A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A family composed of spouses and their children.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A type of analysis in which subjects in a study group and a comparison group are made comparable with respect to extraneous factors by individually pairing study subjects with the comparison group subjects (e.g., age-matched controls).
The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
All deaths reported in a given population.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.
The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.

Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparison of outside-in and all-inside techniques. (1/11504)

The aim of this prospective study was to compare two arthroscopic techniques for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament, the "outside-in" (two incisions) and the "all-inside" (one incision) techniques. The results obtained for 30 patients operated on using the "outside-in" technique (group I) were compared with those for 29 patients operated on using the "all-inside" technique (group II). Before surgery, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, patellofemoral pain score, or knee laxity. Both groups displayed significant improvements in Lysholm score after 24 months, from 69 (16) to 91 (9) in group I and from 70 (17) to 90 (15) in group II (means (SD)). There were also significant improvements in patellofemoral pain scores in both groups, from 13 (6) to 18 (5) in group I and from 14 (6) to 18 (4) in group II after 24 months. No difference was found between the groups in knee stability at the 24 month follow up. The IKDC score was identical in both groups at follow up. The operation took significantly longer for patients in group I (mean 94 (15)) than for those in group II (mean 86 (20)) (p = 0.03). The mean sick leave was 7.7 (6.2) weeks in group I and 12.3 (9.7) weeks in group II (p = 0.026), indicating that there may be a higher morbidity associated with the "all-inside" technique. It can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the two different techniques in terms of functional results, knee laxity, or postoperative complications. The results were satisfactory and the outcome was similar in both treatment groups.  (+info)

Statistical inference by confidence intervals: issues of interpretation and utilization. (2/11504)

This article examines the role of the confidence interval (CI) in statistical inference and its advantages over conventional hypothesis testing, particularly when data are applied in the context of clinical practice. A CI provides a range of population values with which a sample statistic is consistent at a given level of confidence (usually 95%). Conventional hypothesis testing serves to either reject or retain a null hypothesis. A CI, while also functioning as a hypothesis test, provides additional information on the variability of an observed sample statistic (ie, its precision) and on its probable relationship to the value of this statistic in the population from which the sample was drawn (ie, its accuracy). Thus, the CI focuses attention on the magnitude and the probability of a treatment or other effect. It thereby assists in determining the clinical usefulness and importance of, as well as the statistical significance of, findings. The CI is appropriate for both parametric and nonparametric analyses and for both individual studies and aggregated data in meta-analyses. It is recommended that, when inferential statistical analysis is performed, CIs should accompany point estimates and conventional hypothesis tests wherever possible.  (+info)

Comparison of in vivo and in vitro tests of resistance in patients treated with chloroquine in Yaounde, Cameroon. (3/11504)

The usefulness of an isotopic in vitro assay in the field was evaluated by comparing its results with the therapeutic response determined by the simplified WHO in vivo test in symptomatic Cameroonian patients treated with chloroquine. Of the 117 enrolled patients, 102 (87%) completed the 14-day follow-up, and 95 isolates obtained from these patients (46 children, 49 adults) yielded an interpretable in vitro test. A total of 57 of 95 patients (60%; 28 children and 29 adults) had an adequate clinical response with negative smears (n = 46) or with an asymptomatic parasitaemia (n = 11) on day 7 and/or day 14. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration of the isolates obtained from these patients was 63.3 nmol/l. Late and early treatment failure was observed in 29 (30.5%) and 9 (9.5%) patients, respectively. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations of the corresponding isolates were 173 nmol/l and 302 nmol/l. Among the patients responding with late and early treatment failure, five isolates and one isolate, respectively, yielded a discordant result (in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the in vitro test to detect chloroquine-sensitive cases was 67%, 84% and 86%, respectively. There was moderate concordance between the in vitro and in vivo tests (kappa value = 0.48). The in vitro assay agrees relatively well with the therapeutic response and excludes several host factors that influence the results of the in vivo test. However, in view of some discordant results, the in vitro test cannot substitute for in vivo data on therapeutic efficacy. The only reliable definition of "resistance" in malaria parasites is based on clinical and parasitological response in symptomatic patients, and the in vivo test provides the standard method to determine drug sensitivity or resistance as well as to guide national drug policies.  (+info)

Elevated hepatic lipase activity and low levels of high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population. (4/11504)

Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and, in the United States, are often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In Turkey, low HDL-C levels are highly prevalent, 53% of men and 26% of women having HDL-C levels <35 mg/dl, in the absence of hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In this study to investigate the cause of low HDL-C levels in Turks, various factors affecting HDL metabolism were assessed in normotriglyceridemic Turkish men and women living in Istanbul and in non-Turkish men and women living in San Francisco. Turkish men and women had significantly lower HDL-C levels than the San Francisco men and women, as well as markedly lower apolipoprotein A-I levels (25 and 39 mg/dl lower, respectively). In both Turkish and non-Turkish subjects, the mean body mass index was <27 kg/m2, the mean triglyceride level was <120 mg/dl, and the mean total cholesterol was 170-180 mg/dl. The mean hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was 21% and 31% higher in Turkish men and women, respectively, than in non-Turkish men and women, and remained higher even after subjects with a body mass index >50th percentile for men and women in the United States were excluded from the analysis. As no dietary or behavioral factors have been identified in the Turkish population that account for increased hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, the elevation most likely has a genetic basis. high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population.  (+info)

Results of three to 10 year follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve. (5/11504)

BACKGROUND: The results of immediate and short term follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve have been well documented, but there is limited information on long term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of three to 10 year follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve in children and adolescents. SETTING: Tertiary care centre/university hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS AND RESULTS: 85 patients (aged between 1 day and 20 years, mean (SD) 7.0 (6.4) years) underwent balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve during an 11 year period ending August 1994. There was a resultant reduction in the peak to peak gradient from 87 (38) to 26 (22) mm Hg. Immediate surgical intervention was not required. Residual gradients of 29 (17) mm Hg were measured by catheterisation (n = 47) and echo Doppler (n = 82) at intermediate term follow up (two years). When individual results were scrutinised, nine of 82 patients had restenosis, defined as a peak gradient of 50 mm Hg or more. Seven of these patients underwent repeat balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve: peak gradients were reduced from 89 (40) to 38 (20) mm Hg. Clinical evaluation and echo Doppler data of 80 patients showed that residual peak instantaneous Doppler gradients were 17 (15) mm Hg at long term follow up (three to 10 years, median seven), with evidence for late restenosis in one patient (1.3%). Surgical intervention was necessary to relieve fixed infundibular stenosis in three patients and supravalvar pulmonary stenosis in one. Repeat balloon dilatation was performed to relieve restenosis in two patients. Actuarial reintervention free rates at one, two, five, and 10 years were 94%, 89%, 88%, and 84%, respectively. Pulmonary valve regurgitation was noted in 70 of 80 patients at late follow up, but neither right ventricular dilatation nor paradoxical interventricular septal motion developed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of late follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve are excellent. Repeat balloon dilatation was performed in 11% of patients and surgical intervention for subvalvlar or supravalvar stenosis in 5%. Most patients had mild residual pulmonary regurgitation but right ventricular volume overload was not required. Balloon dilatation is the treatment of choice in the management of moderate to severe stenosis of the pulmonary valve. Further follow up studies should be undertaken to evaluate the significance of residual pulmonary regurgitation.  (+info)

Cyclical etidronate increases bone density in the spine and hip of postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study. (6/11504)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of cyclic etidronate in secondary prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. METHODS: A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study comparing cyclic etidronate and placebo during two years in 37 postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment, mainly for polymyalgia rheumatica (40% of the patients) and rheumatoid arthritis (30%). Bone density was measured in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. RESULTS: After two years of treatment there was a significant difference between the groups in mean per cent change from baseline in bone density in the spine in favour of etidronate (p = 0.003). The estimated treatment difference (mean (SD)) was 9.3 (2.1)%. Etidronate increased bone density in the spine (4.9 (2.1)%, p < 0.05) whereas the placebo group lost bone (-2.4 (1.6)%). At the femoral neck there was an estimated difference of 5.3 (2.6)% between the groups (etidronate: 3.6% (1.4)%, p < 0.05, placebo: -2.4 (2.1)%). The estimated difference at the trochanter was 8.2 (3.0) (etidronate: 9.0 (1.5)%, p < 0.0001, placebo: 0.5 (2.3)%). No significant bone loss occurred in the hip in placebo treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic etidronate is an effective treatment for postmenopausal women receiving corticosteroid treatment and is well tolerated.  (+info)

Progression from colorectal adenoma to carcinoma is associated with non-random chromosomal gains as detected by comparative genomic hybridisation. (7/11504)

AIMS: Chromosomal gains and losses were surveyed by comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) in a series of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, in search of high risk genomic changes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: Nine colorectal adenomas and 14 carcinomas were analysed by CGH, and DNA ploidy was assessed with both flow and image cytometry. RESULTS: In the nine adenomas analysed, an average of 6.6 (range 1 to 11) chromosomal aberrations were identified. In the 14 carcinomas an average of 11.9 (range 5 to 17) events were found per tumour. In the adenomas the number of gains and losses was in balance (3.6 v 3.0) while in carcinomas gains occurred more often than losses (8.2 v 3.7). Frequent gains involved 13q, 7p, 8q, and 20q, whereas losses most often occurred at 18q, 4q, and 8p. Gains of 13q, 8q, and 20q, and loss of 18q occurred more often in carcinomas than in adenomas (p = 0.005, p = 0.05, p = 0.05, and p = 0.02, respectively). Aneuploid tumours showed more gains than losses (mean 9.3 v 4.9, p = 0.02), in contrast to diploid tumours where gains and losses were nearly balanced (mean 3.1 v 4.1, p = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: The most striking difference between chromosomal aberrations in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as detected by CGH, is an increased number of chromosomal gains that show a nonrandom distribution. Gains of 13q and also of 20q and 8q seem especially to be involved in the progression of adenomas to carcinomas, possibly owing to low level overexpression of oncogenes at these loci.  (+info)

Effect of 5-HT4 receptor stimulation on the pacemaker current I(f) in human isolated atrial myocytes. (8/11504)

OBJECTIVE: 5-HT4 receptors are present in human atrial cells and their stimulation has been implicated in the genesis of atrial arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation. An I(f)-like current has been recorded in human atrial myocytes, where it is modulated by beta-adrenergic stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on I(f) electrophysiological properties, in order to get an insight into the possible contribution of I(f) to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atria. METHODS: Human atrial myocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion from samples of atrial appendage of patients undergoing coeffective cardiac surgery. Patch-clamped cells were superfused with a modified Tyrode's solution in order to amplify I(f) and reduce overlapping currents. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A time-dependent, cesium-sensitive increasing inward current, that we had previously described having the electrophysiological properties of the pacemaker current I(f), was elicited by negative steps (-60 to -130 mV) from a holding potential of -40 mV. Boltzmann fit of control activation curves gave a midpoint (V1/2) of -88.9 +/- 2.6 mV (n = 14). 5-HT (1 microM) consistently caused a positive shift of V1/2 of 11.0 +/- 2.0 mV (n = 8, p < 0.001) of the activation curve toward less negative potentials, thus increasing the amount of current activated by clamp steps near the physiological maximum diastolic potential of these cells. The effect was dose-dependent, the EC50 being 0.14 microM. Maximum current amplitude was not changed by 5-HT. 5-HT did not increase I(f) amplitude when the current was maximally activated by cAMP perfused into the cell. The selective 5-HT4 antagonists, DAU 6285 (10 microM) and GR 125487 (1 microM), completely prevented the effect of 5-HT on I(f). The shift of V1/2 caused by 1 microM 5-HT in the presence of DAU 6285 or GR 125487 was 0.3 +/- 1 mV (n = 6) and 1.0 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 5), respectively (p < 0.01 versus 5-HT alone). The effect of 5-HT4 receptor blockade was specific, since neither DAU 6285 nor GR 125487 prevented the effect of 1 microM isoprenaline on I(f). Thus, 5-HT4 stimulation increases I(f) in human atrial myocytes; this effect may contribute to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atrium.  (+info)

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to the tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to their genetic makeup. It means that certain genes or combinations of genes increase the risk of developing a particular disease or condition. Genetic predisposition to disease is not the same as having the disease itself. It simply means that an individual has a higher likelihood of developing the disease compared to someone without the same genetic predisposition. Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited from parents or can occur due to spontaneous mutations in genes. Some examples of genetic predisposition to disease include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia. Understanding genetic predisposition to disease is important in medical practice because it can help identify individuals who are at high risk of developing a particular disease and allow for early intervention and prevention strategies to be implemented.

Inborn genetic diseases, also known as genetic disorders or hereditary diseases, are conditions that are caused by mutations or variations in an individual's DNA. These mutations can be inherited from one or both parents and can affect the normal functioning of the body's cells, tissues, and organs. Inborn genetic diseases can be classified into several categories, including single-gene disorders, chromosomal disorders, and multifactorial disorders. Single-gene disorders are caused by mutations in a single gene, while chromosomal disorders involve changes in the number or structure of chromosomes. Multifactorial disorders are caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Examples of inborn genetic diseases include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Huntington's disease, Down syndrome, and Turner syndrome. These diseases can have a wide range of symptoms and severity, and can affect various parts of the body, including the heart, lungs, brain, and skeletal system. Diagnosis of inborn genetic diseases typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and genetic testing. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, and supportive care, depending on the specific disease and its severity.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in the prostate gland, which is a small gland located in the male reproductive system. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign prostatic neoplasms, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), are the most common type of prostatic neoplasm and are typically associated with an increase in the size of the prostate gland. Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are more serious and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which starts in the glandular cells of the prostate. Other types of prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas, which are rare and start in the connective tissue of the prostate, and carcinoid tumors, which are rare and start in the neuroendocrine cells of the prostate.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the breast tissue. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign breast neoplasms are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort or cosmetic concerns. Malignant breast neoplasms, on the other hand, can spread to other parts of the body and are considered a serious health threat. Some common types of breast neoplasms include fibroadenomas, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma.

In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels due to insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. It is the most common form of diabetes, accounting for about 90-95% of all cases. In type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar levels. As a result, the pancreas may not produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance, leading to high blood sugar levels. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include increased thirst, frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, slow-healing sores, and unexplained weight loss. If left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, nerve damage, and vision loss. Treatment for type 2 diabetes typically involves lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise, as well as medication to help regulate blood sugar levels. In some cases, insulin therapy may be necessary.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings that include episodes of mania or hypomania (abnormally elevated or irritable mood) and depression. These mood swings can be severe and can significantly impact a person's daily life, relationships, and ability to function. Bipolar disorder is typically diagnosed based on a person's symptoms, medical history, and a physical examination. There are several different types of bipolar disorder, including bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder, and other specified bipolar and related disorders. Treatment for bipolar disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy. Medications used to treat bipolar disorder may include mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Therapy may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, and family-focused therapy. It is important to note that bipolar disorder is a serious medical condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. With proper treatment, many people with bipolar disorder are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by a range of symptoms that affect a person's thoughts, emotions, and behavior. These symptoms can include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking and speech, and problems with emotional expression and social interaction. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can last for a lifetime, although the severity of symptoms can vary over time. It is not caused by a single factor, but rather by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends. While there is no cure for schizophrenia, with proper treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infections refer to the presence of the HIV virus in the body. HIV is a retrovirus that attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to infections and diseases. HIV is transmitted through contact with infected bodily fluids, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. The most common modes of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, sharing needles or syringes, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV infections can be diagnosed through blood tests that detect the presence of the virus or antibodies produced in response to the virus. Once diagnosed, HIV can be managed with antiretroviral therapy (ART), which helps to suppress the virus and prevent the progression of the disease to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). It is important to note that HIV is not the same as AIDS. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS, but not everyone with HIV will develop AIDS. With proper treatment and management, individuals with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. In the medical field, alcoholism is diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). These criteria include: 1. The presence of tolerance, which is the need to consume more alcohol to achieve the same desired effect. 2. The presence of withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is reduced or stopped. 3. The presence of cravings or a strong desire to drink. 4. The continuation of alcohol use despite negative consequences, such as health problems, relationship problems, or legal problems. 5. The presence of significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning due to alcohol use. Alcoholism is a complex disorder that can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapy, medication, and support groups.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells in the brain. They can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Brain tumors can occur in any part of the brain and can be primary (originating from brain cells) or secondary (spreading from other parts of the body to the brain). Symptoms of brain neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include headaches, seizures, changes in vision or hearing, difficulty with balance or coordination, and changes in personality or behavior. Diagnosis of brain neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, as well as a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for brain neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.

Obesity is a medical condition characterized by an excessive accumulation of body fat, which increases the risk of various health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or higher, where BMI is calculated as a person's weight in kilograms divided by their height in meters squared. Obesity is a complex condition that results from a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. It can lead to a range of health problems, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, certain types of cancer, and respiratory problems. In the medical field, obesity is often treated through a combination of lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise, and medical interventions, such as medications or bariatric surgery. The goal of treatment is to help individuals achieve and maintain a healthy weight, reduce their risk of health problems, and improve their overall quality of life.

In the medical field, "wounds and injuries" refer to any type of damage or harm that is inflicted on the body, typically as a result of an external force or trauma. This can include cuts, scrapes, bruises, burns, fractures, and other types of physical trauma. Wounds can be classified based on their depth and severity. Superficial wounds only penetrate the outer layer of skin (epidermis) and are typically easy to treat. Deeper wounds, such as lacerations or punctures, can penetrate the dermis or subcutaneous tissue and may require more extensive medical attention. Injuries can also be classified based on their cause. For example, a fall may result in both a wound (such as a cut or bruise) and an injury (such as a broken bone or concussion). Injuries can be further classified based on their location, severity, and potential long-term effects. The treatment of wounds and injuries typically involves cleaning and dressing the affected area, administering pain medication if necessary, and monitoring for signs of infection or other complications. In some cases, more extensive medical treatment may be required, such as surgery or physical therapy.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects multiple organs and systems in the body. It is characterized by the production of autoantibodies that attack healthy cells and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. The symptoms of SLE can vary widely and may include joint pain and swelling, skin rashes, fatigue, fever, and kidney problems. Other possible symptoms may include chest pain, shortness of breath, headaches, and memory problems. SLE can affect people of all ages and ethnicities, but it is more common in women than in men. There is no known cure for SLE, but treatment can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may include medications to reduce inflammation, suppress the immune system, and prevent blood clots. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage severe symptoms or complications.

In the medical field, poisoning refers to the harmful effects that occur when a person is exposed to a toxic substance, either intentionally or unintentionally. Poisoning can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact with a toxic substance. The effects of poisoning can vary widely depending on the type and amount of the toxic substance, as well as the individual's age, health status, and other factors. Symptoms of poisoning can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, and even coma or death in severe cases. Treatment for poisoning depends on the type and severity of the exposure. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement, oxygen therapy, or medication to manage symptoms may be necessary. In more severe cases, hospitalization and specialized treatment may be required. Prevention of poisoning is the best approach, and this can involve measures such as proper storage and labeling of toxic substances, avoiding exposure to hazardous materials, and educating individuals about the risks associated with certain substances.

... can be used for descriptive statistics or statistical inference. Nonparametric tests are often used ... Nonparametric statistics is the type of statistics that is not restricted by assumptions concerning the nature of the ... Practical Nonparametric Statistics (Third ed.), Wiley, pp. 157-176, ISBN 0-471-16068-7 Sprent, P. (1989), Applied Nonparametric ... CDF-based nonparametric confidence interval Parametric statistics Resampling (statistics) Semiparametric model Pearce, J; ...
In statistics and probability theory, the nonparametric skew is a statistic occasionally used with random variables that take ... The test statistic was T = m − a J . {\displaystyle T={\frac {m-a}{J}}.} The scaled statistic T√n is asymptotically normal with ... Bowley dropped the factor 3 from this formula in 1901 leading to the nonparametric skew statistic. The relationship between the ... When p = q = 0.5 the absolute value of this statistic is bounded by 1. With p = 0.1 and p = 0.01, the statistic's absolute ...
Lasso (statistics) Local regression Non-parametric statistics Semiparametric regression Isotonic regression Multivariate ... HyperNiche, software for nonparametric multiplicative regression. Scale-adaptive nonparametric regression (with Matlab software ... Nonparametric regression is a category of regression analysis in which the predictor does not take a predetermined form but is ... In nonparametric regression, we have random variables X {\displaystyle X} and Y {\displaystyle Y} and assume the following ...
1988). Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-100326-1. (Articles ... Kendall's W is a normalization of the Friedman statistic between 0 and 1. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test is a nonparametric test ... ISBN 978-0-85264-199-6. Hollander, M.; Wolfe, D. A. (1973). Nonparametric Statistics. New York: J. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-40635- ... Daniel, Wayne W. (1990). "Friedman two-way analysis of variance by ranks". Applied Nonparametric Statistics (2nd ed.). Boston: ...
Nonparametric statistics). ... In statistics, ranking is the data transformation in which ... In some other cases, descending ranks are used.) Ranks are related to the indexed list of order statistics, which consists of ... By sorting them into order, we have defined their order statistics X n , ( 1 ) ≤ . . . ≤ X n , ( n ) {\displaystyle X_{n,(1)}\ ... Vaart, A. W. van der (1998). Asymptotic statistics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521784504. ( ...
ISBN 978-0-7618-2794-8. (Nonparametric statistics). ... In statistics, a record value or record statistic is the ... The theory is closely related to that used in order statistics. The term was first introduced by K. N. Chandler in 1952. Ladder ... height process MinHash Ahsanullah, Mohammad; Nevzorov, Valery B. (2011). "Record Statistics". International Encyclopedia of ...
Nonparametric statistics). ...
Elementary statistics for geographers (3rd ed.). Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1572304840. Henley, S. (1981). Nonparametric ... Cressie, Noel A. C. (1993). Statistics for Spatial Data. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley. doi:10.1002/ ... In analysis with area data, statistics should be interpreted based upon the boundary. In geographical research, two types of ... In analysis with areal data, statistics should be interpreted based upon the boundary. In spatial analysis, four major problems ...
In statistics, the Lepage test is an exact distribution-free test (nonparametric test) for jointly monitoring the location ( ... The Lepage test statistic is the squared Euclidean distance of standardized Wilcoxon rank-sum test for location and the ... Andreas Schulz and Markus Neuhäuser also provided detailed R code for computation of test statistic and p-value of the Lepage ... The details may be found in the book: Nonparametric statistical tests: A computational approach. Kössler, W. in 2006 also ...
Oja, Hannu (2010). Multivariate Nonparametric Methods with R. Lecture Notes in Statistics. Vol. 199. New York, NY: Springer New ... Nordhausen, Klaus; Oja, Hannu (2018-03-07). "Robust Nonparametric Inference". Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application. ... Oja, Hannu (1983). "Descriptive statistics for multivariate distributions". Statistics & Probability Letters. 1 (6): 327-332. ... "Descriptive statistics for nonparametric models. The impact of some Erich Lehmann's papers", Selected Works of E. L. Lehmann, ...
Stone, Charles J. (1977). "Consistent nonparametric regression". The Annals of Statistics. 5 (4): 595-620. doi:10.1214/aos/ ... Lecture Notes in Statistics, vol. 171. pp. 285-296. ISBN 9780387215792. Hoel, P.; Port, S. C.; Stone, C. J. (1971). ... He was elected a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics in 1970 and a Fellow of the Class of 2013 (announced in ... He then matriculated at Stanford University, where in 1961 he received his PhD in statistics. His PhD thesis Limit Theorems for ...
Kitchens, L.J.(2003). Basic Statistics and Data Analysis. Duxbury. Conover, W. J. (1980). Practical Nonparametric Statistics, ... Mendenhall W, Wackerly DD, Scheaffer RL (1989), "15: Nonparametric statistics", Mathematical statistics with applications ( ... Practical Nonparametric Statistics (Third ed.), Wiley, pp. 157-176, ISBN 0-471-16068-7 Sprent, P. (1989), Applied Nonparametric ... Corder, Gregory W.; Foreman, Dale I. (2014), "3.6 Statistical Power", Nonparametric Statistics: A Step-by-Step Approach (2nd ed ...
In statistics, the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (k-NN) is a non-parametric supervised learning method first developed by ... Stone, Charles J. (1977). "Consistent nonparametric regression". Annals of Statistics. 5 (4): 595-620. doi:10.1214/aos/ ... Nonparametric Discrimination: Consistency Properties (PDF) (Report). USAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. ... Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W. (1992). "Variable kernel density estimation". Annals of Statistics. 20 (3): 1236-1265. doi: ...
Unlike parametric statistics, nonparametric statistics make no assumptions about the probability distributions of the variables ... Nonparametric statistics are values calculated from data in a way that is not based on parameterized families of probability ... Upton, G., Cook, I. (2008) Oxford Dictionary of Statistics, OUP. ISBN 978-0-19-954145-4 "Research Nonparametric Methods". ... inferential statistics - the part of statistics that draws conclusions from data (using some model for the data): For example, ...
Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Robust statistics, Nonparametric statistics). ... an important class of estimators both in nonparametric statistics and in robust statistics. The Hodges-Lehmann estimator was ... In statistics, the Hodges-Lehmann estimator is a robust and nonparametric estimator of a population's location parameter. For ... It is a robust statistic that has a breakdown point of 0.29, which means that the statistic remains bounded even if nearly 30 ...
In probability theory and statistics, empirical likelihood (EL) is a nonparametric method for estimating the parameters of ... Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 22 (2): 237-255. doi:10.1080/10485250903301525. ISSN 1048-5252. S2CID 119684596. Chen, ... Empirical likelihood can naturally be applied in survival analysis or regression problems Bootstrapping (statistics) Jackknife ... The Annals of Statistics. 18 (1). doi:10.1214/aos/1176347494. ISSN 0090-5364. Dong, Lauren Bin; Giles, David E. A. (2007-01-30 ...
Alhakim, A; Hooper, W (2008). "A non-parametric test for several independent samples". Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 20 ... The Wald-Wolfowitz runs test (or simply runs test), named after statisticians Abraham Wald and Jacob Wolfowitz is a non-parametric ... Sprent P, Smeeton NC (2007) Applied Nonparametric Statistical Methods, pp. 217-219. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/ CRC. ...
ISBN 0-387-96119-4. Wasserman, Larry (2006). All of Nonparametric Statistics. New York: Springer. pp. 19-20. ISBN 0-387-25145-6 ... A version of the delta method exists in nonparametric statistics. Let X i ∼ F {\displaystyle X_{i}\sim F} be an independent and ... In statistics, the delta method is a result concerning the approximate probability distribution for a function of an ... ISBN 978-1-4338-0048-1. Doob, J. L. (1935). "The Limiting Distributions of Certain Statistics". Annals of Mathematical ...
ISBN 978-0-387-40080-8. (Factor analysis, Nonparametric statistics). ... Staniswalis, J. G.; Lee, J. J. (1998). "Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Longitudinal Data". Journal of the American ... Li, Y.; Hsing, T. (2010). "Uniform convergence rates for nonparametric regression and principal component analysis in ... The Annals of Statistics. 33 (6): 2873. arXiv:math/0603132. doi:10.1214/009053605000000660. Yao, F.; Müller, H. G.; Wang, J. L ...
Tsybakov, Alexandre B. (2010). Introduction to nonparametric estimation. Springer Series in Statistics. Springer. doi:10.1007/ ... It is used in statistics and machine learning to prove information-theoretic lower bounds relying on hypothesis testing Let P ...
In statistics, the Cucconi test is a nonparametric test for jointly comparing central tendency and variability (detecting ... Marozzi, Marco (2009). "Some Notes on the Location-Scale Cucconi Test". Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 21 (5): 629-647. ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Nonparametric statistics). ... The Cucconi test is based on the following statistic: CUC = U 2 + V 2 − 2 ρ U V 2 ( 1 − ρ 2 ) . {\displaystyle {\text{CUC}}={\ ...
Spurrier, J. D. (2003). "On the null distribution of the Kruskal-Wallis statistic". Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 15 (6 ... Siegel; Castellan (1988). Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (Second ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN ... Corder, Gregory W.; Foreman, Dale I. (2009). Nonparametric Statistics for Non-Statisticians. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 99 ... Applied Nonparametric Statistics (2nd ed.). Boston: PWS-Kent. pp. 226-234. ISBN 0-534-91976-6. An online version of the test ( ...
Wasserman, Larry (2005). All of Nonparametric Statistics. (Point estimation performance). ... In statistics, Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) is an unbiased estimator of the mean-squared error of "a nearly arbitrary ... Stein, Charles M. (November 1981). "Estimation of the Mean of a Multivariate Normal Distribution". The Annals of Statistics. 9 ...
Good, P. I. (1992). "Globally almost most powerful tests for censored data". Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 1 (3): 253- ... Common Errors in Statistics (and How to Avoid Them) (with J. Hardin), Wiley, 2003 (4th edition, 2012). Applying Statistics in ... Introduction to Statistics Using Resampling Methods and R/S-Plus. Wiley, 2005 (2nd edition, 2012). Introduction to Statistics ... His chief contributions to statistics are in the area of small sample statistics, including a uniformly most powerful unbiased ...
Robust nonparametric statistical methods. Kendall's Library of Statistics. Vol. 5 (First ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc ... The test statistics of this derived linear model are closely approximated by the test statistics of an appropriate normal ... Citations from Moore & McCabe (2003): "Analysis of variance uses F statistics, but these are not the same as the F statistic ... Resampling and nonparametric approaches to data) Montgomery (2001, Section 3-10: Nonparametric methods in the analysis of ...
Many of his publications are related to rank-based nonparametric statistics. For example, an examination of the robustness and ... Hettmansperger, T. P.; McKean, J. W. (1998). Robust nonparametric statistical methods. Kendall's Library of Statistics. Vol. 5 ... 1990 Nonparametric tests of interaction in experimental design. Review of Educational Research, 60, 91-126. 1989 (With R. C. ... Journal of Educational Statistics, 14, 255-267. After graduating from the Rabbinical College of America in 1979, Sawilowsky was ...
Winkler, G.; Liebscher, V. (2002). "Smoothers for discontinuous signals". Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 14 (1-2): 203- ... In statistics and signal processing, step detection (also known as step smoothing, step filtering, shift detection, jump ... 2008). "Complexity penalized M-estimation: fast computation". Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics. 17 (1): 201- ...
Siegal, Sidney (1956). Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill. p. 121. Lehmann, Erich; D'Abrera, ... MATLAB has ranksum in its Statistics Toolbox. R's statistics base-package implements the test wilcox.test in its "stats" ... Corder, G.W.; Foreman, D.I. (2014). Nonparametric Statistics: A Step-by-Step Approach. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118840313. Hodges, J.L ... Conover, William J.; Iman, Ronald L. (1981). "Rank Transformations as a Bridge Between Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics ...
Statistical tests, Nonparametric statistics). ... In statistics, the Tukey-Duckworth test is a two-sample ...
Springer Series in Statistics. Springer, New York, 2009. xii+214 pp. ISBN 978-0-387-79051-0, Equation 2.25. Tsybakov, Alexandre ... Introduction to nonparametric estimation, Revised and extended from the 2004 French original. Translated by Vladimir Zaiats. ... 2009). Introduction to Nonparametric Estimation. Springer. p. 132. ISBN 9780387790527. The divergence becomes infinite whenever ...
Nonparametric statistics is the area of statistics that deals with data which either does not have a probability distribution ... Nonparametric statistics. Last revised by Candace Makeda Moore ◉ on 10 Sep 2020 ... Nonparametric tests are often practically very useful when a data sets distribution is unknown e.g. when testing the ... Moore C, Nonparametric statistics. Reference article, Radiopaedia.org (Accessed on 21 Sep 2023) https://doi.org/10.53347/rID- ...
Advanced Statistics in Education and Psychology: Parametric and Nonparametric ...
HA 29 56SI Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences / HA 29 63HO Statistics for medical students / HA 29 67BU ... Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences / Sidney Siegel. By: Siegel, SidneyMaterial type: TextPublication details ... HA 29 53CR Elementary statistics with applications in medicine / ... Details for: Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral ... New York : McGraw-Hill, 1956. Description: 312 pSubject(s): StatisticsNLM classification: HA 29 ...
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Access Statistics for this article. Journal of Economics and Finance is currently edited by James Payne More articles in ... Differences of opinion and stock market volatility: evidence from a nonparametric causality-in-quantiles approach. Mehmet ... Unlike the result of no predictability obtained under the misspecified linear set-up, our nonparametric causality-in-quantiles ... Working Paper: Differences of Opinion and Stock Market Volatility: Evidence from a Nonparametric Causality-in-Quantiles ...
Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 1988. ... The standard test statistic for the difference in proportions between men and women was computed on the basis of pooled ...
Descriptive statistics for the culture analysis of the dry and wet swab, wipe, and HEPA vacuum sock samples are shown in Table ... Nonparametric statistical methods. 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 1999. p. 394-408. ... Sample summary statistics for Bacillus anthracis culture analysis, Brentwood Mail Processing and Distribution Center, December ... Sample levels (CFU/cm2) were analyzed by simple descriptive statistics, including sample median and range. Spearmans rank ...
Francesca obtained her PhD in Statistics at the University of Oxford in 2022. For further details, see her website. ... Bayesian nonparametric disclosure risk assessment. Article. Author(s) Favaro, Stefano, Panero, Francesca and Rigon, Tommaso ...
Non-parametric Physiological Classification of Retinal Ganglion Cells in the Mouse Retina. Jonathan Jouty1 Gerrit Hilgen2 ... Tibshirani, R., Walther, G., and Hastie, T. (2001). Estimating the number of clusters in a data set via the gap statistic. J. R ... Hence the gap statistic may be a measure too conservative to reliably assess data with potentially highly imbalanced clusters. ... A) The Gap statistic for the two spike distance metrics, computed for the full field and chirp stimulus, as a function of the ...
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Descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used to analyse data. Findings The results showed that the academics ... 9. Nonparametric Statistics. 10. Measuring Research Variables. Part III: Various Types of Research. 11. Experimental and Quasi- ... Therefore, there was a dire need to conduct the psychometric analysis of the scale to examine the model fit statistics on the ... SPSS-19 was utilized for testing the reliability of the instrument, as well as descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi- ...
"On Determining the Dimension of Real-Time Stock Price Data." Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 10, no. 3 (July 1992). ... "Nonparametric Estimation of the Correlation Exponent." Physical Review, A (1991). View Details ... "On Determining the Dimension of Real-Time Stock Price Data." Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 10, no. 3 (July 1992). ... "Nonparametric Estimation of the Correlation Exponent." Physical Review, A (1991). View Details ...
STAT 545 Nonparametric Statistics - Covers many standard nonparametric methods of analysis. Methods will be compared with one ... Statistics Service Courses * Topics in Graduate Statistics Programming Courses * Topics in Graduate Statistics Service Courses ... Computational Science & Statistics (Ph.D.) - Statistics Specialization * Statistics Minor * Mathematics Minor * Data Science ... Master of Science in Statistics * Computational Science and Statistics Ph.D. * For Current Graduate Students * Research * ...
9313 Kernel estimation in a nonparametric marker dependent Hazard Model. by Oliver LINTON * 9312 Applied nonparametric methods ... 9321 Negative bias in the H-H-statistic. by Christian RITTER * 9316 A simple and fast method of regime shifts detection based ... 9303 Applied nonparametric smoothing techniques. by Wolfgang HAERDLE & Marlene MUELLER * 9302 Iterated bootstrap with ...
Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, to appear.. * Wang, H., Peng, B., Li, D., and Leng, C. (2020). Nonparametric ... Statistics and Its Interface, 8, 255-266.. *Zhang, W., Leng, C., and Tang, C. Y. (2015). A joint modeling approach for ... The Annals of Statistics, 41, 2639-2667.. *Leng, C. and Tong, X. (2013). A quantile regression estimator for censored data ( ... Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics, 18, 201-215.. *Wang, H. and Leng, C. (2007). Unified Lasso estimation via ...
Supports quantities across probability and statistics functionality, fully automating conversion, propagation, transformations ... Use quantity data to build nonparametric distributions.. *Use quantity formulas and parameters in derived distributions. ... Quantities in Probability & Statistics. Version 11 supports quantities across the probability and statistics functionality, ... Support for quantities across the probability and statistics framework. ». *Support for quantities in descriptive statistics. » ...
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Empirically, nonparametric plots are equivalent to Fig. 4 (see Figs. 5, 6, 7 in the "Appendix") when running the second stage ... Summary statistics on the number of sessions per program and the number of learners per program are provided in Table 1. ... We do so in a nonparametric manner as a linear, a parabolic, or even a Fourier relationship (Schiltz and De Witte 2017) might ... The first panel of Table 1 reports summary statistics for the input and the outputs. As an input, we consider the cost per ...
stats. - the corpus level statistics.. freq. - the term frequency.. docLen. - the document length.. Returns:. the score.. ... DFI is both parameter-free and non-parametric: *parameter-free: it does not require any parameter tuning or training. ... non-parametric: it does not make any assumptions about word frequency distributions on document collections. ... Implements the Divergence from Independence (DFI) model based on Chi-square statistics (i.e., standardized Chi-squared distance ...
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Analysis of variance (ANOVA), non - parametric ANOVA.. Corelation, linear regression.. Syllabus. *Introduction to statistics, ... Parametric and non - parametric methods.. *Application of goodness-of-fit test in biology, analysis of R x C contingency tables ... Descriptive statistics, data visualisation.. Tables of distribution functions.. Introduction to sampling design and ... Petrie, A., Watson, P. (2006) Statistics for Veterinary and Animal Science, Wiley-Blackwell; 2nd ed *Zar, J.H. (1998) ...
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The regional causes of death were analyzed by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis statistics. A total of 1,323 logging industry deaths ... NIOSH-Author; Epidemiology; Logging-workers; Mortality-data; Occupational-accidents; Accident-analysis; Accident-statistics; ...
  • Nonparametric tests are often practically very useful when a data set's distribution is unknown e.g. when testing the correlation between two variables for a regression, it is often inappropriate to assume the variables studied are normally distributed, and therefore a Pearson's correlation is inappropriate and the Spearman rank correlation would be the non-parametric test that could be applied to such data. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Advanced EEG analysis using threshold-free cluster-enhancement and non-parametric statistics. (crossref.org)
  • The motions improved for download Introduction to Nonparametric Estimation (Springer Series in Statistics) cardsBusiness must halt outer to include the cyclophilin oxidized by metastable world" to the laser protein. (robertfischer.name)
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  • Nonparametric Estimation of the Correlation Exponent. (hbs.edu)
  • Nonparametric estimation of large covariance matrices with conditional sparsity. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Bayesian nonparametric clustering in phylogenetics: modeling antigenic evolution in influenza. (cdc.gov)
  • Participaron 520 jóvenes: 246 estudiantes de bachillerato y universidad en el año 2020, durante el confinamiento y 274, search, writing, revision and en 2022. (bvsalud.org)
  • Discussion of 'Statistical modelling of citation exchange between statistics journals' by Varin, Cattelan and Firth, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, 179, 54. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • It offers a vital tool for understanding spatial statistics and surveys how concerns about violating the independent observations assumption of statistical analysis developed into this discipline. (e-elgar.com)
  • In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. (bvsalud.org)
  • This Advanced Introduction provides a critical review and discussion of research concerning spatial statistics, differentiating between it and spatial econometrics, to answer a set of core questions covering the geographic-tagging-of-data origins of the concept and its theoretical underpinnings, conceptual advances, and challenges for future scholarly work. (e-elgar.com)
  • The helpful insights from empirical applications of spatial statistics in agronomy, criminology, demography, economics, epidemiology, geography, remotely sensed data, urban studies, and zoology/botany, will make this book a useful tool for upper-level students in these disciplines. (e-elgar.com)
  • With widespread and increasingly available georeferenced data, this book offers a timely assessment of contemporary methods, models, and metrics-such as the eigenvector spatial filtering approach to handling spatial autocorrelation-in spatial statistics. (e-elgar.com)
  • An advanced introduction to spatial statistics: motivation and scope 2. (e-elgar.com)
  • Support for quantities in descriptive statistics. (wolfram.com)
  • Descriptive statistics, data visualisation. (muni.cz)
  • Implements the Divergence from Independence (DFI) model based on Chi-square statistics (i.e., standardized Chi-squared distance from independence in term frequency tf). (apache.org)
  • Nonparametric statistics is the area of statistics that deals with data which either does not have a probability distribution or that does not have the distribution's parameters specified. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Version 11 supports quantities across the probability and statistics functionality, fully automating conversion, propagation, and transformations - from data to models to correct interpretation. (wolfram.com)
  • Use quantity data to build nonparametric distributions. (wolfram.com)
  • An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. (bvsalud.org)
  • His articles have been published in a variety of academic journals, including the Journal of Financial Economics , the Journal of Business and Economic Statistics , the Journal of Economics and Business , and the Physical Review A . Professor Mayfield has also written numerous case studies on a range of valuation, financing, and strategic decision making topics. (hbs.edu)
  • Abstract This paper examines whether the differences of opinion across active money managers relates to stock market volatility via the recently proposed nonparametric causality-in-quantiles test. (repec.org)
  • Unlike the result of no predictability obtained under the misspecified linear set-up, our nonparametric causality-in-quantiles test indicates that dispersion in active managers' risk exposures to the stock market can predict volatility over the range of quantiles that correspond to moderately high levels of market volatility. (repec.org)
  • Journal of Business & Economic Statistics 10, no. 3 (July 1992). (hbs.edu)
  • Journal of Business and Economic Statistics, to appear. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Introduction to statistics, testing of hypotheses. (muni.cz)
  • Francesca obtained her PhD in Statistics at the University of Oxford in 2022. (lse.ac.uk)
  • Unlike = parametric statistics, nonparametric statistics make no assumptions about t= he probability distributions of the variables being assessed. (nylxs.com)
  • In one-sample tests, combination of contrast estimates into a random-effects General Linear Model or non-parametric statistics provide a good approximation of the reference approach. (biorxiv.org)
  • Nonparametric regression analysis of data from the Ames mutagenicity assay. (nih.gov)
  • We study yet another approach, the application of nonparametric regression techniques, not as the ultimate solution but rather as a framework within which to address some of the shortcomings of other methods. (nih.gov)
  • But nonparametric regression is itself prone to difficulties when applied to Ames assay data, as we show through the use of two examples and some simulation studies. (nih.gov)
  • We compare the performance of TDI using nonparametric quantile regression to the TDI assuming normality (Lin, 2000). (nih.gov)
  • Monotone nonparametric regression and confidence intervals. (nih.gov)
  • An introduction to the basic ideas and techniques of probability theory and to selected topics in statistics, such as sampling theory, confidence intervals, and linear regression. (juniata.edu)
  • Introduction to traditional statistical concepts including descriptive statistics, binomial and normal probability models, confidence intervals, tests of hypotheses, linear correlation and regression, two-way contingency tables, and one-way analysis of variance. (juniata.edu)
  • This course covers basic descriptive and inferential statistics, normal curve and z-score computations, and addresses hypothesis testing using Chi-Square, T-Test, ANOVA, and linear regression modelling. (juniata.edu)
  • He was Editor of Biometrika (2008-2017), Joint Editor of Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, series B (2000-2003), editor of the IMS Lecture Notes Monograph Series (2007), Associate Editor of Biometrika (1987-1999), and Associate Editor of the Brazilian Journal of Probability and Statistics (1987 2006). (epfl.ch)
  • Nonparametric statistics are statistics not based on parameterized famili= es of probability distributions. (nylxs.com)
  • His main research interests are statistics of extremes, likelihood asymptotics, bootstrap and other resampling methods, and statistical modelling, with a particular focus on the first currently. (epfl.ch)
  • She developed nonparametric and semiparametric methods to simultaneously analyze multiple time-to-event outcomes, to facilitate risk assessment of multiple diseases across individual's lifespan. (nih.gov)
  • This course offers an in-depth exploration of the fundamental principles in statistics and the primary methods employed to identify and measure disease and associated risks. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • This short course provides an introduction to the basic concepts in statistics and the main epidemiological methods used to identify and quantify disease and associated risks. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Computational Statistics & Data Analysis , 89:1-11, 2015. (nih.gov)
  • Restriction B: Not open to students who have taken or are taking MATH 123 , except by permission of the Department of Mathematics and Statistics. (mcgill.ca)
  • Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : Review of functions and graphs. (mcgill.ca)
  • Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : The definite integral. (mcgill.ca)
  • When image data is available for each study, a number of approaches have been proposed to perform such meta-analysis including combination of standardised statistics, just effect estimates or both effects estimates and their sampling variance. (biorxiv.org)
  • This course introduces the student to the emerging field of data science through the presentation of basic math and statistics principles, an introduction to the computer tools and software commonly used to perform the data analytics, and a general overview of the machine learning techniques commonly applied to datasets for knowledge discovery. (juniata.edu)
  • We want to conduct some meaningful and fruitful research into multivariate nonparametric econometrics. (cas.cz)
  • Moreover, by focusing on excess risk rather than parameter estimation, we can provide rates under weaker assumptions than in previous works and accommodate settings in which the target parameter belongs to a complex nonparametric class. (projecteuclid.org)
  • I tried using Montecarlo simulations, however I am not sure whether this is the correct approach, since my statistics where non-parametric. (nih.gov)
  • He is an elected Fellow of the American Statistical Assocation and of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, an elected member of the International Statistical Institute, and a Chartered Statistician. (epfl.ch)
  • Statistics in medicine , 32(19):3342-3356, 2013. (nih.gov)
  • Statistics in medicine , 31(9):855-870, 2012. (nih.gov)
  • Currently he on the editorial board of Annual Reviews of Statistics and its Applications. (epfl.ch)
  • Communications in Statistics-Simulation and Computation ® , 39(4):828-845, 2010. (nih.gov)
  • He has served on committees of Royal Statistical Society and of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics. (epfl.ch)
  • In 2015 he received the Guy Medal in Silver of the Royal Statistical Society and in 2018 was a Medallion Lecturer of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics. (epfl.ch)
  • They include both descriptive and inferent= ial statistics. (nylxs.com)