Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Receptors, Colony-Stimulating Factor: Cell surface receptors for colony stimulating factors, local mediators, and hormones that regulate the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hemopoietic cells.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Thrombopoietin: A humoral factor that stimulates the production of thrombocytes (BLOOD PLATELETS). Thrombopoietin stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow MEGAKARYOCYTES and their release of blood platelets. The process is called THROMBOPOIESIS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cell SeparationMice, Inbred C57BLFlow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Megakaryocytes: Very large BONE MARROW CELLS which release mature BLOOD PLATELETS.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: An acidic glycoprotein of MW 23 kDa with internal disulfide bonds. The protein is produced in response to a number of inflammatory mediators by mesenchymal cells present in the hemopoietic environment and at peripheral sites of inflammation. GM-CSF is able to stimulate the production of neutrophilic granulocytes, macrophages, and mixed granulocyte-macrophage colonies from bone marrow cells and can stimulate the formation of eosinophil colonies from fetal liver progenitor cells. GM-CSF can also stimulate some functional activities in mature granulocytes and macrophages.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mastocytosis: A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by the abnormal increase of MAST CELLS in only the skin (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS), in extracutaneous tissues involving multiple organs (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC), or in solid tumors (MASTOCYTOMA).Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Melanocytes: Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Interleukin-11: A lymphohematopoietic cytokine that plays a role in regulating the proliferation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS. It induces maturation of MEGAKARYOCYTES which results in increased production of BLOOD PLATELETS. Interleukin-11 was also initially described as an inhibitor of ADIPOGENESIS of cultured preadipocytes.Tryptases: A family of neutral serine proteases with TRYPSIN-like activity. Tryptases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Leukapheresis: The preparation of leukocyte concentrates with the return of red cells and leukocyte-poor plasma to the donor.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Host Cell Factor C1: A cellular transcriptional coactivator that was originally identified by its requirement for the stable assembly IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS of the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. It is a nuclear protein that is a transcriptional coactivator for a number of transcription factors including VP16 PROTEIN; GA-BINDING PROTEIN; EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE PROTEIN 2; and E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. It also interacts with and stabilizes HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS PROTEIN VMW65 and helps regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES in HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.Erythropoiesis: The production of red blood cells (ERYTHROCYTES). In humans, erythrocytes are produced by the YOLK SAC in the first trimester; by the liver in the second trimester; by the BONE MARROW in the third trimester and after birth. In normal individuals, the erythrocyte count in the peripheral blood remains relatively constant implying a balance between the rate of erythrocyte production and rate of destruction.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Granulocytes: Leukocytes with abundant granules in the cytoplasm. They are divided into three groups according to the staining properties of the granules: neutrophilic, eosinophilic, and basophilic. Mature granulocytes are the NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and BASOPHILS.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Leukopoiesis: The process of generating white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) from the pluripotent HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS of the BONE MARROW. There are two significant pathways to generate various types of leukocytes: MYELOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes in the blood are derived from MYELOID STEM CELLS, and LYMPHOPOIESIS, in which leukocytes of the lymphatic system (LYMPHOCYTES) are generated from lymphoid stem cells.Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Erythropoietin: Cell surface proteins that bind erythropoietin with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Blood Cells: The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Benzamides: BENZOIC ACID amides.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mice, Inbred BALB CPyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Chemokine CXCL12: A CXC chemokine that is chemotactic for T-LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES. It has specificity for CXCR4 RECEPTORS. Two isoforms of CXCL12 are produced by alternative mRNA splicing.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.Blood Component Removal: Any procedure in which blood is withdrawn from a donor, a portion is separated and retained and the remainder is returned to the donor.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Connective Tissue Cells: A group of cells that includes FIBROBLASTS, cartilage cells, ADIPOCYTES, smooth muscle cells, and bone cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor: A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Interleukin-7: A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.Mesonephros: One of a pair of excretory organs (mesonephroi) which grows caudally to the first pair (PRONEPHROI) during development. Mesonephroi are the permanent kidneys in adult amphibians and fish. In higher vertebrates, proneprhoi and most of mesonephroi degenerate with the appearance of metanephroi. The remaining ducts become WOLFFIAN DUCTS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.NAD+ NucleosidasePiperazinesTrans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Erythroblasts: Immature, nucleated ERYTHROCYTES occupying the stage of ERYTHROPOIESIS that follows formation of ERYTHROID PRECURSOR CELLS and precedes formation of RETICULOCYTES. The normal series is called normoblasts. Cells called MEGALOBLASTS are a pathologic series of erythroblasts.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.T Cell Transcription Factor 1: A TCF transcription factor that was originally identified as a DNA-binding protein that interacts with the enhancers of T-CELL RECEPTOR ALPHA GENES. It plays a role in T-LYMPHOCYTE development.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Paracrine Communication: Cellular signaling in which a factor secreted by a cell affects other cells in the local environment. This term is often used to denote the action of INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS on surrounding cells.Immunomagnetic Separation: A cell-separation technique where magnetizable microspheres or beads are first coated with monoclonal antibody, allowed to search and bind to target cells, and are then selectively removed when passed through a magnetic field. Among other applications, the technique is commonly used to remove tumor cells from the marrow (BONE MARROW PURGING) of patients who are to undergo autologous bone marrow transplantation.Blood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Myeloid Progenitor Cells: Stem cells derived from HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS. Derived from these myeloid progenitor cells are the MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; MYELOID CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Interleukin-9: A multifunctional cytokine secreted by primarily by activated TH2 CELLS that may play a role as a regulator of allergic INFLAMMATION. It has been shown to enhance the growth and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MAST CELLS, and can act on a variety of other immune cells.Receptors, IgE: Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).Interstitial Cells of Cajal: c-Kit positive cells related to SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that are intercalated between the autonomic nerves and the effector smooth muscle cells of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Different phenotypic classes play roles as pacemakers, mediators of neural inputs, and mechanosensors.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Growth Inhibitors: Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which 20-30% of the bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are of megakaryocyte lineage. MYELOFIBROSIS or increased bone marrow RETICULIN is common.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Tumor Stem Cell Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of tumor stem cells by assaying their activity. It is used primarily for the in vitro testing of antineoplastic agents.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Socs1 binds to multiple signalling proteins and suppresses steel factor-dependent proliferation. (1/1661)We have identified Socs1 as a downstream component of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathway. We show that the expression of Socs1 mRNA is rapidly increased in primary bone marrow-derived mast cells following exposure to Steel factor, and Socs1 inducibly binds to the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. Previous studies have shown that Socs1 suppresses cytokine-mediated differentiation in M1 cells inhibiting Janus family kinases. In contrast, constitutive expression of Socs1 suppresses the mitogenic potential of Kit while maintaining Steel factor-dependent cell survival signals. Unlike Janus kinases, Socs1 does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the Kit tyrosine kinase. In order to define the mechanism by which Socs1-mediated suppression of Kit-dependent mitogenesis occurs, we demonstrate that Socs1 binds to the signalling proteins Grb-2 and the Rho-family guanine nucleotide exchange factors Vav. We show that Grb2 binds Socs1 via its SH3 domains to putative diproline determinants located in the N-terminus of Socs1, and Socs1 binds to the N-terminal regulatory region of Vav. These data suggest that Socs1 is an inducible switch which modulates proliferative signals in favour of cell survival signals and functions as an adaptor protein in receptor tyrosine kinase signalling pathways. (+info)
Increase of hematopoietic responses by triple or single helical conformer of an antitumor (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan preparation, Sonifilan, in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenic mice. (2/1661)It has been suggested that the immunopharmacological activity of soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan depends on its conformation in mice. In this study, we examined the relationship between the conformation of Sonifilan (SPG) and hematopietic responses in cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced leukopenic mice. SPG, a high molecular weight (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan, has a triple helical conformation in water, and it was changed by treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to the single helical conformer (SPG-OH). The effects of SPG or SPG-OH on hematopoietic responses in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice were investigated by monitoring i) gene expression of cytokines by RT-PCR, ii) protein synthesis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) by ELISA and iii) colony formation of bone marrow cells (BMC). The mice administered Cy and SPG or SPG-OH expressed and produced higher levels of IL-6 mRNA and protein than the mice administered only Cy. Gene expression of NK1.1 was also induced by Cy/SPG (or SPG-OH) treatment. Induced gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) by SPG/SPG-OH were also found in in vitro culture of BMC from Cy treated mice. These results strongly suggested that conformation of the glucans, single and triple helix, are independent of the hematopietic response. (+info)
Influence of monoclonal antiplatelet glycoprotein antibodies on in vitro human megakaryocyte colony formation and proplatelet formation. (3/1661)The influence of antiplatelet glycoprotein (GP) antibodies on megakaryocytopoiesis in patients with idiopathic or immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has been well studied. However, the influence of GP antibodies on proplatelet formation is poorly understood. Here we investigated whether in vitro human megakaryocyte colony formation and proplatelet formation are affected by various monoclonal antiplatelet GP antibodies (MoAb). The megakaryocyte colony formation inhibition assay was performed by methylcellulose culture with modifications, using peripheral blood nonadherent mononuclear cells. The proplatelet formation inhibition assay was performed by megakaryocytes derived from CD34(+) cells, stimulated with thrombopoietin + stem cell factor, which were then incubated with antiplatelet GP MoAb for 24 or 48 hours. Anti-GP-Ibalpha MoAb (CD42b; HIP1) slightly inhibited megakaryocyte colony formation (P < .05). and strongly inhibited proplatelet formation (after 24 hours incubation, P < .0002; after 48 hours incubation, P < .0007). Anti-GP-IIb MoAb (CD41; 5B12) inhibited only proplatelet formation (only after 24 hours incubation, P <. 03). Anti-integrin alphavbeta3 MoAb (CD51/CD61; 23C6) only slightly inhibited colony size (P < .05). However, anti-GP-IIIa MoAb (CD61; Y2/51) did not inhibit either colony formation or proplatelet formation. These results suggest that antiplatelet GP MoAbs have differing effects on in vitro megakaryocyte colony formation and proplatelet formation. (+info)
Cytokine treatment or accessory cells are required to initiate engraftment of purified primitive human hematopoietic cells transplanted at limiting doses into NOD/SCID mice. (4/1661)Little is known about the cell types or mechanisms that underlie the engraftment process. Here, we have examined parameters affecting the engraftment of purified human Lin-CD34+CD38- normal and AML cells transplanted at limiting doses into NOD/SCID recipients. Mice transplanted with 500 to 1000 Lin-CD34+CD38- cord blood (CB) or AML cells required the co-transplantation of accessory cells (ACs) or short-term in vivo cytokine treatment for engraftment, whereas transplantation of higher doses (>5000 Lin-CD34+CD38- cells) did not show these requirements suggesting that ACs are effective for both normal and leukemic stem cell engraftment in this model. Mature Lin+CD34- and primitive Lin-CD34+CD38+ cells were capable of acting as ACs even though no repopulating cells are present. Cytokine treatment of NOD/SCID mice could partially replace the requirement for co-transplantation of AC. Furthermore, no difference was seen between the percentage of engrafted mice treated with cytokines for only the first 10 days after transplant compared to those receiving cytokines for the entire time of repopulation. Surprisingly, no engraftment was detected in mice when cytokine treatment was delayed until 10 days posttransplant. Together, these studies suggest that the engraftment process requires pluripotent stem cells plus accessory cells or cytokine treatment which act early after transplantation. The NOD/SCID xenotransplant system provides the means to further clarify the processes underlying human stem cell engraftment. (+info)
Comparative study of the in vitro behavior of cord blood subpopulations after short-term cytokine exposure. (5/1661)We investigated the effect of short-term cytokine exposure on defined cord blood subpopulations. CD34+Thy1+, CD34+Thy1-, CD34+38-, CD34+38+, CD34+DR+, CD34+DR-, CD34+Rhodamine123 (Rh123)- and CD34+Rh123+ cells were incubated for 7 days in IMDM + 10% FCS + IL3 + IL6 + G-CSF + SCF (36GS) + flt3L. We evaluated LTHC-IC, immunophenotype and nucleated cell count for each cell population before and after cytokine exposure. Short-term exposure of CD34+38+, CD34+Thy1-, CD34+DR+, CD34+DR- and CD34+Rh123+ cells to 36GS causes a significant increase in cell number, whereas CD34+38-, CD34+Thy1+, and CD34+Rh123- cells show only a limited increase. CD34 status post cytokine incubation shows that CD34+38+, CD34+Thy1-, CD34+DR+, and CD34+Rh123+ fractions have a lower proportion of cells remaining CD34+ than CD34+38- CD34+Thy1+, CD34+DR- and CD34+Rh123- fractions. LTHC-IC analyses among input subpopulations show a higher frequency among CD34+38+, CD34+Thy1-, CD34+DR+, CD34+DR- and CD34+Rh123+ cells as compared with CD34+38-, CD34+Thy1+ and CD34+Rh123- cells. However, when LTHC-IC were evaluated after cytokine exposure, CD34+38-, CD34+Thy1+, and CD34+Rh123- cells showed a higher frequency of LTHC-IC as compared with other subpopulations. Addition of flt3L to 36GS doubled the numbers in all subpopulations without altering the proportion of CD34+ cells. Results suggest that CD34+38-, CD34+Thy1+ and CD34+Rh123- cells have a limited proliferative response to cytokines, the stem cell component of these populations is largely maintained and that expansion is derived from mature cell populations. (+info)
Long-term culture of human CD34(+) progenitors with FLT3-ligand, thrombopoietin, and stem cell factor induces extensive amplification of a CD34(-)CD14(-) and a CD34(-)CD14(+) dendritic cell precursor. (6/1661)Current in vitro culture systems allow the generation of human dendritic cells (DCs), but the output of mature cells remains modest. This contrasts with the extensive amplification of hematopoietic progenitors achieved when culturing CD34(+) cells with FLT3-ligand and thrombopoietin. To test whether such cultures contained DC precursors, CD34(+) cord blood cells were incubated with the above cytokines, inducing on the mean a 250-fold and a 16,600-fold increase in total cell number after 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. The addition of stem cell factor induced a further fivefold increase in proliferation. The majority of the cells produced were CD34(-)CD1a- CD14(+) (p14(+)) and CD34(-)CD1a-CD14(-) (p14(-)) and did not display the morphology, surface markers, or allostimulatory capacity of DC. When cultured with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), both subsets differentiated without further proliferation into immature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(-)) macropinocytic DC. Mature (CD1a+, CD14(-), CD83(+)) DCs with high allostimulatory activity were generated if such cultures were supplemented with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). In addition, p14(-) cells generated CD14(+) cells with GM-CSF and TNF, which in turn, differentiated into DC when exposed to GM-CSF and IL-4. Similar results were obtained with frozen DC precursors and also when using pooled human serum AB+ instead of bovine serum, emphasizing that this system using CD34(+) cells may improve future prospects for immunotherapy. (+info)
Cellulose as an inert matrix for presenting cytokines to target cells: production and properties of a stem cell factor-cellulose-binding domain fusion protein. (7/1661)A chimaera of stem cell factor (SCF) and a cellulose-binding domain from the xylanase Cex (CBDCex) effectively immobilizes SCF on a cellulose surface. The fusion protein retains both the cytokine properties of SCF and the cellulose-binding characteristics of CBDCex. When adsorbed on cellulose, SCF-CBDCex is up to 7-fold more potent than soluble SCF-CBDCex and than native SCF at stimulating the proliferation of factor-dependent cell lines. When cells are incubated with cellulose-bound SCF-CBDCex, activated receptors and SCF-CBDCex co-localize on the cellulose matrix. The strong binding of SCF-CBDCex to the cellulose surface permits the effective and localized stimulation of target cells; this is potentially significant for long-term perfusion culturing of factor-dependent cells. It also permits the direct analysis of the effects of surface-bound cytokines on target cells. (+info)
A randomized phase 3 study of peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilization with stem cell factor and filgrastim in high-risk breast cancer patients. (8/1661)This randomized study compared the number of leukaphereses required to collect an optimal target yield of 5 x 10(6) CD34(+) peripheral blood progenitor cells/kg, using either stem cell factor (SCF) at 20 micrograms/kg/d in combination with Filgrastim at 10 micrograms/kg/d or Filgrastim alone at 10 micrograms/kg/d, from 203 patients with high-risk stage II, III, or IV breast cancer. Leukapheresis began on day 5 of cytokine administration and continued daily until the target yield of CD34(+) cells had been reached or a maximum of 5 leukaphereses performed. By day 5 of leukapheresis, 63% of the patients treated with SCF plus Filgrastim (n = 100) compared with 47% of those receiving Filgrastim alone (n = 103) reached the CD34(+) cell target yield. There was a clinically and statistically significant reduction (P <.05) in the number of leukaphereses required to reach the target yield for the patients receiving SCF plus Filgrastim (median, 4 leukaphereses) compared with patients receiving Filgrastim alone (median, 6 or more leukapherses; ie, <50% of patients reached the target in 5 leukaphereses). All patients receiving SCF were premedicated with antihistamines, albuterol, and pseudoephedrine. Treatment was safe, generally well tolerated, and not associated with life-threatening or fatal toxicity. In conclusion, SCF plus Filgrastim is a more effective peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC)-mobilization regimen than Filgrastim alone. In addition to the potential for reduced leukapheresis-related morbidity and costs, SCF offers additional options for obtaining cells for further graft manipulation. (+info)
Function, molecular structure and gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF)<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Function, molecular structure and gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF). AU - Okada, S.. AU - Suda, T.. PY - 1992/8. Y1 - 1992/8. N2 - Mice of genotype W/Wv and Sl/Sld have been considered as a model of instinct hemopoietic disorders. W/Wv mice have a defect in hemopoietic stem cells and Sl/Sld mice have a defect in the microenvironment. The W locus in murine chromosome 5 encodes the c-kit proto-oncogene and the Sl locus in chromosome 10 encodes the ligand for c-kit, which has been named stem cell factor (SCF), mast cell growth factor (MGF), kit ligand (KL) and steel factor (SL). The cDNA sequence of SCF suggest that it is synthesized as an integral transmembrane protein and that it has common tertiary structure with M-CSF. SCF enhances the proliferation of hemopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells as well as mast cell in combination with other growth factors. Furthermore, it plays an important role in the proliferation and migration of embryonic stem cell, primordial germ ...
Mast cell growth factor (c-kit ligand) enhances cytokine stimulation of proliferation of the human factor-dependent cell line,...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mast cell growth factor (c-kit ligand) enhances cytokine stimulation of proliferation of the human factor-dependent cell line, M07e. AU - Hendrie, P. C.. AU - Miyazawa, K.. AU - Yang, Y. C.. AU - Langefeld, C. D.. AU - Broxmeyer, Hal. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Murine mast cell growth factor (muMGF), a c-kit ligand, has additive to greater-than-additive effects on in vitro colony formation of murine and human myeloid progenitor cells stimulated with erythropoietin, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and/or interleukin (IL)-3. To confirm direct-acting effects on responding cells, MGF was assessed alone and in combination with other cytokines for effects on the proliferation of the human factor-dependent cell line, M07e. Proliferation was assayed in liquid culture by [3H]thymidine uptake and in semisolid medium by colony formation. Purified recombinant (r) muMGF (25-50 ng/ml) by itself had proliferative activity but less than r human (hu) GM-CSF. In ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | SCF/C-Kit/JNK/AP-1 Signaling Pathway Promotes Claudin-3 Expression in Colonic Epithelium and Colorectal...
Claudin-3 is a major protein of tight junctions (TJs) in the intestinal epithelium and is critical for maintaining cell-cell adhesion, barrier function, and epithelium polarity. Recent studies have shown high claudin-3 levels in several solid tumors, but the regulation mechanism of claudin-3 expression remains poorly understood. In the present study, colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues, HT-29 and DLD-1 CRC cell lines, CRC murine model (C57BL/6 mice) and c-kit loss-of-function mutant mice were used. We demonstrated that elevated claudin-3 levels were positively correlated with highly expressed c-kit in CRC tissues based upon analysis of protein expression. In vitro, claudin-3 expression was clearly increased in CRC cells by overexpressed c-kit or stimulated by exogenous recombinant human stem cell factor (rhSCF), while significantly decreased by the treatment with c-kit or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay showed that SCF/c-kit
JCI - Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibition effectively protects against human IgE-mediated anaphylaxis
Human SDMCs. Cultures of skin-derived mast cells (SDMCs) were prepared as previously described (16). In brief, discarded surgical samples of human skin were obtained from deidentified sources through the Cooperative Human Tissue Network (supported by the National Cancer Institute, NIH). Skin fragments were mechanically minced and then processed via enzymatic digestion with Collagenase Type 2 (Worthington Biochemical Corp.), DNase Type 1 (MilliporeSigma), and hyaluronidase (MilliporeSigma) before isolation of mononuclear cells via centrifugation with Percoll PLUS (GE Healthcare). Single-cell suspensions were cultured for 4 weeks in X-Vivo15 Serum-Free Culture Medium (Lonza) containing 100 ng/mL recombinant human stem cell factor (SCF; PeproTech). Culture purity was assessed via flow cytometry for cKit and FcεRI expression.. Degranulation and cytokine assays. Lyophilized stocks of the BTKis ibrutinib (Selleckchem), acalabrutinib (provided by Acerta Pharma, a member of the AstraZeneca Group, San ...
Effect of IL-3 and stem cell factor on the appearance of human basophils and mast cells from CD34+ pluripotent progenitor cells...
Hemopoietic stem cell factor (SCF), which is the ligand for the proto-oncogene c-kit receptor (allelic with W locus) and the product of Sl locus of the mouse, has recently been cloned. The human homologue has also been cloned, and recombinant protein (human rSCF) expressed and purified to homogeneity. To determine the effect of human rSCF in the presence or absence of human rIL-3 on human bone marrow-derived mast cells and basophils, human CD34+ pluripotent progenitor cells, highly enriched (greater than 99%) from bone marrow mononuclear cells, were cultured over agarose surfaces (interphase cultures) in the presence of human rIL-3, human rIL-3 and increasing concentrations of human rSCF, or human rSCF alone. Over 3 to 4 wk, human rSCF acted synergistically with human rIL-3 at all concentrations, producing a three- to fivefold increase in total, mast cell, and basophil numbers over human rIL-3 alone when used at 100 ng/ml. The percentage of cell types in the human rIL-3 and human rIL-3 plus ...
SCF (Stem cell factor): A Stem Cell Therapy Growth Factor (Cytokine)
JCI - Stem cell factor restores hepatocyte proliferation in IL-6 knockout mice following 70% hepatectomy
Stem cell factor (SCF) is a molecule with known proliferative effects on hematopoietic cells. More recent studies suggest that this molecule may also have effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation in other types of cells. The current investigations demonstrate that there is a large reservoir of SCF in the liver, that hepatic SCF levels change dramatically following partial hepatectomy in mice, and that SCF blockade, either by administration of anti-SCF antibodies or by using genetically altered, SCF-deficient mice, inhibits hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy; if SCF is replaced in the genetically SCF-deficient mice after partial hepatectomy, hepatocyte proliferation is restored to that seen in WT animals. Furthermore, SCF administration to IL-6 knockout mice also restores hepatocyte proliferation to normal. In vitro studies using primary mouse hepatocytes demonstrate that SCF causes hepatocyte proliferation and is induced by IL-6 and that treatment with anti-SCF ...
Recombinant Human KIT Ligand, His-tagged KITLG-60H - Creative BioMart
Recombinant human SCF protein (Active) (ab174005)
SNU Open Repository and Archive: Protein Kinase C-delta-Mediated Recycling of Active KIT in Colon Cancer
Purpose: Abnormal signaling through receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) moieties is important in tumorigenesis and drug targeting of colorectal cancers. Wild-type KIT (WT-KIT), a RTK that is activated upon binding with stem cell factor (SCF), is highly expressed in some colon cancers; however, little is known about the functional role of SCF-dependent KIT activation in colon cancer pathogenesis. We aimed to elucidate the conditions and roles of WT-KIT activation in colon cancer tumorigenesis.Experimental Design: Colorectal cancers with KIT expression were characterized by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. The biologic alterations after KIT-SCF binding were analyzed with or without protein kinase C (PKC) activation.Results: We found that WT-KIT was expressed in a subset of colon cancer cell lines and was activated by SCF, leading to activation of downstream AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. We also showed that KIT expression gradually decreased, after ...
Mid2p is regulated by SCF-dependent proteolysis. (A and | Open-i
Distinct actions of interleukin-9 and interleukin-4 on a hematopoietic stem cell line, EMLC1<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct actions of interleukin-9 and interleukin-4 on a hematopoietic stem cell line, EMLC1. AU - Wang, Xin Yuan. AU - Gelfanov, Vasily. AU - Sun, Hui Bin. AU - Tsai, Schickwann. AU - Yang, Yu Chung. N1 - Funding Information: This work is supported by United States Public Health Service Grants R01DK50570 and R01HL48819 (to Y.-C.Y). PY - 1999/1. Y1 - 1999/1. N2 - EMLC1 is a hematopoietic stem cell line that depends on stem cell factor (SCF) for growth and generates lymphoid, erythroid and myeloid progenitors in the presence of different cytokines. We have studied signaling events leading to cell proliferation and differentiation of EMLC1 mediated by interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-9. It was found that IL-9 enhances SCF-induced cell proliferation and promotes erythropoietin (EPO)-dependent erythroid differentiation of EMLC1 cells. However, IL-9 alone cannot support the growth of this cell line. In contrast, IL-4 by itself is sufficient to promote the growth of EMLC1 cells, even in the ...
CD117 - Wikipédia
CD117 est un récepteur de cytokines (en) exprimés sur les surfaces des cellules souches hématopoïétiques comme dautres types cellulaires. Des formes altérées de ce récepteur peuvent être associées à certains types de cancer. CD117 est un récepteur à activité tyrosine kinase de type III qui lie le Stem Cell Factor (un facteur de croissance des cellules souches, appartenant à la famille des cytokines), aussi connu en anglais sous le nom de « steel factor » ou de « c-kit ligand ». Lorsque ce récepteur lie le stem cell factor (SCF), il forme alors un dimère de protéine (en) qui active son activité protéine kinase intrinsèque, qui à son tour phosphoryle et active des molécules de transduction du signal qui propagent ce signal dans la cellule. La transduction de signal par CD117 joue un rôle dans la survie, la prolifération et la différenciation cellulaire. ...
Cancer stem cells (CSC) are a rare subpopulation of undifferentiated cells that are responsible for tumor initiation and tumor regeneration after chemotherapy. Although a universal marker for CSCs has not been identified, previous studies showed that c-kit (CD117) functioned as a stem cell factor (SCF) receptor, and SCF-ckit signaling axis was essential for self-renewal and proliferation of lung CSCs. During tumorigenesis, subsets of tumor cells disseminate from primary tumors by undergoing phenotypic changes that allow the cells to penetrate blood vessels. These changes are accompanied by a process described as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT endows epithelial cells with enhanced invasive potential by the loss of their epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. The aim of this study is to correlate c-kit-positive CSCs and EMT-positive, subpopulations of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with clinicopathological parameters to verify whether these ...
Lnk-dependent axis of SCF-cKit signal for osteogenesis in bone fracture healing
Abstract: The therapeutic potential of hematopoietic stem cells/endothelial progenitor cells (HSCs/EPCs) for fracture healing has been demonstrated with evidence for enhanced vasculogenesis/angiogenesis and osteogenesis at the site of fracture. The adaptor protein Lnk has recently been identified as an essential inhibitor of stem cell factor (SCF)-cKit signaling during stem cell self-renewal, and Lnk-deficient mice demonstrate enhanced hematopoietic reconstitution. In this study, we investigated whether the loss of Lnk signaling enhances the regenerative response during fracture healing. Radiological and histological examination showed accelerated fracture healing and remodeling in Lnk-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice. Molecular, physiological, and morphological approaches showed that vasculogenesis/angiogenesis and osteogenesis were promoted in Lnk-deficient mice by the mobilization and recruitment of HSCs/EPCs via activation of the SCF-cKit signaling pathway in the perifracture ...
Joseph Schlessinger, PhD > Biological & Biomedical Sciences | Yale...
Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a critical role in the control of many cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, as well as cell survival and migration. Receptor tyrosine kinases undergo ligand dependent dimerization which activates their intrinsic protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) domains. We have determined the crystal structure of Stem cell factor (SCF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), two ligands of receptor tyrosine kinases. In addition, we have determined the crystal structure of FGF in complex with the extracellular ligand binding domain of FGF-receptor (FGFR) and with a heparin sulfate oligosacchride. The structure of the ternary FGF/heparin/FGFR complex provides a molecular view of how FGF acts in concert with heparin to induce the dimerization and activation of FGF-receptors. We have also determined the crystal structure of the catalytic PTK domain of FGFR in complex with an ATP analogue or in complex with specific PTK inhibitors of FGFR activity and ...
Transcription of stem cell factor (SCF) is potentiated by glucocorticoids and interleukin-1ß through concerted regulation of a...
Interactive roles of epidermal growth factor and stem cell factor in mediating proliferation and differentiation of adult human...
Anti-SCF antibody (Biotin) | Abcam
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Helping to slow appearance of aging in women and men, Lift Factor Plus also reverses some signs of premature aging.. May 26, 2020 - San Diego CA - Lift Factor Plus is a fast-acting serum thats recently gained a great deal of attention in the media. Packaged in an airless bottle container to protect the formulation, all its ingredients are completely natural. Unlike other products that take months to see results, Lift Factor Plus use shows results the first time its used and has a "rapid eraser" feature that works in just a few minutes. In addition, the formulation was designed, and endorsed by a dermatologist.. Aging is a fact of life and with it, wrinkles and eye bags… which can cause unnecessary worry and strain a persons confidence. Traditional methods of hiding wrinkles such as makeup will hardly conceal fine lines and wrinkles. An increasing number of men and women are searching for a fountain of youth found "over the counter" and many are impressed by the results seen after using Lift ...
KITLG Gene - GeneCards | SCF Protein | SCF Antibody
Results for cd05104
Catalytic domain of the Protein Tyrosine Kinase, Kit. Protein Tyrosine Kinase (PTK) family; Kit (or c-Kit); catalytic (c) domain. The PTKc family is part of a larger superfamily that includes the catalytic domains of other kinases such as protein serine/threonine kinases, RIO kinases, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PTKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to tyrosine (tyr) residues in protein substrates. Kit is a member of the Platelet Derived Growth Factor Receptor (PDGFR) subfamily of proteins, which are receptor tyr kinases (RTKs) containing an extracellular ligand-binding region with five immunoglobulin-like domains, a transmembrane segment, and an intracellular catalytic domain. The binding of Kit to its ligand, the stem-cell factor (SCF), leads to receptor dimerization, trans phosphorylation and activation, and intracellular signaling. Kit is important in the development of melanocytes, germ cells, mast cells, hematopoietic stem cells, the interstitial cells ...
Complex interactions in EML cell stimulation by stem cell factor and IL-3. - PubMed - NCBI
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New insight into how immune cells are formed | News | News | Karolinska Institutet
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Effects of stem cell factor on osteoclast-like cell formation in long-term human marrow cultures<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of stem cell factor on osteoclast-like cell formation in long-term human marrow cultures. AU - Demulder, A.. AU - Suggs, S. V.. AU - Zsebo, K. M.. AU - Scarcez, T.. AU - Roodman, G. David. PY - 1992/11. Y1 - 1992/11. N2 - Stem cell factor (SCF) is a newly described hematopoietic growth factor that stimulates the growth of primitive hematopoietic progenitors and mast cells. Since the osteoclast precursor is hematopoietic in origin, we tested SCF for its capacity to stimulate the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNC) in long-term human marrow cultures. These MNC express an osteoclast phenotype and form resorption lacunae on calcified matrices. Addition of SCF alone (0.1 pg/ml to 100 ng/ml) to long-term marrow cultures did not increase MNC formation. However, treatment of these cultures sequentially with SCF for 1 week followed by 1,25-(OH)2D3 for the second and third weeks of culture significantly enhanced MNC formation. [3H]Thymidine incorporation studies ...
The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. Evidence that...
Interactions between products of the mouse W locus, which encodes the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor, and the Sl locus, which encodes a ligand for c-kit receptor, which we have designated stem cell factor (SCF), have a critical role in the development of mast cells. Mice homozygous for mutations at either locus exhibit several phenotypic abnormalities including a virtual absence of mast cells. Moreover, the c-kit ligand SCF can induce the proliferation and maturation of normal mast cells in vitro or in vivo, and also can result in repair of the mast cell deficiency of Sl/Sld mice in vivo. We now report that administration of SCF intradermally in vivo results in dermal mast cell activation and a mast cell-dependent acute inflammatory response. This effect is c-kit receptor dependent, in that it is not observed when SCF is administered to mice containing dermal mast cells expressing functionally inactive c-kit receptors, is observed with both glycosylated and nonglycosylated forms of SCF, and ...
PubMed link: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23328669 Various physiologically relevant processes are regulated by the interaction of the receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Kit) and its ligand stem cell factor (SCF), being SCF known to be the most important growth factor for mast cells (MCs). In spite of their traditional role in allergic disorders and innate immunity, MCs have lately emerged as versatile modulators of a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes. Katja Woidacki, a member of Prof. Ana Zenclussens working group demonstrated that MCs are critical for pregnancy success. Recently, this work was published in Cell Death and Disease. Uterine MCs presented a unique phenotype, accumulated during receptivity and expanded upon pregnancy establishment. KitW-sh/W-sh mice, whose MC-deficiency is based on restricted c-Kit gene expression, exhibited severely impaired implantation, which could be completely rescued by systemic or local transfer of wild-type bone marrow-derived MCs. ...
I787 provides signals for c-Kit receptor internalization and functionality that control mast cell survival and development. |...
Mast cell (MC) differentiation, survival, and activation are controlled by the membrane tyrosine kinase c-Kit upon interaction with stem cell factor (SCF). Here we describe a single point mutation induced by N-ethyl-N-nitrosurea (ENU) mutagenesis in C57BL/6J mice-an A to T transversion at position 2388 (exon 17) of the c-Kit gene, resulting in the isoleucine 787 substitution by phenylalanine (787F), and analyze the consequences of this mutation for ligand binding, signaling, and MC development. The Kit(787F/787F) mice carrying the single amino acid exchange of c-Kit lacks both mucosal and connective tissue-type MCs. In bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), the 787F mutation does not affect SCF binding and c-Kit receptor shedding, but strongly impairs SCF-induced cytokine production, degranulation enhancement, and apoptosis rescue. Interestingly, c-Kit downstream signaling in 787F BMMCs is normally initiated (Erk1/2 and p38 activation as well as c-Kit autophosphorylation) but fails to be ...
Stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor reduce β-amyloid deposits in the brains of APP/PS1 transgenic mice |...
Alzheimers disease (AD) is widely recognized as a serious public health problem and heavy financial burden. Currently, there is no treatment that can delay or stop the progressive brain damage in AD. Recently, we demonstrated that stem cell factor (SCF) in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (SCF+G-CSF) has therapeutic effects on chronic stroke. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether SCF+G-CSF can reduce the burden of β-amyloid deposits in a mouse model of AD. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were used as the model of AD. To track bone marrow-derived cells in the brain, the bone marrow of the APP/PS1 mice was replaced with the bone marrow from mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). Six weeks after bone marrow transplantation, mice were randomly divided into a saline control group and a SCF+G-CSF-treated group. SCF in combination with G-CSF was administered subcutaneously for 12 days. Circulating bone marrow stem cells (CD117+ cells) were quantified 1 day
Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits expression of the gene products for steel factor and its receptor (c-kit)<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transforming growth factor β1 inhibits expression of the gene products for steel factor and its receptor (c-kit). AU - Heinrich, Michael C.. AU - Dooley, Douglas C.. AU - Keeble, Winifred W.. PY - 1995/4/1. Y1 - 1995/4/1. N2 - Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), a product of marrow stromal cells, inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells within the hematopoietic microenvironment. Steel factor (SF), also a product of marrow stromal cells, is an essential positive regulator of hematopoiesis in vivo. TGF-β1 has been shown to repress human and murine leukemic cell and murine lin- bone marrow mononuclear cell expression of the receptor for SF (c-kit). We speculated that TGF-β1 might exert its inhibitory effect on hematopoiesis in part by decreasing SF/c-kit interactions. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that TGF-β1 inhibits both stromal cell expression of SF and hematopoietic progenitor cell expression of c-kit. We measured stromal ...
Functional interaction of erythropoietin and stem cell factor receptors is essential for erythroid colony formation | PNAS
Our most important conclusion is that during erythroid differentiation, activation of the Epo-R occurs by two different mechanisms; these generate different intracellular signals essential for proliferation and terminal differentiation of committed erythroid progenitors. Erythroid progenitors from Epo-R−/− fetal livers, infected in vitro with a retrovirus expressing the wt Epo-R, require the addition of both Epo and SCF to form CFU-E colonies. Thus, signals from both Epo and SCF receptors are essential. At least one signal emanating from KIT must use the Epo-R as a downstream signal-transduction protein, because the Epo-R−/− fetal liver cells were exposed to SCF in vivo, yet required SCF in vitro after expression of the exogenous Epo-R. Indeed, CFU-E colony formation in vitro by normal fetal liver progenitors requires only Epo; the essential interaction between activated KIT and the Epo-R must have occurred in vivo before or at the CFU-E stage. This is consistent with our previous report ...
Stem cell factor promotes mast cell survival via inactivation of FOXO3a-mediated transcriptional induction and MEK-regulated...
Mast cells are found in tissues throughout the body where they play important roles in the regulation of inflammatory responses. One characteristic feature of mast cells is their longevity. Although it is well established that mast cell survival is dependent on stem cell factor (SCF), it has not been described how this process is regulated. Herein, we report that SCF promotes mast cell survival through inactivation of the Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a (forkhead box, class O3A) and down-regulation and phosphorylation of its target Bim (Bcl-2 [B-cell lymphoma-2] interacting modulator of cell death), a Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3)-only proapoptotic protein. SCF induced a rapid and transient phosphorylation of Akt (protein kinase B) and FOXO3a. SCF treatment prevented up-regulation of Bim protein expression and led to increased Bim phosphorylation. Bim phosphorylation was inhibited by PD98059 and LY294002 treatment, suggesting the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase ...
"Structural Basis for c-KIT Inhibition by the Suppressor of Cytokine Si" by Fahad Zadjali, Ashley C. W. Pike et al.
The c-KIT receptor tyrosine kinase mediates the cellular response to stem cell factor (SCF). Whereas c-KIT activity is important for the proliferation of hematopoietic cells, melanocytes and germ cells, uncontrolled c-KIT activity contributes to the growth of diverse human tumors. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) is a member of the SOCS family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that can interact with c-KIT and suppress c-KIT-dependent pathways. Here, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms that determine SOCS6 substrate recognition. Our results show that the SH2 domain of SOCS6 is essential for its interaction with c-KIT pY568. The 1.45-Å crystal structure of SOCS6 SH2 domain bound to the c-KIT substrate peptide (c-KIT residues 564-574) revealed a highly complementary and specific interface giving rise to a high affinity interaction (K(d) = 0.3 μm). Interestingly, the SH2 binding pocket extends to substrate residue position pY+6 and envelopes the c-KIT phosphopeptide with a large BG loop insertion that
Bovine stem cell factor: Production of a biologically active protein and mRNA analysis in cattle infected with Trypanosoma...
The cDNA coding for the soluble form of bovine stem cell factor (boSCF-Ala-105) was cloned and recombinant protein was produced in bacteria as a histidine tagged-protein. The protein was purified from the inclusion bodies in one step by metal chelation chromatography under denaturing conditions. Recombinant bovine SCF was shown to act synergistically with interleukin 3 (IL-3) and erythropoietin (EPO) in stimulating the growth of bone marrow progenitor cells such as colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming units-erythroid (BFU-E). Analysis of SCF mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that the transcripts were detectable in bone marrow, lymph node and spleen of cattle, and that the level of transcription was upregulated in lymph nodes of cattle infected with Trypanosoma congolense. Two isoforms of SCF mRNA were amplified by RT-PCR. The availability of recombinant bovine SCF provides a valuable tool for studying the role ...
The effects of natural killer-cell depletion on ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells from umbilical cord blood |...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The small total number of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) in cord blood limited its use in adult recipients. Since the hematopoiesis might be controlled by both positive and negative factors, the finding of negative cellular components and thereafter depletion of them would be of importance for further expansion of HPC from cord blood in vitro. The role of natural killer cells (NK cells) in hematopoiesis remains unclear and needs to be elucidated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Cord blood mononuclear cells were co-cultured in a liquid culture system containing the hematopoietic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-3, IL-6, stem cell factor (SCF), granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and G-CSF for a total of 20 days with or without depletion of NK cells. RESULTS: The percentage of CD34+ cells was significantly higher in the NK-cell-depleted group at each time point (day 5, day 10, day 15, day 20). This finding was further confirmed by examination of functional ...
"Rat stem-cell factor induces splenocytes capable of regenerating the t" by Eugene S. Medlock, Russell T. Migita et al.
Cytokine regulation of prethymic T-lymphoid progenitor-cell proliferation and/or differentiation has not been well-defined, although much is known of cytokine regulation of hemopoietic stem- and progenitor-cell development. Here we use a recently identified hemopoietic growth factor, stem-cell factor (SCF) (a form of the c-kit ligand), and a transplant model of thymocyte regeneration to assess the effect of SCF on the in vivo generation of prethymic, thymocyte progenitor-cell activity. We show that recombinant rat SCF (rrSCF164) administered to weanling rats selectively induces an increase in thymocyte progenitor activity in the spleens of treated rats as compared to rats treated with vehicle, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated rat albumin, or recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). These data demonstrate that administration of SCF in vivo affects extrathymic-origin thymocyte regenerating cells and may influence, directly or indirectly, early prethymic stages of T-cell
The survival of differentiating embryonic stem cells is dependent on the SCF-KIT pathway.
The stem cell factor (SCF)-KIT signal transduction pathway plays a role in the proliferation, differentiation and survival of a range of stem and progenitor cell types but little is known about its function in embryonic stem (ES) cells. We generated ES cells carrying a null allele of Kit as well as a knock-in allele that encodes an SCF-independent hybrid KIT receptor that can be activated by the FKBP binding drug, AP20187. KIT null ES cells die when induced to differentiate upon withdrawal of leukaemia inhibitory factor in monolayer culture. This phenotype is recapitulated in wild-type ES cells treated with a KIT-neutralising antibody and reversed in mutant cells by activation of the hybrid KIT receptor. Differentiating KIT null ES cells exhibit elevated levels of DNA laddering and reduced BCL2 expression, indicative of apoptosis. We conclude that mouse ES cell differentiation in vitro is dependent on the SCF-KIT pathway contrasting with the apparently normal differentiation of KIT null inner ...
In vitro and in vivo megakaryocyte differentiation of fresh and ex-vivo expanded cord blood cells: rapid and transient...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Megakaryocyte (Mk) engraftment is often poor and delayed after cord blood (CB) transplantation. Ex vivo manipulations of the cells that will be infused may be a way to achieve better Mk engraftment. In this study we investigated the ability of different hematopoietic growth factor combinations to generate large numbers of Mk cells ex vivo. DESIGN AND METHODS: To find the best cytokine combination capable of generating large numbers of Mks, baseline CB CD34+ (bCD34+) cells and CD34+ and CD34- cells, immunoselected after 4 weeks of expansion with thrombopoietin (TPO), stem cell factor (SCF) and Flt-3 ligand (FL) (eCD34+, eCD34-), were further cultured in the presence of different cytokine combinations (containing interleukin(IL)-3, SCF, TPO and IL-6). To evaluate Mk reconstitution in vivo, Mk-committed cells, generated during 10 days of in vitro culture, were injected into NOD/SCID mice and the kinetics of human platelet production was evaluated. RESULTS: TPO and SCF ...
In vitro Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin in Erythroid Cells Derived from CD133 Cells by Transforming Growth Factor-b and Stem...
Increased fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in b-globin gene disorders ameliorates the clinical symptoms of the underlying disease. 5-azacytidine, butyrate and hydroxyurea, have been shown to activate g-globin gene expression. It has also been found that hematopoietic growth factors can influence expression of g-globin in erythroid cultures and in animal models. This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of the stem cell factor (SCF) and transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) on g-globin gene reactivation of erythroid precursors derived from CD133+ cells in vitro. Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed increased expression of the g-globin transcript in cell culture groups containing either TGF- b or SCF or both as compared to control (2.2-, 2.7- and 5.5-fold, respectively) (p|0.01). Production of HbF in a differentiated population was demonstrated using flow cytometry. The results of this study suggest that SCF and TGF-b warrant further evaluation as potential
한국인에서 NK/T cell Iymphoma의 c-kit 유전자 변이에 관한 연구
Introduction: The proto-oncogene c-KIT encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase(KIT) whose ligand is stem cell factor. KIT is expressed by and critical for the development and growth of mast cells, melanocytes, hematopoetic stem cells, and the interstitial cells of Cajal. In this study, c-kit gene mutatio...
Cediranib is a potent inhibitor of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 and -3 tyrosine kinases. This study assessed the activity of cediranib against the VEGFR-1 tyrosine kinase and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-associated kinases c-Kit, PDGFR-α and -β. Cediranib inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated VEGFR-1 activation in AG1-G1-Flt1 cells (IC50, 1.2nM). VEGF-A induced greatest phosphorylation of VEGFR-1 at tyrosine residues Y1048 and Y1053; this was reversed by cediranib. Potency against VEGFR-1 was comparable to that previously observed versus VEGFR-2 and R-3. Cediranib also demonstrated significant activity against wild-type c-Kit in cellular phosphorylation assays (IC50, 1-3nM) and in a stem cell factor-induced proliferation assay (IC50, 13-nM). Furthermore, phosphorylation of wild-type c-Kit in NCI-H526 tumor xenografts was reduced markedly following oral administration of cediranib (≥1.5 mg/kg/day) to tumor-bearing nude mice. The activity of cediranib ...
c-KIT (Y823D) Kinase Enzyme System
KAKEN - Research Projects | A Kit Ligand, Stem Cell Factor as a Possible Mediator Inducing Overactive Bladder (KAKENHI-PROJECT...
JCI - GSK3β regulates physiological migration of stem/progenitor cells via cytoskeletal rearrangement
Regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) steady-state egress from the bone marrow (BM) to the circulation is poorly understood. While glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is known to participate in HSPC proliferation, we revealed an unexpected role in the preferential regulation of CXCL12-induced migration and steady-state egress of murine HSPCs, including long-term repopulating HSCs, over mature leukocytes. HSPC egress, regulated by circadian rhythms of CXCL12 and CXCR4 levels, correlated with dynamic expression of GSK3β in the BM. Nevertheless, GSK3β signaling was CXCL12/CXCR4 independent, suggesting that synchronization of both pathways is required for HSPC motility. Chemotaxis of HSPCs expressing higher levels of GSK3β compared with mature cells was selectively enhanced by stem cell factor-induced activation of GSK3β. Moreover, HSPC motility was regulated by norepinephrine and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which increased or reduced, respectively, GSK3β ...
"Long-term in vitro culture of murine mast cells. Iii. Discrimination" by Y Yung and M A. Moore
IM2733U, CD117-PC5 Conjugated Antibody, 104D2D1, 1 mL, ASR - Beckman Coulter
The CD117 antigen is the 145 kDa protooncogene c-kit. It belongs to the class III receptor tyrosine kinase family. This antigen is the receptor for the stem-cell factor (SCF) encoded by the steel locus (Steel Locus Factor "SLF"). The CD117 antigen is expressed on very few normal bone marrow cells. The majority of CD117+ marrow cells co-express CD34. CD117 is also expressed on mast cells.
Deletion of a stem cell factor promotes TBI recovery in mice
Molecular regulation of mast cell development and maturation....
Host cell factor C2 Lysates: Novus Biologicals
The effect of c-kit activation on cardiac differentiati | Open-i
By simply introducing stem cell factors into a mature cell | Small RV Guide
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Increased expression of TGF-β in the cochlear fibroblast of diabetic model rats | Stem Cell Oncology | Taylor & Francis Group
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Researchers coax human stem cells to form complex tissues
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Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... Common side effects may include low platelets, low white blood cells, anemia, rashes, vomiting, diarrhea, and joint pains. ... and reduced blood cell count. Less typical side effects are those of the cardiovascular system, such as high blood pressure, ... Nilotinib is a Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor and works by interfering with signalling within the cancer cell. ...
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... cell-cell signaling. • ephrin receptor signaling pathway. • axon guidance. • osteoclast differentiation. • bone remodeling. ... Cells. 9 (4): 440-5. PMID 10515610.. *. Aasheim HC, Munthe E, Funderud S, et al. (2000). "A splice variant of human ephrin-A4 ... Eph Nomenclature Committee". Cell. 90 (3): 403-4. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80500-0. PMID 9267020.. ...
Nerve growth factor (NGF), the prototypical growth factor, is a protein secreted by a neuron's target cell. NGF is critical for ... retain the ability to grow new neurons from neural stem cells, a process known as neurogenesis. Neurotrophins are chemicals ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Main article: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor ( ... In the PNS (where NGF, NT-3 and NT-4 are mainly secreted) cell fate is determined by a single growth factor (i.e. neurotrophins ...
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... regulation of cell-cell adhesion. • positive regulation of peptidyl-tyrosine phosphorylation. • regulation of focal adhesion ... regulation of cell morphogenesis. • collateral sprouting. • negative regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading ... cell periphery. • GABA-ergic synapse. Biological process. • positive regulation of synapse assembly. • apoptotic process. • ...
"Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and personalized therapy in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC)". ... sensitizes small cell lung cancer cell lines to the effects of chemotherapy". Clin Cancer Res. 11 (4): 1563-71. doi:10.1158/ ... Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several ... "Determinants of Tumor Response and Survival With Erlotinib in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer, Journal of Clinical ...
The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase for members of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF ... positive regulation of cell migration. • neuron cell-cell adhesion. • nervous system development. • neuron maturation. • ... glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of MAPK cascade. • positive regulation ... regulation of cell adhesion. • lymphocyte migration into lymphoid organs. • cell adhesion. • positive regulation of gene ...
The drug is approved in multiple contexts of Philadelphia chromosome-positive CML, including after stem cell transplant, in ... the Ras/MapK pathway, which leads to increased proliferation due to increased growth factor-independent cell growth. ... "Cell. 135 (3): 437-48. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.08.041. PMC 2788814. PMID 18984156. Lay summary - Science Daily.. ... Some tumor cells, however, have a dependence on bcr-abl. Inhibition of the bcr-abl tyrosine kinase also stimulates its ...
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... Fibroblast growth factor 20 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the FGF20 gene. ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad ... cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was shown to be expressed in normal brain, ...
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... cell-cell signaling. • neuron projection morphogenesis. • innervation. • negative regulation of cell death. • long-term memory ... Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 291 (3): L447-56. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00501.2005. PMID 16648236.. ... 2008). "Neurotrophins and their receptors stimulate melanoma cell proliferation and migration". J. Invest. Dermatol. 128 (8): ...
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... "Sorafenib in advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma". New England Journal of Medicine. 356 (2): 125-34. doi:10.1056/ ... particularly clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which is associated with the von Hippel-Lindau gene) ... treatment with sorafenib prolongs progression-free survival in patients with advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma in whom ...
... binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the outer membrane of normal and tumor cells. The matuzumab ... Activation of the EGFR has diverse effects on target cells depending on cell type and tissue context. It directs cell fate ... epidermal growth factor) and other members of the EGF family of growth factors, resulting in activation of its tyrosine kinase ... It binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with high affinity. The mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb425) from ...
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF). *Interleukins/T-cell growth factors (see here instead) ... Osherov N, Gazit A, Gilon C, Levitzki A (1993). "Selective inhibition of the epidermal growth factor and HER2/neu receptors by ... Yaish P, Gazit A, Gilon C, Levitzki A (1988). "Blocking of EGF-dependent cell proliferation by EGF receptor kinase inhibitors ... "Effects of a selective inhibitor of the Abl tyrosine kinase on the growth of Bcr-Abl positive cells". Nat Med. 2 (5): 561-6. ...
It acts as a kinase inhibitor of a number of cell receptors, mainly the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), ... Vandetanib is an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and RET tyrosine ... AstraZeneca tested Vandetanib in clinical trials for non-small cell lung cancer and submitted an application for approval to ... the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and the RET-tyrosine kinase. The drug was developed by AstraZeneca and ...
One of the key players in self-renewal and development of haematopoietic cells is stem cell factor (SCF), which binds to the c- ... differentiated cells may regain attributes of progenitor cells. An example is PAX5 factor, which is important in B cell ... As a stem cell matures it undergoes changes in gene expression that limit the cell types that it can become and moves it closer ... For the stem cells and other undifferentiated blood cells in the bone marrow, the determination is generally explained by the ...
"HASF is a stem cell paracrine factor that activates PKC epsilon mediated cytoprotection". Journal of Molecular and Cellular ... hypoxia and Akt-induced stem cell factor; ROS generated via pharmacologic activation of the mitochondrial potassium-sensitive ... "Protein kinase C-epsilon protects MCF-7 cells from TNF-mediated cell death by inhibiting Bax translocation". Apoptosis. 12 (10 ... "Arachidonic acid stimulates protein kinase C-epsilon redistribution in heart cells". Journal of Cell Science. 110 (14): 1625-34 ...
"Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts by Defined Factors". Cell. 131 (5): 861-872. doi:10.1016/j. ... Scalable Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Culture". Stem Cells. 22 (3): 275-282. doi:10.1634/stemcells.22-3-275. PMID ... and BMP Signaling Regulate Distinct Stages in the Developmental Pathway from Embryonic Stem Cells to Blood". Cell Stem Cell. 2 ... "Cell Stem Cell. 3 (5): 508-518. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2008.09.013. PMC 2683270. PMID 18983966.. ...
"Stem cell factor induces phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-dependent Lyn/Tec/Dok-1 complex formation in hematopoietic cells". ... cell projection. • cell-cell junction. • ruffle. • plasma membrane. • COP9 signalosome. • lamellipodium. • Schaffer collateral ... cell migration. • leukocyte migration. • calcium-mediated signaling. • epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. • ... "Cell. 138 (3): 514-24. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.028. PMC 4764080. PMID 19665973.. ...
These FGF and Shh factors regulate cortical stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis dynamics. Roles for beta-catenin (part of ... "Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor in Neural Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 591- ... "Cell Stem Cell. 18 (5): 587-590. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.02.016. ISSN 1934-5909. PMC 5299540. PMID 26952870.. ... Cell biological determinants. Cortical stem cells, known as radial glial cells (RGC)s, reside in the ventricular zone and ...
In mouse ESCs, Sall4 was found to bind the essential stem cell factor, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), in two ... implications for stem cell biology, development, and disease". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (4): 382-95. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2010.03.004. ... "An Oct4-centered protein interaction network in embryonic stem cells". Cell Stem Cell. 6 (4): 369-81. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... a stem cell transcription factor". Cell Cycle. 13 (9): 1456-62. doi:10.4161/cc.28418. PMC 4050143 . PMID 24626181. Gao C, ...
"ISG15 Is a Critical Microenvironmental Factor for Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells". Cancer Research. 74 (24): 7309-7320. doi: ... In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, tumor-associated macrophages secrete ISG15 enhancing the phenotype of cancer stem cells in ... IFN regulatory factor-8/IFN consensus sequence binding protein, and IFN regulatory factor-4: characterization of a new subtype ... "Interferon stimulated gene 15 constitutively produced by melanoma cells induces e-cadherin expression on human dendritic cells ...
stem cell exhaustion (in the authors' view caused by damage factors such as those listed above) ... Senescent cells: most of the cells with DNA damages that can't be fixed do apoptosis but some cells don't. Those cells are ... and specific stem cells such as germ cells (producing ova and spermatozoa). In artificial cloning, adult cells can be ... Cell Stem Cell. 12 (3): 293-297. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2013.01.005. PMID 23472871.. ...
"Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors". Cell. 131 (5): 861-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Glis1 can be used as one of the four factors used in reprogramming somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells. The three ... "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors". Cell. 126 (4): 663- ... The transcription factor c-Myc can also be used as the fourth factor and was the original fourth factor used by Shinya Yamanaka ...
"Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Adult Human Fibroblasts by Defined Factors". Cell. 131 (5): 861-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... The cells of the inner cell mass (embryoblast), which are known as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), will further ... "Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mouse Embryonic and Adult Fibroblast Cultures by Defined Factors". Cell. 126 (4): 663- ... then four-cells, and finally eight-cells. One more cell division brings the number of cells to 16, at which time it is called a ...
To confer pluripotency in an embryonic stem cell, factors inhibit Xist transcription. These factors also upregulate ... "Tsix RNA and the germline factor, PRDM14, link X reactivation and stem cell reprogramming". Mol. Cell. 52 (6): 805-18. doi: ... Alternately, it may be necessary to study cells closer to the X inactivation stage rather than older cells in order to ... This cell is then able to remain pluripotent as X inactivation is not accomplished. The marker Rex1, as well as other members ...
Jun transcriptionally activates the promoters of SCF (stem cell factor) and CCL5. The induced SCF and CCL5 expression promotes ... and those cells exhibit cell cycle defect. Overexpression of c-jun in cells results in decreased level of p53 and p21, and ... Jun is the first discovered oncogenic transcription factor. In a study using non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC), c-jun was ... In cells absent of c-jun, the expression of p53 (cell cycle arrest inducer) and p21 (CDK inhibitor and p53 target gene) is ...
Shin'ya Yamanaka, wolna encyklopedia
Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors.. „Cell". 126 (4), s ... Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells.. „Nature". 448 (7151), s. 313-7, Jul 2007. DOI: 10.1038/ ... DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2006.07.024. PMID: 16904174. *↑ K. Okita, T. Ichisaka, S. Yamanaka. ...
Politicization of science
... accused the administration in July 2007 of political interference and muzzling him on key issues like embryonic stem cell ... Input from the industry advocacy group Global Climate Coalition was also a factor. In 2006, Guardian columnist George Monbiot ... Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence". Am J Pathol. 100 (2): 505-06. PMC 1903536 . PMID 6773421. "In ...
Death-associated protein 6
Other studies showed that lack of Daxx gene caused a higher apoptotic rate in embryonic stem cells. Only when Daxx was bound to ... The omnipresence of Daxx in the cell nucleus suggests that the protein may also function as a transcription factor. Although it ... and cell death. Daxx interacts with the TGF-β type II receptor by binding of C-terminal domain of the protein. When the cell is ... Another important cell death-property of Daxx is the association with PML-NB. It was shown that Daxx associates with Pml only ...
Multiple system atrophy
A July, 2012, study suggested that mesenchymal stem cell therapy could delay the progression of neurological deficits in ... The cause of MSA is uncertain and no specific risk factor has been identified, although research indicates that a prion form of ... "A randomized trial of mesenchymal stem cells in multiple system atrophy". Annals of Neurology. 72 (1): 32-40. doi:10.1002/ana. ... suggesting the potential of mesenchymal stem cell therapy as a treatment candidate of MSA. "multiple system atrophy" at ...
It is currently possible to collect two types of stem cells during childbirth: amniotic stem cells and umbilical cord blood ... These factors form the Bishop score. The Bishop score can also be used as a means to predict the success of an induction of ... Dziadosz, M; Basch, RS; Young, BK (March 2016). "Human amniotic fluid: a source of stem cells for possible therapeutic use". ... Risk factors for significant vaginal birth injury include: A baby weighing more than 9 pounds (4.1 kg). The use of forceps or ...
Flores ER, Halder G (2011). "Stem cell proliferation in the skin: alpha-catenin takes over the hippo pathway". Sci Signal. 4 ( ... Yi ZY, Feng LJ, Xiang Z, Yao H (2011). "Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 activation mediates epithelial to ... F9 embryonal carcinoma cells are similar to the P19 cells shown in Figure 1 and normally have cell-to-cell adhesion mediated by ... A tumor cell line with defective δ-catenin, low levels of E-cadherin and poor cell-to-cell adhesion could be restored to normal ...
The flowering stems bear small bracts, dissimilar to the basal leaves-in some species the bracts are ornamental and showy. The ... When the hairs are rubbed or brushed, some of the oil-bearing cells are ruptured, releasing the oil. This often results in the ... It is believed that the lever mechanism is a key factor in the speciation, adaptive radiation, and diversity of this large ... The stems are typically angled like other members in Lamiaceae. The leaves are typically entire, but sometimes toothed or ...
Follicular dendritic cells
... are not dendritic cells (DCs). Unlike DCs, FDCs are not derived from the bone-marrow hematopoietic stem cell, but are of ... Factor Mfge produced in lymphoid tissues mainly by FDCs is known to enhance engulfment of apoptotic cells. Deficit of this ... Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are cells of the immune system found in primary and secondary lymph follicles of the B cell ... and differentiation into high-affinity plasma cells and memory B cells. Adhesion between FDCs and B cells is mediated by ICAM-1 ...
"Stem cell factor induces phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase-dependent Lyn/Tec/Dok-1 complex formation in hematopoietic cells". ... Era T (2002). "Bcr-Abl is a "molecular switch" for the decision for growth and differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells". ... cell division, cell adhesion, and stress response. Activity of ABL1 protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and ... Cell. 6 (6): 1413-23. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)00138-6. PMID 11163214. Yoshida K, Komatsu K, Wang HG, Kufe D (May 2002). "c- ...
Stem Cells. 35 (1): 207-221. doi:10.1002/stem.2452. PMID 27350449. Han J, Mistriotis P, Lei P, Wang D, Liu S, Zhao R, Andreadis ... indicating the epigenetic factors play an important role in gene expression and aging as well as genetic factors. According to ... On mitosis the debris is not evenly divided between the new cells. Instead it passes to one of the cells leaving the other cell ... Stem Cells. 30 (12): 2746-2759. doi:10.1002/stem.1223. PMID 22949105. Munst B, Thier M, Winnemoller D, Helfen M, Thummer R, ...
in a cell surface glycoprotein and functions as a cell-cell adhesion factor. It may also mediate the attachment of stem cells ... Kees UR, Ford J (Feb 1999). "Synergistic action of stem-cell factor and interleukin-7 in a human immature T-cell line". ... CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as hematopoietic cells, or in mesenchymal stem cells, ... It is important to mention that Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells (LT-HSCs) in mice and humans are the hematopoietic cells ...
Cutaneous T cell lymphoma
... stem cells Allogenic transplantation Forodesine (Inhibits Purine Nucleoside phosphorylase) In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug ... No definitive link between any viral infection or environmental factor has been definitely shown with other CTCL subtypes. ... T-cell lymphoma Pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma Lennert lymphoma Subcutaneous T-cell lymphoma Angiocentric lymphoma Blastic NK-cell ... Of all cancers involving the same class of blood cell, 2% of cases are cutaneous T cell lymphomas. CTCL is more common in men ...
Sea urchins graze on the lower stems of kelp, causing the kelp to drift away and die. Loss of the habitat and nutrients ... with sea urchin populations apparently controlled by other factors. The role of sea otters in maintaining kelp forests has been ... marine mammals can access substantial reservoirs of glycogen that support anaerobic glycolysis of the cells involved during ...
... in CYP2B6 and CYP2C19 and survival of patients receiving cyclophosphamide prior to myeloablative hematopoietic stem cell ... 2010). "OPRM1 and CYP2B6 gene variants as risk factors in methadone-related deaths". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 88 (3): 383-9. doi: ... 2010). "Influence of host genetic factors on efavirenz plasma and intracellular pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-infected patients". ...
Since early 2000 he has used Growth Factors in his treatments and since 2013 stem cells in the repair of anterior cruciate ... Issues Encouraging Update on Cell Therapy in ACL Clinical Street Insider. November 21, 2014 Mesenchymal stem cells yield ... Since 2010, through the Garcia Cugat Foundation he started research on the application of stem cells in lesions of the ... Colleen, Owens (April 2013). "Mesenchymal stem cells yield promising results, multiple orthopaedic applications" (PDF). ...
Pascal J. Goldschmidt
Hussman Institute for Human Genomics and the Interdisciplinary Stem Cell Institute. Both institutes are headed by world- ... Following the layoff of 800 employees in June 2012, this rapid expansion was reported to be a contributing factor to Miller ... Following his training at Hopkins, he served as an associate professor in the university's Department of Cell Biology and ... Goldschmidt's research applies genomics and cell therapy to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease ...
... viral cell entrance, and other cell-cell and protein-protein interactions. Selection for specific tyrosine residues requires a ... Beyond these two proteins, other notable protein substrates include Cholecystokinin (CCK), Factor V and Factor VIII, gastrin, ... a small stem region of about 40 amino acids in length, and a larger, catalytic region that is located on the luminal side of ... has generated interest because of its role as the target protein for the viral entrance of HIV into cells. The importance of ...
... recombinant human stem cell factor, SCF) in association with filgrastim does not enhance chemotherapy and/or growth factor- ... Ancestim is a recombinant methionyl human stem cell factor, branded by Amgen as StemGen. It was developed by Amgen and sold to ... coli bacteria into which a gene has been inserted for soluble human stem cell factor. It has a monomeric molecular weight of ... injection and is indicated for use in combination with filgrastim for mobilizing peripheral hematopoietic stem cells for later ...
Replacement of lost cells is facilitated by transplants with embryonic stem cells, stem cells from the spinal cord, and spinal ... As the neural tube begins to develop, the notochord begins to secrete a factor known as Sonic hedgehog or SHH. As a result, the ... "Spinal Cord-Development and Stem Cells". Stem Cell Development Compendium. Retrieved 2 Dec 2015. Than-Trong, Emmanuel; Bally- ... Treatments need to focus on limiting post-injury cell death, promoting cell regeneration, and replacing lost cells. ...
... crypt cells in the intestinal epithelium, have a cycle time as short as 9 to 10 hours. Stem cells in resting mouse skin may ... of cell cycle transcription factors by Cdk1 may alter the localization or activity of the transcription factors in order to ... Controlling the Cell Cycle The cell cycle & Cell death Transcriptional program of the cell cycle: high-resolution timing Cell ... Cell cycle checkpoints are used by the cell to monitor and regulate the progress of the cell cycle. Checkpoints prevent cell ...
Klotzko, Arlene Judith (May 28, 2001). "Cynical Science and Stem Cells". The Scientist. 15 (11): 35. ISSN 0890-3670. Retrieved ... Political partisanship affecting religious belief may be a factor because political partisanship in the US is highly correlated ... The poll asked "Where did human beings come from - did we start as singular cells millions of year ago and evolve into our ...
Osteochondroprogenitor cells are progenitor cells that arise from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in the bone marrow. They have ... are necessary for osteochondroprogenitor cells to differentiate into the osteoblast cell lineage. These factors also have a ... McBride, SH; Falls T; Knothe Tate ML (2008). "Modulation of stem cell shape and fate B: mechanical modulation of cell shape and ... the uncommitted stem cells of the embryo will undergo differentiation into certain cell lineages. However the exact mechanism ...
The transcription factor Gfi1b has been found to be expressed in tuft cells. ATOH1 is required for tuft cell specification but ... In the intestine, tuft cells are the sole source of secreted interleukin 25 (IL-25). Tuft cells are differentiated from stem ... Cells also express TRPM5, a signaling molecule in bitter and sweet taste signaling. Mature tuft cells express DCLK1. Tuft cells ... Tuft cells, sometimes referred to as brush cells, are chemosensory cells in the epithelial lining of the intestines and ...
Erwin Friedrich Wagner
He investigates the functions of transcription factor complexes regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and oncogenesis ... the micro-injection of DNA into fertilized eggs as well as the development of gene transfer technologies into stem cells and ... In 2008, Wagner left the IMP to become the new Deputy Director and Head of the Cancer Cell Biology Program at the Spanish ...
The increased activity of a Hemocytoblast (RBC stem cell) allows the blood to have a greater carrying capacity for oxygen. EPO ... Like most transcription factors, the HIF transcription factor is responsible for the expression of a protein. The HIF ... Because such blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, a higher concentration in the blood can improve an ... The freezing process, conversely, limits the aging of the cells, allowing the storage of the blood for up to 10 years with a 10 ...
Stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency
... a transcription factor expressed in embryonic stem cells) over the following week using an Oct4-GFP transgene. On average only ... Induced stem cells Muse cell Stem cell controversy Masayuki Yamato Cyranoski, David (2014-01-29). "Acid bath offers easy path ... One previous way of creating stem cells has been via genetic manipulation of adult cells into iPS cells. Progress on iPS-based ... meaning they would be more potent than embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). It was not clear why ...
... with beta-catenin and T-cell factor 4 may bypass canonical Wnt signaling to down-regulate adipogenic transcription factors". ... An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. The androgens function as ... The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ...
Cell Biol. 6 (2): 97-105. doi:10.1038/ncb1086. PMID 14743216. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, ... Mutations in DARS have been identified as the cause of leukoencephalopathy, hypomyelination with brain stem and spinal cord ... 2002). "Interaction network of human aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and subunits of elongation factor 1 complex". Biochem. Biophys ... Cell Biol. 35 (11): 1548-57. doi:10.1016/S1357-2725(03)00070-0. PMID 12824064. Bouwmeester T, Bauch A, Ruffner H, et al. (2004 ...
"Fibrochondrogenesis in two embryonic stem cell lines: effects of differentiation timelines". Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio). 26 (2 ... Hoben GM, Willard VP, Athanasiou KA (May 2008). "Fibrochondrogenesis of hESCs: Growth Factor Combinations and Cocultures". Stem ... specifically human embryonic stem cells. Utilization of these cells as curative cartilage replacement materials on the cellular ... The study also included the high rate of consanguinous marriages as a prevailing factor for these disorders, as well as the ...
Effects of cannabis
... natural killer cells, and monocytes, but can also be found on polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells, T8 cells, and T4 cells. In ... A confounding factor in cannabis research is the prevalent usage of other recreational drugs, especially alcohol and nicotine. ... the brain stem, associated with sleep, arousal, and motor control; and the nucleus of the solitary tract, associated with ... A signature of this type of receptor is the distinct pattern of how the receptor molecule spans the cell membrane seven times. ...
Age and female fertility
... despite recent reports of the potential existence of stem cells which may be used to restore the ovarian reserve. A study ... 81% of variation in ovarian reserve is due to age alone, making age the most important factor in female infertility. The most ... Age is thus a major fertility factor for women. Menarche, the first menstrual period, usually occurs around 12-13, although it ... Estimating the "fertility of a woman" is quite difficult because of the male factor (quality of sperm). This French study ...
Complex interactions in EML cell stimulation by stem cell factor and IL-3. - PubMed - NCBI
Complex interactions in EML cell stimulation by stem cell factor and IL-3.. Ye ZJ1, Gulcicek E, Stone K, Lam T, Schulz V, ... Complex interactions in EML cell stimulation by stem cell factor and IL-3 ... Complex interactions in EML cell stimulation by stem cell factor and IL-3 ... Complex interactions in EML cell stimulation by stem cell factor and IL-3 ...
Effect of IL-3 and stem cell factor on the appearance of human basophils and mast cells from CD34+ pluripotent progenitor cells...
Effect of IL-3 and stem cell factor on the appearance of human basophils and mast cells from CD34+ pluripotent progenitor cells ... Effect of IL-3 and stem cell factor on the appearance of human basophils and mast cells from CD34+ pluripotent progenitor cells ... Effect of IL-3 and stem cell factor on the appearance of human basophils and mast cells from CD34+ pluripotent progenitor cells ... Effect of IL-3 and stem cell factor on the appearance of human basophils and mast cells from CD34+ pluripotent progenitor cells ...
SCF (Stem cell factor): A Stem Cell Therapy Growth Factor (Cytokine)
... also called Steel factor or Kit ligand) is a growth factor promoting proliferation, migration, survival, and differentiation of ... Introduction of SCF Growth Factor. Stem cell factor (SCF, also called Steel factor or Kit ligand) is a growth factor that ... SCF (Stem cell factor): A Stem Cell Therapy Growth Factor (Cytokine). Quick Guide: ... SCF : Stem Cell Therapy Growth Factor Related Reference. • Zhang C C, et al. Cytokines regulating hematopoietic stem cell ...
Function, molecular structure and gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF)<...
... which has been named stem cell factor (SCF), mast cell growth factor (MGF), kit ligand (KL) and steel factor (SL). The cDNA ... which has been named stem cell factor (SCF), mast cell growth factor (MGF), kit ligand (KL) and steel factor (SL). The cDNA ... which has been named stem cell factor (SCF), mast cell growth factor (MGF), kit ligand (KL) and steel factor (SL). The cDNA ... which has been named stem cell factor (SCF), mast cell growth factor (MGF), kit ligand (KL) and steel factor (SL). The cDNA ...
Transcription of stem cell factor (SCF) is potentiated by glucocorticoids and interleukin-1ß through concerted regulation of a...
Interactive roles of epidermal growth factor and stem cell factor in mediating proliferation and differentiation of adult human...
Sreepoorna Unni abstract presented on Interactive roles of epidermal growth factor and stem cell factor in mediating ... proliferation and differentiation of adult human testicular germ cells at Healthcare Dubai 2015 , Conferenceseries Ltd ... Title: Interactive roles of epidermal growth factor and stem cell factor in mediating proliferation and differentiation of ... EGFR on the Sertoil cells regulates germ cell differentiation by altering local paracrine networks and production of factors ...
KITLG Gene - GeneCards | SCF Protein | SCF Antibody
KITLG as growth factor is involved in stem cell differentiation protocols towards the derivation of the following cells: * ... Structure of the active core of human stem cell factor and analysis of binding to its receptor kit. (PMID: 10880433) Jiang X … ... Structural basis for activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT by stem cell factor. (PMID: 17662946) Yuzawa S … ... GO annotations related to this gene include cytokine activity and stem cell factor receptor binding. ...
Stem cell factor - Wikipedia
"Soluble stem cell factor in human serum". Blood. 81 (3): 656-60. PMID 7678995. Broudy VC (August 1997). "Stem cell factor and ... Stem cell factor (also known as SCF, KIT-ligand, KL, or steel factor) is a cytokine that binds to the c-KIT receptor (CD117). ... Rönnstrand L (October 2004). "Signal transduction via the stem cell factor receptor/c-Kit". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (19-20): ... Rönnstrand L (2004). "Signal transduction via the stem cell factor receptor/c-Kit". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (19-20): 2535-48. ...
Rat Stem-Cell Factor Induces Splenocytes Capable Of Regenerating The Thymus
... and progenitor-cell development. Here we use a recently identified hemopoietic growth factor, stem-cell factor (SCF) (a form of ... Rat Stem-Cell Factor Induces Splenocytes Capable Of Regenerating The Thymus. Eugene S. Medlock,1 Russell T. Migita,1 Lisa D. ... Cytokine regulation of prethymic T-lymphoid progenitor-cell proliferation and/or differentiation has not been well-defined, ... thymocyte progenitor-cell activity. We show that recombinant rat SCF (rrSCF164 administered to weanling rats selectively ...
Stem cells, down to one factor : The Niche
The Niche is a blog hosted by Nature Reports Stem Cells to provide an informal forum for debate and commentary on stem cell ... Stem cells, down to one factor. 28 Aug 2009 , 16:09 BST. , Posted by Monya Baker , Category: Reprogramming/Pluripotency ... The ability to make induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells using cells from specific patients could enable unprecedented new ways ... This produced reprogrammed cells that passed all standard tests of pluripotency.. The current study reprogrammed neural stem ...
Stem Cell Factor Medication for Aplastic Anemia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Stem Cell Factor Medication for Aplastic Anemia. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... A Phase I/II Trial of Recombinant Methionyl Human Stem Cell Factor (r-metHuSCF) in Patients Diagnosed With Acquired Aplastic ... This trial, sponsored by Amgen, Inc., which produces the recombinant methionyl human stem cell factor (r-metHuSCF), also ... This trial, sponsored by Amgen, Inc., which produces the recombinant methionyl human stem cell factor (r-metHuSCF), also ...
Tackling Cancer Stem Cells via Inhibition of EMT Transcription Factors
... and clinical studies in all areas of stem cell biology and applications. The journal will consider basic, translational, and ... Stem Cells International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, ... "The cancer stem cell niche: how essential is the niche in regulating stemness of tumor cells?" Cell Stem Cell, vol. 16, no. 3, ... A. Kreso and J. E. Dick, "Evolution of the cancer stem cell model," Cell Stem Cell, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 275-291, 2014. View at ...
Stem cell factor - wikidoc
Stem cell factor (also known as SCF, KIT-ligand, KL, or steel factor) is a cytokine that binds to the c-KIT receptor (CD117). ... Rönnstrand L (2004). "Signal transduction via the stem cell factor receptor/c-Kit". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (19-20): 2535-48. ... Rönnstrand L (October 2004). "Signal transduction via the stem cell factor receptor/c-Kit". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 61 (19-20): ... It is adjacent to stromal cells that secrete ligands, such as stem cell factor (SCF). ...
Functional interaction of erythropoietin and stem cell factor receptors is essential for erythroid colony formation | PNAS
stem cell factor;. IL-3,. interleukin 3;. GM-CSF,. granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor;. wt,. wild type. ... After infection, cells were plated in triplicate in α-methylcellulose (Stem Cell Technologies) without growth factor (−), or ... Functional interaction of erythropoietin and stem cell factor receptors is essential for erythroid colony formation. Hong Wu, ... Previous studies suggested that stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 3 (IL-3), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating ...
Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment | PNAS
Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment. Marcela ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment ... Nodal protein processing and fibroblast growth factor 4 synergize to maintain a trophoblast stem cell microenvironment ...
JCI - Stem cell factor restores hepatocyte proliferation in IL-6 knockout mice following 70% hepatectomy
Stem cell factor (SCF) is a molecule with known proliferative effects on hematopoietic cells. More recent studies suggest that ... Stem cell factor restores hepatocyte proliferation in IL-6 knockout mice following 70% hepatectomy. ... Stem cell factor restores hepatocyte proliferation in IL-6 knockout mice following 70% hepatectomy. ... this molecule may also have effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation in other types of cells. The current ...
Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. - PubMed - NCBI
Cell. 2007 Nov 30;131(5):861-72. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Human iPS cells were similar to human embryonic stem (ES) cells ... Cell. 2007 Nov 30;131(5):861-72.. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors.. ... Induction of pluripotency: from mouse to human. [Cell. 2007]. *Induced pluripotent cells mimicking human embryonic stem cells. ... and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline ...
Stem cell and growth factor delivery vehicles for cartilage repair. | ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? -?????? OZON...
OZON ??? ?????? ??????? Stem cell and growth factor delivery vehicles for cartilage repair ????????? LAP Lambert Academic ... Co-delivery of embedded growth factor-loaded microspheres and adult stem cells in a hydrogel matrix was studied for its ... Co-delivery of growth factor-loaded microspheres and human adipose stem cells in a gel matrix for cartilage repair ... in situ gel that was embedded with two formulations of growth factor-loaded microspheres and human adipose-derived stem cells ( ...
Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Promotes Neural Stem Cell Self-Renewal in the Adult Brain | Journal of Neuroscience
2006) Embryonic stem cells assume a primitive neural stem cell fate in the absence of extrinsic influences. J Cell Biol 172:79- ... 2004) Primitive neural stem cells from the mammalian epiblast differentiate to definitive neural stem cells under the control ... Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Promotes Neural Stem Cell Self-Renewal in the Adult Brain. Sylvian Bauer and Paul H. Patterson ... 2003) Gene expression in human neural stem cells: effects of leukemia inhibitory factor. J Neurochem 86:179-195. ...
Flow cytometric detection of growth factor receptors in autografts and analysis of growth factor concentrations in autologous...
... during and after stem cell transplantation. Three early acting (stem cell factor (SCF), Flt3 ligand (Flt3) and fetal antigen 1 ... On the other hand, none of the analyzed factors significantly predicted myeloid or erythroid recovery. These findings need to ... Three factors were identified as having a significant impact on platelet recovery. First, the level of Tpo in blood at the time ... CD34+ progenitor cells were measured by flow cytometry in the leukapheresis product used for transplantation in a subgroup of ...
PLOS ONE: Embryonic Stem Cell Growth Factors Regulate eIF2α Phosphorylation
... but less is known about translational control in stem cells. Here, we use embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to investigate a ... We show that the growth factors LIF (leukemia inhibitory factor) and BMP4 (bone morphogenic protein 4) both maintain P-eIF2α in ... The mRNAs encoding the pluripotency factors Nanog and c-Myc possess uORFs while Oct4 mRNA does not. We find that salubrinal, a ... These experiments connect ESC growth factors to eIF2α phosphorylation and suggest a chemical substitute for LIF to enhance ...
Growth Factors, Matrices, and Forces Combine and Control Stem Cells | Science
Stem cell niche and designs. (A) Soluble and matrix-bound factors combine with cell-cell contact, cell-matrix adhesion, and ... Growth factors added to culture or secreted by stem cells and nearby niche cells are often potent in their effects on cell fate ... Although growth factor regulation by matrix and cell force has yet to be reported for stem cells, developmentally critical cell ... In vivo, when stem cells egress from their niche into the circulation (24) or when stem cells are injected intravenously as ...
Factors regulating quiescent stem cells: insights from the intestine and other self-renewing tissues. - PubMed - NCBI
Factors regulating quiescent stem cells: insights from the intestine and other self-renewing tissues.. Richmond CA1, Shah MS1, ... Factors regulating quiescent stem cells: insights from the intestine and other self‐renewing tissues ... Long-lived and self-renewing adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for homeostasis in a wide range of tissues and can include ... The regulatory mechanisms underlying the quiescent state include factors essential for cell cycle control, stress response and ...
Complement C3a signaling mediates production of angiogenic factors in mesenchymal stem cells
... is due to the production of trophic and angiogenic factors by these cells, and one of the efforts to improve the therapeutic ... The signaling cascade responsible for the production of angiogenic factors by C3a or C5a could be defined as activation of the ... C3a caused significant up-regulation of various angiogenic factors, including VEGF, CXCL8/IL-8 and IL-6. In contrast there was ... Although C5a also caused moderate up-regulation of angiogenic factors, the effect was borderline significant. Furthermore the ...
Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors
... cells. Little is known about factors that induce this reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate induction of pluripotent stem cells ... Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state by transfer of nuclear contents into oocytes or by fusion ... Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors Cell. 2006 Aug 25;126 ... These cells, which we designated iPS (induced pluripotent stem) cells, exhibit the morphology and growth properties of ES cells ...
KIT - Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor - Callithrix jacchus (White-tufted-ear marmoset) - KIT gene & protein
Mast/stem cell growth factor recept.... Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kit, SCFR, EC 188.8.131.52 (Proto-oncogene c-Kit) ( ... Mast/stem cell growth factor receptorUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... Mast/stem cell growth factor receptorUniRule annotation. Automatic assertion according to rulesi ... tr,F6YAJ6,F6YAJ6_CALJA Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor OS=Callithrix jacchus OX=9483 GN=KIT PE=3 SV=2 ...
TET2 deficiency leads to stem cell factor-dependent clonal expansion of dysfunctional erythroid progenitors | Blood Journal
TET2 deficiency leads to stem cell factor-dependent clonal expansion of dysfunctional erythroid progenitors. Xiaoli Qu, Shijie ... TET2 deficiency leads to stem cell factor-dependent clonal expansion of dysfunctional erythroid progenitors. Blood, 132(22), ... Here, we show that TET2 deficiency leads initially to stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent hyperproliferation and impaired ... Tet2 loss leads to increased hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and myeloid transformation. Cancer Cell. 2011;20(1):11-24. ...
Functional expression cloning of Nanog, a pluripotency sustaining factor in embryonic stem cells
A unique network of transcription factors may characterize self-renewal and simultaneously suppress differentiation. We applied ... cells undergo extended proliferation while remaining poised for multilineage differentiation. ... expression cloning in mouse ES cells to isolate a self-ren … ... a pluripotency sustaining factor in embryonic stem cells Cell. ... and absent from differentiated cells. In preimplantation embryos, Nanog is restricted to founder cells from which ES cells can ...
Mammalian Transcription Factor Networks: Recent Advances in Interrogating Biological Complexity. | California's Stem Cell Agency
Californias Stem Cell Agency California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. * For Researchers * Funding Opportunities * All ... Transcription factor (TF) networks are a key determinant of cell fate decisions in mammalian development and adult tissue ... Recent technological advances, in particular large-scale genome-wide approaches, single-cell methodologies, live-cell imaging, ... Recent technological advances, in particular large-scale genome-wide approaches, single-cell methodologies, live-cell imaging, ...
Cultivating liver cells on printed arrays of hepatocyte growth factor. | California's Stem Cell Agency
Californias Stem Cell Agency California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. * For Researchers * Funding Opportunities * All ... Cultivating liver cells on printed arrays of hepatocyte growth factor.. Cultivating liver cells on printed arrays of hepatocyte ... Growth factors are commonly present in soluble form during in vitro cell cultivation experiments in order to provide signals ... An in vitro and in vivo comparison among three different human hepatic stem cell populations. ...
Age is a Major Factor in Stem Cell Transplant Success | Cryo-Cell
Cord blood is the youngest stem cells available for harvest. ... could be associated reliably with patient survival in stem cell ... Studies show younger donor age to be the only secondary factor that ... Stem cells from cord blood are among the youngest retrievable adult stem cells. Cord blood stem cells have not been exposed to ... Several factors are believed to inhibit the proper functioning of stem cells as the donor ages, making the young stem cells in ...
Abstract 18703: Novel MicroRNA 874 is a Unique Angiogenic Modulator of Stem Cell Paracrine Factor Epidermacan | Circulation
Abstract 18703: Novel MicroRNA 874 is a Unique Angiogenic Modulator of Stem Cell Paracrine Factor Epidermacan. Ying Zhang, ... Introduction: We have previously shown that treatment with epidermacan a novel stem cell derived paracrine factor promoted ... Abstract 18703: Novel MicroRNA 874 is a Unique Angiogenic Modulator of Stem Cell Paracrine Factor Epidermacan ... Abstract 18703: Novel MicroRNA 874 is a Unique Angiogenic Modulator of Stem Cell Paracrine Factor Epidermacan ...
Growth factor in stem cells may spur recove... ( A substance in human mesenchymal ste...)
... factor,in,stem,cells,may,spur,recovery,from,MS,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current ... In animals injected with hepatocyte growth factor inflammation declin... The importance of this work is we think weve ... A substance in human mesenchymal stem cells that promotes growth appea...Their study is embargoed until published in the online ... Growth factor in stem cells may spur recovery from MS. ...A substance in human mesenchymal stem cells that promotes growth ...
Proteolytic enzyme levels are increased during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced hematopoietic stem cell...
... factor-induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in human donors but do not predict the number of mobilized stem cells. In: ... factor-induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in human donors but do not predict the number of mobilized stem cells. Van ... factor-induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in human donors but do not predict the number of mobilized stem cells. / ... factor-induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in human donors but do not predict the number of mobilized stem cells. ...
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Directly Inhibits Primitive Neural Stem Cell Survival But Promotes Definitive Neural Stem...
Flk1−/− primitive neural stem cells show less cell death than control Flk1+/+ primitive neural stem cells. To test whether the ... Embryonic stem cells assume a primitive neural stem cell fate in the absence of extrinsic influences. J Cell Biol 172:79-90. ... Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Directly Inhibits Primitive Neural Stem Cell Survival But Promotes Definitive Neural Stem ... Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Directly Inhibits Primitive Neural Stem Cell Survival But Promotes Definitive Neural Stem ...
Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Megakaryocytes by Transcription Factor-Driven Forward Programming |...
The differentiation of megakaryocytes from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro offers intriguing new perspectives for ... lessons for stem cell derivation and differentiation. Cell Stem Cell 20(1):18-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2016.12.004 ... Cell Stem Cell 9(2):144-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2011.06.015 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... Human pluripotent stem cells Megakaryocytes Transcription factors Forward programming Transfusion medicine Electronic ...
Stromal cell-derived factor-1α promotes recruitment and differentiation of nucleus pulposus-derived stem cells
... World J Stem ... Stromal cell-derived factor-1α promotes recruitment and differentiation of nucleus pulposus-derived stem cells. World J Stem ... Figure 3 Migration capacity of nucleus pulposus-derived stem cells treated with stromal cell-derived factor-1α in vitro. A and ... the potential of stromal cell-derived factor 1 and its receptors to promote stem cell functions in spinal cord repair. Stem ...
DifferentiationTransplantationProliferationLigandMyeloidVitroHematopoiesisBiologyTyrosine kinaseGrowthMiceStimulationDifferentiationHematopoietic stemAbstractTransplantationDifferentiateVivoMultipotentBiologyPluripotencyGenesTherapeuticRegenerative medicineMouse embryonic stemSomaticGeneTissueFetalSolubleFibroblast growthReceptorSurvivalChemotherapyLineagesReceptorsMechanismsBone marrow-derived mesenchymal stemHSCsRegulationMicroenvironmentColony-forming unit eEverything that embryonic stemPathwaysProteinEngraftmentAdult stemMSCsEndothelialCellularPERIPHERAL-BLOODFibroblastsGranulocyteEmbryos
- We were able to demonstrate that human testicular tissue is responsive to EGF & SCF which act as specific autocrine-paracrine mediators in the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of germ cells. (global-summit.com)
- The study indicates that EGF via interactions with EGFR on the Sertoil cells regulates germ cell differentiation by altering local paracrine networks and production of factors such as SCF which further stimulates spermatogonial proliferation and differentiation in the basal compartment. (global-summit.com)
- Receptor tyrosine kinases and cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases play a critical role in the control of many cellular processes including: cell proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, as well as cell survival and cell migration. (yale.edu)
- Development of an ideal culture system in which human testicular germ cells can proliferate and differentiate will be a remarkable achievement in the field of reproductive biology as such a system will not only facilitate better understanding of control and regulation of human spermatogenesis but also provide a source of germ cells for therapeutic use (transplantation/ART) in patients with gonadal insufficiency. (global-summit.com)
- Antibody Ab-1 eliminated synergistic proliferation of EML cells and synergistic phosphorylation of mediators of c-kit signaling induced in EML cells by SCF combined with IL-3. (nih.gov)
- SCF enhances the proliferation of hemopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells as well as mast cell in combination with other growth factors. (elsevier.com)
- Furthermore, it plays an important role in the proliferation and migration of embryonic stem cell, primordial germ cell and melanocyte. (elsevier.com)
- Plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, hematopoiesis, stem cell maintenance, gametogenesis, mast cell development, migration and function, and in melanogenesis. (genecards.org)
- Stem cell factor (SCF, also called Steel factor or Kit ligand) is a growth factor that exists both as a membrane-bound and soluble form. (sinobiological.com)
- The W locus in murine chromosome 5 encodes the c-kit proto-oncogene and the Sl locus in chromosome 10 encodes the ligand for c-kit, which has been named stem cell factor (SCF), mast cell growth factor (MGF), kit ligand (KL) and steel factor (SL). (elsevier.com)
- This ligand is a pleiotropic factor that acts in utero in germ cell and neural cell development, and hematopoiesis, all believed to reflect a role in cell migration. (genecards.org)
- CD117 est un récepteur à activité tyrosine kinase de type III qui lie le Stem Cell Factor (un facteur de croissance des cellules souches , appartenant à la famille des cytokines ), aussi connu en anglais sous le nom de « steel factor » ou de « c-kit ligand » . (wikipedia.org)
- Erythroid myeloid lymphoid (EML) cells are an established multipotent hematopoietic precursor cell line that can be maintained in medium including stem cell factor (SCF). (nih.gov)
- Spécifiquement, les cellules souches hématopoïétiques ( hematopoietic stem cells , HSC), les cellules souches multipotentes ( multipotent progenitors , MPP), et les précurseurs de la lignée myéloïde CFU-GEMM ( common myeloid progenitors , CMP) expriment CD117 à de hauts niveaux. (wikipedia.org)
- In vitro treatment with EGF and SCF elicited cell specific responses, with EGF displaying a stimulatory effect on the expression of meiotic and post meiotic transcripts (boule, scp3, th2b, tp1) and SCF on pre and post meiotic transcripts (ß integrin, c-kit, th2b, tp1). (global-summit.com)
- This study demonstrates the tight coordination existing between Sertoli and germ cells in regulating the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium via action of paracrine factors such as EGF and SCF within the human testis and may provide insights for designing in vitro systems for germ cell maturation. (global-summit.com)
- Studies in white spotting and steel mice have shown that functional SCF and c-Kit are critical in the survival and development of stem cells involved in hematopoiesis, pigmentation and reproduction. (sinobiological.com)
- Although SCF may not be essential for the generation of hematopoiesis stem cells, numerous studies have shown that it prevents hematopoiesis stem cell apoptosis. (sinobiological.com)
- Almost all cytokine combinations used to date for culturing hematopoiesis stem cells include SCF. (sinobiological.com)
- The membrane-bound form of SCF is also an adhesive molecule for hematopoiesis stem cells to the bone marrow environment, and an increased number of osteoclasts was associated with hematopoiesis stem cell mobilization. (sinobiological.com)
- this decreases the abundance of SCF and, therefore, increases hematopoiesis stem cell mobilization. (sinobiological.com)
- The involvement of SCF in survival, mobility, and possibly self-renewal of HSCs in culture and in the hematopoiesis stem cell niche likely reflects the complex relationship of different cell fates of hematopoiesis stem cells. (sinobiological.com)
- In the present study, we successfully developed & characterized an organotypic culture system to study local paracrine/ autocrine action of growth factors on spermatogenesis. (global-summit.com)
- Our laboratory is exploring the mode of action of growth factor receptors and the intracellular signaling pathways that are activated in response to growth factor stimulation. (yale.edu)
- We have determined the crystal structure of Stem cell factor (SCF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF), two ligands of receptor tyrosine kinases. (yale.edu)
- Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR), aussi connue sous les noms de proto-oncogene c-Kit , tyrosine-protein kinase Kit ou CD117, est une protéine , codée chez les Humains par le gène KIT [ 1 ] situé sur le chromosome 4 humain . (wikipedia.org)
- In the current study, Mount Sinai researchers found that the protein called "zinc finger protein 217" (ZFP217) regulates the actions of genes that maintain a balance between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Cytokine regulation of prethymic T-lymphoid progenitor-cell proliferation and/or differentiation has not been well-defined, although much is known of cytokine regulation of hemopoietic stem- and progenitor-cell development. (hindawi.com)
- Five redundant PLETHORA AP2-domain transcription factors play a major role in specifying the stem cell niche, and in controlling the rate of differentiation in the meristem. (wur.nl)
- 2) how the many target genes of these transcription factors orchestrate division and differentiation. (wur.nl)
- TAC cells then embark on differentiation programs to generate the spinous, granular, and cornified layers in the IFE or the different lineages of mature HFs ( 12 - 14 ). (pnas.org)
- However, only Epo-R F7Y479 is capable of supporting erythroid colony formation when expressed in Epo-R −/− fetal liver cells, indicating that Y464 either cannot send a differentiation signal or fails to respond to SCF/KIT activation. (pnas.org)
- Hematopoietic progenitors require multiple growth factors for their optimal development and terminal differentiation. (pnas.org)
- These cells have two unique properties: They can self-renew and, through a process called differentiation, they can form any type of blood cell. (eurekalert.org)
- They found that deleting Grb10 strongly promotes hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. (eurekalert.org)
- SCF is a growth factor important for the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells and other hematopoietic progenitor cells. (prospecbio.com)
- More recent studies suggest that this molecule may also have effects on cellular differentiation and proliferation in other types of cells. (jci.org)
- Reporting in the October issue of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, researchers at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn., think they might have found a low-cost, highly-effective way to detect and then purge at-risk cells during an early stage in the differentiation process. (prweb.com)
- The undoing of differentiation by four defined factors: A big step forward towards generating patient specific pluripotent stem cells. (nih.gov)
- The polymeric microspheres were used as a delivery vehicle for the controlled release of growth factors to stimulate differentiation of the ASC towards the chondrocyte lineage. (ozon.ru)
- Hematopoietic reconstitution after myeloablative chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation depends upon the quality and quantity of the re-infused stem cells, the microenvironment in the bone marrow, and the different growth factors affecting homing, proliferation and differentiation of the 'new' stem cells in a sequential manner. (nature.com)
- 1 Stem cell factor (SCF) and Flt3 ligand (Flt3) have been shown to be of major importance for the proliferation and differentiation of early stem cells, and for the expansion of the progenitor cell compartment, acting in synergy with later acting growth factors. (nature.com)
- 2 Like SCF, Flt3 stimulates proliferation and differentiation of stem and progenitor cells in synergy with other growth factors. (nature.com)
- Control over stem cell trafficking, survival, proliferation, and differentiation within a complex in vivo milieu is extremely challenging. (sciencemag.org)
- The niche is the in vivo microenvironment that regulates stem cell survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. (sciencemag.org)
- Here, we show that TET2 deficiency leads initially to stem cell factor (SCF)-dependent hyperproliferation and impaired differentiation of human colony-forming unit-erythroid (CFU-E) cells, which were reversed by a c-Kit inhibitor. (bloodjournal.org)
- In contrast to normal CFU-E cells that require only erythropoietin (EPO) for proliferation, these abnormal progenitors required SCF and EPO and exhibited impaired differentiation. (bloodjournal.org)
- Embryonic stem (ES) cells undergo extended proliferation while remaining poised for multilineage differentiation. (nih.gov)
- A unique network of transcription factors may characterize self-renewal and simultaneously suppress differentiation. (nih.gov)
- Growth factors are commonly present in soluble form during in vitro cell cultivation experiments in order to provide signals for cellular proliferation or differentiation. (ca.gov)
- In the future, the number of growth factors printed on ECM microarrays will be expanded to enable multiplexed and combinatorial screening of inducers of cellular differentiation or proliferation. (ca.gov)
- Using a battery of approaches, including single cell-RNAseq (scRNAseq) analysis, we show that Rhox10 drives SSC generation by promoting Pro-spermatogonia differentiation. (fluidigm.com)
- Direct differentiation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in the absence of gene manipulation is the most desired alternative to clinical treatment of Parkinson disease. (springer.com)
- Protein transduction-based methods could be efficient, safe approaches to enhance direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to DA neurons. (springer.com)
- In the present study, we compared the differentiation efficiency of DA neurons from hESCs with and without the application of LIM homeobox transcription factor 1 alpha (LMX1A), a master regulatory protein in the development of the midbrain neurons and SHH proteins. (springer.com)
- 2010). Foxa2 and Nurr1 synergistically yield A9 nigral dopamine neurons exhibiting improved differentiation, function, and cell survival. (springer.com)
- The differentiation of megakaryocytes from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro offers intriguing new perspectives for research and transfusion medicine. (springer.com)
- Rossant J, Tam PP (2017) New insights into early human development: lessons for stem cell derivation and differentiation. (springer.com)
- Embryonic stem (ES) cells fluctuate between self-renewal and the threshold of differentiation. (biologists.org)
- Signalling via the fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)/Erk pathway is required to progress from this dynamic state and promote mouse ES cell differentiation. (biologists.org)
- Retinoic acid also induces differentiation in many cellular contexts, but its mechanism of action in relation to Fgf/Erk signalling in ES cells is poorly understood. (biologists.org)
- Here, we show for the first time that endogenous retinoid signalling is required for the timely acquisition of somatic cell fate in mouse ES cells and that exposure to retinoic acid advances differentiation by a dual mechanism: first increasing, but in the long-term decreasing, Fgf signalling. (biologists.org)
- So, although blocking Fgf/Erk activity is known to promote ES cell self-renewal, once cells have experienced a period of such signals, subsequent inhibition of Fgf signalling has the opposite effect and drives differentiation. (biologists.org)
- We further show in the embryo that retinoid repression of Fgf signalling promotes neural differentiation onset in an analogous step in the extending embryonic body axis and so identify attenuation of Fgf signalling by retinoic acid as a conserved fundamental mechanism driving differentiation towards somatic cell fates. (biologists.org)
- Another signalling molecule, retinoic acid (RA), also promotes differentiation in a range of tissues and cell lines, as well as in ES cells. (biologists.org)
- In particular, neural fate is routinely elicited from ES cell aggregates (embryoid bodies) cultured in differentiation conditions for 4 days and then treated with RA (e.g. (biologists.org)
- Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) differentiated into RPE progeny have the potential to provide an unlimited supply of cells for transplantation, but challenges around scalability and efficiency of the differentiation process still remain. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In order to better define the function of GATA-4 in cardiogenesis, we have carried out molecular analysis of early stages of cardiomyocyte differentiation in GATA-4-deficient P19 cell lines and in P19 cells stably overexpressing GATA-4. (biologists.org)
- However, in the absence of GATA-4, differentiation is blocked at the precardiac (cardioblasts) stage and cells are lost through extensive apoptosis. (biologists.org)
- 1983 ) Induced muscle differentiation in an embryonal carcinoma cell line. (biologists.org)
- Canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem (BMMSC) express genes for differentiation toward osteo-, chondro-, and tendo-genic directions. (mcponline.org)
- Fibroblast growth factor induces a neural stem cell phenotype in foetal forebrain progenitors and during embryonic stem cell differentiation. (biomedsearch.com)
- Neural stem (NS) cell lines may be derived via differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells or from foetal forebrain. (biomedsearch.com)
- To validate the importance of anti-oxidant components in GSC maintenance and differentiation we developed GSC in vitro culture supported by co-culture of Sertoli cells. (grstiftung.ch)
- As intrinsic determinants, transcription factors provide an entry point for uncovering how stem cells attain their phenotype, and how lineage-specific differentiation is initiated. (stembook.org)
- Proliferation and differentiation of haemopoietic stem cells also occurs in vitro , either in association with stromal cells or in response to soluble growth factors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- This in turn, has facilitated studies at the mechanistic level regarding the role of such growth factors in self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells and their relevance in stromal-cell mediated haemopoiesis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Furthermore, lineage development reflects the stimuli to which the cells are exposed, that is, some stimuli promote differentiation and development of multipotential cells into multiple cell lineages, whereas others promote development of multipotential cells into only one cell lineage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- This suggests that discrete microenvironments, preferentially promoting self-renewal rather than differentiation of multipotential cells, may also be provided by marrow stromal cells and sequestered growth factors. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The reprogrammed cells retained normal karyotypes, suggesting that single-factor reprogramming is not only feasible, but also not harmful to cell differentiation capacity and phenotype. (harvard.edu)
- Many c-kit pos cells expressed the transcription factors, MEF-2C, Ets-1 and GATA6 indicative of myocyte, endothelial cell and smooth muscle differentiation, respectively. (ahajournals.org)
- The niche protects stem cells from differentiation signals, apoptotic stimuli and excessive proliferation which can result in cancer . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Although influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, the genetic mechanisms coordinating the decision between self‐renewal and initiation of differentiation remain poorly understood. (embopress.org)
- Loss of esg induced ISC differentiation, a decline in Notch activity in daughter enteroblasts ( EB ), and an increase in differentiated enteroendocrine ( EE ) cells. (embopress.org)
- Thus, our findings provide a framework for further comparative studies addressing the conserved roles of Snail factors in coordinating self‐renewal and differentiation of stem cells across tissues and species. (embopress.org)
- These authors uncover a dual role of Escargot (Esg) in Drosophila intestinal stem cell homeostasis: While regulating stem cell maintenance, Esg also controls Notch‐dependent enteroblast differentiation via its direct target gene Amun . (embopress.org)
- Paralleling efforts to guide pluripotent stem cell differentiation by manipulating developmental cues, substantial progress has been made recently toward HSC generation via combinatorial transcription factor (TF)‐mediated fate conversion, a paradigm established by Yamanaka's induction of pluripotency in somatic cells by mere four TFs. (embopress.org)
- From embryogenesis initiated by a single totipotent zygote to the lifelong homeostasis of organ parenchyma by tissue‐specific stem cells, physiological differentiation of progenitor cells largely proceeds both unidirectionally and irreversibly, with differentiated cell types and even intermediate progenitors being remarkably fixed with respect to their cellular identity and functional potential. (embopress.org)
- The ability to prospectively isolate hematopoietic stem, progenitor, and effector cells with defined lineage potentials has allowed dissection of molecular mechanisms underlying blood differentiation as well as identification of characteristic TFs governing diverse hematopoietic lineages (Orkin, 1995 ). (embopress.org)
- However, how DNA methylation affects developmental gene expression and cell differentiation remains elusive. (prolekare.cz)
- Here, we report that DNA methylation modulates transcription-factor output in the context of cell differentiation. (prolekare.cz)
- Using a drug-inducible Gata4 system and a mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell model of mesoderm differentiation, we examined the cellular response to Gata4 in ES and mesoderm cells. (prolekare.cz)
- The activation of Gata4 in ES cells is known to drive their differentiation to endoderm. (prolekare.cz)
- We show that the differentiation of wild-type ES cells into mesoderm blocks their Gata4-induced endoderm differentiation, while mesoderm cells derived from ES cells that are deficient in the DNA methyltransferases Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b can retain their response to Gata4, allowing lineage conversion from mesoderm cells to endoderm. (prolekare.cz)
- Our data indicate that epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation functions as a heritable safeguard to prevent transcription factors from activating inappropriate downstream genes, thereby contributing to the restriction of the differentiation potential of somatic cells. (prolekare.cz)
- The aim of this project is to develop and demonstrate that a novel dual luciferase reporter technology can be employed to minimise the number of animals used in research on stem cell engraftment and differentiation. (nc3rs.org.uk)
- iPSc-TFAR will be developed that are responsive to NFkB (inflammation), NRF2 (reactive oxygen), HIF (hypoxia), STAT3 (potency), FOXO (metabolism) and NFAT (Ca2+ signaling) transcription factors, all of which we hypothesise are involved in neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation and Gaucher's disease (GD) pathology. (nc3rs.org.uk)
- The other daughters of HSCs (myeloid and lymphoid progenitor cells) can follow any of the other differentiation pathways that lead to the production of one or more specific types of blood cell, but cannot renew themselves. (wikipedia.org)
- As a stem cell matures it undergoes changes in gene expression that limit the cell types that it can become and moves it closer to a specific cell type (cellular differentiation). (wikipedia.org)
- For the stem cells and other undifferentiated blood cells in the bone marrow, the determination is generally explained by the determinism theory of haematopoiesis, saying that colony stimulating factors and other factors of the haematopoietic microenvironment determine the cells to follow a certain path of cell differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- This theory has been supported by experiments showing that within a population of mouse haematopoietic progenitor cells, underlying stochastic variability in the distribution of Sca-1, a stem cell factor, subdivides the population into groups exhibiting variable rates of cellular differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, under the influence of erythropoietin (an erythrocyte-differentiation factor), a subpopulation of cells (as defined by the levels of Sca-1) differentiated into erythrocytes at a sevenfold higher rate than the rest of the population. (wikipedia.org)
- However, our studies demonstrate that the epidermal growth promotes hematopoietic stem cell growth and regeneration after injury. (redorbit.com)
- More recently, shRNA-mediated partial depletion of E4F1 was shown to rescue hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) exhaustion in mouse resulting from inactivation of the polycomb member Bmi1 ( 5 ), suggesting an important role for E4F1 in HSC homeostasis. (pnas.org)
- Figure 2: A diagram of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) inside its niche. (wikidoc.org)
- DKK1 is produced by a gene expressed by a specific "bone progenitor" cell that is present in the "niche," or cellular environment, that surrounds the hematopoietic stem cell. (eurekalert.org)
- Our hypothesis was that the bone progenitor cell in the niche may promote hematopoietic stem cell regeneration after injury. (eurekalert.org)
- Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis. (bloodjournal.org)
- Studies show that in unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantations, HLA-mismatching can lower the overall survival rate. (cryo-cell.com)
- Recombinant activated factor VII in treatment of bleeding complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The incidence of postengraftment invasive aspergillosis (IA) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients increased during the 1990s. (bloodjournal.org)
- 1 Recently, several groups have reported a large second risk period corresponding with the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. (bloodjournal.org)
- 1 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant and Cell Therapy Program, National Institute of Pediatrics (INP), Mexico City, México . (scirp.org)
- 2 Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantand Cell TherapyProgram, Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gomez, Instituto Nacional de Salud, México City, México . (scirp.org)
- Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the most frequent and severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (scirp.org)
- A retrospective cohort study based on data collected from the Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (INP) from January 1998 to December 2016 was performed to identify if prior infection was a predictive risk factor for aGVHD. (scirp.org)
- This is a retrospective cohort study based on data collected from the allogenic transplant performed at the Department of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría (INP) registered in a database, from January 1998 to December 2016. (scirp.org)
- Since long-term response to chemotherapy in these leukemias is relatively good, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered in patients who relapse and achieve second complete remission. (haematologica.org)
- 7 , 8 Given the relatively favorable results of chemotherapy, patients with CBF leukemia are not usually candidates for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first CR (CR1). (haematologica.org)
- Protecting these cells or improving their regeneration after injury could benefit patients who are undergoing bone marrow transplantation, plus others who suffer radiation injury from accidental environmental exposures such as the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011. (redorbit.com)
- Researchers believe that umbilical cord blood could serve as a universal source of stem cells for all patients who need a stem cell transplant, but the numbers of stem cells in cord blood units are limited, so there is a clinical need to develop a method to expand cord blood stem cells for transplantation purposes. (innovations-report.com)
- The strategy outlined in this manuscript shows promise for avoiding the risk of uncontrolled cell growth upon transplantation. (prweb.com)
- In order to improve prediction of hematopoietic recovery, we conducted a pilot study, analyzing the significance of growth factor receptor expression in autografts as well as endogenous growth factor levels in blood before, during and after stem cell transplantation. (nature.com)
- The relative number of SCF, Flt3, Tpo and G-CSF receptor positive, CD34 + progenitor cells were measured by flow cytometry in the leukapheresis product used for transplantation in a subgroup of 15 patients (NHL, n = 8, MM, n = 7). (nature.com)
- Subcutaneous transplantation of iPS cells into nude mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues from all three germ layers. (nih.gov)
- The key to a high survival rate in any stem cell transplantation is the degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matching found between the donor's and the recipient's cells. (cryo-cell.com)
- In the most recent study, published in Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation in February 2018, researchers analyzed 10,462 fully HLA-matched transplants from more than 450 transplant centers for the association of donor factors and transplant complications. (cryo-cell.com)
- The aim of this trial is to evaluate the efficacy of placebo and activated recombinant human factor VII in patients having undergone allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In animal models, it was shown that autological stem cells transplantation significantly increased perfusion of ischemic area and improved lost motor and sensor functions. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was used in some clinical trials without following autological transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Therapeutic approaches include transplantation of neural stem cells that have been expanded in an undifferentiated state ex vivo , and manipulation of endogenous NSPCs that are resident within the post-natal brain. (wiley.com)
- We identified risk factors associated with IA early after transplantation (≤ 40 days) and after engraftment (41-180 days). (bloodjournal.org)
- Use of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched related (MR) peripheral blood stem cells conferred protection against early IA compared with use of MR bone marrow, but use of cord blood increased the risk of IA early after transplantation. (bloodjournal.org)
- 2 3 In the cohort of patients who developed IA at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) between 1987 and 1993, risk factors identified in multivariable models included transplantation at an older age, having an underlying disease other than chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in chronic phase, exposure to construction, transplantation during the summer, prolonged neutropenia, and administration of corticosteroids for treatment of GVHD. (bloodjournal.org)
- This can have a potential impact on manufacturing transplantation-ready cells at large scale and is advantageous for clinical studies using this approach in the future. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The donation of stem cells from one person to another is called allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (mskcc.org)
- Patients must have acute or chronic leukemia, Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), or myelofibrosis and be candidates for stem cell transplantation. (mskcc.org)
- The study appears as an early e-publication for the journal Cell Transplantation . (medicalxpress.com)
- They further reported that transplantation of the iPS cells under the skin of mice resulted in tumors containing a variety of tissues representing the three primary types found in mammalian embryos. (bio-medicine.org)
- These cells are potent tools for drug development and modeling of disease, and they also hold potential to transform transplantation medicine by creating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells for cell-replacement therapies. (uab.edu)
- His laboratory was the first to develop isolation and growth techniques for precursor cells of the CNS, and the first to carry out repair of CNS injury through transplantation of purified and ex vivo expanded precursor cells. (autismone.org)
- The effects of LNC transplantation for alkali burn limbal stem cell defect model were tested using bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) as control. (arvojournals.org)
- Flow cytometry analyses revealed two distinct subpopulations of CD34(-)KSL cells based on the expression of GRP78, and these populations showed different reconstitution potential in transplantation assays. (lu.se)
- Stem cells multiply (proliferate) and mature (differentiate) in the womb to become muscle, bone, nerves, etc. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- These proteins are expressed in a gradient with maximal expression in the stem cells, and the levels of PLT activity determine whether cells remain in the stem cell state or differentiate. (wur.nl)
- Typically, bone progenitor cells regenerate bone, but scientists had previously hypothesized that these cells also play an important role in regulating hematopoietic stem cells' ability to self-renew and differentiate into other blood cells. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers showed that adding DKK1 to hematopoietic stem cells in lab dishes and mice that had received radiation produced a cascade effect within the cell niche that greatly enhanced hematopoietic stem cells' ability to self-renew and differentiate into other blood cells. (eurekalert.org)
- The results showed that not only did the contaminated cells die off, "At the same time, it didn't affect the remaining healthy cells' capability to differentiate nor did it have any negative consequence on their genomic stability," Nelson says. (prweb.com)
- Both types of NSCs have similar potential to produce secondary and tertiary clonal colonies (neurospheres), and their clonal progeny can differentiate into neurons and glial cells. (jneurosci.org)
- Embryonic stem (ES) cells are attracting renewed attention because their capacity to differentiate into cellular derivatives of all three primary germ layers suggests that they could be a source of cells for therapeutic alleviation of disease. (springer.com)
- Stem cells are biologically and clinically important cells characterized by their ability to self-renew or differentiate into many cell types. (stembook.org)
- As these remarkable cells are characterized by their ability to self-renew as well as differentiate into functional cell types, they respond to external stimuli and intracellular perturbations that are observable and detectable. (stembook.org)
- The epigenetic signatures of most cell types become fixed once the cells differentiate or exit the cell cycle. (aacrjournals.org)
- Like hESCs, HiPSCs have the ability to differentiate into any type of specialized cell. (uab.edu)
- Thus, they can differentiate into any of the 200-plus different types of human cells. (uab.edu)
- Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are also multipotent stem cells that can differentiate not only into osteoblastic and chondroblastic cell lineages, but also into adipocytes, tendon and muscle ( 3 , 5 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- 1) demonstrated in Feburary of this year that exogenous Oct4 expression was sufficient to reprogram adult mouse neural stem cells into iPSCs with capacity to differentiate into cells of endodermal, ectodermal, and mesodermal lineage. (harvard.edu)
- In stochastic theory, undifferentiated blood cells differentiate to specific cell types by randomness. (wikipedia.org)
- Here we use a recently identified hemopoietic growth factor, stem-cell factor (SCF) (a form of the c- kit ligand), and a transplant model of thymocyte regeneration to assess the effect of SCF on the in vivo generation of prethymic, thymocyte progenitor-cell activity. (hindawi.com)
- These data demonstrate that administration of SCF in vivo affects extrathymic-origin thymocyte regenerating cells and may influence, directly or indirectly, early prethymic stages of T-cell lymphopoiesis in addition to its known effect on early stages of myelopoiesis and erythropoiesis. (hindawi.com)
- E4F1 depletion alters clonogenic activity of epidermal stem cells (ESCs) ex vivo and ends in exhaustion of the ESC pool in vivo, indicating that the lesions observed in the E4F1 mutant skin result, at least in part, from cell-autonomous alterations in ESC maintenance. (pnas.org)
- Multifaceted technologies are increasingly required to produce and interrogate cells ex vivo, to build predictive models, and, ultimately, to enhance stem cell integration in vivo for therapeutic benefit. (sciencemag.org)
- The interplay of these niche factors is particularly important to comprehend if any desired stem cell response is to be made robust for therapy, i.e., resistant to the many types of perturbations encountered by cells delivered in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
- 2008) Ex vivo glycan engineering of CD44 programs human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell trafficking to bone. (scirp.org)
- Turning brain into blood: a hematopoietic fate adopted by adult neural stem cells in vivo. (springer.com)
- The rat c-kit ligand, stem cell factor, induces c-kit receptor-dependent mouse mast cell activation in vivo. (rupress.org)
- We now report that administration of SCF intradermally in vivo results in dermal mast cell activation and a mast cell-dependent acute inflammatory response. (rupress.org)
- DPSCs are multipotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into odontoblasts, osteoblasts, adipocytes and neural cells in vivo ( 3 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Haemopoietic stem cells in vivo proliferate and develop in association with stromal cells of the bone marrow. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- In vivo , neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in tightly regulated microenvironments known as the stem cell niche. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The in vivo data indicated that hnRNP A2B1 was required for tumorigenesis by affecting the splicing of TPPP3 , DOCK2 , EIF3H , RNF128 , DAPK1 , and SYT7 , thus suppressing apoptosis of melanoma stem cells. (springer.com)
- Our results suggested that compared to be injected alone, ESCs co-injected with cancer cells could inhibit cancer cell growth more efficiently in vivo, with more CD8+ lymphocytes generated in both peripheral circulation and spleen, and with higher serum anticancer cytokine level (interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ). (medsci.org)
- We conclude that the boosted antitumor effects induced by ESCs and cancer cells co-injection may be both the effects of antitumor factors secreted by ESCs and immune responses induced by ESCs in vivo. (medsci.org)
- Tracking stem cell fate in vivo has become a focus in multiple fields, including regenerative medicine where stem cells can be employed to repopulate or repair damaged tissues. (nc3rs.org.uk)
- Current approaches to study cell fate in vivo often require large cohorts of animals to be killed at multiple time points followed by histological and molecular analysis of excised tissue. (nc3rs.org.uk)
- Erythroid myeloid lymphoid (EML) cells are an established multipotent hematopoietic precursor cell line that can be maintained in medium including stem cell factor (SCF). (nih.gov)
- Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are multipotent cells within the embryonic and adult brain that give rise to both neuronal and glial cell lineages. (wiley.com)
- Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) are multipotent cells with self-renewing capabilities. (wiley.com)
- Neural stem cells (NSCs) can be defined as self-renewing, multipotent cells that are present in both the embryonic and adult brain. (frontiersin.org)
- These include lineage-committed multipotent stem or progenitor cells such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), neural progenitor cells (NPCs), epithelial stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells. (stembook.org)
- PDGF-BB, as a safe and multipotent growth factor, has been widely used in periodontal tissue regeneration and showed reliable clinical effects. (healthcanal.com)
- The expansion of adipose mass requires adipocyte precursor cells that originate from multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). (ahajournals.org)
- The hope is that ZPF217 could be used to maintain supplies of therapeutic stem cells," said lead study author Martin Walsh, PhD, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Structural and Chemical Biology, and Genetics and Genomic Sciences of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Epidermal growth factor was not known to stimulate hematopoiesis, which is the formation of blood components derived from hematopoietic stem cells," said senior author John Chute, M.D., a professor of medicine and professor of pharmacology and cancer biology at Duke University. (redorbit.com)
- However, while this method was able to diminish the number of tumors formed as well as significantly reduce their size, the technical burdens and cost of specialized reagents and equipment needed to do so remain a challenge for widespread clinical applications," says lead investigator Timothy J. Nelson, M.D., Ph.D. He directs the cell biology group within the clinic's Regenerative Strategies team. (prweb.com)
- About STEM CELLS Translational Medicine: STEM CELLS TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE (SCTM), published by AlphaMed Press, is a monthly peer-reviewed publication dedicated to significantly advancing the clinical utilization of stem cell molecular and cellular biology. (prweb.com)
- Recent technological advances, in particular large-scale genome-wide approaches, single-cell methodologies, live-cell imaging, and genome editing, are emerging as important technologies in unraveling TF network biology. (ca.gov)
- 3 Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Bangalore 560065, India. (sciencemag.org)
- We are grateful to the members of the Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Royan Institure, for their critical comments. (springer.com)
- The therapeutic significance of understanding neural stem cell biology is also underscored by a potential link with CNS cancer stem cells, which share many properties with normal adult neural stem cells (Germano et al . (wiley.com)
- We will discuss here stem cell biology, signaling factors that affect these cells, and the potential contribution of these processes to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. (frontiersin.org)
- Our hypothesis is that pleitrophin has the potential to promote blood stem cell growth in the manner that erythropoietin stimulates red blood cell precursors," said principal investigator John Chute, M.D. , professor of Medicine, Pharmacology & Cancer Biology. (healthcanal.com)
- Mark Noble, PhD is one of the founders of the field of stem cell biology in the central nervous system (CNS), and has led pioneering research efforts in this field for over 25 years. (autismone.org)
- While there is mounting evidence including ours suggesting a critical role of Nrf2 in HSC homeostasis and lymphohematopoietic malignancies, little is known about its role in T-cell biology. (cornell.edu)
- To make stem cells the basis for safe medical treatments, however, the field would need the ability to tightly control stem cell pluripotency, the ability to become many cell types, and self-renewal or immortality, the ability to keep dividing and multiplying over time in constant turnover. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Scholer and colleagues reasoned that neural cells would be a good candidate, since these cells already express high levels of three of the four standard pluripotency factors (Sox2, Klf4 and c-myc). (nature.com)
- The researchers used viruses to insert copies of the fourth pluripotency factor, Oct4, into the cells. (nature.com)
- This produced reprogrammed cells that passed all standard tests of pluripotency. (nature.com)
- Differentiating mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells first downregulate pluripotency genes and transit through a primitive ectoderm-like state before adopting somatic cell fates. (biologists.org)
- Those findings provided evidence that unfertilized eggs and embryonic stem cells contain factors that can confer pluripotency to differentiated cells, Yamanaka said. (bio-medicine.org)
- We hypothesized that the factors that play important roles in the maintenance of embryonic stem cell identity also play pivotal role s in the induction of pluripotency" in other body cells, he explained. (bio-medicine.org)
- The researchers found that four of those factors, known as Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4, could lend differentiated fibroblast cells taken from embryonic or adult mice the pluripotency normally reserved for embryonic stem cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- LIF (leukaemia inhibitory factor) is a key cytokine for maintaining self-renewal and pluripotency of mESCs (mouse embryonic stem cells). (biochemj.org)
- These genes, which are highly expressed in embryonic stem cells, induce pluripotency and "embryonic stem cell-like" characteristics in human and mouse cells when overexpressed. (harvard.edu)
- showed that ectopic expression of Oct4 is sufficient to induce pluripotency in human fetal neural stem cells. (harvard.edu)
- Future work is necessary to examine whether non-viral manipulation of cells can induce pluripotency with enough efficiency to create therapeutic cell lines, and which cell sources are ideal reprogramming candidates. (harvard.edu)
- A transcriptome is the set of all RNA molecules transcribed in each cell type, and a readout on which genes are turned in that cell at the time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The Duke researchers launched their investigation using mice specially bred with deletions of two genes that regulate the death of endothelial cells, which line the inner surface of blood vessels and are thought to regulate the fate of hematopoietic stem cells. (redorbit.com)
- Several techniques to make cells without permanent insertion of the genes have been reported, including some that do not use genetic material at all. (nature.com)
- However, analysis of mice with null mutations in either GM-CSF ( 1 , 2 ) or IL-3 receptor ( 3 ) genes indicated that GM-CSF and IL-3 are not crucial for erythropoiesis, or that other factors can compensate for their function. (pnas.org)
- Previous research indicated that certain genes may alter hematopoietic stem cells' regenerative capacity by either accelerating or hindering the cells' ability to restore the immune system, but more research was needed to pinpoint the specific genetic activity and effects. (eurekalert.org)
- The entry of MuSCs into quiescence is characterized by the expression of target genes that are activated by the Tcf and Lef (Tcf/Lef) family of transcription factors. (sciencemag.org)
- found that, although Tcf/Lef transcription factors promoted gene expression by cooperating with β-catenin in response to Wnt signaling in proliferating myoblasts, β-catenin was not required for the induction of Tcf/Lef target genes during quiescence. (sciencemag.org)
- For example, candidate susceptibility genes for schizophrenia, autism and major depression include the signaling molecule Disrupted In Schizophrenia-1 (DISC-1), the homeodomain gene engrailed-2 (EN-2), and several receptor tyrosine kinases, including brain-derived growth factor and fibroblast growth factors, all of which have been shown to play important roles in NSCs or neuronal precursors. (frontiersin.org)
- Researchers will determine if patients who received a transplant of stem cells from a donor with favorable KIR genes have a lower risk of cancer recurrence. (mskcc.org)
- Consistent with a role for GATA-4 in cardiomyocyte formation, inhibition of GATA-4 expression by antisense transcripts interferes with expression of cardiac muscle genes and blocks development of beating cardiomyocytes in P19 embryonic stem cells. (biologists.org)
- Amongst the known GSC genes, 19 were encoding anti-oxidant factors and an equal number might be hidden in the ESTs of unknown function. (grstiftung.ch)
- This way a cluster of genes could be identified in the stem cells and in the stem cell niche cells that belonged to known signaling pathways. (grstiftung.ch)
- Yet, each cell type expresses a unique subset of all genes encoded. (stembook.org)
- The researchers selected 24 genes--all previously found to play a role in early embryos and embryonic stem cell identity--as candidate factors that might give body cells the ability to become other cell types. (bio-medicine.org)
- To reprogram the fibroblasts, the Hu lab used BRD3R delivered by a lentiviral vector, along with three of the genes that the Japanese Nobel Laureate Shinya Yamanaka used in his first successful reprogramming of mature mouse cells into iPSCs in 2006 - OCT4, SOX2 and KLF4. (uab.edu)
- Infusion of freshly cultured or cryopreserved ASCs induced the expression of many genes associated with tissue factor signaling and coagulation activation in the lungs. (unboundmedicine.com)
- They disrupt normal hematopoiesis dependent on core binding factor subunit α ( RUNX1 ) and β ( CBFB ) by silencing tumor suppressor genes leading to neoplastic transformation. (haematologica.org)
- Transcriptome analysis of the cells' response to Gata4 over time revealed groups of endoderm and mesoderm developmental genes whose expression was induced by Gata4 only when DNA methylation was lost, suggesting that DNA methylation restricts the ability of these genes to respond to Gata4, rather than controlling their transcription per se . (prolekare.cz)
- Also limiting the use of therapeutic stem cells to date, self-renewal, a quality so vital to a fast-growing fetus, can also be a source of cancer risk when haphazard, unlimited cell multiplication results in the abnormal tissue growth seen in tumors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Unfortunately, there are no soluble growth factors identified to date that have been proven to expand human stem cells for therapeutic purposes," said John Chute, M.D., a stem cell transplant physician and cell biologist at Duke and senior author of the paper. (innovations-report.com)
- The potential for tumor formation has been a significant drawback to therapeutic use of certain cell populations," said Anthony Atala, M.D., Editor of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine and director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine. (prweb.com)
- Co-delivery of embedded growth factor-loaded microspheres and adult stem cells in a hydrogel matrix was studied for its potential as a cell-based therapeutic strategy for cartilage regeneration in partial thickness chondral defects. (ozon.ru)
- Our results have implications for the development of therapeutic strategies for brain repair and suggest that LIF may be useful, in combination with other factors, in promoting regeneration in the adult brain. (jneurosci.org)
- A major portion of the beneficial effect of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is due to the production of trophic and angiogenic factors by these cells, and one of the efforts to improve the therapeutic efficacy of these cells lies in enhancing this capacity. (scirp.org)
- Replacement of diseased RPE with healthy, stem cell-derived RPE is a potential therapeutic strategy for treating AMD. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- A thorough understanding of self-renewal is essential if ES cells are to be fully exploited for therapeutic ends. (springer.com)
- Furthermore, they have demonstrated therapeutic benefit similar to that of embryonic stem cells. (harvard.edu)
- Understanding how autocrine/paracrine factors regulate neural stem cell (NSC) survival and growth is fundamental to the utilization of these cells for therapeutic applications and as cellular models for the brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This review will integrate the recently reported strategies to directly convert a variety of starting cell types toward HSCs in the context of hematopoietic transcriptional regulation and discuss how these findings could be further developed toward the ultimate generation of therapeutic human HSCs. (embopress.org)
- Our findings not only characterize a novel role of Nrf2 in T cell function, but also reveal an exciting target for therapeutic manipulation as a useful clinical strategy to improve the outcomes of allo-BMT. (cornell.edu)
- Researchers from the UCLA Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology Oncology and the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA have published two studies that define how key genetic factors affect blood-forming stem cells by either accelerating or hindering the cells' regenerative properties. (eurekalert.org)
- He is currently Professor of Genetics, Neurobiology and Anatomy at the University of Rochester and Director of the University of Rochester Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Institute. (autismone.org)
- This research suggests an optimized strategy for using regenerative medicine as an alternative to conventional root canal therapy," said Anthony Atala, M.D., Editor-in-Chief of STEM CELLS Translational Medicine and director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine. (healthcanal.com)
- Such cells hold promise for the field of regenerative medicine, and they dodge the controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, since iPSCs can be derived from somatic cells, not embryos. (harvard.edu)
- De novo generation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from renewable cell types has been a long sought‐after but elusive goal in regenerative medicine. (embopress.org)
Mouse embryonic stem2
- The study results were found using mouse embryonic stem cells, which are good cell models for the study of processes seen in human stem cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are genetically more stable than somatic cells, thereby preventing the passage of genomic abnormalities to their derivatives including germ cells. (rupress.org)
- Biomedical researchers can generate HiPSCs from many somatic cells such as fibroblasts from a skin biopsy, without destroying any human embryo. (uab.edu)
- Hu and his colleagues did their reprogramming of the human somatic cells in xeno-free media, without using mouse feeder cells or serum from any sources. (uab.edu)
- Reprogramming of murine and human somatic cells using a single polycistronic vector. (addgene.org)
- Differentiated human cells have been reprogrammed to an embryonic-like state with the addition of only one gene, rather than the standard four 1 . (nature.com)
- The gene encoding stem cell factor (SCF) is found on the Sl locus in mice and on chromosome 12q22-12q24 in humans. (wikidoc.org)
- One of the new studies focused on a gene called Grb10 that is expressed by hematopoietic stem cells. (eurekalert.org)
- Instead, the Mayo team turned to a relatively simple protocol that involves pre-treating cultured stem cells with a genotoxin - an agent that sniffs out gene mutations or chromosomes changes in contaminated cells and kills them - after first priming the cells through the up-regulation of Puma protein, which can be activated to send a series of signals leading to cell suicide. (prweb.com)
- Morpholino against zebrafish epidermacan gene was injected into the yolk of fli:GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos at 1-4 cell stage, and larvae were collected at 4 days post fertilization to monitor vessel development. (ahajournals.org)
- The identification of an X-linked homeobox gene that drives the initial generation of SSCs has implications for the evolution of X-linked gene clusters and sheds light on regulatory mechanisms influencing adult stem cell generation in general. (fluidigm.com)
- 1994 ) Transcriptional enhancer factor 1 disruption by a retroviral gene trap leads to heart defects and embryonic lethality in mice. (biologists.org)
- One differentially expressed gene encodes the cell surface protein, CD44. (biomedsearch.com)
- The researchers then demonstrated that genetically engineered mice missing the gene encoding pleiotrophin had decreased numbers of stem cells in their bone marrow, and had difficulty making new blood cells if depleted. (healthcanal.com)
- This review examines the role of key transcription factors in various stem cell types, and emphasizes on their control of downstream gene expression, which ultimately contributes to cellular function. (stembook.org)
- Other components of the post-transcription machinery are also involved in augmenting the overall levels of gene transcripts in the cell. (stembook.org)
- Polycomb protein Bmi1, which is a potent negative regulator of the p16INK4 gene, suppresses senescence in primary cells and is overexpressed in various cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
- β-Catenin then translocates to the nucleus and induces target gene expression together with transcription factors of the T cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) family. (biologists.org)
- Hair Growth factors derived from plasma for tissue repair and healing process of ulcers and wounds were already documented. (selfgrowth.com)
- Evidence in mice suggests that the tissue of origin affects how often and how well differentiated cells reprogram. (nature.com)
- The current study reprogrammed neural stem cells from human fetal tissue. (nature.com)
- Stem cell fate is influenced by a number of factors and interactions that require robust control for safe and effective regeneration of functional tissue. (sciencemag.org)
- Decellularized tissue matrices and synthetic polymer niches are being used in the clinic, and they are also beginning to clarify fundamental aspects of how stem cells contribute to homeostasis and repair, for example, at sites of fibrosis. (sciencemag.org)
- Although U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for human testing of cells differentiated from embryonic stem cells (ESC) is a recent landmark for the field ( 3 ), two widely reported clinical cases highlight some of the technical opportunities and challenges with stem cells in soft tissue repair. (sciencemag.org)
- Since there is complement activation in all areas of tissue injury, and both C3a and C5a activate MSC, it was asked whether stimulation with C3a or C5a would upregulate the production of trophic factors by MSC. (scirp.org)
- Efficient derivation of functional floor plate tissue from human embryonic stem cells. (springer.com)
- This is certainly the case for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which consists of a heterogeneous population of tumor cells including (i) CSCs ( 5, 6 ), (ii) more differentiated cancer cells, and (iii) an extremely high proportion of desmoplastic stromal tissue and immune cells, which accounts for up to 90% of the tumor mass ( 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- While the consequences of ISGylation of host proteins have been elucidated for only a small set of cellular proteins (e.g., cyclin D1, Filamin B, PML-RARα), it is believed that the biologic effects of ISGylation are dynamic and cell-type/tissue-specific ( 17 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- This ability to positively impact both osteogenesis and vascular growth may benefit bone tissue engineering, as vasculature is essential to maintaining cell viability in large grafts after implantation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The accumulation of transplanted cells in the 'pocket' between two natural bordering regions of the brain, with minimal disruption to tissue integrity, appears the most plausible explanation for the dramatic difference in the allograft rejection rate, they wrote. (medicalxpress.com)
- The benefits of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs), isolated from the living connective tissue in the tooth's center, on such damage have been well documented in studies. (healthcanal.com)
- Our data demonstrated that the PDGF-BB possesses a powerful function in prompting stem cell-based dentin-pulp tissue regeneration. (healthcanal.com)
- Dentin, which is a major component of teeth, is formed by odontoblasts derived from neural crest cells and includes connective tissue, termed dental pulp (DP), in the center. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Recent reports on murine models have raised the possibility of regenerating contractile myocardial tissue by in situ activation and mobilization of cardiac stem/progenitor cell (CSC) by growth factors (GF). (ahajournals.org)
- MSCs from various sources express a procoagulant activity that has been linked to the expression of tissue factor. (unboundmedicine.com)
- This study sought to determine the role of tissue factor associated with adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) in their procoagulant and antibacterial effects during pneumonia-derived sepsis. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Preincubation of ASCs with anti-tissue factor antibody prior to infusion prevented the rise in plasma thrombin-antithrombin complex concentrations but did not influence thrombus formation in the lungs. (unboundmedicine.com)
- ASCs reduced bacterial loads in the lungs and liver at 48 h after infection, which was not influenced by preincubation with anti-tissue factor antibody. (unboundmedicine.com)
- These data indicate that ASC-associated tissue factor is responsible for systemic activation of coagulation after infusion of ASCs but not for the formation of microthrombi in the lungs or antibacterial effects. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Tissue stem cells divide to self‐renew and generate differentiated cells to maintain homeostasis. (embopress.org)
- The inflammatory milieu in obesity often involves high levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in adipose tissue, but whether this affects MSC function remains unknown. (ahajournals.org)
- Adipose tissue inflammation and MSC levels were evaluated in situ using immunohistochemistry staining for TNF-α, CD34, and Von Willebrand factor (vWF). (ahajournals.org)
- The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. (spie.org)
- Plasma-rich in growth factors (PRGF) and/or stem cells may be effective for tissue repair as well as cartilage regenerative processes. (spie.org)
- Tissue engineering may be the best way to reach this objective via the use of stem cells, novel biologically inspired scaffolds and, emerging nanotechnology. (spie.org)
- In fact, fetal HSCs in cell culture are 6 times more sensitive to SCF than adult HSCs based on the concentration that allows maximum survival. (wikipedia.org)
- Three early acting (stem cell factor (SCF), Flt3 ligand (Flt3) and fetal antigen 1 (FA1)) and three lineage-specific growth factors (EPO, G-CSF and thrombopoietin (Tpo)) were analyzed by ELISA in 16 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and 16 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). (nature.com)
- Indeed, in a second case, the cerebellum of a boy with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) was injected with human fetal neural stem cells (NSCs), and 4 years later, a glio-neuronal brain tumor of stem cell origin was found ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The present study examined the expression profile of buffalo fetal fibroblasts (BFF) used as a feeder layer for embryonic stem (ES) cell-like cells. (biomedsearch.com)
- The expression level of ACTIVIN-A, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) and FGF-2 was similar in buffalo fetal fibroblast (BFF) cultured in stem cell medium (SCM), SCM+1000IUmL(-1) leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), SCM+5ngmL(-1) FGF-2 or SCM+LIF+FGF-2 for 24h whereas GREMLIN expression was higher in FGF-2-supplemented groups. (biomedsearch.com)
- To study the effect of combined therapy including fetal stem cells (FSCs) on different components of erections. (omicsonline.org)
- Figure 1: Alternative splicing of the same RNA transcript produces soluble and transmembrane forms of stem cell factor (SCF). (wikidoc.org)
- Soluble and transmembrane SCF is produced by fibroblasts and endothelial cells . (wikidoc.org)
- SCF exists in two forms, cell surface bound SCF and soluble (or free) SCF. (prospecbio.com)
- The ratio of collagen type II to I per cell was significantly higher for ASC chondrogenesis induced by the sustained release of BMP-6 and TGF-b3 in MGC gels than that of non-induced ASC or with soluble growth factor administration in the culture media. (ozon.ru)
- 3 FA1 is the soluble product of delta-like (dlk) - a mRNA encoding a transmembrane protein that contains six epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domains. (nature.com)
- Coordinated interactions with soluble factors, other cells, and extracellular matrices define a local biochemical and mechanical niche with complex and dynamic regulation that stem cells sense. (sciencemag.org)
- A ) Soluble and matrix-bound factors combine with cell-cell contact, cell-matrix adhesion, and gradients to direct cell fate. (sciencemag.org)
- In addition, the cell death stimulated by VEGF-A of primitive NSC and the cell survival stimulated by VEGF-A of definitive NSC were blocked by Flk1/Fc-soluble receptors and VEGF-A function-blocking antibodies. (jneurosci.org)
- Beside soluble factors, proteoglycans within the ECM are known to act as reservoirs for growth factors . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Mitomycin-C inactivation increased relative expression levels of ACTIVIN-A, TGF-β1, BMP-4 and GREMLIN but not of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). (biomedsearch.com)
- In addition, real-time PCR showed that the expression of SDF1 in the SDP11 cells was inhibited by treatment with 20 ng/ml fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2, and exposure to AZD4547, an inhibitor of the FGF receptor, blocked this inhibition. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Although glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor 2 are crucial for self-renewal of SSCs, recent studies have suggested that other growth factors have important roles in controlling SSC fate. (biologists.org)
- SSC self-renewal is known to be stimulated by glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), which are both expressed by Sertoli cells in testes ( Oatley and Brinster, 2008 ). (biologists.org)
- We have employed embryoid bodies derived from murine embryonal stem cells to study effects on vascular development induced by fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and FGF receptor-1, in comparison to the established angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and its receptor VEGF receptor-2. (diva-portal.org)
- CD34- cells that can be propagated in IL-3 but grow slowly, if at all, in SCF, although they express the SCF receptor (c-kit). (nih.gov)
- The response of these cells to IL-3 is stimulated synergistically by SCF, and we present evidence that both the synergy and the inhibition of c-kit responses may be mediated by direct interaction with IL-3 receptor. (nih.gov)
- Stem cell factor (also known as SCF , KIT-ligand , KL , or steel factor ) is a cytokine that binds to the c-KIT receptor ( CD117 ). (wikidoc.org)
- Melanoblasts express the KIT receptor, and it is believed that SCF guides these cells to their terminal locations. (wikidoc.org)
- Mast cells are the only terminally differentiated hematopoietic cells that express the c-Kit receptor. (wikipedia.org)
- 5 Erythropoietin (EPO), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and thrombopoietin (Tpo) as well as the corresponding receptor positive progenitors are considered essential for development of the lineage-specific progenitors. (nature.com)
- These effects were not observed in cells lacking Flt1, another VEGF receptor. (jneurosci.org)
- Furthermore, the increased release of NO by activated iNOS +/+ microglial cells decreased the activation of the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway, which was concomitant with an enhanced nitration of the EGF receptor. (frontiersin.org)
- Hemopoietic stem cell factor (SCF), which is the ligand for the proto-oncogene c-kit receptor (allelic with W locus) and the product of Sl locus of the mouse, has recently been cloned. (jimmunol.org)
- Increased Nanog expression alleviates the requirement for BMP and gp130 receptor stimulation and allows factor-independent ES cell self-renewal. (springer.com)
- Interactions between products of the mouse W locus, which encodes the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor, and the Sl locus, which encodes a ligand for c-kit receptor, which we have designated stem cell factor (SCF), have a critical role in the development of mast cells. (rupress.org)
- Stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF1, also known as CXCL12) is an α-chemokine that attracts MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) through interaction with its unique receptor, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) ( 6 - 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Cripto Regulates Hematopoietic Stem Cells as a Hypoxic-Niche-Related Factor through Cell Surface Receptor GRP78. (lu.se)
- We demonstrate that Nrf2-deficiency in donor T cells leads to attenuated acute GVHD, which is associated with stabilization of Helios+ regulatory T cells, present in the graft at the time of transplant, as well as defective upregulation of the gut homing receptor LPAM-1 of CD8+ allo-T cells. (cornell.edu)
- Due to their analogy to hematopoietic stem cells, these cells have been named "leukemia stem cells," and are thought to be chiefly responsible for disease relapse and ultimate survival after chemotherapy. (hindawi.com)
- In HLA-matched transplants, younger donor age was the only factor reliably associated with patient survival. (cryo-cell.com)
- It found that younger transplant cells were the only secondary factor consistently associated with better survival rates. (cryo-cell.com)
- In a recent study, researchers analyzed data from 10,000 transplantations between 1999 and 2014 with fully HLA-matched stem cells from unrelated donors and discovered that only one secondary factor contributed to survival: the younger the stem cells, the more likely the recipient would survive. (cryo-cell.com)
- The numbers of Flk1 knock-out mice embryo-derived and ES cell-derived primitive NSCs were increased because of the enhanced survival of primitive NSCs. (jneurosci.org)
- Thus, both the cell death of primitive NSC and the cell survival of definitive NSC induced by VEGF-A stimulation are mediated by bifunctional NF-κB effects. (jneurosci.org)
- In this study, we investigated the metabolic state of undifferentiated NSPCs in culture, and tested their relative reliance on oxidative versus glycolytic metabolism for survival, as well as their dependence on hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) expression for maintenance of metabolic phenotype. (wiley.com)
- Together, these findings suggest that, in addition to its role in activation of the cardiac genetic program, GATA-4 may be the nuclear target of inductive and/or survival factors for precardiac cells. (biologists.org)
- Additionally, they hypothesized that variability in cell survival may be related to the differences in immune responses that may exist between white matter and grey matter, as the FM is the largest region of white matter while the STR is a grey matter structure. (medicalxpress.com)
- We have previously shown that treating tumor cells with chemotherapeutic drugs selectively enriches the survival of CSCs. (aacrjournals.org)
- CSPG also stimulates the survival of embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived NSCs, and thus may be involved in the developmental transition of ESCs to NSCs. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- With their preserved GVT activity and ameliorated GVHD severity, Nrf2-/- donor T cells conferred an overall improved survival in the tumor-bearing allo-BMT recipients. (cornell.edu)
- Furthermore, Wnt5a promoted SSC survival in the absence of feeder cells, and this effect was abolished by inhibiting the Jun N-terminal kinase cascade. (biologists.org)
- Common cancer therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation can eliminate cancer by killing cancer cells. (eurekalert.org)
- It stimulates bone marrow to produce the different types of blood cells, including white blood cells that can become depleted after disease or chemotherapy. (innovations-report.com)
- Patients will undergo a stem cell transplant, followed by an additional chemotherapy dose three to four days later to reduce a potential complication called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD, in which white blood cells from the donor attack tissues of the recipient). (mskcc.org)
- The finding, reported in the Oct. 18, 2012, issue of the journal Cell Reports, could lead to new treatments that speed recovery of healthy blood levels for patients receiving chemotherapy or undergoing bone marrow and cord blood transplants. (healthcanal.com)
- Treatment with pleiotrophin may prove useful in helping patients more quickly regenerate their own blood forming cells after chemotherapy or bone marrow transplant. (healthcanal.com)
- Cancer stem cells (CSC) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation and tumor regeneration after chemotherapy. (aacrjournals.org)
- Previously, we showed that chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells lines can select for outgrowth of highly tumorigenic and metastatic CSCs. (aacrjournals.org)
- Blocking one or more of these factors with neutralizing antibodies could potentially increase tumor cell sensitivity to chemotherapy drugs ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Upon implantation, stem cells and their derived lineages encounter a multitude of cues that can influence cell fate. (sciencemag.org)
- Pleiotrophin, which means "many forms," appears to make blood stem cells grow and promote production of all the mature blood lineages that are derived from the blood stem cell. (healthcanal.com)
- All blood cells are divided into three lineages. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, they looked at HLA genetic factors such as low expression loci (including DRB3/4/5,DQB1 and DPB1) and non-HLA genetic factors including natural killer immunoglobin-like receptors (KIR) and ABO type. (cryo-cell.com)
- They also plan to test whether other factors may be used to stimulate the cMet receptors and induce recovery. (bio-medicine.org)
- In contrast to other tumor cells, CSCs expressed c-kit receptors and produced SCF. (aacrjournals.org)
- We detected the expression of Wnt5a and potential Wnt5a receptors in Sertoli cells and stem/progenitor spermatogonia, respectively. (biologists.org)
- We are just beginning to understand the mechanisms through which EGF promotes stem cell regeneration after radiation injury," Chute said. (redorbit.com)
- Taken together, the studies uncover two molecular mechanisms that could potentially be manipulated to increase the regenerative properties of hematopoietic stem cells and improve cancer therapy. (eurekalert.org)
- Taken together, these data highlight mechanisms that promote epithelial fate acquisition in stem cell-derived RPE. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Stem cells display unique cellular properties, including antioxidant defense and repair mechanisms, for maintenance and repair of oxidative DNA and cellular damage. (grstiftung.ch)
- This has led researchers to examine the precise mechanisms of the Yamanaka factors and seek out combinations of 1-2 factors that are equally efficacious but pose less risk of tumorigenicity. (harvard.edu)
- Thus, our contemporary ideas about promotion for the mechanisms of erection are based on classification of all factors affecting male erectile function into the executive structures and regulatory mechanisms. (omicsonline.org)
- These results indicate that Wnt5a is a cell-extrinsic factor that supports SSC self-renewal through β-catenin-independent mechanisms. (biologists.org)
- Transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms coordinately regulate these processes , . (prolekare.cz)
- Plants have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to protect their cells from heavy metal toxicity, including the synthesis of metal chelating proteins and peptides, such as metallothioneins and phytochelatins (PC), which capture the metals and prevent the damages on the cellular structures. (ovid.com)
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem2
- Many clinical trials are nonetheless under way, particularly with adult bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are being investigated as treatments for diseases of nonhematopoietic tissues-primarily, myocardial infarction and peripheral ischemia ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The main goal of our study was therefore to provide a comprehensive study of canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) and conditioned media, isolated from healthy adult dogs of different breeds. (mcponline.org)
- SCF may serve as guidance cues that direct hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to their stem cell niche (the microenvironment in which a stem cell resides), and it plays an important role in HSC maintenance. (wikidoc.org)
- SCF plays a role in the regulation of HSCs in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow. (wikidoc.org)
- Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in hypoxic niches in endosteal regions of bones. (lu.se)
- Furthermore, they efficiently reconstitute not only neonate but also adult NSG recipients, generating human blood cell populations similar to those reported in mice reconstituted with uncultured human HSCs. (mit.edu)
- These findings suggest an expansion of long term HSCs in our culture and show that expression of CD34 and CD133 serves as a marker for HSC activity in human cord blood cell cultures. (mit.edu)
- Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the medulla of the bone (bone marrow) and have the unique ability to give rise to all of the different mature blood cell types and tissues. (wikipedia.org)
- HSCs are self-renewing cells: when they proliferate, at least some of their daughter cells remain as HSCs, so the pool of stem cells is not depleted.This phenomenon is called asymmetric division. (wikipedia.org)
- C3a caused significant up-regulation of various angiogenic factors, including VEGF, CXCL8/IL-8 and IL-6. (scirp.org)
- In contrast there was no detectable production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α and IL-1 β in spite of nuclear translocation of NF κ B. Although C5a also caused moderate up-regulation of angiogenic factors, the effect was borderline significant. (scirp.org)
- Although rho was only transiently activated, inhibition of the rho or "downstream of it" of the NF κ B pathway, prevented C3a-and C5a-induced up-regulation of angiogenic factors. (scirp.org)
- Since we confirmed our data in various ways, this finding indicates that stem cell maintenance is complex and requires the regulation of a multitude of molecular pathways. (grstiftung.ch)
- Transcription regulation constitutes a major component of biological activities in the cell. (stembook.org)
- Stem cells are well-suited for the study of transcription regulation and TF function. (stembook.org)
- Post-transcriptional regulation includes transcript stability, binding of RNAs to RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), alternative splicing, and regulations by microRNAs (miRNAs) [ 7 ], thus providing the flexibility for cells to adapt to a wide range of physiological conditions. (springer.com)
- Overall, our work demonstrates that ISG15 is a previously unrecognized support factor for CSC in the PDAC microenvironment with a key role in pathogenesis and progression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Specifically, we have come to understand that apart from providing structural support for tumor development, the tumor-associated microenvironment of many solid tumors provides cues to a subpopulation of tumor-initiating cells, also known as cancer stem cells (CSC), which regulates their self-renewal and tumorigenic and metastatic potential ( 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Within the stroma-rich PDAC tumor microenvironment, pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) have been extensively studied and recent reports from our laboratory and other have shown that tumor-associated PSCs can create a protumor paracrine niche for PDAC CSCs via Nodal/Activin A secretion ( 2 , 4 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are often recruited to the tumor microenvironment due to local inflammation. (urotoday.com)
Colony-forming unit e1
Everything that embryonic stem1
- At this point, any progress we can make that helps us better understand which biological pathways are activated in stem cells in response to pleiotrophin will help move the discovery forward. (innovations-report.com)
- SCF is expressed along the pathways that the germ cells use to reach their terminal destination in the body. (wikidoc.org)
- Modulation of these pathways has the potential to favorably impact scalability and clinical translation of hESC-derived RPE as a cell therapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Modulation of these pathways by small molecules, as identified by phenotypic screening, leads to an increased efficiency of generating RPE cells with a higher yield. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Chute said it appears that EGF works by repressing a protein called PUMA that normally triggers stem cell death following radiation exposure. (redorbit.com)
- The cells were lysed, and equal amounts of protein from each lysate were separated by SDS/PAGE and electrotransferred to Immobilon P, followed by immunoblotting with the indicated antibodies. (nih.gov)
- Nanog is a divergent homeodomain protein that directs propagation of undifferentiated ES cells. (nih.gov)
- Infatti, la sovraespressione di Nanog è in grado di ridurre la dipendenza dai segnali mediati dall'attivazione dei recettori del BMP ( Bone Morphogenetic Protein ) e LIF ( Leukemia Inhibitor Factor ), permettendo l'espansione delle cellule ES in assenza di tali fattori solubili nel medium di coltura. (springer.com)
- The protein is called pleiotrophin, and is produced by cells that line the blood vessels in bone marrow. (healthcanal.com)
- In mouse studies conducted by the Duke researchers, the protein helps transplanted blood stem cells locate to the bone marrow, where they produce mature red and white blood cells in the body. (healthcanal.com)
- GSC and G can be purified in relatively large amounts from rats before puberty (to obtain GSC) and at postpuberty (to obtain mostly G). The comparison of mRNA and protein profiles from GSC and G was proposed in order to identify new stem cell factors that contribute to the maintenance, protection, and repair of cellular functions, in particular the protection from and repair of oxidative damage. (grstiftung.ch)
- The reprogramming factor is a kinase-family protein called BRD3R that reads acetylated histone codes in the chromosome. (uab.edu)
- mRNA and protein levels of two pro-angiogenic factors (PDGF and VEGF) and key hypoxia regulators (HIF-1α and NRF2) in MSCs were induced after MSCs' pretreatment. (urotoday.com)
- Heavy metals can cause several genotoxic effects on cells, including oxidative stress, DNA sequence breakage and protein modification. (ovid.com)
- The regular bone marrow cells proliferated well and had the highest rate of engraftment in the recipient mice. (redorbit.com)
- But mice that were transplanted with the cells from irradiated/EGF-treated donors had 20-fold higher engraftment rate than the third group. (redorbit.com)
- They also found that pleiotrophin increased the numbers of human cord blood stem cells in culture that were capable of engraftment in immune-deficient mice. (innovations-report.com)
- The successful outcome of high-dose therapy depends upon early engraftment and blood cell recovery, since morbidity and mortality are closely related to the duration of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. (nature.com)
- 2012). Identification of embryonic stem cell-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons for engraftment. (springer.com)
- Factors that increased risks for IA after engraftment included receipt of T cell-depleted or CD34-selected stem cell products, receipt of corticosteroids, neutropenia, lymphopenia, GVHD, CMV disease, and respiratory virus infections. (bloodjournal.org)
- The phenotype of expanded cells was characterized by flow cytometry during the course of expansion and following engraftment in mice. (mit.edu)
- Stem cells from cord blood are among the youngest retrievable adult stem cells. (cryo-cell.com)
- The developmental origins of most adult stem cells are poorly understood. (fluidigm.com)
- Adult stem cells have become prominent candidates for treating various diseases in veterinary practice. (mcponline.org)
- Basically, there are two types of stem cells, namely embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. (sbwire.com)
- Embryonic stem cells are found in the inner masses of blastocysts and Adult stem cells are found in fully developed mammals. (sbwire.com)
- Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have also been shown to be involved in this process of repair. (spandidos-publications.com)
- A single-cell clone from DPCs (SDP11) and UE7T-13 cells were used as pulp cells and MSCs, respectively. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improve the host response during experimental sepsis in animals. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The murine prostate cancer cells (RM-1) mixing with MSCs treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) or vehicle were subcutaneously injected into C57 mice. (urotoday.com)
- FGF-2 stimulation of embryonal stem cells under conditions where VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 function was blocked, led to formation of endothelial cell clusters, which failed to develop into vessels. (diva-portal.org)
- The FGFR-1(-/-) embryoid bodies displayed considerably increased basal level of vessel formation, detected by immunohistochemical staining for platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)/CD31. (diva-portal.org)
- The discovery, appearing in the journal Nature Medicine, may help researchers overcome one of the most frustrating barriers to cellular therapy: the fact that stem cells are so few in number and so stubbornly resistant to expansion. (innovations-report.com)
- The cellular niche is like the soil that surrounds the stem cell 'seed' and helps it grow and proliferate," said Dr. John Chute, professor of medicine in the Division of Hematology Oncology in the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine and the study's senior author. (eurekalert.org)
- The study found that stem cells from older donors were more prone to inflammation, produced more red blood cells and fewer white blood cell and were more likely to have cellular mutations. (cryo-cell.com)
- Alterations in the epigenome can impinge on stem cells' cellular processes. (cryo-cell.com)
- During aging, cellular damage accumulates in all cells, but intriguingly stem cells, can obviously escape this intrinsic damage. (grstiftung.ch)
- For example, application to malignant cells of the "histone code" hypothesis, which posits that different combinations of histone modifications mediate unique cellular responses, suggests that abnormal histone modifications in cancers serve as one of the molecular switches for malignant transformation. (aacrjournals.org)
- In this paper, we show that the stemness factor Sall4 is required for activating the critical Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM)-dependent cellular responses to DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in mouse ESCs and confer their resistance to DSB-induced cytotoxicity. (rupress.org)
- Subsequent efforts to identify the trans‐acting factors capable of altering cell fate revealed the central role of transcription factors (TFs) in determining cellular identity. (embopress.org)
- For the first time this technology will allow us to see whether normal neurons are affected by a Gba1 knockout environment or vice versa whilst concurrently giving us new information as to how the cells react at the sub-cellular level. (nc3rs.org.uk)
- All cellular blood components are derived from haematopoietic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
- To study a possible role of neutrophils in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induced hematopoietic mobilization, we assessed the number of circulating CD34(+) cells in healthy allogeneic stem cell donors on days 3, 4, and 5 of mobilization for comparison with the number of peripheral blood neutrophils and the plasma levels of IL-8, Flt3 ligand (FL), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and human neutrophil elastase (HNE). (rug.nl)
- Second, anti-pleiotrophin antibodies may be useful in mobilizing stem cells to the peripheral blood. (healthcanal.com)
- The drug, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), treats some forms of cancer. (innovations-report.com)
- The finding was particularly exciting to the researchers, as the effect was similar to that observed when granulocyte-colony stimulating factor is used clinically to mobilize stem cells from a donor's bone marrow for use in blood stem cell transplants. (healthcanal.com)
- Kuan J, Su A, Leong C, Tharyan P. Pegylated granulocyte colony stimulating factor versus non-pegylated granulocyte colony stimulating factor for peripheral stem cell mobilization. (cochrane.org)
- In preimplantation embryos, Nanog is restricted to founder cells from which ES cells can be derived. (nih.gov)
- With the introduction of just four factors, researchers have successfully induced differentiated cells taken from mouse embryos or adult mice to behave like embryonic stem cells. (bio-medicine.org)
- In developing embryos, blood formation occurs in aggregates of blood cells in the yolk sac, called blood islands. (wikipedia.org)