. For example, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) were viewed to only contribute to lineages that are part of the hematopoietic system i.e. RBCs and WBCs and not unrelated tissues, such as hepatocytes or neurons. (Verfaillie et al., 2002) Many studies question this belief or dogma by demonstrating that cells from a given tissue might differentiate into cells of a different tissue. (LaBarge and Blau, 2002). If true this would suggest that understanding that postnatal stem cells give rise to only cells of the tissue of origin may not be correct. HSC besides giving rise to blood cells, may also give rise to hepatocytes. NSC may not only give rise to nerve cells but also to early hematopoietic precursors. This ability of a tissue-specific stem cell to acquire the fate ...
cytokines and chemokines, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Endogenous stem and progenitor cells are among the cell populations that are involved in the injury responses. In normal steady-state conditions, an equilibrium is maintained in which endogenous stem cells intrinsic to the tissue replenish dying cells. After tissue injury, stem cells in organs, such as the liver and skin, have a remarkable ability to regenerate the organ, whereas other stem cell populations, such as those in the heart and brain, have a much more limited capability for self-repair. In rare circumstances, circulating stem cells may contribute to regenerative responses by migrating into a tissue and differentiating into organ-specific cell types. The goal of stem cell therapies is to promote cell replacement in organs that are damaged beyond their ability for self-repair. ...
Stem cell therapy has recently emerged as an innovative strategy over conventional cardiovascular treatments to restore cardiac function in patients affected by ischemic heart disease. Various stem cell populations have been tested and their potential for cardiac repair has been analyzed. Embryonic stem cells retain the greatest differentiation potential, but concerns persist with regard to their immunogenic and teratogenic effects. Although adult somatic stem cells are not tumourigenic and easier to use in an autologous setting, they exist in small numbers and possess reduced differentiation potential. Traditionally the heart was considered to be a post-mitotic organ; however, this dogma has recently been challenged with the identification of a reservoir of resident stem cells, defined as cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). These endogenous progenitors may represent the best candidates for cardiovascular cell therapy, as they are tissue-specific, often pre-committed to a cardiac fate, and display a
Researchers Make Stem Cells from Developing Sperm Thursday, 06 August 2009 The promise of stem cell therapy may lie in uncovering how adult cells revert back into a primordial, stem cell state, whose fate is yet to be determined. Now, cell scientists at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have identified key molecular players responsible for this reversion in fruit fly sperm cells. Reporting online this week in Cell Stem Cell, researchers show that two proteins are responsible redirecting cells on the way to becoming sperm back to stem cells. We knew from our previous work that cells destined to be sperm could revert back to being stem cells, but we didnt know how, says Erika Matunis, Ph.D., an associate professor of cell biology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Since, dedifferentiation is an interesting phenomenon probably occurring in a lot of different stem cell populations, we wanted to know more about the process. Like all stem cells, each of the nine ...
The majority of studies on stem cell differentiation have so far been based in vivo, on live animal models. The usefulness of such models is limited, since it is much more technically challenging to conduct molecular studies and genetic manipulation on live animal models compared to in vitro cell culture. Hence, it is imperative that efficient protocols for directing stem cell differentiation into well-defined lineages in vitro are developed. The development of such protocols would also be useful for clinical therapy, since it is likely that the transplantation of differentiated stem cells would result in higher engraftment efficiency and enhanced clinical efficacy, compared to the transplantation of undifferentiated stem cells. The in vitro differentiation of stem cells, prior to transplantation in vivo, would also avoid spontaneous differentiation into undesired lineages at the transplantation site, as well as reduce the risk of teratoma formation, in the case of embryonic stem cells. Hence, ...
The adult mammalian brain retains niches for neural stem cells (NSCs), which can generate glial and neuronal components of the brain tissue. However, it is barely established how chronic neuroinflammation, as it occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease, affects adult neurogenesis and, therefore, modulates the brains potential for self-regeneration. Neural stem cell culture techniques, intraventricular tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α infusion and the 6-hydroxydopamine mouse model were used to investigate the influence of neuroinflammation on adult neurogenesis in the Parkinsons disease background. Microscopic methods and behavioral tests were used to analyze samples. Here, we demonstrate that differences in the chronicity of TNF-α application to cultured NSCs result in opposed effects on their proliferation. However, chronic TNF-α treatment, mimicking Parkinsons disease associated neuroinflammation, shows detrimental effects on neural progenitor cell activity.
Endogenous neural stem cells (eNSC) in the adult brain mainly reside in two stem cell niches, the subventricular zone (SVZ), and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Following cerebral insults, they are...
Figure: 3D rendering of a clone (in red) originating from a basal epidermal stem cell. The cells are proliferating and moving towards the direction of the wound (on the right). (Credit: Mariaceleste Aragona, Sophie Dekoninck and Cedric Blanpain). Using state of the art genetic mouse models to trace different stem cells populations, we mark stem cells and follow the fate of their progeny over time. Interestingly, we found that stem cells coming from different epidermal compartments present a very similar response during wound repair, despite the fact that they are recruited from different regions of the epidermis. We provide the molecular profiling of different regions surrounding the wound to uncover the gene expression signature of the cells that actively divide and those that migrate to repair the wound. The data suggests that the migrating leading edge cells are protecting the stem cells from the infection and mechanical stress allowing a harmonious healing process.. Altogether, this study ...
Stem cells are incredibly diverse and serve multiple purposes in the human body. An important part of knowing how they work is understanding that there are different types of stem cells, each with different origins and purposes. Here are the four types of stem cells and how they heal the human body:. Embryonic. These stem cells can form almost any cell type that makes up your body, from muscle to blood. These cells are derived from embryos at the developmental stage and are self-renewing, which means they make copies of themselves.. Tissue-specific. These stem cells provide very specific and specialized cells depending on where they come from. If the cells are from a specific organ, they can generate different cell types for that organ. According to the International Society for Stem Cell Research, [t]issue-specific stem cells can be difficult to find in the human body, and they dont seem to self-renew in culture as easily as embryonic stem cells do.. Mesenchymal. Mesenchymal stem cells ...
Haemopoietic stem cell and umbilical cord stem cell transplantations are the most established form of stem cell therapy. The use of other stem cells including hES (human embryonic stem cells) and somatic stem cells is considered experimental. Xenotransplantation or therapies involving the use of animal stem cells or animal cells are currently prohibited. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Environmental Impact on Intestinal Stem Cell Functions in Mucosal Homeostasis and Tumorigenesis. AU - Augenlicht, Leonard H.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Multiple cell compartments at or near the base of the intestinal crypt have been identified as contributing intestinal stem cells for homeostasis of the rapidly turning over intestinal mucosa and cells that can initiate tumor development upon appropriate genetic changes. There is a strong literature establishing the importance of the frequently dividing Lgr5+ crypt base columnar cells as the fundamental cell in providing these stem cell-associated functions, but there are also clear data that more quiescent cells from other compartments can be mobilized to provide these stem cell functions upon compromise of Lgr5+ cells. We review the data that vitamin D, a pleiotropic hormone, is essential for Lgr5 stem cell functions by signaling through the vitamin D receptor. Moreover, we discuss the implications of this role of ...
Stem cells are powerful and promising tools in regenerative medicine. Understanding how stem cells are maintained in vivo is crucial for their clinical application. Studies on various stem cell systems have demonstrated that the stem cell niche, or local tissue microenvironment, provides important extracellular cues to guide stem cell behaviors. The Drosophila male germline system has emerged as an exemplary model for studying stem cell-niche biology. The apically located hub cells function as a shared niche for two stem cell populations: germline stem cells (GSCs) and cyst stem cells (CySCs). A dominant model in the field describes hub cells as the single niche for GSCs via promoting JAK-STAT signaling. However, recent work from our lab has demonstrated that BMP signaling is the primary pathway leading to GSC self-renewal. We have also revealed that CySCs function as a second niche to govern GSC maintenance. In this thesis, we identify Magu as a novel regulator controlling GSC self-renewal. We show
TY - JOUR. T1 - The GroEL protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis accelerates tumor growth by enhancing endothelial progenitor cell function and neovascularization. AU - Lin, F. Y.. AU - Huang, C. Y.. AU - Lu, H. Y.. AU - Shih, C. M.. AU - Tsao, N. W.. AU - Shyue, S. K.. AU - Lin, C. Y.. AU - Chang, Y. J.. AU - Tsai, C. S.. AU - Lin, Y. W.. AU - Lin, S. J.. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Porphyromonas gingivalis is a bacterial species that causes destruction of periodontal tissues. Additionally, previous evidence indicates that GroEL from P. gingivalis may possess biological activities involved in systemic inflammation, especially inflammation involved in the progression of periodontal diseases. The literature has established a relationship between periodontal disease and cancer. However, it is unclear whether P. gingivalis GroEL enhances tumor growth. Here, we investigated the effects of P. gingivalis GroEL on neovasculogenesis in C26 carcinoma cell-carrying BALB/c mice and chick eggs in vivo ...
Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of inducing bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (BEPC) to differentiate into corneal endothelial cells (CEC) for the treatment of corneal endothelial dysfunction.. Methods: BEPC were isolated from human fetal bone marrow, and expression of Dil-Ac-LDL, UEA-1, CD133 and CD34 were examined to identify the cells. BEPC were co-cultured with CEC for 10 days in a transwell system with conditioned medium from CEC, and then cell transdifferentiation was examined by immunocytofluorescence and electron microscopy. With a porcine corneal acellular matrix as the carrier, the induced BEPC were transplanted onto a cats cornea from which Descemets membrane and the endothelium had been stripped.. Results: The induced BEPC resembled CEC in polygonal shape, expressing aquaporin-1, tightly opposed cell junctions, and neurone-specific enolase. Twenty-eight days after transplantation, the transparency gradually returned to the corneas transplanted with the ...
Free Online Library: Arsenic exposure transforms human epithelial stem/progenitor cells into a cancer stem-like phenotype.(Research, Report) by Environmental Health Perspectives; Health, general Environmental issues Genetic aspects Cancer Heavy metal poisoning Complications and side effects Heavy metals Health aspects Prostate cancer Care and treatment Risk factors Stem cells
An adult stem cell is thought to be an undifferentiated cell, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ that can renew itself and can differentiate to yield some or all of the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ.. The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found.. Scientists also use the term somatic stem cell instead of adult stem cell, where somatic refers to cells of the body (not the germ cells, sperm or eggs). Unlike embryonic stem cells, which are defined by their origin (the inner cell mass of the blastocyst), the origin of adult stem cells in some mature tissues is still under investigation.. Research on adult stem cells has generated a great deal of excitement. Scientists have found adult stem cells in many more tissues than they once thought possible. This finding has led researchers and clinicians to ask whether adult stem cells could be used for transplants.. In fact, adult ...
Adult stem cells are multipotent, semi-differentiated, cells that exist in all tissues. Adult stem cell, however, is not the preferred term used in the field to refer to them-developmental biologists will usually refer to them as tissue resident stem cells or as a specific cell type (often referencing the genes they express). They function to maintain tissue homeostasis by dividing to replace damaged or senescent somatic cells. The two most well-studied examples of adult stem cells are the hematopoietic stem cells, which give rise to blood cells, and the intestinal crypt stem cells, which give rise to the intestinal epithelium.[1] As multipotent cells, most adult stem cell types can generate cells of several different types. However, because they are already epigenetically programmed to favor a particular fate, they generally cannot generate cell types outside of their lineage without genetic manipulation. Identifying and characterizing stem cells within all adult tissues is an area of much ...
The Drosophila male germ line serves as a model system for investigating how stem cells are regulated in the context of their normal microenvironment, or niche. Yamashita et al. (see the Perspective by Wallenfang and Matunis) used this system to investigate the intracellular mechanisms that lead to the reliably asymmetric outcome of stem cell divisions to produce a stem cell and a cell that is ready to differentiate further (in this case, a gonialblast). The mitotic spindle in dividing germline stem cells orients with respect to the support-cell niche throughout their cell cycle. This process requires centrosome function and homologs of the human tumor suppressor gene adenomatous polyposis coli (APC). Y. M. Yamashita, D. L. Jones, M. T. Fuller, Orientation of asymmetric stem cell division by the APC tumor suppressor and centrosome. Science 301, 1547-1550 (2003). [Abstract] [Full Text]. M. R. Wallenfang, E. Matunis, Orienting stem cells. Science 301, 1490-1491 (2003). [Summary] [Full Text]. ...
Embryonic stem cells are obtained from early-stage embryos - a group of cells that forms when a womans egg is fertilized with a mans sperm in an in vitro fertilization clinic. Because human embryonic stem cells are extracted from human embryos, several questions and issues have been raised about the ethics of embryonic stem cell research.. The National Institutes of Health created guidelines for human stem cell research in 2009. The guidelines define embryonic stem cells and how they may be used in research, and include recommendations for the donation of embryonic stem cells. Also, the guidelines state embryonic stem cells from embryos created by in vitro fertilization can be used only when the embryo is no longer needed.. The embryos being used in embryonic stem cell research come from eggs that were fertilized at in vitro fertilization clinics but never implanted in a womans uterus. The stem cells are donated with informed consent from donors. The stem cells can live and grow in special ...
How many clinics in Texas market stem cell procedures? What interventions do they promote? How many adult stem cell banks are located in Texas? How do they advertise their services?. There does not appear to be a comprehensive record of stem cell banks and clinics marketing stem cell procedures within the state of Texas. I am therefore trying to determine how many stem cell banks and clinics marketing stem cells in Texas can be found using an approach that a patient or customer might take when searching the Internet. In an effort to locate such businesses, I used Google search engine and entered such terms as stem cells Texas, stem cell clinics Texas, cosmetic surgery stem cell Texas, orthopedic surgery stem cell clinic Texas, and anti-aging stem cells Texas. In total, I found twenty businesses marketing what they describe as stem cell procedures as well as three stem cell banks. During my search I also noticed and recorded a spa marketing plant stem cells and a dentist who ...
Background. Emerging researches revealed the essential role of mitochondria in regulating stem/progenitor cell differentiation of neural progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells and other stem cells through reactive oxygen species (ROS), Notch or other signaling pathway. And inhibition of mitochondrial synthesis protein resulted in extension of hair loss upon injury. However, alteration of mitochondrial morphology and metabolic function during hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) differentiation and how it affects hair regeneration has not been elaborated. Methods. We compared the difference between telogen bulge cells and anagen matrix cells in mitochondrial morphology and activity. Expression levels of mitochondrial ROS and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) were measured for evaluating redox balance. Besides, pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were detected to present the change in energetic metabolism during differentiation. To explore the effect of the mitochondrial
Monya Baker. Ascl2, a transcription factor and Wnt target, switches on a stem cell program in the gut. In the search for what makes a stem cell a stem cell, Hans Clevers and colleagues at Hubrecht Institute-KNAW, the Netherlands, have found a transcription factor expressed uniquely in the gut1. Deletion of the gene, called Achaete scute-like 2 (Ascl2), completely ablates stem cell activity. Activating the gene in non-stem cells causes the cells to take on stem cell characteristics, including making stem cell markers and reproducing the structures and specialized cell types that normal intestinal stem cells produce. Previously, Clevers had done complex cell- and lineage-tracking experiments both to establish Lgr5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 5) as a marker of stem cells in the small intestine and to pinpoint the location of intestinal stem cells at the base of crypts, or the spaces between villi.. In the current work, the ...
Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are stem cells present in the dental pulp, the soft living tissue within teeth. They are multipotent, so they have the potential to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Other sources of dental stem cells are the dental follicle and the developed periodontal ligament. A subpopulation of dental pulp stem cells has been described as human immature dental pulp stem cells (IDPSC). There are various studies where the importance of these cells and their regenerative capacity has been demonstrated. Through the addition of tissue-specific cytokines, differentiated cells were obtained in vitro from these cells, not only of mesenchymal linage but also of endodermal and ectodermal linage. Among them are the IPS, MAPCs cells.[citation needed] Several publications have stressed the importance of the expression of pluripotentiality associated markers: the transcription factors Nanog, SOX2, Oct3/4, SSEA4, CD13, are indispensable for the stem cells to divide indefinitely ...
Stem cell niches are made of different building blocks. Note for example the blue cells in the stem cell niche of Figure 1 D; despite their small size and number, they are the most important cellular structure of this specific stem cell niche. They are the source of molecular signals that confer stem cell identity by generating and releasing self-renewing signals. Therefore, only cells immediately adjacent to the blue cells receive the appropriate cues and behave as stem cells (green cells forming a rosette structure around blue cells) - an intelligent architectural strategy designed by nature. But, like the mobiles, there are multiple architecturally different stem cell niches. Thus, as this diversity is appreciated, there is an opportunity for another lesson to be learned about stem cell niches through its analogy with mobiles: avoiding blind generalizations.. Since they are diverse in their aspect and in the components that make them, scientists study stem cell niches separately. Although ...
Cord Blood Awareness Month is celebrated every July. Every couple out there, newlyweds or not, should have the right to be properly informed either to stored their newborns umbilical cord or donate it in public cord banks. However, the biggest problem until now is - this simple process of collecting stem cells embraces various misconceptions and controversies. Some people who are not well-informed about this procedure think it is unethical and some mistakenly associate it with embryonic stem cell.. The cord blood stem cells are entirely different from embryonic stem cells. In cord blood, you only use the stem cell found in babys umbilical cord. When a baby is delivered, the doctor removes his umbilical cord and placenta. Instead of throwing it away, the blood (which contains stem cells) inside the cord and placenta is squeeze out using a syringe and store in a fridge. Collecting cord blood is a safe procedure and it will not hurt the mother or the baby. In fact, this procedure is performed ...
Espada et al. (2008) addressed the question of the involvement of stem cell regulation in progeria by using Zmpste24−/− mice, which display age-related nuclear lamina defects and progeroid-like symptoms (Pendas et al., 2002). They focused on a well-characterized stem cell niche, the bulge cells of the hair follicle, where they found increased numbers of resident stem cells with decreased proliferative potential accompanied by accumulation of the unprocessed pre-lamin A and altered nuclear architecture.. Espada et al. (2008) next investigated the effects of Zmpste24 depletion on the differentiation capacity of hair follicle stem cells. They used either tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a tumor-promoting agent, which is known to induce both proliferation and differentiation of hair follicle stem cells, or calcium shock. Unlike the differentiation defects observed in mesenchymal stem cells expressing progerin/LAΔ50, bulge stem cell differentiation in the absence of Zmpste24 appeared normal ...
Stem cells in adult animal tissues have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into functional cells that replenish lost cells. Their self-renewal and differentiation are controlled by concerted actions of extrinsic factors and intrinsic factors (1, 2). Although a plethora of intrinsic factors has been identified for their roles in stem cell regulation, it remains largely unclear how differentiation factors are functionally repressed in stem cells. In this study, we show that a translation initiation factor eIF4A maintains germline stem cell (GSC) self-renewal in the Drosophila ovary by antagonizing the differentiation factor BAM.. In the Drosophila ovary, 2 or 3 GSCs are located at the tip of the germarium, where they are directly anchored to cap cells through E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion (3). In addition, GSCs are also laterally wrapped around by escort stem cells (4). After GSC division, the daughter attaching to cap cells/escort stem cells renews as a stem cell, while the other ...
Supervisor: Andrea Brand. Neural stem cells in the adult brain exist primarily in a quiescent state but can be reactivated in response to changing physiological conditions. How do stem cells sense and respond to metabolic changes? In the Drosophila central nervous system, quiescent neural stem cells are reactivated synchronously in response to a nutritional stimulus. We discovered that feeding triggers insulin production by blood-brain barrier glial cells, activating the insulin/IGF pathway in underlying neural stem cells and stimulating their growth and proliferation. We showed that gap junctions in the blood-brain barrier glia mediate the influence of metabolic changes on stem cell behaviour, enabling glia to respond to nutritional signals and reactivate quiescent stem cells.. This project will investigate the systemic and local signals that regulate stem cell growth and proliferation and the role of glia in inducing neural stem cell exit from quiescence. It will take advantage of Targeted ...
Multipotent adult germ-line stem cells (maGSCs) represent a new pluripotent cell type that can be derived without genetic manipulation from spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) present in adult testis. Similarly to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they could provide a source of cellular grafts for new transplantation therapies of a broad variety of diseases. To test whether these stem cells can be rejected by the recipients, we have analyzed whether maGSCs and iPSCs can become targets for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) or whether they are protected, as previously proposed for embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We have observed that maGSCs can be maintained in prolonged culture with or without leukemia inhibitory factor and/or feeder cells and still retain the capacity to form teratomas in immunodeficient recipients. They were, however, rejected in immunocompetent allogeneic recipients, and the immune response controlled teratoma growth. We analyzed the susceptibility of three maGSC lines to CTL in
Human Neuronal Stem Cell (Hypothalamic) Differentiation Extra-cellular Matrix is essential for the growth and differentiation of Human Neuronal Stem Cells (Hypothalamic). This product requires Human Neuronal Stem Cell (Hypothalamic) Differentiation Media Cat#M36119-48D and Human Neuronal Stem Cells (Hypothalamic) Cat# 36119-48. Also available Products ...
There are two major sources of stem cells: The type that gets into all forms of media daily are embryonic (and fetal) stem cells, which are over-hyped, are never used clinically, are illegal, and many of us believe are immoral and unethical. The legal, moral and ethically correct type of stem cells are bone marrow derived stem cells and umbilical cord stem cells that almost never receive any publicity because they are not controversial! The most important thing a person should understand is that a stem cell is a stem cell is a stem cell! All forms of stem cells are essentially very similar and differ only in fairly minor ways.. Primitive undifferentiated (untrained) stem cells by and large can go to any injury and help to repair the damaged tissues. Yes some are more potent than others but in reality they all work as stem cells and support regeneration of damaged tissues. That is the bottom line. All of the hype about embryonic stem cells is just that. The media does not care about presenting ...
Human Keratinocyte Stem Cell Serum Free Differentiation Media.. This product is also available with Serum Cat# M36008-09DS. This product would require pre-coated flasks with Human Keratinocyte Stem Cell Extra-cellular Differentiation Matrix Cat# D36008-09 and Human Keratinocyte Stem Cells Cat# 36008-09. This product is tissue tested including Stem Cells and is available as 500ml sterile filtered unit.. The product is also available as a pack of 6, 500ml unit sizes.. ...
Adult stem cell treatments have been used for many years to successfully treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers utilizing bone marrow transplants.[49] The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Early regenerative applications of adult stem cells has focused on intravenous delivery of blood progenitors known as Hematopetic Stem Cells (HSCs). CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells have been clinically applied to treat various diseases including spinal cord injury,[50] liver cirrhosis [51] and Peripheral Vascular disease.[52] Research has shown that CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells are relatively more numerous in men than in women of reproductive age group among spinal cord Injury victims.[53] Other early commercial applications have focused on Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). For both cell lines, direct injection or placement of cells ...
2 Basic principles of human embryonic stem cells D. Ilic, D. Stevenson, H. Patel and P. Braude, Kings College London School of Medicine UK Abstract: Despite increasing interest in other … - Selection from Progenitor and Stem Cell Technologies and Therapies [Book]
Salvianic Acid A Regulates High-Glucose-Treated Endothelial Progenitor Cell Dysfunction via the AKT/Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Pathway - Order reprints #928153
A major feature of embryogenesis is the specification of stem cell systems, but in contrast to the situation in most animals, plant stem cells remain quiescent until the postembryonic phase of development. Here, we dissect how light and metabolic signals are integrated to overcome stem cell dormancy at the shoot apical meristem. We show on the one hand that light is able to activate expression of the stem cell inducer WUSCHEL independently of photosynthesis and that this likely involves inter-regional cytokinin signaling. Metabolic signals, on the other hand, are transduced to the meristem through activation of the TARGET OF RAPAMYCIN (TOR) kinase. Surprisingly, TOR is also required for light signal dependent stem cell activation. Thus, the TOR kinase acts as a central integrator of light and metabolic signals and a key regulator of stem cell activation at the shoot apex.. ...
A purified preparation of primate embryonic stem cells is disclosed. This preparation is characterized by the following cell surface markers: SSEA-1 (−); SSEA-4 (+); TRA-1-60 (+); TRA-1-81 (+); and alkaline phosphatase (+). In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the cells of the preparation are human embryonic stem cells, have normal karyotypes, and continue to proliferate in an undifferentiated state after continuous culture for eleven months. The embryonic stem cell lines also retain the ability, throughout the culture, to form trophoblast and to differentiate into all tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm). A method for isolating a primate embryonic stem cell line is also disclosed.
Stem cells: US Patent/patent applications 1. Amplification of hematopoietic stem cells using TGF.beta. inhibitory compounds 2. Method for identifying a modulator of Hh-dependent motor neuron differentiation 3. GABAergic neurons differentiated from CNS stem cells for the treatment of Parkinsons diseases 4. Augmentation of soft tissues such as breasts by autologous fat and adipocyte derived stem cell grafting 5. Regulating the differentiation of embryonic stem cells of a non- human mammal by regulating the expression of a WW45 protein Link: Stem cell research articles 1. Homeodomain transcription factor, Prospero, repress neural stem cell self-renewal and promote differentiation 2. Quantitative proteomic analysis of chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs 3. Antidifferentiation function of p53 in mESCs are directly regulated through Wnt signaling pathway 4. Self-renewal genes in germline stem cells in mouse and human ...
In addition to its generous endowment, the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at Einstein is supported by external sources, including the NIH and the New York State Empire State Stem Cell (NYSTEM) Board. Created in 2007, NYSTEM provided substantial funding support for stem cell research over the next decade. Notably, Einstein is among the highest-ranked institutions in New York competing for state support and, to date, Einstein has received thus far from NYSTEM over $24M in funding for stem cell research ranking 4th in total funding among all New York Institutions. Funding from NYSTEM supported the creation of the Einstein Comprehensive Pluripotent Stem Cell Center, which consisted of three units: the Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Unit, the Cell-Sorting and Xenotransplantation Unit, and the Stem Cell Genomic Unit. In April 2014, the Stem Cell Institute was once again awarded $3,557,019 from NYSTEM to support the newly expanded Einstein Shared Facilities for Stem Cell ...
The field of regenerative medicine revolves around the capacity of a subset of cells, called stem cells, to become the mature tissues of the adult human body. By studying stem cells, we hope to develop methods and reagents for treating disease. For instance, we hope to develop methods for making stem cells become cardiovascular cells in the lab which could then be used to rapidly screen large numbers drugs that may be used to treat cardiovascular disease. In another example, if we are able to create bone in the lab from stem cells, we may be able to help treat people with catastrophic skeletal injuries such as wounded soldiers. Until recently, the most flexible type of stem cell known was the embryonic stem cell. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they can give rise to all of the adult tissues. In contrast, stem cells found in the adult are considered only multipotent, in that they can only become a limited number of mature cells. For example, bone marrow stem cells can give rise to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inducing Heat Shock Proteins Enhances the Stemness of Frozen-Thawed Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells. AU - Shaik, Shahensha. AU - Hayes, Daniel. AU - Gimble, Jeffrey. AU - Devireddy, Ram. N1 - Funding Information: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award R21 DK 91852.. PY - 2017/4/15. Y1 - 2017/4/15. N2 - Extensive research has been performed to determine the effect of freezing protocol and cryopreservation agents on the viability of adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) as well as other cells. Unfortunately, the conclusion one may draw after decades of research utilizing fundamentally similar cryopreservation techniques is that a barrier exists, which precludes full recovery. We hypothesize that agents capable of inducing a subset of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and chaperones will reduce the intrinsic barriers to the post-thaw recovery of ASCs. ...
Here we report that Notch signaling controls gastric epithelial cell homeostasis by regulating antral stem cell function. Our lineage tracing studies in adult NIP1::CreERT2 mice showed that antral stem cells are actively signaling from the Notch1 receptor, thus demonstrating that the Notch pathway directly targets these cells under normal homeostatic conditions. Manipulation of Notch signaling showed that Notch functions to promote overall stem cell proliferation. Blocking Notch by pharmacologic or genetic means reduced stem cell proliferation, while genetic activation of Notch signaling in LGR5+ stem cells increased the number of proliferating stem cells. Expression of the Notch target gene Olfm4 paralleled the changes in stem cell proliferation, suggesting that it may be an antral stem cell marker, similar to what has been reported for LGR5+ stem cells in intestine (van der Flier et al, 2009; VanDussen et al, 2012). Analysis of gastric organoids demonstrated that Notch signaling is intrinsic ...
This is why our goal at Precious Cells is to transform the future of global healthcare by connecting all seven billion of the worlds potential stem cell donors - everyone on Earth could be a lifesaver. We firmly believe this is the beginning of a revolution to make stem cell treatments affordable and accessible.. It is our mission to provide universal access to stem cell treatments in our lifetime, making effective, affordable and personalised medicine a reality. We do this by constantly innovating, exploring and applying pioneering technology to the delivery of stem cells to those patients, clinicians and researchers who need them.. We are actively working to help people prepare for their own and their loved ones future wellbeing by enabling them to store their own stem cells for future treatment. We also partner with a number of NHS trusts in the UK, enabling people to donate their stem cells to be used as part of a lifesaving treatment, or in vital research to further the advancement of ...
Among the key moral issues of our day is the use of embryonic stem cells in medical research. Christians insist that harvesting embryonic stem cells for research purposes is immoral since human embryos must die to achieve the objective. The scientific evidence is overwhelming and decisive: use of embryonic stem cells is completely unnecessary since use of adult stem cells has proven to be the most promising in treating various diseases (see Thompson and Harrub, 2001). Scientists are even now developing methods that allow them to reprogram existing adult stem cells to possess the same unlimited properties as embryonic stem cells. For example, using genetic alteration, a team of UCLA researchers have turned adult skin cells into cells that are nearly identical to human embryonic stem cells (Irwin, 2008). Reprogramming adult stem cells into embryonic stem cells could generate a potentially limitless source of immune-compatible cells for tissue engineering and transplantation medicine (Human ...
New Properties of Skin Stem Cells Wednesday, 15 October 2008 Recent research from the Swedish medical university Karolinska Institutet reveals completely new properties of the skins stem cells - discoveries that contradict previous findings. The studies, which are published in Nature Genetics, show amongst other things, that hair follicle stem cells can divide actively and transport themselves through the skin tissue. The stem cells dont behave at all in the way wed previously thought, and are found in unexpected places, says Professor Rune Toftgård, one of the scientists at Karolinska Institutet responsible for the study. Were now investigating the part played by the stem cells in the wound-healing process and the development of basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin cancer. The stem cells examined by the present study are found in the skins hair follicles, around which the cells are able to move depending on their stage of growth. The scientists believe that their growth ...
Autophagy is a constitutive lysosomal catabolic pathway that degrades damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Stem cells are characterized by self-renewal, pluripotency, and quiescence; their long life span, limited capacity to dilute cellular waste and spent organelles due to quiescence, along with their requirement for remodeling in order to differentiate, all suggest that they require autophagy more than other cell types. Here, we review the current literature on the role of autophagy in embryonic and adult stem cells, including hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neuronal stem cells, highlighting the diverse and contrasting roles autophagy plays in their biology. Furthermore, we review the few studies on stem cells, lysosomal activity, and autophagy. Novel techniques to detect autophagy in primary cells are required to study autophagy in different stem cell types. These will help to elucidate the importance of autophagy in stem cells during transplantation, a promising therapeutic approach for many
by APFLI , Aug 23, 2006 , Stem Cell - Definitions / History / Statistics. Stem Cell Information : The official National Institutes of Health resource for stem cell research Turning Blood into Brain: New Studies Suggest Bone Marrow Stem Cells Can Develop into Neurons in Living Animals, November 30, 2000 Transplanted Neural Stem Cells Migrate Throughout the Abnormal Brain, Reduce Disease Symptoms June 07, 1999 Cultured Neural Stem Cells Reduce Symptoms in Model of Parkinsons Disease July 20, 1998 Stem Cells and Stem Cell Transplantation - MedLine Plus Clinical Stem Cell Transplantation (NIH) ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Between gestational day E12 and 18, about half of the mitotic neuronal cells die in embryonal mouse forebrain due to apoptosis. Studies with caspase knockout mice have demonstrated that apoptosis is necessary to prevent hyperproliferation of neuronal stem cells and subsequent, severe brain malformation. It is not known, however, which factors selectively induce or prevent apoptosis in individual, differentiating neuronal stem cells. We have shown for the first time, that the peak time of apoptosis in embryonal mouse brain (E14.5) is concurrent with elevation of endogenous ceramide and activation of caspase 3. We have also shown that the concentration of ceramide is high enough to kill neuronal progenitor cells grown in culture. From these observations, we propose that elevation of ceramide may be critical for induction of apoptosis in differentiating neuronal stem cells. Recently, several studies have reported that the ceramide-mediated formation of an ...
Adult stem cells in the intestine and skin of mice can be induced to multiply massively by the introduction of a master gene regulatory protein derived from embryonic stem cells. This finding, reported in the May 6 Cell by Rudy Jaenisch and his colleagues at MIT, may provide a technique for expanding tissue-specific stem cells from adults for clinical use. While the study dealt only with epithelial cells, future studies will determine if the trick is useful for generating neural stem cells, a possibility that the researchers are very interested to explore, said Jaenisch. There is much optimism that neural stem cells may help to treat cell losses associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer disease (see ARF related news story and ARF news story).. The remarkable expansion of adult stem cells was induced by forced expression of the protein Oct-4, a transcription factor that is normally expressed in embryonic stem cells and is required for their pluripotency and ...
The production of functional male gametes is dependent on the continuous activity of germline stem cells-spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). SSCs self-renew and produce large numbers of differentiating germ cells that become spermatozoa throughout postnatal life and transmit genetic information to the next generation. The availability of a transplantation assay system to unequivocally identify male germline stem cells has allowed them in vitro culture, cryopreservation, and genetic modification. Moreover, the system has enabled the identification of conditions and factors involved in stem cell self-renewal, the foundation of spermatogenesis, and the production of spermatozoa. The increased knowledge about these cells is also of great potential practical value, for example, for the possible cryopreservation of stem cells from boys undergoing treatment for cancer to safeguard their germ line. The aim of this research allowed SSCs in vitro culture, cryopreservation and restored fertility by ...
The polycomb protein BMI1 has been linked to maintenance of adult stem cells. Klein and colleagues find that BMI1 is also required for the maintenance of stem cells in the continuously growing mouse incisor, through repression of the Ink4a/Arf locus to modulate the proliferation of stem cells and repression of Hox genes to prevent inappropriate lineage decisions in stem cell progeny. The polycomb group gene Bmi1 is required for maintenance of adult stem cells in many organs1,2. Inactivation of Bmi1 leads to impaired stem cell self-renewal due to deregulated gene expression. One critical target of BMI1 is Ink4a/Arf, which encodes the cell-cycle inhibitors p16Ink4a and p19Arf (ref. 3). However, deletion of Ink4a/Arf only partially rescues Bmi1-null phenotypes4, indicating that other important targets of BMI1 exist. Here, using the continuously growing mouse incisor as a model system, we report that Bmi1 is expressed by incisor stem cells and that deletion of Bmi1 resulted in fewer stem cells, perturbed
Mammary stem cells (MaSC) and progenitor cells are important for mammary gland development and maintenance and may give rise to mammary cancer stem cells (MaCSC). Yet, there remains limited understanding of how these cells contribute to tumorigenesis. Here, we show that conditional deletion of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in embryonic mammary epithelial cells (MaEC) decreases luminal progenitors and basal MaSCs, reducing their colony-forming and regenerative potentials in a cell-autonomous manner. Loss of FAK kinase activity in MaECs specifically impaired luminal progenitor proliferation and alveologenesis, whereas a kinase-independent activity of FAK supported ductal invasion and basal MaSC activity. Deficiency in luminal progenitors suppressed tumorigenesis and MaCSC formation in a mouse model of breast cancer. In contrast with the general inhibitory effect of FAK attenuation, inhibitors of FAK kinase preferentially inhibited proliferation and tumorsphere formation of luminal progenitor-like, but not
MIAMI, Aug. 30, 2016 - Global Stem Cells Group and its subsidiary Stem Cell Training, Inc., in a collaborative agreement with South Korean biomedical company N-Biotek, announce the establishment of a permanent stem cell training center at the N-Biotek headquarters in Seoul, South Korea. The announcement comes as part of an ambitious expansion effort between GSCG and N-Biotek to provide stem cell training to qualified physicians worldwide. Stem Cell Trainings two-day intensive Adipose-derived Stem Cell and Bone Marrow and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) training course covers concepts in cellular medicine, cell viability basics, basic fat and bone marrow stem cell harvesting, isolation and processing procedures, and principles of platelet rich plasma (PRP) processing. The Korean training center will offer GSCGs full array of Stem Cell Training courses including:. The Cell Assisted Fat Transfer training course is designed for physicians in the aesthetic and cosmetic fields of medicine. The course ...
New research has been published confirming that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), a type of adult stem cell, can repair and restore damaged blood systems in mice. Catherine Verfaillie and colleagues at the University of Minnesota first described these novel stem cells in 2002, but other teams have had difficulty in replicating the work. In a new paper published in the journal Experimental Medicine, Verfaillie has worked with a leading sceptic of the research, Dr Irving Weissman of Stanford University, to show that the cells can be grown in the laboratory and successfully transplanted into animals. Dr Weissman, who directs Stanfords Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, rigorously examined the data and concluded, These experiments point to potential precursors of blood forming stem cell in an unexpected population of cultured cells.. Usually adult stem cells are precursors to populations of particular cell types, for instance neural stem cells may be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrinsic Hematopoietic Stem Cell/Progenitor Plasticity. T2 - Inversions. AU - Colvin, Gerald A.. AU - Lambert, Jean François. AU - Moore, Brian E.. AU - Carlson, Jane E.. AU - Dooner, Mark S.. AU - Abedi, Mehrdad. AU - Cerny, Jan. AU - Quesenberry, Peter J.. PY - 2004/4. Y1 - 2004/4. N2 - Traditional concepts indicate that stem cells give rise to progenitor cells in a hierarchical system. We studied murine engraftable stem cells (ESCs) and progenitors in in vitro and found that ESC and progenitors exist in a reversible continuum, rather then a hierarchy. B6.SJL and BALB/c marrow cells were serially cultured with thrombopoietin (TPO), FLT-3 ligand (FLT-3L), and steel factor through cell cycle. Progenitors (high-proliferative potential colony-forming cells (HPP-CFC) and colony-forming unit culture (CFU-c)) and ESC capacity was determined. The cell cycle status of purified lineage negativerhodaminelowHoechstlow stem cells was determined under the same conditions using tritiated ...

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Stem cells and Regenerative Technologies Stem cells are undifferentiated cells of various origin with the unique characteristic ... embryonic and non-embryonic induced stem cells are thought to potentially repair organs or replenish important cell losses such ... stem cells have been shown to have the potential for treatment of a wide variety of ailments. A lot of what we know about the ... To date the most widespread use of stem cell transplantation are from autologo. us and allogeneic peripheral and bone marrow. ...
... decision to ban federal funding for new embryonic stem-cell … ... Stem cells for research are drawn from blastocysts-embryos that ... decision to ban federal funding for new embryonic stem-cell lines. "In recent years, when it comes to stem-cell research, ... who was figuring out how to use a preëxisting stem-cell line to develop glial cells, which support the spinal cord and nervous ... Whether these excess blastocysts are simply discarded, as the opponents of stem-cell research would apparently prefer, or ...
... hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, and cancer stem cells. It helps us understand the ... Visvader J, Lindeman G. cancer stem cells: current status and evolving complexities. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10(6):717.CrossRef ... FoxOs cooperatively regulate diverse pathways governing neural stem cell homeostasis. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;5(5):540-53.CrossRef ... Human mesenchymal stem cells support unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cells and suppress T-cell activation. Bone Marrow ...
Understanding of leukemic stem cells and their clinical implications Since leukemic stem cells (LSCs) or cancer stem cells ( ... Cancer Stem Cells. * Content type: Research. Regulation of stem-like cancer cells by glutamine through β-catenin pathway ... Cancer stem cell niche models and contribution by mesenchymal stroma/stem cells The initiation and progression of malignant ... Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells ( ...
Keeping up with stem-cell research and the issues surrounding it can be a challenge. We examine some of the science basics and ... FAQ: Whats Up With Stem Cells?. You probably know the difference between a stem cell and a fuel cell. But if your ... Have adult stem cells been used to treat any diseases?. Doctors have been using adult stem cells, such as the blood-forming ... Embryonic stem-cell research is in the early stages. The first embryonic stem cells were isolated only recently - in 1998, by ...
Stem cells. Definition. Stem cells are cells that have the capacity to self-renew by dividing and to develop into more mature, ... specialised cells. Stem cells can be unipotent, multipotent, pluripotent or totipotent, depending on the number of cell types ... How stem cells could fix type 1 diabetes Trials to replace the pancreatic β cells that are destroyed by this autoimmune disease ... Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte platform screens inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 infection Williams et al. confirm ...
Hematopoietic stem cells[edit]. Main article: Hematopoietic stem cell. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are stem cells that can ... Stem cell division and differentiation. A - stem cells; B - progenitor cell; C - differentiated cell; 1 - symmetric stem cell ... such as mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, etc.).[72][73] A great deal of adult stem cell ... Cell Division[edit]. To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and ...
Human stem cells can come from an embryo or an adult human. They have many possible uses in science and medicine, yet ... Stem cells are basic cells that can become almost any type of cell in the body. ... What are stem cells and why are they important? Stem cells are a type of cell that we all produce. They are nonspecific cells ... At this stage, stem cells begin to differentiate.. Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into more cell types than adult stem ...
Expression of p63 by Stem and TA Cells of Epidermal Cultures.. In the epidermis, stem cells and TA cells are not segregated as ... This engraftment of stem cells will also be essential for successful gene therapy. Second, stem cells are thought to be ... Expression of p63 by Human Limbal/Corneal Stem and TA Cells.. Identification of epithelial stem cells may rely on label- ... Some polypeptides are more abundant in putative epidermal stem cells than in TA cells, but no polypeptide confined to the stem ...
Stem cells: Court allows federal funding for embryonic stem.... April 29, 2011 ... that might move public consensus toward a more comprehensive stem cell policy that includes supporting work on any stem cell ... Stem cells, the next step. The Obama administrations draft rules for federally funded research move the science forward, but ... The viewpoint of those who oppose embryonic stem cell research is that it ends human life by destroying embryos made up of just ...
Adult stem cells reside in niches that maintain, regulate and protect them. Fresh light has now been shed on how the need for ... Figure 1 , Stem cells under an umbrella. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which give rise to blood-cell ... Cell umbrella protects stem cells from DNA damage. Adult stem cells reside in niches that maintain, regulate and protect them. ... presumably both to prevent stem-cell exhaustion (in which stem cells lose the ability to regenerate cell lineages) and to ...
Advances In Stem Cell ResearchResearch Submitted By: M.Z.Arifeen.Submitted By: M.Z.Arifeen. Submitted To: Dr. Aftab Ali Shah… ... skeletal stem cells), These non-hematopoietic stem cells(skeletal stem cells), These non-hematopoietic stem cells make up a ... stem cell niche.called a stem cell niche. Stem cells remain non-dividing for long periods of time untilStem cells remain non- ... goblet cells, paneth cells, and enteroendocrine cells.cells. Skin stem cellsSkin stem cells occur in the basal layer of the ...
"Peripheral blood stem cells for allogeneic transplantation: a review". Stem Cells. 19 (2): 108-17. doi:10.1634/stemcells.19-2- ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the transplantation of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, usually derived ...
Similarly, a research group at Lund University in Sweden, has now identified that certain cells during embryonic development ... Short facts pluripotent stem cells Pluripotent stem cells are cells that have the ability to make any specific cell type in the ... They hope in the future to be able to use the system to generate new blood cells, including blood stem cells, for patients in ... They are either derived from embryos (referred to as embryonic stem (ES) cells), or they can be generated from adult cells ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... Stem Cells and Ion Channels. Guest Editors: Stefan Liebau, Alexander Kleger, Michael Levin, and Shan Ping Yu *Stem Cells and ... Bioelectric State and Cell Cycle Control of Mammalian Neural Stem Cells, Julieta Aprea and Federico Calegari Review Article (10 ...
Japanese researchers who invented a way to make powerful stem cells out of ordinary cells say they have now found a safer way ... Stem cells are the bodys master cells, giving rise to all the tissues, organs and blood. Embryonic stem cells are considered ... The mouse embryonic cells reverted to a stem-like state and began behaving like embryonic stem cells. ... Working in mice, they generated induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells, and said they believe the method can work in ...
Scientists have successfully grown complex human brain tissue from human embryonic stem cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, ... Popular in: Stem Cell Research. * What are stem cells, and what do they do? ... Scientists grow artificial skin from stem cells of umbilical cord Using stem cells from the human umbilical cord, researchers ... The scientists began the research by using established human embryonic stem cell lines and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells ...
At the same time, Bush did endorse funding for some stem cell research--a reversal of his previous position and an affront to ... That both sides in the stem cell debate see themselves as heroically defending life is one clue to how difficult those issues ... The Tribune has advocated funding for research on stem cells extracted from a limited number of embryos created for the purpose ... But polling suggests that many people see embryonic stem cell research as morally improper--and, at the same time, medically ...
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... Typically, adult stem cells can differentiate into the cell types of the tissue in which they reside. Mesenchymal stem cells ... Stem cells represent unspecialized cells, which have the ability to differentiate into different adult cell types. Here, it is ...
Pluripetential stem cells are found in our red bone marrow. These stem cells becomes our red blood cells, white blood cells, ... Correct word for embryonic stem cell is totipotential stem cell. Which is not being used.. Thank you for clarification. I ... Biologists grow human-eye precursor from stem cells. Nature News wrote that they used human embryonic stem cells, IIRC. Maybe ... Correct word for embryonic stem cell is totipotential stem cell. Which is not being used.. Instead they are using ...
... An article collection in Stem Cell Research & Therapy.. This collection of articles has not been sponsored and ... Engineering a stem cell house into a home In the body, tissue homeostasis is established and maintained by resident tissue- ... Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow niche to the blood compartment The vast majority of hematopoietic ... Dormancy in the stem cell niche Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated ...
The Senate will vote on the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act (SCREA) after Easter, Harry Reid confirmed yesterday. Sen. ... Majority Leader Harry Reid on Tuesday said senators will debate stem-cell legislation in early April. \[…\] ... If youre tired of hearing about stem-cell research, brace yourself. These next two years are going to be a long haul. ... Coming Soon: Senate Stem-Cell Vote. If youre tired of hearing about stem-cell research, brace yourself. These next two years ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future. Cell Stem Cell, 10(6), 678-684, 10.1016/j.stem.2012.05.005 ... Human Intestinal Tissue with Adult Stem Cell Properties Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports, 2(6), 838-852. ... Generation of Functional Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Different Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines. Stem Cells and Development ... Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells artificially derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by ...
Cell stress regulation driving resident progenitor cell function: a potential pan-stem cell mechanism? ... Rare subset of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells control white blood cell production after a myocardial infarction. (Cell ... Arnaout Lab: Stem cell antigen-1 helps maintain renal epithelial cell homeostasis and promotes recovery of renal function ... A team at MGH decellularized a donor rat limb and repopulated it with vascular cells and muscle progenitor cells. "We have ...
This eighth volume in the essential Springer series of cutting-edge contributions in stem cell and cancer stem cell research ... covering stem cell culture, bone marrow stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, the reprogramming and differentiation of stem cells ... Part of the Stem Cells and Cancer Stem Cells book series (STEM, volume 8) ... Regarding bone marrow stem cells, researchers share data on the gene expression profiling of myelodysplastic stem cells; the ...
2012) The stem cell niche in regenerative medicine. Cell Stem Cell 10(4):362-369. ... 2007) Limiting factors in murine hematopoietic stem cell assays. Cell Stem Cell 1(3):263-270. ... Cell grafts for epilepsy treatment. Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived medial ganglionic eminence cells alleviate ... 2010) Evolving paradigms for repair of tissues by adult stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) J Cell Mol Med 14(9):2190-2199. ...
Embryonic stem cells modified to lack DNA methylation allowing transposons to become active. DNA shown in blue. Cells ... Cell Stem Cell. Funder. SNSF, Gates Cambridge Trust, BBSRC, Wellcome Trust, EU BLUEPRINT, EpiGeneSys. Keywords. *BIOLOGY ... Embryonic stem cells modified to lack DNA methylation allowing transposons to become active. DNA shown in blue. Cells ...
The Cancer Stem Cell Program is based on two pivotal findings made by program members:. *Only a small percentage of cells in ... the cancer stem or initiating cells, drive the growth and metastatic capability of tumors. These cells must be eliminated to ... The Program postulates that self-renewal is a critical function of both cancer stem cells and their normal counterparts and ... Cancers frequently arise as the consequence of changes in cells self-renewal pathways. ...
The report in the June 4 issue of Cell Stem Cellreveals that an enzyme that changes the way DNA is pack... ... Johns Hopkins researchers have determined why certain stem cells are able to stay stem cells., , , , ... the stem cells disappeared. A constant supply of stem cells in the testes is responsible for making cells that eventually ... NURF keeps stem cells from changing in fruit fly testes, but whether NURF keeps other stem cells from changing still needs to ...
  • Here we review the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, and cancer stem cells. (
  • [6] It is an allogenic stem therapy based on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from the bone marrow of adult donors. (
  • ATCC has provided stem cell resources to the research community for more than a decade, with a growing portfolio of cultures to choose from, including mouse embryonic stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), and human iPS cells. (
  • ATCC offers a targeted array of products for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells. (
  • At the same time, a large body of evidence pointed towards a role for bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the repair of the damaged heart [ 3 ]. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most investigated adult stem cells. (
  • Researchers placed mesenchymal stem cells onto a silicone membrane that was stretched longitudinally once every second. (
  • Mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to turn into different types of connective tissue including bone, cartilage, and muscle. (
  • In an effort to better understand the factors that affect the eventual fate of mesenchymal stem cells, the researchers designed the experiment to simulate the physical forces a cell would encounter if it were to become a blood vessel. (
  • The researchers placed a single layer of mesenchymal stem cells onto a membrane with microgrooves fabricated to resemble the patterns formed in blood vessels by collagen fibers. (
  • In a developing embryo , stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells-ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells )-but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues. (
  • In the strictest sense, this requires stem cells to be either totipotent or pluripotent -to be able to give rise to any mature cell type, although multipotent or unipotent progenitor cells are sometimes referred to as stem cells. (
  • Pluripotent, embryonic stem cells originate as inner cell mass (ICM) cells within a blastocyst. (
  • The uproar over stem cells really began in 1998 with the s- cessful derivation of pluripotent human embryonic stem (ES) cells by James Thomson and co-workers. (
  • Scientists call them pluripotent, which means they can become any cell in the body, except for germ cells or the cells that make up the sex organs. (
  • Stem cells can be unipotent, multipotent, pluripotent or totipotent, depending on the number of cell types to which they can give rise. (
  • Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells , to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells . (
  • This is a hands-on, basic cell culture training course focusing on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and human embryonic stem cells (hESC). (
  • Lecture 5: The effect of reduced oxygen tension on feeder and feeder free culture of human pluripotent stem cells. (
  • Ludmila Ruban, Cell Therapy Research Facilitator and Training Coordinator and author of 'Human pluripotent stem cells in culture', recently published by Springer. (
  • 52. Trounson and colleagues review recent developments and future prospects of clinical trials for stem cell therapies, highlighting usage of mesenchymal and neural stem cells, and reporting on the start of trials involving lines derived from pluripotent cells. (
  • Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can undergo unlimited self-renewal and are pluripotent, retaining the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body. (
  • ES cells are pluripotent and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. (
  • This is the stage at which pluripotent embryonic stem cell lines are generated. (
  • As a licensee of iPS Academia Japan's induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell patent portfolio, ATCC brings to the research community complete cell culturing solutions for iPS cells. (
  • These multipotent cells can be used for studies of adult stem cell differentiation, tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells. (
  • The researchers use a laboratory based culture system to generate new blood from pluripotent stem cells. (
  • By identifying the negative role of oxidation in new blood cells derived from pluripotent stem cells, we have identified what is perhaps the most significant hurdle in developing laboratory derived blood stem cells for transplantation based therapies. (
  • Pluripotent stem cells are cells that have the ability to make any specific cell type in the body. (
  • They are either derived from embryos (referred to as embryonic stem (ES) cells), or they can be generated from adult cells using a combination of factors that induces them to becoming pluripotent (referred to as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (
  • According to new research published in Nature , induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells -which are derived from adult tissue but, like embryonic stem cells, have the potential to proliferate indefinitely and to turn into any type of tissue-trigger an immune reaction when the undifferentiated cells are transplanted into tissue-matched mice. (
  • He then moved on to talk about finding disease-relevant phenotypes, for example using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). (
  • Andras Nagy talked about his groups attempts to produce a stable pluripotent cell quite different from ESCs. (
  • Working in mice, they generated induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells, and said they believe the method can work in people, too, and is an important step toward a new field called regenerative medicine. (
  • The scientists began the research by using established human embryonic stem cell lines and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse embryonic fibroblasts. (
  • We have established a novel approach to studying human neurodevelopmental processes through in vitro culture of cerebral organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. (
  • The team created induced pluripotent stem cells from a patient with microcephaly . (
  • Disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells. (
  • Using a process called cellular reprogramming, the researchers take a patient's skin cells, convert them into so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells , which can differentiate into all the cells within the human body. (
  • Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells artificially derived from somatic , reproductive , pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate w:epigenetic reprogramming. (
  • They are classified as either totipotent (iTC), pluripotent (iPSC) or progenitor (multipotent-iMSC, also called an induced multipotent progenitor cell-iMPC) or unipotent -- (iUSC) according to their developmental potential and degree of dedifferentiation . (
  • The researchers were able to identify the minimal conditions and factors that would be sufficient for starting the cascade of molecular and cellular processes to instruct pluripotent cells to organize the w:embryo . (
  • To date, the majority of studies using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac muscle cells have focused on single cell functional analysis," remarked senior author Dr. Todd J. Herron , an assistant research professor in the Departments of Internal Medicine and Molecular & Integrative Physiology at the U-M, in a prepared statement. (
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells are made from a patient's own tissue. (
  • The standard way to make induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells for medical research is to scrape skin cells and mix up their internal clocks, coaxing them back into pluripotency over a matter of weeks. (
  • Recently, it was demonstrated that pluripotent cells may be iso- lated from germ-line stem cells within the human testis [12]. (
  • A team of researchers has corrected a faulty gene in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from skin cells of people with an inherited metabolic liver disease. (
  • maintaining the human pluripotent stem cells in an undifferentiated state for at least 10 weeks. (
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein the human pluripotent stem cells are embryonic stem cells. (
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , for propagating the human pluripotent stem cells in an undifferentiated state. (
  • Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from the embryo and are pluripotent, thus possessing the capability of developing into any organ or tissue type or, at least potentially, into a complete embryo. (
  • Mouse ES cells are undifferentiated, pluripotent cells derived in vitro from preimplantation embryos (Evans, at al. (
  • We are using pluripotent stem cells, so we can make them into any cell type, and with CRISPR, we can remove or insert genes that have the potential to treat many types of disorders. (
  • The team at Kyoto University used induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) cells for their procedure. (
  • Once we can take adult cells and turn them back into pluripotent stem cells (fixing the telomeres along the way, even), or barring that can get the equivalent naive stem cells from placenta or umbilical cord tissue, we won't require fetal tissue any more and the whole issue will fade quietly as it should. (
  • The subsequent introduction of patient-derived stem cells, as in the case of induced pluripotent stem cells derived from healthy patients or those diagnosed with a neurological disorder, has further closely approximated cellular development especially under the aging condition. (
  • Stem cells are common in embryos, but within the last 15 years, a technique called cell reprogramming has enabled scientists to turn mature cells back into so-called pluripotent stem cells, with the power to develop into any cell type. (
  • A new technique, however, simplifies the effort required to create what are known as pluripotent stem (iPS) cells stem cells which can become anything from lungs to nerves to bone. (
  • This stress was enough to make the cells pluripotent in as little as 30 minutes. (
  • She developed and proved the method, which combines a very weak acid, physical squeezing and a bacterial toxin to make cells pluripotent. (
  • The next step in the research was to actually prove that the post-stressed cells were, indeed, pluripotent and could be turned into other body cells. (
  • 2. Stochastic differentiation: when one stem cell develops into two differentiated daughter cells, another stem cell undergoes mitosis and produces two stem cells identical to the original. (
  • Nerve cells, an example of a cell type after differentiation. (
  • Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell. (
  • The unique self-renewal ability and differentiation ability of stem cells can improve these diseases. (
  • In carcinogenesis ECM degradation triggers metastasis by controlling migration and differentiation including cancer stem cell (CSC) charact. (
  • By regulating the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation, they maintain. (
  • Advanced biomaterials have significantly contributed to three-dimensional cell culture systems in recent decades, and more unique and complex biomaterials have been proposed for improving stem-cell proliferation and controlled differentiation. (
  • STEMCELL Technologies: Reprogramming/maintenance/ differentiation. (
  • ATCC offers a complete system of tri-lineage-capable neural progenitor cells (NPCs), lineage marker-labeled NPCs, as well as expansion and differentiation media, for generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. (
  • Progenitors are obtained by so-called direct reprogramming or directed differentiation and are also called induced somatic stem cells . (
  • This meant that the cells can change their differentiation pathway. (
  • In w:Drosophila imaginal discs, cells have to choose from a limited number of standard discrete differentiation states. (
  • The fact that transdetermination (change of the path of differentiation) often occurs for a group of cells rather than single cells shows that it is induced rather than part of maturation. (
  • A purine derivative promotes expansion of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells by suppressing differentiation. (
  • They need to find out how much differentiation these cells require before they become helpful in specific areas of the body. (
  • Mouse ES cells injected into syngeneic mice form teratocarcinomas that exhibit disorganized differentiation, often with representatives of all three embryonic germ layers. (
  • First, we identified a rare fraction of tendon cells that was positive for the known tendon stem cell marker CD146 and exhibited clonogenic capacity, as well as multilineage differentiation ability. (
  • These tendon-resident CD146 + stem/progenitor cells were selectively enriched by connective tissue growth factor delivery (CTGF delivery) in the early phase of tendon healing, followed by tenogenic differentiation in the later phase. (
  • The time-controlled proliferation and differentiation of CD146 + stem/progenitor cells by CTGF delivery successfully led to tendon regeneration with densely aligned collagen fibers, normal level of cellularity, and functional restoration. (
  • Using siRNA knockdown to evaluate factors involved in tendon generation, we demonstrated that the FAK/ERK1/2 signaling pathway regulates CTGF-induced proliferation and differentiation of CD146 + stem/progenitor cells. (
  • The findings, published Oct. 23, in the online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, highlight the importance of mechanical forces in stem-cell differentiation. (
  • Experiments in stem-cell differentiation, however, have traditionally relied upon chemical signals to prompt this transformation into the desired cell type. (
  • We are now extending this concept to the cellular level by showing that mechanical stimulation can impact stem-cell differentiation. (
  • This new study is the first to look at the effects of such uniaxial strain on stem-cell differentiation. (
  • Because stem cells recapitulate cellular development, the application of cultured stem cells in a petri dish, which have been upgraded to brain-on-a-chip and organoids, has allowed in-depth probing of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation under homeostatic and pathologic conditions. (
  • For example, the apparent lineage and differentiation status of tumor cells are significantly affected by signaling abnormalities that are causally related to formation of the tumor. (
  • Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells. (
  • the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types. (
  • Totipotent (a.k.a. omnipotent) stem cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types. (
  • S tem cells are undifferentiated cells of various origin with the unique characteristic of self-renewal th rough growth and with the potential to differentiate into cells with a specific function. (
  • In the past, scientists believed adult stem cells could only differentiate based on their tissue of origin. (
  • However, some evidence now suggests that they can differentiate to become other cell types, as well. (
  • These stem cells generate transient amplifying (TA) cells that terminally differentiate after a discrete number of cell divisions ( 4 ). (
  • The great proliferative potential of holoclones ( 9 - 12 ), the capacity of a single holoclone to generate a mature epithelium in vivo ( 13 ) and to differentiate into distinct cellular lineages ( 11 ), and the permanent epithelial regeneration achieved in burn victims by means of grafts of autologous cultured keratinocytes ( 14 - 16 ), provide compelling evidence that keratinocyte "stem-ness" can be preserved in culture. (
  • Stem cells are different from other cells of the body in that they have the ability to differentiate into other cell/tissue types. (
  • they can renew themselves and can differentiate to a variety of specialized cells found in the blood. (
  • Embryonic stem cells are unique in that they are able to develop (or differentiate) into other types of cells. (
  • They then differentiate the cells into the cell type damaged in the disease and search for the underlying molecular flaws. (
  • their numbers in our bone marrow decline, and those that are left lose the ability to differentiate into the distinct cell types - such as bone, cartilage, fat and possibly muscle cells - that help in the healing process. (
  • They identified growth conditions that helped the stem cells differentiate into a variety of brain tissues. (
  • Scientists are now integrating genomics, proteomics, and other technologies in an effort to understand the two unique properties of stem cells: their ability to divide indefinitely to create more stem cells, and their ability to differentiate into any number of cell types. (
  • rather, they migrate through the animals' brains, where they differentiate into various types of neural cells including the cells that create the myelin that protects nerve fibers. (
  • After injury, mature terminally differentiated kidney cells dedifferentiate into more primordial versions of themselves, and then differentiate into the cell types needing replacement in the damaged tissue [26] Macrophages can self-renew by local proliferation of mature differentiated cells. (
  • They form characteristic cell clusters in suspension culture that express a set of genes associated with pluripotency and can differentiate into w:endodermal , ectodermal and mesodermal cells both in vitro and in vivo. (
  • GSCs have a broad plasticity and the potential to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic cells. (
  • These studies demonstrate that GSCs are easily obtainable stem cells, have growth kinetics and marker expression similar to MSCs, and differentiate into mesodermal lineage cells. (
  • The researchers then stimulated the gene-corrected iPS cells to differentiate into cells that exhibited some traits of hepatocytes, the liver cells most affected by A1ATD. (
  • The embryonic stem cell lines also retain the ability, throughout the culture, to form trophoblast and to differentiate into all tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm). (
  • b) culturing the primate embryonic stem cells so that they differentiate into derivatives of endoderm. (
  • If LIF is removed, mouse ES cells differentiate. (
  • Mouse ES cells cultured in non-attaching conditions aggregate and differentiate into simple embryoid bodies, with an outer layer of endoderm and an inner core of primitive ectoderm. (
  • It is proposed that culturing the stem cells with rat heart cells allows them to differentiate into heart muscle through signals from the rat cells. (
  • In the future it may be possible to inject/transplant the stem cells into the damaged area and have them naturally differentiate into the type of cell required, with only the natural stimuli provided by surrounding cells, without any danger of rejection by the body. (
  • Moreover, the Sca-1 + Lin - CD117 - MEF-MSCs induced hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to differentiate into novel regulatory dendritic cells (DCs) (Sca-1 + Lin - CD117 - MEF-MSC-induced DCs) when cocultured in the absence of exogenous cytokines. (
  • The most common method of inducing embryonic stem cells to differentiate is to introduce growth factors or change the chemical composition of the surface on which they grow. (
  • This cell-to-cell interaction, when combined with the introduction of specific growth factors ( in vitro ), can induce cells to differentiate along a specific pathway. (
  • The tumor cells differentiate unidirectionally from the cancer stem cell in a way parallel to normal development. (
  • Oogonial stem cells (OSCs), also known as egg precursor cells or female germline cells, are diploid germline cells with stem cell characteristics: the ability to renew and differentiate into other cell types, different from their tissue of origin. (
  • Stem cells for research are drawn from blastocysts-embryos that are a few days old, consist of several dozen cells, and are smaller by far than the pinhead on which theology's angels dance. (
  • Embryonic stem cells come from embryos between a few days to two weeks old. (
  • Scientists have also derived multipotent stem cells from fetal tissue (taken from embryos older than eight weeks, usually following abortion or spontaneous miscarriage). (
  • Scientists and ethicists have been working on alternatives for obtaining stem cells as powerful as those that come from embryos without actually creating or destroying an embryo. (
  • When scientists take stem cells from embryos, these are usually extra embryos that result from in vitro fertilization (IVF). (
  • If that's the case, the Obama administration made a savvy move with its compromise draft rules on embryonic stem cell science: It greatly expanded the number of embryos available for federally funded research, but refused to open the door to funding research on embryos created for that purpose. (
  • The compromise proposed by the National Institutes of Health would allow federal money to be used for research on stem cell lines from surplus embryos that were created through fertility treatments. (
  • The new NIH rules would not allow the use of federal money for studying stem cell lines derived from embryos created specifically for research. (
  • The viewpoint of those who oppose embryonic stem cell research is that it ends human life by destroying embryos made up of just a few cells. (
  • Derived from the "inner cell mass" of early stage embryos, mouse ES cells have the potential to generate every cell type found in the body. (
  • When these stem cells were tested, researchers found that the cells were able to develop into other types of cells in a manner similar to that seen in stem cells derived directly from embryos. (
  • The discovery could help pave the way for stem cells derived from adult tissues, giving ethical debates over the use of embryos a side-swerve. (
  • The stem cells in adult tissues do not have the same breadth of potential as those found in embryos. (
  • Harvard recently announced plans to use private cash to fund research into using human embryos as a source of stem cells. (
  • Jaenisch and colleagues published a paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on January 16 showing that stem cells derived from cloned embryos are functionally identical to stem cells derived from fertilized embryos - the two cell types show no difference in gene expression patterns. (
  • Previous research has shown that a high percentage of animals created from cloned embryos develop abnormally, so scientists had been concerned that stem cells derived from cloned embryos carry genetic abnormalities that make them unsuitable for therapeutic purposes. (
  • The Tribune has advocated funding for research on stem cells extracted from a limited number of embryos created for the purpose of in vitro fertilization, and destined to be discarded. (
  • The decision Bush announced Wednesday night would fund research on some 60 existing cell lines, though not on new lines from additional embryos. (
  • And yet, even in recent weeks the issue has grown more complex as competing bands of scientists announced experiments, some in the name of stem cell work, that trouble many Americans--such as the creation of human embryos for the sole purpose of harvesting their stem cells. (
  • S. 362, the trickily named Stem Cell Research Expansion Act, would allow federal funding for human embryonic stem cell (ESC) research on the condition that no embryos were harmed to derive the stem cells. (
  • Using cells the foetus sheds in amniotic fluid avoids controversy because it doesn't involve destroying embryos to get stem cells. (
  • In 2004 two-thirds of Swiss voters approved a new law allowing research on stem cells from surplus human embryos. (
  • The production of stem cells was limited to embryos no older than seven days. (
  • The scientists hope to use the 'hybrid' embryos to generate embryonic stem (ES) cells for research into regenerative medicine. (
  • But so far the embryos created by the Chinese scientists have not developed into blastocysts - the stage needed before ES cells can be isolated from human embryos. (
  • Second, there are a number of drugs and other interventions, such as endometrial 'scratch', a procedure used to help embryos implant more successfully, that have the potential to increase the stem cell populations in the womb lining. (
  • Along with many religious conservatives, Bush opposes research that would result in the destruction of embryos to harvest stem cells despite strong support for the work among researchers and the public. (
  • Rep. Roscoe G. Bartlett, a Maryland Republican who sponsored legislation that would require federal funding of research into methods of obtaining stem cells without creating or destroying human embryos, welcomed the Bush veto. (
  • Before the state fund was created in 2006, researchers who wanted to use stem cells derived from embryos were mostly dependant on private grants or were restricted to a few stem cell lines that qualified for federal money. (
  • But the field has been controversial because the creation of the stem cells usually entails the destruction of human embryos. (
  • The new ethical questions relate to extending culture of surplus human embryos generated for in-vitro fertilisation or test-tube babies, generating gametes (reproductive cells) and artificial embryos from stem cells, making animal-human chimeras, and genetically editing the human embryo. (
  • Not so long ago, the study of most stem cells, other than those that regenerated the haematopoietic system, was rather obscure and limited to a relatively small number of researchers and laboratories. (
  • Two years later, Michael Specter took a look at the Bush Administration's approach to science , and found that, despite Proposition 71 and other small-bore efforts, stem-cell researchers were foundering under federal constraints. (
  • They also believe embryonic stem cells can provide models to teach researchers about disease progression, and how to stop it. (
  • Additionally, researchers believe that studying stem cells can help them understand how primordial cells transform into all the different types of cells in the human body. (
  • Researchers from the University of Georgia, Emory University School of Medicine and the University of Pittsburgh have received a $2.9 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to test a novel method of producing viable sperm cells from skin cells. (
  • Researchers have published the results of their work where stem cell therapy has shown promise in a case of spinal cord injury. (
  • Researchers Dr. Marcelo Rivolta from the University of Sheffield and colleagues have shown that human embryonic stem cells that were differentiated into auditory nerve cells can improve overall by ~45% hearing in gerbils that were treated with ouabain to damage the nerves. (
  • Researchers have been looking into ways of using a patient's own cells to create embryonic stem cells, as this would ensure that the genetic material in any cells used therapeutically would match the patient's DNA. (
  • The researchers report that previous attempts to produce embryonic stem cells using this technique have failed, as the cells stopped dividing before they reached an advanced enough stage. (
  • During their experiments, researchers identified two reasons for this inability to sufficiently grow the cells and developed techniques to overcome these limiting factors. (
  • This study will no doubt be very exciting for researchers working with stem cells, but we're still a long way from the findings of this study being translated into new treatments for conditions such as Parkinson's disease or heart disease . (
  • The researchers used a technique called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to transfer genetic material from adult human skin cells into a human egg cell in order to produce embryonic stem cells. (
  • Researchers then optimised methods to prompt the egg cell to start and continue to divide using electricity and chemical compounds, including caffeine. (
  • When investigating why the derived blood cells did not function as well as donor blood cells, the Lund University researchers found high levels of reactive oxygen species (a class of molecules that cause oxidation) in the newly derived blood cells. (
  • The researchers have also developed a cocktail of factors that could reduce oxidative damage in the cells, and when used resulted in over twenty times more newly generated blood stem cells that could grow. (
  • Researchers have only studied cells from mice, and human iPS cells may not trigger the same reaction. (
  • Researchers from the University of California, San Diego, tested the theory by creating both embryonic stem cells and iPS cells from mice and then transplanting the cells into genetically identical mice. (
  • Researchers emphasize that iPS cells still relatively little studied compared to embryonic stem cells, and extesnvie research is needed before using them in therapies. (
  • In addition to these widely studied stem cell types, researchers have used other extra cardiac stem cell types such as adipose derived stem cells [ 5 ], cortical bone derived stem cells [ 6 ], and cord blood stem cells for cardiac repair. (
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Japanese researchers who invented a way to make powerful stem cells out of ordinary cells say they have now found a safer way to do it. (
  • The researchers induced mouse cells to produce extra quantities of Nanog. (
  • Led by Nam-Young Kang and Young-Tae Chang, the researchers discovered that their probe, named TiY (for tumor-initiating cell probe yellow), recognizes vimentin, which is a molecule in the cytoskeleton. (
  • Researchers theorize that when these genes are turned on, they produce transcription factors that spur the cell along different developmental paths. (
  • In each patient, researchers at University of California, San Francisco, transplanted 75 million neural stem cells into each of four sites in the brain and followed that with immunosuppressive therapy so the recipient wouldn't reject the foreign cells. (
  • University of Michigan ( UM ) researchers recently reported the discovery of a new method that could produce cardiac muscle patches from stem cells. (
  • The researchers believe that the stem biology findings will be beneficial to those who suffer from common but life-threatening heart diseases. (
  • Johns Hopkins researchers have determined why certain stem cells are able to stay stem cells. (
  • The Johns Hopkins researchers believed that restructuring the DNA by proteins that make up chromosomes could play a role in deciding if a stem cell was going to change into another cell or stay a stem cell, since change in the DNA packaging would allow for many genes to be turned off and other genes to be turned on. (
  • Bovine mastitis is typically treated with antibiotics, but with the potential threat of antimicrobial resistance and the disease's long-term harm to the animal's teat, researchers at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine are laying the foundation for alternative therapies derived from stem cells. (
  • The researchers also found that the secreted factors were more effective against toxins produced by gram-negative bacteria, which are generally more resistant to antibodies because of their thicker cell walls. (
  • But now researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have turned their attention to another cell type in abundant supply: fat cells. (
  • Other researchers in the field will be watching to see what further tests might reveal about the practicality of using fat cells instead of skin cells for iPS research. (
  • The researchers then developed the stem cells into something resembling liver cells. (
  • Stem cells cultured in labs are known to build up mutations (see Gene defects plague stem-cell lines), so, to check that their changes weren't making things worse, the researchers sequenced the genome of one of the corrected iPS cell lines and compared it to the genomes of the parental skin cells and the uncorrected iPS cells. (
  • Before the cells can be developed into a clinical therapy, researchers must understand the biological consequences of these mutations, he says. (
  • Researchers are unable to guarantee that their work with stem cells will produce beneficial results. (
  • Now Canadian researchers have found a safe way to generate stem cells without using viruses to modify the genome, a process that can have its own dangers. (
  • The ethical debate over embryonic stem cell use may soon be moot, thanks to a Canadian team of researchers who, together with a team out of Scotland, has found a safe way to grow stem cells from a patient's own skin. (
  • The researchers found that fasting dramatically improves stem cells' ability to regenerate, in both aged and young mice. (
  • After mice fasted for 24 hours, the researchers removed intestinal stem cells and grew them in a culture dish, allowing them to determine whether the cells can give rise to "mini-intestines" known as organoids. (
  • The researchers found that stem cells from the fasting mice doubled their regenerative capacity. (
  • Using new gene-editing technology, researchers have rewired mouse stem cells to fight inflammation caused by arthritis and other chronic conditions. (
  • The cells were developed at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and Shriners Hospitals for Children-St. Louis, in collaboration with investigators at Duke University and Cytex Therapeutics Inc., both in Durham, N.C. The researchers initially worked with skin cells taken from the tails of mice and converted those cells into stem cells. (
  • The researchers also encoded the stem/cartilage cells with genes that made the cells light up when responding to inflammation, so the scientists easily could determine when the cells were responding. (
  • Japanese researchers have last week transplanted stem cells into a patient's brain as part of an experimental therapy for Parkinson's disease. (
  • Still, researchers disagreed as to whether female germline stem cells (FGSCs) do exist in mammalian ovaries after birth. (
  • In other stem cell news, researchers reporting Sunday in the journal Nature Biotechnology said that they were able to use bits of genetic material called microRNA to revert adult mouse cells back into embryonic cells. (
  • In a unique initiative, the UMC Utrecht and the Hubrecht Institute facilitated the creation of a newly built location that brings together the largest number of researchers in the field of regenerative medicine and stem cells in the Netherlands. (
  • Annelien Bredenoord, Professor in Medical Ethics and member of the Regenerative Medicine & Stem Cells strategic program, investigates ethical aspects of research and research processes: "We work with researchers to identify and address ethical issues, and we develop guidelines or policy. (
  • The researchers further found that a stem cell shortage accelerates cellular ageing in the womb. (
  • The only -- ONLY -- reason people are in an uproar about this sort of work is because fetal stem cells are being used by many researchers in the field, and obtaining fetal tissue is politically charged. (
  • The researchers also looked at the effects of stretching stem cells on a smooth membrane with no microgrooves. (
  • After two days of this cellular exercise regimen, the researchers found a significant increase in the expression of a group of genes that control tensile strength, compared with cells that were not stretched. (
  • As for cell positioning, the researchers found that without the microgrooves, the stem cells would align themselves perpendicular to the direction of the stretch. (
  • In addition to finding that the perpendicular orientation significantly diminished the expression of genes for tensile strength, the researchers also saw a slight increase in cell proliferation when cells were aligned parallel to the axis of strain. (
  • LOS ANGELES - A treatment for eye diseases that is derived from human embryonic stem cells might have improved the vision of two patients, bolstering the beleaguered field, researchers reported Monday. (
  • In this case, researchers at Advanced Cell Technology turned embryonic stem cells into retinal pigment epithelial cells. (
  • Since these cells offer a tremendous hope for alleviating human suffering, researchers, industry and multicultural societies need to be on the same page with agreed-upon regulatory policy and guidelines that ensure ethical activities, transparency and best practice,' said Professor Arnold Kriegstein, founding director of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). (
  • Researchers in the medical school at the University of California, San Diego (UC San Diego) in a 2016 study repurposed the CRISPR/Cas9 technique to track RNA in live cells in a method called RNA-targeting Cas9 (RCas9). (
  • Researchers from the University of Toronto's Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME) and the Donnelly Centre have discovered a population of cells - dubbed to be "elite" - that play a key role in the process of transforming differentiated cells into stem cells. (
  • Some researchers believe that all cells have the capacity to be reprogrammed into an embryonic stem cell-like state, while others believe that only a specific subset of cells have this elite ability. (
  • The researchers hypothesize that the neural crest cells are "fated to be fit. (
  • Temporary squishiness could help drive blood-forming stem cells out of the bone marrow and into the blood, but the cells need to be stiff to stay put and replenish the blood and immune system, the researchers have found. (
  • The book should provide a road map for researchers, clinical investigators and regulators involved in modifying haematopoietic cells. (
  • embryonic stem cells , which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts , and adult stem cells , which are found in various tissues . (
  • In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. (
  • Stem cells can now be artificially grown and transformed (differentiated) into specialized cell types with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves. (
  • Only cells from an earlier stage of the embryo, known as the morula , are totipotent, able to become all tissues in the body and the extraembryonic placenta. (
  • In some parts of the body, such as the gut and bone marrow , stem cells regularly divide to produce new body tissues for maintenance and repair. (
  • In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. (
  • With this ability, they have been used to replace defective cells/tissues in patients who have certain diseases or defects. (
  • Following the blastocyst stage, the tissues of the embryo start to form and the cells become multipotent. (
  • It helps to balance the production of new cells with the loss of old ones, to sculpt growing tissues and to destroy potential cancer cells. (
  • Stem cells are the body's master cells, giving rise to all the tissues, organs and blood. (
  • They showed when the Nanog cells were joined with cells previously destined to become nerves they were pushed back in time, regaining the ability to become other tissues. (
  • Although not the only controller of stem cells, the team say the work on Nanog - named after the Celtic mythical forever-young land of Tir Nan Og - is an important step to understanding the mysteries of what stops them becoming differentiated tissues. (
  • Tissue culture of immortal cell strains from diseased patients is an invaluable resource for medical research but is largely limited to tumor cell lines or transformed derivatives of native tissues. (
  • Tissues characterized by constant turnover contain post-mitotic, terminally differentiated cells originating from highly proliferative progenitors, which in turn derive from a relatively small population of st. (
  • Like embryonic stem cells , iPS cells can grow into many other cell types - an ability called pluripotency - to help replace damaged tissues and organs. (
  • Suc- cess in transplantation of these cells stimulated the search for other mesenchymal cell populations from different tissues. (
  • The process by which specialized cells and tissues develop from common, unspecialized ancestor cells, such as stem cells. (
  • Such stem cells, known as SMART cells (Stem cells Modified for Autonomous Regenerative Therapy), develop into cartilage cells that produce a biologic anti-inflammatory drug that, ideally, will replace arthritic cartilage and simultaneously protect joints and other tissues from damage that occurs with chronic inflammation. (
  • With an eye toward further applications of this approach, Brunger added, "The ability to build living tissues from 'smart' stem cells that precisely respond to their environment opens up exciting possibilities for investigation in regenerative medicine. (
  • Our bodies contain stem cells, which are capable of regenerating damaged tissues and we hope that a wide variety of diseases can be treated either through cellular therapy or by stimulating the body's own stem cells into repairing their own tissues. (
  • Recently, the concept that endogenous stem/progenitor cells could be used for regenerating tissues has emerged as a promising approach that potentially overcomes the obstacles related to cell transplantation. (
  • Through grueling research and tests, Embryonic Stem Cells have been used to regenerate tissues and cells using undifferentiated cells and coaxing them into a differentiated state. (
  • Self-renewing and able to duplicate, stem cells are used to halt or even reverse chronic diseases by repairing or replacing tissues or organs. (
  • Adult stem cells are frequently used in various medical therapies (e.g., bone marrow transplantation ). (
  • Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation have also been proposed as promising candidates for future therapies. (
  • The result of this 'altered nuclear transfer' would not be an embryo, but a disorganized mass of human cells that would be as useful as embryonic stem cells for medical research and potential therapies. (
  • Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. (
  • [10] In addition to the functions of the cells themselves, paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome , has been found to be another mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative , auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. (
  • Stem cell injection therapies have been proposed to overcome the limited efficacy and adverse reactions of bulking agents. (
  • Cell replacement therapies in Parkinson's disease (PD) aim to provide long-lasting relief of patients' symptoms. (
  • This may make them potentially useful sources of transplant tissue and cell-based therapies. (
  • In addition, most stem cell-based therapies would involve transplantation of differentiated cells, such as brain cells or liver cells, which might not provoke the immune system. (
  • It may be some time before the compound can be used to fight ageing, but similar molecules might have a more immediate benefit in stem cell therapies. (
  • YOKOHAMA, JAPAN -For more than a decade, stem cell therapies have been touted as offering hope for those suffering from genetic and degenerative diseases. (
  • This project provides learning resources that help participants learn about Induced stem cells and efforts to produce useful stem cells and obtaining their derivatives for medical therapies. (
  • For potential stem cell-based cardiac regeneration therapies for heart disease, however, it is critical to develop multi-cellular tissue like constructs that beat as a single unit," commented Herron in the statement. (
  • The new method could be used in many cardiac research laboratories and allow cardiac stem cell patches to be utilized in disease research, new drug treatment testing, and therapies focused on repairing damaged heart muscles. (
  • According to a criminal complaint filed by prosecutors in Turin, Davide Vannoni, head of cell therapy company Stamina Foundation, preyed on hypochondriacs and terminally ill patients who were desperate for experimental therapies when traditional treatments failed. (
  • Despite the uncertainty around the mecha- nism of adult stem cells action upon transplantation into the in- jured site, these cells are presently the most promising tool for cell-based therapies. (
  • In order to broad- en the array of tools for cell-based autologous therapies, we iso- lated a novel renewable stem cell population from the adult testes that has characteristics of MSCs, termed gonadal stem cells (GSCs). (
  • SUNRISE, Fla. , May 14, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- U.S. Stem Cell, Inc. (OTC: USRM), a leader in the development of proprietary, physician-based stem cell therapies and novel regenerative medicine solutions, today announced the release of USRM Chief Science Officer Dr. Kristin Comella's Stem Cell 101 Webinar from last Friday, now available for complimentary playback via live link , . (
  • Dr. Comella, a world renowned expert in the development and clinical application of autologous stem cell products and therapies, is one voice in a growing movement recognizing the power of regenerative medicine and, in particular, autologous stem cell therapy . (
  • Google has announced a broad ban on ads on its platform for a range of unproven medical procedures, including stem cell and gene therapies that have not been tested in rigorous clinical trials. (
  • In the blog post, Deepak Srivastava, MD, president of the International Society for Stem Cell Research, said that the policy "is a much-needed and welcome step to curb the marketing of unscrupulous medical products such as unproven stem cell therapies. (
  • Added Srivastava, "The premature marketing and commercialization of unproven stem cell products threatens public health, their confidence in biomedical research, and undermines the development of legitimate new therapies. (
  • Cite this: Google to Ban Ads for Stem Cell Therapies - Medscape - Sep 06, 2019. (
  • The attendees at the seminars were excited about regenerative therapies with stem cells, exosomes and growth factors. (
  • The standing roomy only presentations occurred in front of hundreds of individuals interested in learning the latest advancements and research available regarding stem cell therapies . (
  • As the leader in offering regenerative therapies in the US, R3 Stem Cell's Centers have performed over 10,000 successful procedures at thirty four Centers across the country. (
  • The goal of the event, created by the Vatican's Pontifical Council For Culture, The Stem For Life Foundation and STOQ (Science, Theology and the Ontological Quest), is to engage in discussions about the potential for adult stem cells , and other ethical cellular therapies, to treat cancer, diabetes and a other debilitating medical conditions and diseases. (
  • Catalyze the necessary funding to support the development of cell therapies that will cure and treat a broad range of debilitating diseases and medical conditions. (
  • Chris Mason, a University College London professor of regenerative medicine who was not affiliated with the two studies, told the BBC that this is a "game changer" and that it could lead to "personalized, reprogrammed cell therapies" to treat a variety of conditions. (
  • Adipose tissue (fat cells), which requires extraction by liposuction. (
  • These stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. (
  • A Stanford bioethicist proposed using human cloning technology, or somatic cell nuclear transfer, to join a human egg and genetically altered human tissue. (
  • It is a necessary requirement to develop a culture system to produce pure populations of tissue-specific stem-cell numbers in vitro without the loss of stem cell potential. (
  • Also called tissue-specific or somatic stem cells, adult stem cells exist throughout the body from the time an embryo develops. (
  • Stem cells are present inside different types of tissue. (
  • Representing 30-40% of our body mass, skeletal muscle is a highly organized tissue made up of a large number of syncytial cells, known as myofibers, which are formed by the fusion of myogenic progenitor cells. (
  • MuSCs typically exist in a quiescent state but may enter the cell cycle following injury in order to regenerate the skeletal muscle tissue and replenish the stem cell pool for future needs. (
  • Moreover, recent studies show that MuSCs are a heterogeneous stem cell population, with different abilities to support tissue regeneration. (
  • The dynamic changes in MuSC behavior are regulated by the microenvironment and by distinct tissue resident cells of the niche that provide molecular cues to regulate MuSC fate. (
  • They stripped the tissue of all native cells, then added donor stem cells to the scaffolding that was left behind. (
  • The resulting stem cells could then possibly be used to repair damaged tissue, or even treat genetic conditions. (
  • In mice, stem cells derived from adult tissue can trigger immune rejection, even when matched to the tissue donor. (
  • A promising type of stem cell may not be as well-suited for tissue replacement transplants as scientists had hoped. (
  • Discovery of tissue specific stem cells capable of forming cardiac cell types has revolutionized cardiac medicine. (
  • These are promising outcomes that indicate that the cells have the ability to modulate cardiac repair programs leading to replacement of the lost tissue. (
  • The new cells appeared to be of higher quality, too, and readily differentiated into bone and fat cells, as well as those that support the tissue and blood vessels. (
  • Embryonic stem cells are considered the most powerful kinds of stem cells, as they have the potential to give rise to any type of tissue. (
  • If it works, some day doctors may be able to make tailor-made transplants to treat diseases in people by removing a few cells, transforming them in the lab and transplanting the new tissue or organs back in. (
  • Epithelial cells form the tissue that covers the inner and outer surfaces of the body, forming a boundary with the environment. (
  • The cells are polar, meaning that the side facing toward the underlying tissue and the side directed outward toward the lumen are different. (
  • Scientists have successfully grown complex human brain tissue from stem cells using a new 3D culture system, according to a study published in the journal Nature . (
  • Biologists dream of the day they can take a stem cell and create any of the body's cell types, producing pancreas or liver tissue that doctors could use to aid a failing organ. (
  • Such disease-specific stem cells offer an unprecedented opportunity to recapitulate both normal and pathologic human tissue formation in vitro, thereby enabling disease investigation and drug development. (
  • The company has created banks of highly purified neural stem cells that are isolated from adult neural tissue. (
  • In the body, tissue homeostasis is established and maintained by resident tissue-specific adult stem cells (aSCs). (
  • [27] In newts, muscle tissue is regenerated from specialized muscle cells that dedifferentiate and forget the type of cell they had been. (
  • However, it is still an open question whether all cells in the tumor possess the capacity that produces this tissue or not, that is: are there tumor stem cells or there are not. (
  • In their March 16 paper in Scientific Reports , Van de Walle and Nydam explore how the secretions of bovine mammary stem cells can encourage healing and regrowth of damaged tissue as well as rid the mammary gland of harmful bacteria. (
  • They play a role in the formation of new blood vessels and promote the migration of cells, both of which are integral in healing tissue damaged by mastitis. (
  • It's important to continue pursuing treatments based on human embryonic stem cells," says Xu , "as these have so far proved to be the most reliable and versatile for regenerating new cells and tissue. (
  • The potential of iPS cells to help treat everything from damaged heart tissue to Parkinson's disease , has prompted intensive research that has looked into the use of skin fibroblast cells as an alternative to controversial embryonic stem cells. (
  • Fat stem cells, however, seem especially primed for the job, as they are capable of turning into fat, heart, bone or muscle tissue. (
  • Over the course of a few days, the team directed the modified stem cells to grow into cartilage cells and produce cartilage tissue. (
  • These new embryonic cells are, like stem cells, capable of transforming into multiple different types of tissue. (
  • A shortage of these stem cells in patients suffering recurrent loss is associated with accelerated ageing of the tissue. (
  • The idea is it would run something like this: take a few vials of blood or a bit of adipose tissue (subcutaneous fat), send them to the lab to be turned into stem cells or precursor heart / kidney / pancreas / brain cells, inject into or near the appropriate tissue (maybe just give as a transfusion), and things will Just Work. (
  • So, this is a long-winded way of saying that I doubt anyone in research team from the article is considering the application for their work to be to use xenograft stem cells (from a different species), but to instead use human fat cells to create new heart tissue. (
  • Current stem cell-based strategies for tissue regeneration involve ex vivo manipulation of these cells to confer features of the desired progenitor population. (
  • Moreover, when HER2-positive cells were implanted in mice, cancer stem cells led the invasion into surrounding tissue. (
  • The Michigan group also has shown that the stem-cell population in normal and malignant breast tissue exhibits increased expression of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase as assessed by the Aldefluor assay. (
  • When stretched, a type of adult stem cell taken from bone marrow can be nudged toward becoming the type of tissue found in blood vessels, according to a new study by Berkeley bioengineers. (
  • It was a cellular-workout routine that helped point the bone-marrow stem cell in the direction of becoming the smooth-muscle tissue of vascular walls. (
  • Embryonic stem cells have the advantage of being able to turn into any kind of body tissue and of being easier to work with in the lab, though that flexibility comes with controversy and ethical questions not found in research on adult stem cells. (
  • Stem cells seem to know the type of tissue they are supposed to become by the type of mechanical strain they are subjected to. (
  • The findings indicate that the stem cells were well on their way to becoming smooth muscle tissue, although they didn't quite get there. (
  • In recent years, when it comes to stem-cell research, rather than furthering discovery, our government has forced what I believe is a false choice between sound science and moral values," Obama announced, flanked by six eminent research scientists. (
  • Scientists say these abilities make embryonic stem cells excellent candidates for cell therapy. (
  • Why do scientists want to use stem cells? (
  • Scientists believe they may be able to use stem cells as replacements or patches in people with various diseases. (
  • Scientists have also seen success in heart patients who received stem-cell injections. (
  • Mistakes in that process can lead to cancer, birth defects and many other ailments, so understanding cell development could give scientists insight into how to correct those errors. (
  • Scientists say they have a more limited ability than embryonic stem cells to self-renew. (
  • How hard is it for scientists make the cells into treatments? (
  • Scientists and doctors are interested in stem cells as they help to explain how some functions of the body work, and how they sometimes go wrong. (
  • Scientists are also working on ways to develop stem cells from other cells, using genetic "reprogramming" techniques. (
  • scientists have developed cell lines from people with different disorders, such as Parkinson's. (
  • In the past year, several teams of scientists have reported finding a handful of genes that can transform ordinary skin cells into iPS cells, which look and act like embryonic stem cells. (
  • Stem cell scientists have pinpointed a molecule that confers the cells with amazing powers of self-renewal and maintains their ability to develop into any other type of cell in the body. (
  • Scientists are learning how to control the two unique properties of stem cells. (
  • But to realize that dream, scientists must first understand the forces operating in stem cells - what makes some stem cells stay stem cells, while others grow into brain, liver, and skin cells? (
  • Scientists would ultimately like to create a complete wiring diagram of the stem cell's regulatory circuit. (
  • Scientists can also use array technologies to examine other characteristics of stem cells. (
  • Syndicated columnist Charles Krauthammer, writing recently in Time magazine, neatly summed up the agony of many who fear the reproductive creativity of some scientists: "I favor federal funding of stem cell research, but now I am scared to death--of my allies. (
  • Earlier this year, scientists at University of California, Los Angeles, and Advanced Cell Technology of Marlborough, Massachusetts, reported in The Lancet about the safe and successful use of RPE cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, rather than iPS cells, to treat a different type of AMD in a limited number of human patients . (
  • An opportunity for scientists, clinicians, educators and industry professionals to share new data, learn from peers, and discover global advances within the stem cell field. (
  • Regarding the specifics of the project, the goal of the scientists was to use stem cells to develop skin biopsies. (
  • To make iPS cells, scientists use a technique called cellular reprogramming , ScienceNOW explains . (
  • In the video, scientists discuss the potential of embryonic stem cells to grow into any kind of body cell. (
  • Scientists want the freedom to work with stem cells but, as is typical with research, they cannot predict where such research will lead. (
  • Scientists at Zurich University have for the first time grown human heart valves using stem cells from the amniotic fluid that cushions babies in the womb. (
  • Chinese scientists have revealed that they have transferred nuclei from human cells into rabbit eggs stripped of their own chromosomes. (
  • New international guidelines on human embryonic stem cell research call for close scrutiny of scientists and clear consent from people donating cells, but do not settle the issue of paying women who donate eggs. (
  • The International Society for Stem Cell Research, the principal scientific group for stem cell scientists, said its 15 pages of guidelines released Thursday were meant to establish ground rules for a field stung by a fraud scandal and opposition on moral grounds. (
  • STEM CELL TAKE BACK A study claiming to have grown a mouse fetus with simple stem cells was retracted after scientists couldn't replicate the work. (
  • In January, scientists claimed to have made ultraflexible stem cells, known as STAP cells, by dipping mature cells into acid or by putting the cells under gentle pressure ( SN: 2/22/14, p. 6 ). (
  • Scientists at the University of Warwick have discovered that a lack of stem cells in the womb lining is causing thousands of women to suffer from recurrent miscarriages. (
  • Melbourne scientists recently discovered that stem cells isolated from human fat could be made to turn into beating heart muscle cells when cultured with rat heart cells. (
  • Some scientists in Maryland have patched together state grants and private donations to keep embryonic stem cell work going, but others have shied away for lack of federal support, officials said. (
  • Irina Conboy notes the 'disconnect' on stem-cell issues between scientists and other academics. (
  • Irina Conboy, an assistant professor of bioengineering who uses stem-cell science in an effort to combat degenerative diseases that come with aging, said the interchange is necessary because there is often a "disconnect" between academics and working scientists like herself. (
  • Stem cell research is a big political issue right now and according to some scientists stem cell research is very fragile area but promising area to mankind. (
  • Within the last ten years though, scientists have made leaps and bounds in finding out concrete facts that this stem cell research has supplied. (
  • Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary of Health Services states, "I believe it will open up a world of opportunity for scientists, not only at the NIH, but elsewhere, because it demonstrates a cooperative atmosphere among academia, the private sector, and government that will allow us to move ahead" ("sign stem"1). (
  • LISBON, Portugal , June 13, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- New discoveries from stem cell research have raised hope among scientists for breakthrough cures for common diseases ranging from heart disease to diabetes. (
  • Before this, scientists could harvest the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, but were able to keep them alive only for a very short time. (
  • Scientists at Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University, Children's Healthcare of Atlanta and Georgia Tech have found that modulating blood-forming stem cells' stiffness could possibly facilitate mobilization procedures used for stem cell-based transplants. (
  • The Ptpn21-mutant cells were indeed squishier, and the scientists were able to measure exactly how much. (
  • In Genetic Modification of Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols , leading scientists in the field provide a compendium of protocols which cover the subject comprehensively, from the purification and culture of various types of hematopoietic cells for subsequent genetic modification by vector development and technical issues of small and large scale vector production, to the complex issue of monitoring and biosafety studies related to gene-modified hematopoiesis. (
  • Available exclusively to our Member community, Member-to-Member Mentoring is a self-directed mentoring program that matches early career scientists and engineers with experienced STEM professionals for advice and coaching. (
  • A number of scientists have since then used mathematical models to suggest that, without an oocyte stem cell (OSC) population, the female mammal will not have enough oocytes to complete their reproductive lives due to rate of atresia during the normal cycle is significant. (
  • Being able to skip the mouse feeder cell step necessary with skin cells, along with the shortened culturing period, may make the new method more palatable to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which must approve such treatments for human use and prefers methods that reduce opportunities for contamination. (
  • Stem cell research" redirects here. (
  • For the journal, see Stem Cell Research (journal) . (
  • [2] Research into stem cells grew out of findings by Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till at the University of Toronto in the 1960s. (
  • Signi?cant advances in stem cell research and their potentials for therap- tic applications have attracted the attention of the scienti?c community and captured the imagination of society as a whole. (
  • Since 1998, extensive research endeavours have been devoted to the study of both embryonic and adult stem cells. (
  • Whether these excess blastocysts are simply discarded, as the opponents of stem-cell research would apparently prefer, or whether a few hundred of them become the basis for a biomedical alchemy that could benefit millions, the amount of actual human suffering entailed would be the same: zero. (
  • But if your comprehension of stem-cell research doesn't go beyond that, you're not alone. (
  • And everyone should, because stem-cell research brings up issues like where your tax money goes, who you vote for, your family's health and even your most fundamental beliefs about what makes us human. (
  • We hope this list of frequently asked questions will serve as a foundation on which you can form your own opinions about stem-cell research. (
  • Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, as well as to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes and heart disease . (
  • In order to be used for research or treatment applications, large numbers of high-quality stem cells are needed. (
  • Such research might involve attempts to produce genetically matched organs for transplant or stem cell lines that reflect racial and ethnic diversity. (
  • The course would be applicable for those in industry aiming to work on stem research and bioprocessing. (
  • BD Biosciences: Diverse set of tools for stem cell research. (
  • A research team headed by Prof. Dr. Sebastian Arnold and Jelena Tosic from the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Freiburg has now succeeded in deciphering basic molecular control mechanisms by which stem cells decide which embryonic cell types to turn into. (
  • The explosion of interest in stem cells, over the past decade or so, in both basic and translational research has encouraged three of BioMed Central's flagship journals, BMC Biology , BMC Medicine and Genome Medicine , to come together to present a series of specially commissioned comment and review articles on stem cell biology and medicine. (
  • In this thematic series we aim to highlight some of the most important and topical issues - including recent advances, controversies and challenges in stem cell research, and of course their clinical implications. (
  • This makes them less suitable for establishing cell lines for research. (
  • These headlines are based on newly published research into the use of a technique known as somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) as part of embryonic stem cell research. (
  • This research is the first time the technique has been successful using human cells. (
  • Media coverage of this study was as varied as people's feelings are about stem cell research. (
  • Similarly, a research group at Lund University in Sweden, has now identified that certain cells during embryonic development also are negatively affected by oxidation. (
  • Earlier research in mice had suggested that the prion protein expressed by MSCs might play a role in holding back stem cell ageing. (
  • If we want to take stem cells and convert them into something useful - neurons to treat Parkinson's disease, or insulin-producing cells to treat diabetes - we need to learn a lot about what makes a cell a neuron or a pancreatic cell," says Rudolf Jaenisch , a stem cell expert at the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Cambridge, MA. (
  • The research was presented at a conference at MIT last week titled "Systems Biology of the Stem Cell. (
  • The debate over federal funding for research on embryonic stem cells has been intense, exhaustive and, in the end, irreconcilable in a way that bridges all of our passionate differences on this issue. (
  • But polling suggests that many people see embryonic stem cell research as morally improper--and, at the same time, medically imperative. (
  • At the same time, Bush did endorse funding for some stem cell research--a reversal of his previous position and an affront to important parts of his political base. (
  • The promise took another step toward reality last week with announcements here at the annual meeting of the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) that two groups are moving forward with human clinical research, one focusing on a rare genetic neurological disease and the other for the loss of vision in the elderly. (
  • In her presentation, Ann Tsukamoto, StemCells' vice president for research, said the company chose to test its neural stem cell approach on PMD because there is currently no treatment for the condition and a diagnosis can be confirmed by genetic testing and magnetic resonance imaging. (
  • The research team has not directly tested whether the transplanted RPE cells improved the animal's vision. (
  • An article collection in Stem Cell Research & Therapy . (
  • If you're tired of hearing about stem-cell research, brace yourself. (
  • The Senate will vote on the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act (SCREA) after Easter, Harry Reid confirmed yesterday. (
  • It would provide $5 billion in funding for all forms of stem-cell research (adult and embryonic, animal and human), with up to 10% of the money designated to promote embryo adoption and develop the methods allowed by S. 362. (
  • Side note: A Domestic Policy Council report [.pdf] released earlier this year stated that $3 billion has already been spent on stem-cell research in the first six years of Bush's Presidency, so $5 billion over 10 years is actually a decrease in funding when considering inflation and the 10% of diverted funding. (
  • Given such a case, Reid may have to postpone Senate votes on the stem-cell bill until a veto would give supporters of stem-cell research a political boost. (
  • The innovative process was created at UM´s Center for Arrhythmia Research and effectively uses stem cells that can copy the heart´s squeezing action. (
  • By genetically engineering flies to lack several proteins involved in packaging DNA, in the stem cells of the testes in fruit flies, the research team found that if the enzyme NURF is removed from testis stem cells, the stem cells disappeared. (
  • The New York Stem Cell Foundation (NYSCF, ), established in 2005, is dedicated to furthering human embryonic stem cell research to advance the search for cures of the major diseases of our time. (
  • The focus of our research is to understand the link of inflammation and the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment via the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokines on quiescent HSCs and their niche. (
  • According to prosecutors, that's what a controversial Italian professor, now facing criminal charges for the illegal harvesting, research and manipulation of stem cells, has been banking on for the last eight years. (
  • Stamina Foundation and its subsidiaries Cell Factories, Medestea Stemcells and Biogenesis Research-which are all named in the complaint-had operational offices in Italy, Switzerland, Mexico, and Hong Kong. (
  • Van de Walle's lab at the Baker Institute for Animal Health performs basic research on viral pathogenesis and stem cell biology, and Nydam is the director of Quality Milk Production Services, a program that addresses milk quality issues for producers, such as disease control and antibiotic use. (
  • Wu and Longaker's research thus far has taken a fairly broad swipe at reprogramming adipose fat stem cells, so the team hopes to refine the process to target only the most efficient candidates. (
  • A process by which an embryo is created through nuclear transfer in order to obtain stem cells from it for therapeutic and/or research purposes. (
  • As an extension, have students research what nerve, muscle, blood, and skin cells do and how each cell type's structure is related to its function. (
  • Explore the ethics of stem cell research. (
  • No one is able to guarantee that stem cell research will lead to cures. (
  • Who should have jurisdiction over stem cell research (e.g. (
  • David Sabatini, an MIT professor of biology and member of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research and the Koch Institute, is also a senior author of the paper, which appears in the May 3 issue of Cell Stem Cell . (
  • If you have to wait for the baby to arrive to collect cells, it takes another six to eight weeks before a valve is ready to implant, which is often too late," Dr Simon Hoerstrup, the university's head of cardiovascular surgery research, told swissinfo. (
  • Hoerstrup, who presented the research this week at an American Heart Association conference in Chicago, said that besides heart valves, this stem cell therapy might be used to repair blood vessels or patch up holes in the heart's ventricular wall. (
  • The research is available online April 27 in the journal Stem Cell Reports. (
  • By also cooperating with companies, we want to develop a mass production system that enables us to deliver nerve cells derived from iPS cells to all over the world," said Jun Takahashi, a professor at the university's Center for iPS Cell Research and Application who led the research team, at a news conference. (
  • These stem cells are continuous," explained Sanberg, who was not involved in the research. (
  • But the findings, published online April 12 in Nature Cell Biology , could still have interesting implications for future stem cell and other research, Prockop added. (
  • Advocates say embryonic stem cell research is the best hope for cures for conditions such diseases as Alzheimer's, diabetes and Parkinson's. (
  • They also require explicit consent from anyone donating cells for such research. (
  • The rules permit the possibility of experiments creating chimeras -- animals seeded with human cells -- if approved by an institution's stem cell research oversight mechanism. (
  • Read more about medical ethics in regenerative medicine and stem cell research. (
  • An incredibly easy method for making stem cells turned out to be too good to be true, again tainting stem cell research with controversy and stirring up disquiet over some scientific publishing policies. (
  • Stem Cell research and therapy have been growing at a rapid rate over the past fifteen years. (
  • If we can generate stem-cells applicable to human research trans-specially, who other than PETA would continue to object? (
  • Several research groups have shown that cancer stem cells constitute 1% to 5% of the primary tumor, can form tumors in immunocompromised mice, and generate the phenotypic heterogeneity of the initial tumor. (
  • The investigators continued the research in the current study, which focused on the effects of HER2 overexpression on normal and malignant breast stem cells. (
  • President Bush vetoed legislation to expand federal funding for embryonic stem cell research yesterday, prompting officials at Maryland research institutions to issue warnings that restrictions on the science are slowing medical progress. (
  • The Bush veto - his second of legislation that would overturn an executive order restricting stem cell funding - means that it's doubtful that there will be any expansion of federally backed stem cell research during his last 19 months in office. (
  • He issued an executive order requiring the National Institutes of Health to ensure federal funding for research on adult stem cell lines that, like embryonic stem cells, can mature into a number of cell types. (
  • Democrats will continue to fight to lift the current restrictive policy on federal funding for research on embryonic stem cells so that we can look back on this administration's approach as nothing more than a regrettable, temporary anomaly,' said House Majority Leader Steny H. Hoyer of Maryland. (
  • Since Bush restricted stem cell research in 2001, Maryland has joined several states in filling the void with state funds. (
  • Last month, the Maryland Stem Cell Research Commission allotted $14.5 million to 24 stem cell projects, at least 10 of which involved embryonic cells. (
  • The governor is committed to continuing to fund stem cell research but I can't speak to the exact dollar amounts, given the $1.5 billion structural deficit that this administration inherited,' said Rick Abbruzzese, O'Malley's press secretary. (
  • Baltimore Democrat Samuel I. Rosenberg, one of the House of Delegates ' leading supporters of stem cell research, said he still hopes for more money in fiscal 2009. (
  • Conservatives aren't happy about President Obama's reversal on federal funding for embryonic stem-cell research, Politico's Carrie Budoff Brown writes. (
  • And Dan Gilgoff reports on the faith-based VIPs at President Obama's stem-cell research signing yesterday. (
  • But research on both types of stem cells holds the promise of treatments for diseased or damaged body parts. (
  • Song Li, associate professor of bioengineering and principal investigator of the study, heads one of the leading research groups in the country investigating the role of a stem cell's physical environment on its development. (
  • Rarely has a medical revolution captured the hopes and horrors of so many as has stem-cell research. (
  • For example, Chancellor Robert Birgeneau allocated funds in early spring 2006 to kick-start the campus's stem-cell program, with a proportion of those funds going to research and training in the societal implications of stem-cell research. (
  • Another example is provided by the Rothschild Foundation, which has funded stem-cell research at Harvard University. (
  • In October the institute sponsored a stem-cell conference at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute called "Toward Fair Cures. (
  • My own value system says adult stem cell research is "right" while embryonic stem cell research as it has been performed thus far is "wrong. (
  • Several see embryonic stem cell research in a similar light. (
  • I believe embryonic stem cell research could be justified if it was the only way such research could occur and if it showed promise. (
  • Thus far, embryonic stem cell research has cost billions, resulted in the indictment of Korean researcher Hwang Woo-Suki and his research team on fraud and embezzlement charges, and produced no tangible results while requiring the taking of a human life to perform. (
  • On the other hand adult bone marrow stem cell research, while still experimental, has produced several cures including the first patient considered to be "cured" of AIDS. (
  • This research has been accomplished largely with private research funds and does not require the taking of a human life and in fact can be performed with a patient's own stem cells. (
  • What are the advantages of stem cell research? (
  • Stem cell research can potentially treat a wide range of medical problems. (
  • Should stem cell research be continued? (
  • What does Barack Obama think about stem cell research? (
  • He is in favor of stem cell research. (
  • How much is embryonic stem cell research? (
  • How will stem cell research be funded? (
  • Right now most of the stem cells research is funded by government agency i.e, NIH (National Institute of Health). (
  • New ways of conducting stem cell research have made the healing and repairing treatment for many diverse applications. (
  • New ways of conducting stem cell research have made the. (
  • Stem cell research is paramount to developing at minimum, treatments, if not outright cures for extremely common illnesses associated with old age, as well as rarer types of disease that tend to strike people in the prime of their lives. (
  • Professor Timothy Caulfield , research director at the Health Law Institute, University of Alberta , calls this 'scienceploitation': 'Now you see stem cell, genetic, and increasingly, microbiome research being exploited to sell a host of ridiculous products. (
  • Ironically, countries with high poverty rates stand to benefit the most from ethically responsible progress in the field, said Professor El-Nasir Lalani, founding director of AKU's Centre for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research. (
  • Professor Lalani also spoke about a research capacity building partnership between AKU and UCSF in developing a comprehensive and integrated research programme in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. (
  • Being a research-led University, we believe that investing in stem cell research is a step forward toward achieving the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals. (
  • To stop the train completely would also be unethical, as the hope for breakthrough cures from stem cell research is greater than ever. (
  • Here, we present milestone studies in basic science, translational medicine, and clinical research detailing the discovery, mechanism, and therapeutic applications of stem cells in aging related neurological disorders. (
  • This Research Topic welcomes the critical analysis of the stem cell field as a cellular development tool and as a therapeutic regimen, in the hopes of further advancing the field of cell-based regenerative medicine for aging related neurological disorders. (
  • The results from animal research were published on March 14 in the journal Cell Stem Cell . (
  • How deformable cells are, and thus how stiff or squishy they are, plays an important role in retaining blood-forming stem cells in their marrow niches and thus preserving their long-term repopulation capabilities, says lead author Cheng-Kui Qu, MD, PhD. The research provides insights into how alterations in blood stem cell biomechanics can be associated with certain blood disorders, including leukemias. (
  • With the incredible potential of gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells, active research in this field has become critically important. (
  • Unique and cutting-edge, Genetic Modification of Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Methods and Protocols is an ideal, thorough resource to promote further research and the implementation of investigator-driven clinical studies using gene-modified hematopoietic cells. (
  • This book is a great help for the design of excellent research in basic hematology, oncology, genetics, and immunology, and also promote the implementation of investigator-driven clinical studies using gene-modified hematopoietic cells. (
  • The book represents an outstanding work, which should not be missed in all biomedical research laboratories dealing with gene therapy of hematopoietic cells. (
  • One of the studies' co-authors, stem-cell research Yoshiki Sasai with the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Japan, told Nature that this discovery is "amazing. (
  • Learn from diverse STEM experts about their research and experience in the field, and participate in a conversation about making STEM more inclusive! (
  • Should I trust my Medical Doctor and the drugs my MD prescribes or research natural wellness and stem cell nutrition? (
  • New research indicates that oogonial stem cells do not exist in mice and there is no convincing evidence they exist in other mammals. (
  • However, in 2004, new research by Jonathan Tilly and colleagues came about to suggest that a new population of stem cells in female mammals does exist, which could possibly be used for personalized therapeutics. (
  • A lot more experimental and technological work has to be done before regenerative stem cell transplantation is a routine occurrence. (
  • Ten weeks after transplantation, some of the differentiated cells were shown to grow projections that connected with the brain stem and the animals could perceive more faint sounds. (
  • Encouraging preclinical results have paved the way for clinical applications of cell therapy and preliminary results obtained from various clinical trials indicate that stem cell transplantation increases cardiac function comparable to the existing interventions for treatment of heart diseases. (
  • in the early part of the last decade showed that transplantation of lin − /c-kit+ cells effectively transdifferentiates into cardiac lineages leading to enhanced cardiac function after infarction [ 2 ]. (
  • Despite the excitement, significant concerns persist around the ability of adoptively transferred cells to survive in the ischemic heart and some reports suggest as low as 1% of cells make it in the heart past the first few days of transplantation. (
  • This mimics transplantation of cells from one person back into the same person. (
  • It will be necessary to characterize the cells in more detail…for their tumorigenicity upon transplantation,' he wrote in an email. (
  • Recent data on cell transplantation into animal models of degenerative diseases and injuries illustrated the feasibility of the use of adult stem cells for regenerative medicine [1-3]. (
  • One of the most popular clinical studies being researched these days is stem cell transplantation. (
  • Embryonic stem cell transplantation is a related course of cells that are in charge of certain functions and systems of the body. (
  • The cells used in the transplantation process are contrived from "cryopreserved suspensions" from the fetal liver, thymus, bone marrow, spleen, brain, and the pancreas. (
  • However, because of their immature transplantation to the human body, these cells cause a weaker immune response than mature cells. (
  • The most extensively used and legitimate stem cell treatment is bone marrow transplantation, used for treating certain blood and immune system disorders. (
  • 2) laboratory and clinical investigations on stem cell transplantation. (
  • removing one cell from a very early embryo and deriving stem cells from that cell. (
  • Around 3-5 days after a sperm fertilizes an egg, the embryo takes the form of a blastocyst or ball of cells. (
  • A blastocyst is an early stage embryo-approximately four to five days old in humans and consisting of 50-150 cells. (
  • The fertilized egg (day 1) undergoes cell division to form a 2-cell embryo, followed by 4-cell, etc. until a ball of cells is formed by the fourth day. (
  • These are then fused with human cells - in this case skin cells - and the fused cell begins behaving in a similar way to an embryo by producing human stem cells. (
  • Yamanaka's team tried several different methods but eventually looped three of the genes needed into one plasmid and the fourth into another, and transplanted these into cells from a mouse embryo. (
  • Under normal physiological conditions, a stem cell begins to assume its chosen identity when the embryo is a few days old. (
  • Also, since iPS cells don't require embryo use, they're not subject to federal restrictions like embryonic stem cells. (
  • By activating a handful of genes, they turn the developmental clock backward in adult cells, converting them into an embryo-like state. (
  • A hollow ball of cells that forms early in the development of an animal embryo-about four days after conception of an embryo. (
  • You take cells from the amniotic fluid without harming the unborn child and there is no sacrifice of an embryo. (
  • Ageing cells mount an inflammatory response, which may facilitate implantation of an embryo but is detrimental for its further development. (
  • Professor Brosens added: "After an embryo has implanted, the lining of the uterus develops into a specialised structure called the decidua, and this process can be replicated when cells from the uterus are cultured in the lab. (
  • These cells originate from a part of the embryo known as the neural crest, which play a key role in the development of skin, neuronal and smooth muscle cells. (
  • But here's a new twist on these controversial cells: what if you could do the reverse, and turn almost any human cell into the equivalent of an embryonic stem cell without taking the cells from an embryo in the first place? (
  • They tagged some cells with a fluorescent dye and injected them into a mouse embryo. (
  • These agents, however, cannot discriminate between the leukaemia or neoplastic cells, and the hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow. (
  • a donor's healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host's body during treatment. (
  • ATCC offers CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells isolated from bone marrow. (
  • They hope in the future to be able to use the system to generate new blood cells, including blood stem cells, for patients in need of bone marrow transplants. (
  • One of the first stem cell types to be used for cardiac regeneration was derived from the mononuclear fraction of the bone marrow and the cells were designated as bone marrow mononuclear cells [ 1 ]. (
  • Ensuing years saw establishment of the finding that the bone marrow is host to a variety of distinct stem/progenitor cell populations possessing cardiogenic repair potential. (
  • Hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are cells present in blood and bone marrow. (
  • This type of treatment is called a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. (
  • Bone marrow cells are collected during a surgical procedure that takes approximately an hour. (
  • After the marrow is collected, the cell suspension is passed through a series of sterile filters of decreasing size to remove fat, bone particles and cellular debris. (
  • B) Fibroblast (ADA and GBA) or bone marrow mesenchymal cells (SBDS) were used to generate iPS lines. (
  • The vast majority of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized niches within the bone marrow during steady state, maintaining lifelong blood cell production. (
  • mediated remodeling of endothelial cells in the bone marrow niche. (
  • Stem cell s are able to divide indefinitely and have the potential to develop into different types of cells, such as muscle, nerve, bone, or heart cells. (
  • Stem cells obtained from a blastocyst instead of from another source, such as tooth pulp, bone marrow, or an umbilical cord. (
  • If I am reading correctly, the only "production-ready" stem cell treatments are involving cancer (specifically leukemia and other blood-related cancers) - there's been some success at replenishing bone marrow after a round of chemo knocks out all of the existing marrow. (
  • Meanwhile, bone cells (osteoblasts), which are responsible for bone maintenance, are very small and round, and must live embedded in hard calcified bone. (
  • For cartilage and bone, particularly at the joints, cells experience compression forces," Li says. (
  • Active and rapid recovery of the composition of peripheral blood as well as the cell composition of bone marrow- if it was damaged. (
  • This type of stem cell has the potential to be any cell in the body, and offers less rejection for a recipient that needs a bone marrow or stem cell transplant. (
  • Instead, doctors use a drug (G-CSF) that encourages blood-forming stem cells to leave the bone marrow and enter the blood, because it generally gives a higher yield. (
  • The mutant mice were very sensitive to chemotherapy drugs, but it was also easier to spur blood stem cells out of their bone marrow. (
  • Barack Obama signed an executive order this morning reversing George W. Bush's August, 2001, decision to ban federal funding for new embryonic stem-cell lines. (
  • In October, 2004, Connie Bruck reported on Proposition 71 in California , an ultimately successful ballot initiative authorizing the state to fund new embryonic stem-cell lines. (
  • The early stages of embryogenesis are the point at which embryonic stem cell lines are derived. (
  • Embryonic stem cell lines derived from human blastocysts. (
  • Clonally derived human embryonic stem cell lines maintain pluripotency and proliferative potential for prolonged periods of culture. (
  • report that the residence time of CTCF on chromatin is controlled by its zinc finger 8 domain and determines chromatin organization, DNA methylation and transcriptional robustness in mouse embryonic stem cells. (
  • Here we show that the p63 transcription factor, a p53 homologue essential for regenerative proliferation in epithelial development, distinguishes human keratinocyte stem cells from their TA progeny. (
  • Most of the salutary effects of cell therapy have been attributed to these few surviving cells and recent efforts have focused on boosting the survival, proliferation, and cardiac commitment of the donated stem cell population. (
  • However, their regulatory effects on immune cells, especially regulatory dendritic cells, are not fully understood.We have identified a novel Sca-1 + Lin - CD117 - MSC population isolated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) that suppressed lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. (
  • All oogonial stem cells in C. elegans are derived from one distal-tip cell (DTC), which acts as a niche to ensure that germline proliferation continues. (
  • Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to play an important role in tumor recurrence and drug resistance, and present a major challenge in cancer therapy. (
  • Most cancers contain a subpopulation of highly tumorigenic cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs). (
  • The initiation and progression of malignant tumors is driven by distinct subsets of tumor-initiating or cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) which develop therapy/apoptosis resistance and self-renewal capacity. (
  • Glioblastoma multiforme, the most common type of primary brain tumor in adults, is driven by cells with neural stem (NS) cell characteristics. (
  • Most cancers contain tumor cells that display stem cell-like characteristics. (
  • Most likely, tumor cells that display stem cell-like characteristics can undergo asymmetric cell division giving rise to tumor cells that trigger angiogenic programs. (
  • Cancer stem cells", also known as tumor-initiating cells (TIC), appear to cause relapses after radiation and chemotherapy because a single surviving TIC can cause a new tumor to grow. (
  • Healthy cells and "ordinary" tumor cells were not marked. (
  • The Program postulates that self-renewal is a critical function of both cancer stem cells and their normal counterparts and that self-renewal pathways may be co-opted in the process of oncogenesis to support tumor growth. (
  • Since tumor cells also exhibit self-renewal capacity, it seems plausible that their regulation is similar to that of the stem cells. (
  • Existence of tumor stem cells was suggested since it is simpler to retain the self-renewal capacity than to reactivate the immortality program in an already differentiated cell. (
  • If tumor stem cells exist, they would be the main target for therapy: only these must be killed since the other tumor cells possess limited proliferative capacity, therefore limited life span. (
  • The only problem is that during tumor progression stem-like cells can develop continuously and the identification but mainly the prevention of their formation is still a great challenge. (
  • A growing body of evidence suggests that many types of cancer, including breast cancer, may be driven by a small subset of tumor-initiating cells or cancer stem cells that exhibit stem cell-like properties. (
  • These studies indicate that HER2 signaling regulates the mammary stem-progenitor cell population driving carcinogenesis and tumor invasion," the authors concluded. (
  • The undifferentiated character of brain tumor cells and recent reports of cancer stem cells prompt questions regarding the involvement of normal stem/progenitor cells in brain tumor biology, their potential contribution to the tumor itself, and whether they are the cause or the consequence of tumor initiation and progression. (
  • The cancer stem cell model proposes a clonally derived brain tumor arising from a cancer stem cell. (
  • This tumor cell-of-origin originates from a stem/progenitor or more differentiated cell via acquisition of oncogenic mutations that dysregulate or allow reacquisition of self-renewal mechanisms. (
  • In addition, these tumors recruit normal CNS stem and progenitor cells to the tumor mass leading to the possibility of a heterogeneous and polyclonal cell population. (
  • These cells are responsible for tumor relapse, metastasis, and chemoresistance. (
  • thus, CSCs are also known as tumor-initiating cells or tumor-propagating cells. (
  • This breakthrough and the subsequent generation of specialized human cells in vitro led to a paradigm shift within the sci- ti?c community, which transformed this specialized endeavour from a topic of scienti?c interest to a line of investigation with the potential to generate cells - pable of treating serious ailments, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. (
  • This means they can generate various cell types from the originating organ or even regenerate the original organ, entirely. (
  • However, one advantage of EG cells is that they do not appear to generate tumours when transferred into the body, as embryonic stem cells do. (
  • However, laboratories worldwide attempting to generate laboratory derived blood cells, find these cells do not perform as well as blood cells from donor sources. (
  • They say that these conditions are usually applied to generate particular cell identities from stem cells. (
  • We modified an established approach to generate so-called neuroectoderm, a cell layer from which the nervous system derives. (
  • A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. (
  • How- ever, similar to embryonic stem cells, these cells generate teratomas when transplanted into immunodeficient mice bringing into question their potential clinical application. (
  • Stem cell cultures grown in the laboratory may be used to generate specialized, differentiated cells. (
  • A lot of what we know about the regenerative attributes of progenitor cells comes from the great resources of development biology and embryology. (
  • Although there are many unanswered questions, the study of autophagy and stem cell biology can help us to progress in life sciences. (
  • Huck Hui Ng gave the first talk, on his work investigating the systems biology of stem cells. (
  • Though we know the genes and proteins in a cell, we don't know how the machine works," says Paul Matsudaira , director of the MIT Computational and Systems Biology Initiative ( CSBi ). (
  • In a second talk at the meeting, stem cell researcher Masayo Takahashi of the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe reported on progress in her group's preclinical work targeting wet-type age-related macular degeneration (AMD). (
  • This experiment was really hard to do, says Erika Matunis, Ph.D., professor of cell biology from the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. (
  • Give student teams some colored clays and pictures of stem, nerve, muscle, blood, and skin cells (from a biology book or the Web). (
  • This activity works well in conjunction with cell model-building activities that are often part of the biology curriculum. (
  • Exploiting tools from synthetic biology, we found we could re-code the program that stem cells use to orchestrate their response to inflammation," said Jonathan Brunger, PhD, the paper's first author and a postdoctoral fellow in cellular and molecular pharmacology at the University of California, San Francisco. (
  • HPCs are used in the treatment of many malignant (e.g., leukemia, lymphoma) and non-malignant (e.g., sickle cell disease) diseases to replace or rebuild a patient's hematopoietic system. (
  • Her group's proposed strategy is to surgically remove the problematic blood vessels and replace the damaged RPE cells with new RPE cells derived from a patient's own cells. (
  • Since the iPS approach uses the patient's own cells, they avoid the need for immunosuppressive drugs. (
  • These iPS cells come from healthy donors and are expected to develop into dopamine-producing brain cells that have been damaged in the patient's own brain. (
  • Autologous stem cell treatments are possible because of stem cells harvested from the patient's own fat. (
  • Adipocell TM is USRM's proprietary, stem cell kit that enables physicians to separate potent stem cells from a patient's own fat cells, which are harvested and reinserted in a two-hour procedure that is generally minimally invasive and does not require general anesthesia. (
  • Vimentin is more concentrated in epithelial cells when they transform into mesenchymal cells. (
  • For example, differentiated airway epithelial cells can revert into stable and functional stem cells in vivo after the ablation of airway [24] . (
  • Some secreted factors protect epithelial cells from damage caused by bacterial toxins, and others proved to be antimicrobial peptides that play a role in killing bacteria. (
  • Epithelial cells, which make up the nephron in the kidney, filter waste products. (
  • These epithelial cells must be able to retain nutrients and materials needed by the body and return them to circulation, while leaving wastes, toxins, and excess water to be excreted. (
  • Rare subset of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells control white blood cell production after a myocardial infarction. (
  • Tsukamoto says that if the therapy proves efficacious it could lead to neural stem cell treatments for multiple sclerosis, cerebral palsy, and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • Other treatments, including administering and infusing manipulated stem cells back into patients, were allegedly conducted in the back room of a beauty salon in San Marino, a tiny city-state within Italy's borders, according to the complaint. (
  • To management's knowledge, USRM has completed more clinical treatments than any other stem cell company in the world in the past 20 years. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently began cracking down on stem cell therapy clinics that promote unproven treatments. (
  • In June, the agency won a permanent order prohibiting a Florida-based clinic, US Stem Cell Clinic LLC, from marketing its adipose-derived stem cell treatments. (
  • This self-renewal demands control of cell cycle as well as upkeep of multipotency or pluripotency, which all depends on the stem cell. (
  • Self-renewal: the ability to go through numerous cycles of cell division while maintaining the undifferentiated state. (
  • Cancers frequently arise as the consequence of changes in cells' self-renewal pathways. (
  • For the medical therapy, see Stem cell therapy . (
  • Targeting programmed cell death using small-molecule compounds to improve potential cancer therapy. (
  • It is widely believed that targeting the tumour-initiating cancer stem cell (CSC) component of malignancy has great therapeutic potential, particularly in therapy-resistant disease. (
  • Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. (
  • this is the only form of stem-cell therapy that is widely practiced. (
  • Another stem-cell therapy called Prochymal , was conditionally approved in Canada in 2012 for the management of acute graft-vs-host disease in children who are unresponsive to steroids. (
  • The identification of p63 as a keratinocyte stem cell marker will be of practical importance for the clinical application of epithelial cultures in cell therapy as well as for studies on epithelial tumorigenesis. (
  • Secret to safer stem cell therapy or cure for cancer? (
  • The final talk in this session was from Ralf Huss, about using stem cells as drug delivery tools in cancer therapy, due to their propensity to home in on the tumour. (
  • Homing and migration of the adoptively transferred stem cells are another important determinant for the success of cell therapy. (
  • A big problem with using MSCs for therapy is that you need to inject millions of cells, but it's difficult to get millions in a dish," says James Adjaye of the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin, Germany. (
  • Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cells (PBPCs) are another type of cell therapy product that contains HPCs. (
  • A Costa Rican stem-cell therapy center is shut down because it failed to follow standard medical bioethical procedures, despite promising results. (
  • Fans of cell therapy company Stamina say the head doctor's radical therapy is saving lives-but Italian prosecutors say the company is preying on the desperate and the terminally ill. (
  • They were listed as nonprofit cell therapy groups even though they charged patients up to $50,000 to harvest, manipulate and reinfuse stem cells and up to $12,000 to store them, according to a blistering 69-page court document filed in court last week by Turin prosecutor Raffaele Guariniello and obtained by The Daily Beast. (
  • Given discoveries about these cells in culture, 'we have to ensure that when one takes on gene-replacement therapy in the context of iPS cells, very considerable effort is made to make sure the cells are normal', he says. (
  • If the work can be replicated in animals and then developed into a clinical therapy, the engineered cells or cartilage grown from stem cells would respond to inflammation by releasing a biologic drug - the TNF-alpha inhibitor - that would protect the synthetic cartilage cells that Guilak's team created and the natural cartilage cells in specific joints. (
  • When these cells see TNF-alpha, they rapidly activate a therapy that reduces inflammation," Guilak explained. (
  • USRM and its affiliates have vowed to defend the rights of its clients and the practice of regenerative stem cell therapy and its applications. (
  • U.S. Stem Cell, Inc. is a leader in the regenerative medicine / cellular therapy industry specializing in physician training and certification and stem cell products including its lead product Adipocell TM , as well as veterinary stem cell training and stem cell banking and creation and management of stem cell clinics. (
  • Scientific advances coupled with consumer demand have proven that stem cell therapy is the wave of the future, and is poised to change the face of medicine. (
  • The only hurdles have been religious and regulatory roadblocks slowing down the approval process for fetal stem cell therapy. (
  • Today, we're announcing a new Healthcare and medicines policy to prohibit advertising for unproven or experimental medical techniques such as most stem cell therapy, cellular (non-stem) therapy, and gene therapy," said Google policy adviser Adrienne Biddings in a blog post . (
  • The report, published online in the medical journal The Lancet, is the first to describe the effect on patients of a therapy involving human embryonic stem cells. (
  • They come from the second clinical trial involving the stem cells, using a therapy developed by Advanced Cell Technology to treat macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness. (
  • Cell therapy has emerged as an experimental treatment, reaching clinical trials over the last 3 decades for a number of aging-related disorders. (
  • One bottleneck is efficient delivery of RCas9 to patient cells, as the non-infectious adeno-associated viruses that are commonly used in gene therapy are typically too small to hold Cas9 to target DNA. (
  • In addition, our findings suggest that cell biomechanics can be leveraged to improve current mobilization regimens for stem cell-based therapy. (
  • Haematopoietic stem cells are attractive targets for gene therapy. (
  • The 2-year-old dog will undergo two surgeries for her broken legs and start a stem cell therapy to improve her spinal damages. (
  • Dr. Hampel is hopefull that the stem cell therapy will help regenerate stem cells and cause an reduction of swelling around her spine. (
  • Furthermore, the clinical efficacy of trastuzumab may relate to its ability to target the cancer stem cell population in HER2-amplified tumors. (
  • The paper comes two months after the Geron Corporation cast a pall over the field by abruptly halting the world's first clinical trial based on embryonic stem cells - one aimed at treating spinal cord injury. (
  • Early reports suggested that adult stem cells had a higher plasticity than previously believed, perhaps even comparable with that demonstrated by embryonic stem cells, but several observations of the so-called transdifferentiation capacity and plasticity of adult stem cells have not been repeated. (
  • ATCC has developed complete cell culture solutions to support human MSCs and iPS cells in the collection. (
  • Suppression of immune response by mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) is well documented. (
  • Transmission electron micrograph of an adult stem cell displaying typical ultrastructural characteristics. (
  • He talked about the different characteristics of "elderly" stem cells. (
  • Cells with stem-cell characteristics appear to be especially important in the formation and metastasis of tumors. (
  • Stem cells possess two basic characteristics: they are able to renew themselves and to develop into different cell types. (
  • Qu approached Wilbur Lam and Todd Sulchek, biomedical engineers who are experts on studying the mechanical characteristics of cells. (
  • Homeobox genes are master regulators of cell fate during embryonic development and their expression is altered in cancer. (
  • The team found that certain genes were expressed at much higher levels in the teratomas formed by iPS cells than in those formed by embryonic stem cells. (
  • Ken Zaret talked about the initiation of cell reprogramming, specifically his efforts to identify "Pioneer factors", these bind to target genes that will turn on later. (
  • To get these genes into the cells, they have had to use retroviruses, which integrate their own genetic material into the cells they infect. (
  • reports that the protein Nanog acts as a switch, turning on a host of genes which are responsible for stem cell's much-touted special properties of renewal and repair. (
  • Systems biologists hope that by studying how ensembles of genes or proteins in a given cell react to changes in that cell, they can get a more comprehensive understanding of a cellular system than they would through the traditional method of looking at single genes or proteins. (
  • The genes that push a stem cell down a particular developmental pathway are regulated at many different levels. (
  • In a paper published in September, Rick Young, a biologist at Whitehead, and colleagues describe the use of microarray technology to identify a set of genes that are kept inactive in undifferentiated stem cells. (
  • Young's collaborator, David Gifford , a computer scientist at MIT, is studying the packaging of DNA in an effort to determine whether some of these genes have been activated in specific cell types. (
  • Lemischka and colleagues at Princeton University have identified another set of genes that are kept inactive in undifferentiated stem cells. (
  • They are now examining how turning these genes on and off impacts different parts of the cell, such as its proteins, cDNAs, RNAs, and histone modifiers, the proteins that determine how DNA is packaged. (
  • The report in the June 4 issue of Cell Stem Cellreveals that an enzyme that changes the way DNA is packaged in cells allows specific genes to be turned on and off, thereby preventing a stem cell from becoming another cell type. (
  • We still don t know what is happening in this case with how NURF regulates genes to keep stem cells from changing, says Matunis. (
  • One of the seminal achievements of mammalian embryology of the last decade is the routine insertion of specific genes into the mouse genome through the use of mouse ES cells. (
  • 11. The aptamer according to claim 9 or 10, wherein the cell is in vivo or in vitro. (
  • Also, at first I thought, 'are women going to be getting abortions on purpose to provide more fetal stem cells? (
  • There's good scientific reasons to use fetal stem cells that have to do with host rejection. (
  • 34. An editorial by Guest Editor Stuart Orkin introduces this new series of articles, highlighting progress in genomic-scale studies of stem cells and cellular reprogramming that could impact medicine. (
  • In this proof-of-concept study, Yeo's team used RCas9 to eliminate the problem-causing RNAs associated with microsatellite repeat expansion diseases in patient-derived cells and cellular models of the diseases in the laboratory. (
  • Most of the iPS cells, by contrast, were not able to form teratomas, or made teratomas that were attacked or rejected by the immune systems of the host mice. (
  • Mice lacking the prion protein were less able to regenerate blood cells. (
  • The team then injected treated cells into the thigh bones of mice, and three days later found that they had produced three times as many new cells as they would normally produce. (
  • When neural stem stems were injected into in mice, they showed 'robust engraftment and migration, the formation of new myelin,' Tsukamoto said. (
  • Injections of the cells into mice triggered no tumors, she also reported, and the cells survived for more than 6 months when transplanted into monkeys. (
  • Now, Yang Xu and colleagues from UC San Diego show how mice have rejected their transplanted iPS cells. (
  • In fasting mice, cells begin breaking down fatty acids instead of glucose, a change that stimulates the stem cells to become more regenerative. (
  • Further studies, including sequencing the messenger RNA of stem cells from the mice that fasted, revealed that fasting induces cells to switch from their usual metabolism, which burns carbohydrates such as sugars, to metabolizing fatty acids. (
  • That line of thought was tested with the recent discovery of actively dividing germ cells (those that give rise to sexual reproduction) in the ovaries of both juvenile and adult mice. (
  • Blood stem cells from mutant mice could more easily squeeze through narrow pores. (
  • In addition, they showed that treating normal mice with blebbistatin, which interferes with parts of a cell's internal skeleton, also results in mobilization of stem cells into the blood. (
  • Obokata is now continuing her experiments to see if the technique will also work with cells from adult mice (she previously used newborns) as well as humans. (
  • The presented conceptual advances in the MuSC field impact on our general understanding of stem cells and their therapeutic use in regenerative medicine. (
  • The last ten years however has seen an explosion of cell based therapeutic approaches stimulating cardiac regeneration and in the process augmenting function in the heart following injury. (
  • The most eagerly anticipated therapeutic use for stem cells is regenerative medicine. (
  • These cells must be eliminated to achieve a complete therapeutic response. (
  • In order to broaden the array of tools for therapeutic application, we iso- lated a new population of cells from adult human testis termed gonadal stem cells (GSCs). (
  • Introduction The search for an ideal stem cell population for therapeutic pur- poses has been a challenge for years and remains elusive. (
  • ANN ARBOR, Mich., July 14 -- Malignant stem cells appear to fuel the growth and spread of aggressive HER2-positive breast cancer, suggesting clues for new therapeutic strategies, investigators here reported. (
  • The advent of stem cells has provided a key scientific tool and a potent therapeutic agent for understanding the pathology and the treatment of central nervous system disorders. (
  • In parallel, the stemness property of these cells has ushered cell-based regenerative medicine, demonstrating their therapeutic capacity to replace dead or dying cells, as well as affording by-stander effects such as secretion of neurotrophic, neurogenic, angiogenic, vasculogenic, and anti-inflammatory factors. (
  • Other themes of interest include exploring both stem cell tools and therapeutic applications in each of the 4 aging neurological disorders listed above. (
  • Large Pore Ion and Metabolite-Permeable Channel Regulation of Postnatal Ventricular Zone Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells: Interplay between Aquaporins, Connexins, and Pannexins? (
  • Cells are blue, neural stem cells are red, and neurons are green. (
  • In experiments, myelin produced by injected human neural stem cells (green) formed protective sleeves around the nerve fibers in mouse brains (red). (
  • StemCells Inc. of Newark, California, reported encouraging results of an initial human trial using human neural stem cells to treat Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD). (
  • utilized adipose derived stem cells to show that curcumin, a naturally occurring food chemical, can promote angiogenic and survival ability of the cells augmenting their potential for the repair of ischemia reperfusion injury to the heart. (
  • Last month, Dr. Comella and her team were the first in the world to publish in-human results in the scientific literature about adipose-derived, autologous stem cells for the treatment of psoriasis - a chronic, painful skin condition that affects more than 7 million Americans every year. (
  • SCNT involves taking donated egg cells from women and removing their genetic material. (
  • SCNT involved taking the nucleus (the part of a cell containing most of the genetic information) from a person's skin cells, inserting its cells into a donor's unfertilised egg cell that had its nucleus removed. (
  • Another recent study, for example, showed that iPS cells seem to have more genetic abnormalities than embryonic stem cells. (
  • Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University in Japan and colleagues invented a new way to transform ordinary cells into embryonic-like stem cells called iPS cells, using a ring of genetic material called a plasmid. (
  • When stem cells come from another person, the stem cells must have similar genetic makeup. (
  • The genetic correction doesn't increase the number of genetic anomalies that you can find in iPS cells,' says Ludovic Vallier, a stem-cell biologist at the University of Cambridge, UK, and one of the study's co-authors. (
  • The kind of cell division that produces two diploid cells-cells with the same genetic information (i.e., number of chromosomes) as the parent cell. (
  • Although these cells have a similar genetic makeup and outward appearance compared to their siblings, their higher fitness enabled them to produce more progeny, that is, clone themselves with greater frequency. (
  • This book provides a unique and comprehensive resource of protocols for the genetic modification of various hematopoietic cell types and up-to-date procedures for molecular and systemic monitoring. (
  • For example, they have turned stem cells into neurons, which they hope can treat people with brain disorders or spinal-cord injuries. (
  • No one has yet been able to reprogram iPS cells into fully mature cells of any type, be they hepatocytes, cardiac cells or neurons, says Markus Grompe, who studies liver stem cells at the Oregon Health and Science University in Portland. (
  • A population of keratinocyte stem cells in defined locations governs the renewal of mammalian stratified epithelia ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • The existence of niches has long been predicted from mammalian studies, but identifying stem. (
  • As described today in two papers ( 1 , 2 ) published in the journal Nature , mammalian cells can be exposed to very low levels of acid and a few other factors. (
  • This study challenged previously expected notions, as it contradicted the central dogma of oogenesis, and has thus led to a rapid increase in the amount of researching being conducted to suggest whether there does indeed exist oocyte stem cells in the mammalian ovary. (
  • Skeletal muscle has remarkable regeneration capabilities, mainly due to its resident muscle stem cells (MuSCs). (
  • Nevertheless, the search continues for the optimal cell type that can promote "true cardiac regeneration," supplement the lost cardiomyocytes, and at the same time form the angiogenic support structure. (
  • For example: transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of w:retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult w:newt eyes. (
  • Understanding how fasting improves overall health, including the role of adult stem cells in intestinal regeneration, in repair, and in aging, is a fundamental interest of my laboratory. (
  • This symposium will bring together experts of the auditory system and hair cell regeneration to give an overview of the recent advancements in the field, identify knowledge gaps, and outline future directions towards a cure for age-related hearing loss. (
  • One example is the transformation of iris cells to lens cells in the process of maturation and transformation of retinal pigment epithelium cells into the neural retina during regeneration in adult newt eyes. (
  • Blood, which requires extraction through apheresis , wherein blood is drawn from the donor (similar to a blood donation), and passed through a machine that extracts the stem cells and returns other portions of the blood to the donor. (
  • The skin cell nucleus was then fused with the donor egg cell. (
  • Cell transplants from a non-matched donor require the recipient take immune-suppressing drugs. (
  • The cells are collected from the peripheral blood using an apheresis device, which acts like a centrifuge to remove whole blood from the donor and separate its components. (
  • Blood enters the machine and is processed so that the HPCs and other white blood cells are removed, while the remainder of the blood is returned to the donor through a second needle placed in the other arm. (
  • To increase the number of circulating progenitor cells collected, prior to apheresis the donor/patient is prepared or 'mobilized' using recombinant hematopoietic growth factor administration. (
  • A team at MGH decellularized a donor rat limb and repopulated it with vascular cells and muscle progenitor cells. (
  • A person who provides the stem cells is a donor . (
  • The body's immune system can attack the donor stem cells. (
  • Stem cells can also be taken from umbilical cord blood just after birth. (
  • The FDA has approved five hematopoietic stem-cell products derived from umbilical cord blood, for the treatment of blood and immunological diseases. (
  • 4. The method of claim 1 , wherein the human umbilical cord feeder cells consist of 100% human umbilical cord fibroblast feeder cells. (
  • 7. The method of claim 6 , wherein the human umbilical cord feeder cells consists essentially of the human umbilical cord fibroblast feeder cells. (
  • However, according to the Texas Cord Blood bank, more than 8,000 people have received umbilical cord stem cell transplants. (
  • One umbilical cord from a single birth provides up to one million stem cells (Greear, 2003). (
  • Cell stress regulation driving resident progenitor cell function: a potential pan-stem cell mechanism? (
  • "HER2 regulates the mammary stem/progenitor cell population driving tumorigenesis and invasion" Oncogene . (
  • Of all stem cell types, autologous harvesting involves the least risk. (
  • Two traits uniquely characterize embryonic stem cells: the ability to develop into many different cell types in the body, and a limitless ability to divide and replenish. (
  • So-called adult stem cells are multipotent because they can develop into several different types of cells, but not as many as embryonic stem cells. (
  • First, cells must be coaxed into becoming the desired cell types. (
  • Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. (
  • 40. Arthur Lander reflects on how current assumptions that stem cells divide asymmetrically and are programmed to produce the right differentiated cell types at the right times may fail to acknowledge a fundamental contribution of stem cell individuality. (
  • In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. (
  • Feeder layers are used to support the growth of a variety of fastidious cell types including stem cells. (
  • When transplanted, the embryonic stem cells gave rise to teratomas - tumours containing a chaotic jumble of cell types, which are used as a signifier of a cell's pluripotency. (
  • Several people showed the classic Waddington depiction of the epigenetic landscape and explained the need to define where in the landscape the various cell types present during human development lie, plus the different varieties of artificially engineered stem cells. (
  • Many early lineage cell types can be grown, and the human ESC are all quite different. (
  • Although there are markers that also recognize TICs associated with some types of cancer, no universal, selective probe for cancer stem cells has been found. (
  • Some types of mature, specialized adult cells can naturally revert to stem cells. (
  • Matunis group last year discovered proteins that were able to prevent stem cells from becoming other types of cells in the fruit fly testes. (
  • Matunis believes that proteins similar to NURF will factor into whether a cell decides to change or not in other cell types. (
  • Stem cells are cells that can develop into many different types of cells. (
  • Thus, it is imper- ative to investigate the use of several different cell types for ther- apeutic applications to address the specific disease condition in the most appropriate way. (
  • Remind students that all the cell types arose from stem cells. (
  • Intestinal stem cells are the workhorses of the intestine that give rise to more stem cells and to all of the various differentiated cell types of the intestine. (
  • For example, a hematopoietic stem cell may give rise to any of the different types of terminally differentiated blood cells. (
  • The regenerative procedures at R3 Stem Cell have been very effective for all types of arthritis, neuropathy, organ failure, autoimmune syndromes, diabetes, stroke and dementia. (
  • There are a number of cell types present within the acinar or alveolar structures in the human. (
  • In a new study, published Aug. 10 in Cell , the team took RCas9 a step further, using the technique to correct molecular mistakes that lead to microsatellite repeat expansion diseases, which include myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2, the most common form of hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington's disease. (
  • Further provided are cultures of feeder cells for use in stem cell technology, as well as cultures, culture systems and methods for maintenance and propagating of stem cells in an undifferentiated state as well as for the development of somatic cells cultures from stem cells, the somatic cell cultures being free of extraembryonic cells. (
  • Induced totipotent cells can be obtained by reprogramming somatic cells with somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). (
  • used GFP to try to label the OSCs, but they didn't know exactly where to find these stem cell populations, so it is difficult to say whether somatic cells or stem cells were labeled. (
  • To this end, a "probe" that marks these cancer stem cells would be useful so that they become visible. (
  • Breast cancer cells that overexpressed HER2 had four to five times as many cancer stem cells compared with HER2-negative breast cancer cells, Hasan Korkaya, Ph.D., of the University of Michigan, and colleagues reported online in Oncogene . (
  • The experiments showed that HER2 exerts its effects on breast cancer via the cancer stem cells. (
  • Several hepatic stem/progenitor markers are useful for isolating a subset of liver cells with stem cell features, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). (
  • Here is a list of diseases for which stem cell transplant may be an option. (
  • What Is a Stem Cell Transplant? (
  • A stem cell transplant is when doctors put healthy stem cells into someone's bloodstream to replace their stem cells. (
  • It can take a while to feel better after a stem cell transplant, but the treatment can be very helpful for some illnesses. (
  • Before a stem cell transplant, doctors place a central line (or central venous catheter). (
  • After someone has a stem cell transplant, their body needs time to make new red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. (
  • It takes the immune system about a year to recover after a stem cell transplant. (
  • Most teens who have had a stem cell transplant feel better over time after they leave the hospital. (
  • R3 Stem Cell's Founder and CEO, David Greene MD, MBA, recently presented in front of standing only crowds at two regenerative medicine symposiums in China. (
  • Qu and his colleagues were studying an enzyme, Ptpn21, which is highly expressed in blood stem cells and helps reshape parts of a cell's internal skeleton. (
  • Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the body's own immune system attacks and destroys beta cells in the pancreas. (
  • The transplanted cells can attack the body's cells. (
  • The HERV driven network partially explains differences in mouse and human stem cells. (
  • The significant differences between mouse and human stem cells were mentioned by several of the speakers throughout the conference. (
  • In a bid to find a compound that might slow MSC ageing, the team tested numerous molecules known to target prion proteins on dishes of human stem cells. (
  • For instance, multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are stress-tolerant adult human stem cells that can self-renew. (

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