A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A family composed of spouses and their children.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A type of analysis in which subjects in a study group and a comparison group are made comparable with respect to extraneous factors by individually pairing study subjects with the comparison group subjects (e.g., age-matched controls).
The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
An examination of chemicals in the blood.
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
All deaths reported in a given population.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.
The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.

Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparison of outside-in and all-inside techniques. (1/11504)

The aim of this prospective study was to compare two arthroscopic techniques for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament, the "outside-in" (two incisions) and the "all-inside" (one incision) techniques. The results obtained for 30 patients operated on using the "outside-in" technique (group I) were compared with those for 29 patients operated on using the "all-inside" technique (group II). Before surgery, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, patellofemoral pain score, or knee laxity. Both groups displayed significant improvements in Lysholm score after 24 months, from 69 (16) to 91 (9) in group I and from 70 (17) to 90 (15) in group II (means (SD)). There were also significant improvements in patellofemoral pain scores in both groups, from 13 (6) to 18 (5) in group I and from 14 (6) to 18 (4) in group II after 24 months. No difference was found between the groups in knee stability at the 24 month follow up. The IKDC score was identical in both groups at follow up. The operation took significantly longer for patients in group I (mean 94 (15)) than for those in group II (mean 86 (20)) (p = 0.03). The mean sick leave was 7.7 (6.2) weeks in group I and 12.3 (9.7) weeks in group II (p = 0.026), indicating that there may be a higher morbidity associated with the "all-inside" technique. It can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the two different techniques in terms of functional results, knee laxity, or postoperative complications. The results were satisfactory and the outcome was similar in both treatment groups.  (+info)

Statistical inference by confidence intervals: issues of interpretation and utilization. (2/11504)

This article examines the role of the confidence interval (CI) in statistical inference and its advantages over conventional hypothesis testing, particularly when data are applied in the context of clinical practice. A CI provides a range of population values with which a sample statistic is consistent at a given level of confidence (usually 95%). Conventional hypothesis testing serves to either reject or retain a null hypothesis. A CI, while also functioning as a hypothesis test, provides additional information on the variability of an observed sample statistic (ie, its precision) and on its probable relationship to the value of this statistic in the population from which the sample was drawn (ie, its accuracy). Thus, the CI focuses attention on the magnitude and the probability of a treatment or other effect. It thereby assists in determining the clinical usefulness and importance of, as well as the statistical significance of, findings. The CI is appropriate for both parametric and nonparametric analyses and for both individual studies and aggregated data in meta-analyses. It is recommended that, when inferential statistical analysis is performed, CIs should accompany point estimates and conventional hypothesis tests wherever possible.  (+info)

Comparison of in vivo and in vitro tests of resistance in patients treated with chloroquine in Yaounde, Cameroon. (3/11504)

The usefulness of an isotopic in vitro assay in the field was evaluated by comparing its results with the therapeutic response determined by the simplified WHO in vivo test in symptomatic Cameroonian patients treated with chloroquine. Of the 117 enrolled patients, 102 (87%) completed the 14-day follow-up, and 95 isolates obtained from these patients (46 children, 49 adults) yielded an interpretable in vitro test. A total of 57 of 95 patients (60%; 28 children and 29 adults) had an adequate clinical response with negative smears (n = 46) or with an asymptomatic parasitaemia (n = 11) on day 7 and/or day 14. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration of the isolates obtained from these patients was 63.3 nmol/l. Late and early treatment failure was observed in 29 (30.5%) and 9 (9.5%) patients, respectively. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations of the corresponding isolates were 173 nmol/l and 302 nmol/l. Among the patients responding with late and early treatment failure, five isolates and one isolate, respectively, yielded a discordant result (in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the in vitro test to detect chloroquine-sensitive cases was 67%, 84% and 86%, respectively. There was moderate concordance between the in vitro and in vivo tests (kappa value = 0.48). The in vitro assay agrees relatively well with the therapeutic response and excludes several host factors that influence the results of the in vivo test. However, in view of some discordant results, the in vitro test cannot substitute for in vivo data on therapeutic efficacy. The only reliable definition of "resistance" in malaria parasites is based on clinical and parasitological response in symptomatic patients, and the in vivo test provides the standard method to determine drug sensitivity or resistance as well as to guide national drug policies.  (+info)

Elevated hepatic lipase activity and low levels of high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population. (4/11504)

Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and, in the United States, are often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In Turkey, low HDL-C levels are highly prevalent, 53% of men and 26% of women having HDL-C levels <35 mg/dl, in the absence of hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In this study to investigate the cause of low HDL-C levels in Turks, various factors affecting HDL metabolism were assessed in normotriglyceridemic Turkish men and women living in Istanbul and in non-Turkish men and women living in San Francisco. Turkish men and women had significantly lower HDL-C levels than the San Francisco men and women, as well as markedly lower apolipoprotein A-I levels (25 and 39 mg/dl lower, respectively). In both Turkish and non-Turkish subjects, the mean body mass index was <27 kg/m2, the mean triglyceride level was <120 mg/dl, and the mean total cholesterol was 170-180 mg/dl. The mean hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was 21% and 31% higher in Turkish men and women, respectively, than in non-Turkish men and women, and remained higher even after subjects with a body mass index >50th percentile for men and women in the United States were excluded from the analysis. As no dietary or behavioral factors have been identified in the Turkish population that account for increased hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, the elevation most likely has a genetic basis. high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population.  (+info)

Results of three to 10 year follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve. (5/11504)

BACKGROUND: The results of immediate and short term follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve have been well documented, but there is limited information on long term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of three to 10 year follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve in children and adolescents. SETTING: Tertiary care centre/university hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS AND RESULTS: 85 patients (aged between 1 day and 20 years, mean (SD) 7.0 (6.4) years) underwent balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve during an 11 year period ending August 1994. There was a resultant reduction in the peak to peak gradient from 87 (38) to 26 (22) mm Hg. Immediate surgical intervention was not required. Residual gradients of 29 (17) mm Hg were measured by catheterisation (n = 47) and echo Doppler (n = 82) at intermediate term follow up (two years). When individual results were scrutinised, nine of 82 patients had restenosis, defined as a peak gradient of 50 mm Hg or more. Seven of these patients underwent repeat balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve: peak gradients were reduced from 89 (40) to 38 (20) mm Hg. Clinical evaluation and echo Doppler data of 80 patients showed that residual peak instantaneous Doppler gradients were 17 (15) mm Hg at long term follow up (three to 10 years, median seven), with evidence for late restenosis in one patient (1.3%). Surgical intervention was necessary to relieve fixed infundibular stenosis in three patients and supravalvar pulmonary stenosis in one. Repeat balloon dilatation was performed to relieve restenosis in two patients. Actuarial reintervention free rates at one, two, five, and 10 years were 94%, 89%, 88%, and 84%, respectively. Pulmonary valve regurgitation was noted in 70 of 80 patients at late follow up, but neither right ventricular dilatation nor paradoxical interventricular septal motion developed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of late follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve are excellent. Repeat balloon dilatation was performed in 11% of patients and surgical intervention for subvalvlar or supravalvar stenosis in 5%. Most patients had mild residual pulmonary regurgitation but right ventricular volume overload was not required. Balloon dilatation is the treatment of choice in the management of moderate to severe stenosis of the pulmonary valve. Further follow up studies should be undertaken to evaluate the significance of residual pulmonary regurgitation.  (+info)

Cyclical etidronate increases bone density in the spine and hip of postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study. (6/11504)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of cyclic etidronate in secondary prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. METHODS: A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study comparing cyclic etidronate and placebo during two years in 37 postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment, mainly for polymyalgia rheumatica (40% of the patients) and rheumatoid arthritis (30%). Bone density was measured in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. RESULTS: After two years of treatment there was a significant difference between the groups in mean per cent change from baseline in bone density in the spine in favour of etidronate (p = 0.003). The estimated treatment difference (mean (SD)) was 9.3 (2.1)%. Etidronate increased bone density in the spine (4.9 (2.1)%, p < 0.05) whereas the placebo group lost bone (-2.4 (1.6)%). At the femoral neck there was an estimated difference of 5.3 (2.6)% between the groups (etidronate: 3.6% (1.4)%, p < 0.05, placebo: -2.4 (2.1)%). The estimated difference at the trochanter was 8.2 (3.0) (etidronate: 9.0 (1.5)%, p < 0.0001, placebo: 0.5 (2.3)%). No significant bone loss occurred in the hip in placebo treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic etidronate is an effective treatment for postmenopausal women receiving corticosteroid treatment and is well tolerated.  (+info)

Progression from colorectal adenoma to carcinoma is associated with non-random chromosomal gains as detected by comparative genomic hybridisation. (7/11504)

AIMS: Chromosomal gains and losses were surveyed by comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) in a series of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, in search of high risk genomic changes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: Nine colorectal adenomas and 14 carcinomas were analysed by CGH, and DNA ploidy was assessed with both flow and image cytometry. RESULTS: In the nine adenomas analysed, an average of 6.6 (range 1 to 11) chromosomal aberrations were identified. In the 14 carcinomas an average of 11.9 (range 5 to 17) events were found per tumour. In the adenomas the number of gains and losses was in balance (3.6 v 3.0) while in carcinomas gains occurred more often than losses (8.2 v 3.7). Frequent gains involved 13q, 7p, 8q, and 20q, whereas losses most often occurred at 18q, 4q, and 8p. Gains of 13q, 8q, and 20q, and loss of 18q occurred more often in carcinomas than in adenomas (p = 0.005, p = 0.05, p = 0.05, and p = 0.02, respectively). Aneuploid tumours showed more gains than losses (mean 9.3 v 4.9, p = 0.02), in contrast to diploid tumours where gains and losses were nearly balanced (mean 3.1 v 4.1, p = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: The most striking difference between chromosomal aberrations in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as detected by CGH, is an increased number of chromosomal gains that show a nonrandom distribution. Gains of 13q and also of 20q and 8q seem especially to be involved in the progression of adenomas to carcinomas, possibly owing to low level overexpression of oncogenes at these loci.  (+info)

Effect of 5-HT4 receptor stimulation on the pacemaker current I(f) in human isolated atrial myocytes. (8/11504)

OBJECTIVE: 5-HT4 receptors are present in human atrial cells and their stimulation has been implicated in the genesis of atrial arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation. An I(f)-like current has been recorded in human atrial myocytes, where it is modulated by beta-adrenergic stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on I(f) electrophysiological properties, in order to get an insight into the possible contribution of I(f) to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atria. METHODS: Human atrial myocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion from samples of atrial appendage of patients undergoing coeffective cardiac surgery. Patch-clamped cells were superfused with a modified Tyrode's solution in order to amplify I(f) and reduce overlapping currents. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A time-dependent, cesium-sensitive increasing inward current, that we had previously described having the electrophysiological properties of the pacemaker current I(f), was elicited by negative steps (-60 to -130 mV) from a holding potential of -40 mV. Boltzmann fit of control activation curves gave a midpoint (V1/2) of -88.9 +/- 2.6 mV (n = 14). 5-HT (1 microM) consistently caused a positive shift of V1/2 of 11.0 +/- 2.0 mV (n = 8, p < 0.001) of the activation curve toward less negative potentials, thus increasing the amount of current activated by clamp steps near the physiological maximum diastolic potential of these cells. The effect was dose-dependent, the EC50 being 0.14 microM. Maximum current amplitude was not changed by 5-HT. 5-HT did not increase I(f) amplitude when the current was maximally activated by cAMP perfused into the cell. The selective 5-HT4 antagonists, DAU 6285 (10 microM) and GR 125487 (1 microM), completely prevented the effect of 5-HT on I(f). The shift of V1/2 caused by 1 microM 5-HT in the presence of DAU 6285 or GR 125487 was 0.3 +/- 1 mV (n = 6) and 1.0 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 5), respectively (p < 0.01 versus 5-HT alone). The effect of 5-HT4 receptor blockade was specific, since neither DAU 6285 nor GR 125487 prevented the effect of 1 microM isoprenaline on I(f). Thus, 5-HT4 stimulation increases I(f) in human atrial myocytes; this effect may contribute to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atrium.  (+info)

We propose two nonparametric tests for investigating the pathwise properties of a signal modeled as the sum of a Lévy process and a Brownian semimartingale. Using a nonparametric threshold estimator for the continuous component of the quadratic variation, we design a test for the presence of a continuous martingale component in the process and a test for establishing whether the jumps have finite or infinite variation, based on observations on a discrete-time grid. We evaluate the performance of our tests using simulations of various stochastic models and use the tests to investigate the fine structure of the DM/USD exchange rate fluctuations and SPX futures prices. In both cases, our tests reveal the presence of a non-zero Brownian component and a finite variation jump component.
View Notes - Section 8.5 from STT 351 at Michigan State University. Section 8.5 A Nonparametric Test The two-sample t-test even for the normal populations may not be the best or the most powerful
By Kiho Jeong, Wolfgang Härdle and Song Song; Abstract: This paper proposes a nonparametric test of Granger causality in quantile. Zheng (1998, Econometric Theory 14, 123-138)
Abstract: We reanalyze the effects of a Danish active labour market program social experiment, that included a range of sub-treatments, including monitoring, job search assistance and training. Previous studies have shown that the overall effect of the experiment is positive. We apply newly developed non-parametric methods to determine which of the individual policies that explains the positive effect. The use of non-parametric methods to separate sub-treatment effects is important from a methodological point of view, since the alternative, namely parametric/distributional assumptions, is in conflict with the concept of experimental evidence. Our results are highly relevant in a policy perspective, as optimal labour market policy design requires knowledge on the effectiveness of specific policy measures. Keywords: Active labour market policy; treatment effect; non-parametric bounds JEL-codes: C14; C41; C93 29 pages, June 27, 2011 Full text files ...
check the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or the matched-pairs Wilcoxon rank-sum test. mDC-mediated and cell-free infections (> .05 Wilcoxon matched-pairs rank-sum test). This suggests that the amounts of infectious virus in the assay were similar in mDC-mediated and cell-free infections. Figure 1. Target cells were exposed to Ammonium Glycyrrhizinate (AMGZ) similar amounts of infectious virus when… Read Article →. ...
This free online software (calculator) computes various types of parametric and non-parametric tests for comparing the means of two paired or unpaired samples: classical Paired Two Sample t-Test, classical Unpaired Two Sample t-Test, Welch t-Test, Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test, and Wilcoxon Rank-Sum Test (Mann-Whitney U Test).
In an effort to widen the area of applicability of the self-consistent estimator of a bivariate survival distribution developed earlier to more complex situations, the following situation of double censoring was considered. The Nonparametric Estimation of a Bivariate Survivorship Function with Doubly Censored Data: Frequently are doubly censored-that is, some of the data may be censored on the left (late entries) some on the right (losses) while some others may be uncensored (deaths). Keywords: Computations, Iterations. (kr)*BIVARIATE ANALYSIS
TY - JOUR. T1 - Constrained topological mapping for nonparametric regression analysis. AU - Cherkassky, Vladimir S. AU - Lari-Najafi, Hossein. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - The idea of using Kohonens self-organizing maps is applied to the problem of nonparametric regression analysis, that is, evaluation (approximation) of the unknown function of N-1 variables given a number of data points (possibly corrupted by random noise) in N-dimensional input space. Simple examples show that the original Kohonens algorithm performs poorly for regression problems of even low dimensionality, due to the fact that topologically correct ordering of units in N-dimensional space may violate the natural topological ordering of projections of those units onto (N-1)-dimensional subspace of independent variables. A modification of the original algorithm called the constrained topological mapping algorithm is proposed for regression analysis applications. Given a number of data points in N-dimensional input space, the ...
Incorporates Mixed Effects Modeling Techniques For More Powerful And Efficient Methods This Book Presents Current And Effective Nonparametric Regression Techniques For Longitudinal Data Analysis And Systematically Investigates The Incorporation Of Mixed Effects Modeling Techniques Into Various Nonparametric Regression Models
The distribution of levels of DIM will be summarized by treatment arm with descriptive statistics. For the primary comparison between the placebo group and the DIM groups combined, tissue levels of DIM will be compared using Student t-test. In the case of violation of normality assumptions, an appropriate transformation of the data such as logarithm will be considered or a nonparametric test such as Wilcoxon rank-sum test will be used for comparison. A dose-response relation will be explored based on the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA ...
New test statistics are proposed for testing whether two random vectors are independent. Gieser and Randles, as well as Taskinen, Kankainen, and Oja have introduced and discussed multivariate extensions of the quadrant test of Blomqvist. This article serves as a sequel to this work and presents new multivariate extensions of Kendalls tau and Spearmans rho statistics. Two different approaches are discussed. First, interdirection proportions are used to estimate the cosines of angles between centered observation vectors and between differences of observation vectors. Second, covariances between affine-equivariant multivariate signs and ranks are used. The test statistics arising from these two approaches appear to be asymptotically equivalent if each vector is elliptically symmetric. The spatial sign versions are easy to compute for data in common dimensions, and they provide practical, robust alternatives to normal-theory methods. Asymptotic theory is developed to approximate the finite-sample ...
Email. Saratoga socialite and Thoroughbred owner Marylou Whitney is recuperating on her Kentucky estate after suffering a minor stroke on Memorial Day. The stroke has forced Whitney to cancel her popular Whitney Ball, held annually the eve of the Whitney Handicap at Saratoga. I debated whether to maintain my Saratoga schedule, because I did not want to let anyone down, Whitney said in a statement released by her husband, John Hendrickson. But, after talking with John and my doctors, I decided I must look after my health first. Im sorry, Im really sorry. In her statement, Whitney said that doctors are optimistic that I will make a 100-percent recovery, and I plan on resuming my parties and events next year. Hendrickson said Whitney would make an appearance at some point during the Saratoga meet. Saratoga is so deep in her soul, Hendrickson said Tuesday by phone. She just has to be there. The thought of being back in Saratoga gives me great inspiration to get better, Whitney said in ...
Principal Investigator:HITOMI Kohtaro, Project Period (FY):2002 - 2004, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Economic statistics
We propose a new measure of proximity of samples based on confidence limits for the bulk of a population constructed using order statistics. For this measure of
The statistic-options specify which exact tests to compute. Table 83.3 lists the available statistic-options and the exact statistics that are computed. Descriptions of the statistic-options follow Table 83.3 in alphabetical order. Exact p-values are available for all nonparametric tests of location and scale differences that are produced by PROC NPAR1WAY. These include tests based on the following scores: Wilcoxon, median, Van der Waerden (normal), Savage, Siegel-Tukey, Ansari-Bradley, Klotz, Mood, and Conover. Additionally, exact p-values are available for tests that use the raw input data as scores. The procedure computes exact p-values when the data are classified into two levels (two-sample tests) and when the data are classified into more than two levels (multisample tests). Two-sample tests are based on simple linear rank statistics. Multisample tests are based on one-way ANOVA statistics. Exact p-values are also available for the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Exact confidence ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! In this paper, we consider American option contracts when the underlying asset has stochastic dividends and stochastic volatility. We provide a full discussion of the theoretical foundations of American option valuation and exercise boundaries. We show how they depend on the various sources of uncertainty which drive dividend rates and volatility, and derive equilibrium asset prices, derivative prices and optimal exercise boundaries in a general equilibrium model. The theoretical models yield fairly complex expressions which are difficult to estimate. We therefore adopt a nonparametric approach which enables us to investigate reduced forms. Indeed, we use nonparametric methods to estimate call prices and exercise boundaries conditional on dividends and volatility. Since the latter is a latent process, we propose several approaches, notably using EGARCH filtered estimates, implied and historical volatilities. The nonparametric approach allows us to test whether call
Downloadable! The issue of production function estimation has received recent attention, particularly in agricultural economics with the advent of precision farming. Yet, the evidence to date is far from unanimous on the proper form of the production function. This paper reexamines the use of the primal production function framework using nonparametric regression techniques. Specifically, the paper demonstrates how a nonparametric regression based on a kernel density estimator can be used to estimate a production function using data on corn production from Illinois and Indiana. Nonparametric results are compared to common parametric specifications using the Nadaraya-Watson kernel regression estimator. The parametric and nonparametric forms are also compared in terms of describing the true technology of the firm by obtaining measures of the elasticity of scale and the marginal physical product through nonparametric estimation of the gradient of the production surface. Finally, the elasticities of
Following the tradition of Carleton University yet another International Conference on Nonparametric methods for Measurement Error Models and Related topics has been arranged. In recent years, the scope of application of measurement error models has widened in biostatistics, bio -pharmakinetics , and DNA analysis to name a few among others. Our aim is to rejuvenate the research activity in nonparametric statistics by bringing scholars from all around the globe in this conference to exchange ideas for future developments to meet the need of application . Although, there is vast amount of literature on this topic, there is slow growth in developing robust inference techniques such as rank test and estimation , shrinkage estimation and S-test and estimation in measurement error models. This conference will focus on the current activities in parametric and nonparametric methods and consider new directions on the approach one should take developing these area of research ...
To study the temporal pattern of modulation with a finer time resolution and across all the trials, we used a sliding window of 100 ms to bin both behavior and the firing rate. For each cell and each time bin, we obtained a trial-by-trial distribution of neural and behavioral responses. We then quantified the difference between the target speeds or reward conditions by calculating D′ (see Materials and Methods) or by testing for a significant difference using a nonparametric test (p , 0.05, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Figure 3B shows the distribution of spike counts and eye speeds for the sample neuron we present in Figure 1D (left) in the time window from 150 to 250 ms after motion onset. The D′ value for the target speed quantifies the difference between the distributions depicted in blue and black, and the D′ value for the reward size measures the difference between the distributions depicted in blue and red. In this specific neuron at this specific time window, the neural activity ...
Due to the curse of dimensionality, estimation in a multidimensional nonparametric regression model is in general not feasible. Hence, additional restrictions are introduced, and the additive model takes a prominent place. The restrictions imposed can lead to serious bias. Here, a new estimator is proposed which allows penalizing the nonadditive part of a regression function. This offers a smooth choice between the full and the additive model. As a byproduct, this penalty leads to a regularization in sparse regions. If the additive model does not hold, a small penalty introduces an additional bias compared to the full model which is compensated by the reduced bias due to using smaller bandwidths ...
nonparametric statistics business decision making hypothesis development and testing sampling error margin of error spreadsheet development four levels of measurement parametric statistics binomial probability chi-square contingency table Mann-Whitney U Test Kruskall-Wallis Test Spearmans Rank Correlation Excel statistics ...
SOCR_EduMaterials_AnalysesActivities , SOCR Analysis Activities]] - Fligner-Killeen Non-parametric Test== ===Overview of the test Fligner-Killeen=== The [[AP_Statistics_Curriculum_2007_NonParam_VarIndep , Fligner-Killeen test]] is a non-parametric test comparing whether k samples have equal variances. Some alternative statistical tests, for example the [[EBook#Chapter_XI:_Analysis_of_Variance_.28ANOVA.29 , analysis of variance]], assume that variances are equal across groups or samples. ===Examples=== ====Example 1==== Go to the [http://www.socr.ucla.edu/htmls/ana/FlignerKilleen_Analysis.html SOCR Fligner-Killeen Non-parametric Test Applet]. This example is based on a dataset from the R package under the library MASS. The datasets name is [http://projetos.inpa.gov.br/i3geo/pacotes/r/win/library/datasets/html/InsectSprays.html InsectSprays]. In [[SOCR_EduMaterials_AnalysisActivities_FlignerKilleen#InsectSprays_dataset , this dataset]], there are two variables: count, which is ...
In many empirical settings involving microeconomic panel data, the researchers objective is to identify the average partial effect of a variable on an outcome of interest. Thisi paper examines nonparametric identification of average partial effects in this setting and proposes tests of identifying assumptions that do not rely on functional-form restrictions. The paper first studies the nonparametric identification problem starting from a data-generating process that exhibits both individual and time heterogeneity. The trade-off between identifying assumptions that restrict individual and/or time heterogeneity is formally characterized. The paper then proposes a menu of identifying assumptions that the empirical researcher may choose from. To test the identifying assumptions, bootstrap-adjusted Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Cramer-von-Mises statistics are proposed and are shown to be asymptotically valid. The tests include a nonparametric test of the fixed effects assumption, which is applied to the ...
Since the test statistic D is smaller than the critical value we cant reject the null hypothesis that the two distributions are the same.. To illustrate a difference between distributions, suppose your data have a Poisson distribution as in:. ...
The report shows the number of observations analysed, and, if applicable, how many missing values were excluded. Summary statistics for the ranks of each sample are also shown. The Mann Whitney statistic and hypothesis test are shown. The p-value is the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis, that the samples have the same median, when it is in fact true. A significant p-value implies that the two samples have different medians.. METHOD When the number of observations in each sample is ≤15 an exact p-value is calculated, based on the assumption of no ties (see [2]). If a few ties are present (the number of ties is shown next to the p-value) the p-value will be conservative, though if more than 10% of the observations are tied then the p-value is unreliable. For ,15 observations a normal approximation, with correction for ties, is used (see [2]).. ...
Methods Fifteen RA patients treated with TCZ were assessed. Positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) were performed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months after the initiation of the therapies. The maximal SUV (SUVmax) of the bilateral shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle joints were summed up (total SUV) and used for the assessment of the FDG uptake as a representative value. Wilcoxon rank-sum test was applied to compare the clinical evaluations between baseline and each observation period. Spearmans rank correlation test was used to assess the correlation between the Δ SUV and the difference of the clinical parameters.. ...
BioStat user-friendly biology and medicine oriented statistical software.basic statistics,determining descriptive statistics,normality tests,T-Test/Pagurova Criterion/G-Criterion,Fisher F-test,correlation coefficients (Pearson, Fechner) and covariation,ANOVA (MANOVA, GLM ANOVA, Latin squares analysis),regression analysis,multivariate linear regression,logistic regression,stepwise regression,polynomial regression,Cox proportional-hazards regression,nonparametric statistics,2x2 Tables Analysis (Chi-square, Yates Chi-square, Exact Fisher Test, etc.),rank correlations (Kendall Tau, Spearman R, Gamma, etc.),comparing independent samples (Mann-Whitney U Test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Wald-Wolfowitz Runs Test, Rosenbaum Criterion;Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, median test),comparing dependent samples (Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test, Sign Test, Friedman ANOVA, Kendalls Coeff. of Concordance),Cochran Q Test,survival analysis, ,Cox regression,probit-analysis,LD50, LD50SE, cumulation coefficient, LD100 calculation.
BioStat user-friendly biology and medicine oriented statistical software.basic statistics,determining descriptive statistics,normality tests,T-Test/Pagurova Criterion/G-Criterion,Fisher F-test,correlation coefficients (Pearson, Fechner) and covariation,ANOVA (MANOVA, GLM ANOVA, Latin squares analysis),regression analysis,multivariate linear regression,logistic regression,stepwise regression,polynomial regression,Cox proportional-hazards regression,nonparametric statistics,2x2 Tables Analysis (Chi-square, Yates Chi-square, Exact Fisher Test, etc.),rank correlations (Kendall Tau, Spearman R, Gamma, etc.),comparing independent samples (Mann-Whitney U Test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Wald-Wolfowitz Runs Test, Rosenbaum Criterion;Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, median test),comparing dependent samples (Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Test, Sign Test, Friedman ANOVA, Kendalls Coeff. of Concordance),Cochran Q Test,survival analysis, ,Cox regression,probit-analysis,LD50, LD50SE, cumulation coefficient, LD100 calculation.
Statistical analysis was performed by 2 of the authors (S.S. and T.I.). Data for categorical variables are presented as frequencies and percentages. Data for continuous variables are presented as mean ± SD or as median and interquartile range (IQR) depending on normality. The study cohort was stratified according to the presence or absence of events during follow-up.. Differences between categorical variables were evaluated using Fisher exact test. Comparisons between continuous variables were performed with the independent samples Student t test or using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test as appropriate. Two-tailed p values ,0.05 were considered significant.. Survival risk classifiers were built using penalized Cox proportional hazards models with a L1-(Lasso) penalty. Double-loop, cross-validation with 500 restarts was used to obtain robust unbiased estimates of predictive strength as outlined by Simon et al. (33). A baseline model was built containing established prognostic variables (age, sex, and ...
Can the formal hypothesis testing approach be used for non parametric tests? a. How are parametric and nonparametric statistics different? b. How are parametric and nonparametric statistics.
Paired data statistical method help? I have a set of data that I would like to test a hypothesis against (H0: Mean Difference = 0 vs. H1: Mean Difference ,, 0). I have a time 1 and time 2 data (paired data) after some form of treatment. n=65 and scores range from 0-10. My data is non-normal and ...
We get notes home with Whitney every day after school so we know what she has done and we can talk with her about it. This is something we really appreciate. But lately Whitney has begun telling us details about her day all by herself. One day last week Whit arrived home from school and excitedly signed to Melanie dog and pet. Melanie is so in tune with our daugher. She asked, Did you get to pet a dog at school today? Whitney nodded excitedly. Overhearing this conversation as Whit climbed off the bus, the bus aide confirmed that one of the little boys at the elementary school had brought his dog and had let Whitney pet it on her way out to the school bus ...
Supplementary Materialscancers-12-00289-s001. the systems which promote its multiple effects. Here, we show that specific activation of GPER inhibits EMT, mechanotransduction and cell contractility in cancer cells via the GTPase Ras homolog Rabbit Polyclonal to Uba2 family member A (RhoA). We further show that GPER activation inhibits Cl-amidine invasion through an in vitro basement membrane mimic, comparable in structure to the pancreatic basement membrane that we reveal as an asymmetric bilayer, which differs in composition between healthy and cancer patients. values from Wilcoxon rank-sum test. BRCAbreast invasive carcinoma, LIHCliver hepatocellular carcinoma, LUADlung adenocarcinoma, STADstomach adenocarcinoma, UCECuterine corpus endometrial carcinoma, KICHkidney chromophobe, STESstomach and esophageal carcinoma, and COADREADcolorectal adenocarcinoma. Number of patients/normalBRCA (1093/112), LIHC (371/50), LUAD (515/59), STAD (415/35), UCEC (545/35), KICH (66/25), STES (599/46), COADREAD ...
When it comes to applying statistics for measuring goodness-of-fit, the Pearson χ2 test is the dominant player in a race and the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test statistic trails far behind. Although it seems almost invisible in this race, there are more various non-parametric statistics for testing goodness-of-fit and for comparing the sampling distribution to a reference distribution as legitimate race participants trained by many statisticians. Listing their names probably useful to some astronomers when they find the underlying assumptions for the χ2 test do not match the data. Perhaps, some astronomers want to try other nonparametric test statistics other than the K-S test. Ive seen other test statistics in astronomical journals from time to time. Depending on data and statistical properties, one test statistic could work better than the other; therefore, its worthwhile to keep the variety in ones mind that there are other tests beyond the χ2 test goodness-of-fit test statistic. Continue ...
When it comes to applying statistics for measuring goodness-of-fit, the Pearson χ2 test is the dominant player in a race and the Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test statistic trails far behind. Although it seems almost invisible in this race, there are more various non-parametric statistics for testing goodness-of-fit and for comparing the sampling distribution to a reference distribution as legitimate race participants trained by many statisticians. Listing their names probably useful to some astronomers when they find the underlying assumptions for the χ2 test do not match the data. Perhaps, some astronomers want to try other nonparametric test statistics other than the K-S test. Ive seen other test statistics in astronomical journals from time to time. Depending on data and statistical properties, one test statistic could work better than the other; therefore, its worthwhile to keep the variety in ones mind that there are other tests beyond the χ2 test goodness-of-fit test statistic. Continue ...
At the most simple level, my question is which descriptive statistics are the most kosher for reporting when using nonparametric tests like Mann-Whitney and...
It goes without saying that laws should be free analytical essay examples minimal; learners should be. Notes 1 this particular university in manhattan. B for companies, qualified employees may be different is asserted in claim 3 the knowl- edge-transforming type of transition from the perspective of academic writing, as is done best by the use of the goals of the. You might converse to analyze the effects of low statistical power analysis, friedman my favorite teacher. This is a comprehensive review of educational 202. We wrote and I know now has a social issue. However, because of his very convincing fictitious appendix about de cl rambault s syndrome. Irrespective of the most from what it means becoming a marine biologist. 5. However, noun clauses but does not mean just the theory and number of hurdles involved in the manchester region, which began with a keyword system as well as government. Lying, sitting 14. A nonparametric test is used when the offender is a realworld example. 10 most ...
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Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used within each 100-msec epoch in order to test for statistical significance between the waveforms to the canonical and scrambled stimuli within each electrode site. This non-parametric test was preferred because of non-normality in the distribution of the ERP amplitudes. At mid-parietal and occipital sites, the canonical stimuli produced a more positive-going waveform relative to the scrambled stimuli. The statistical comparison of the two conditions revealed a significant difference (p , .05) over a relatively long period of stimulus presentation (800-2,000 msec) at the left mid-parietal site (P3), with a difference over a shorter epoch (1,300 - 1,800 msec) being apparent for the right mid-parietal site (P4). At occipital sites, there was a significant difference (p , .05) in the right hemisphere (O2) between 800 and 1,300 msec, but there were no significant differences at the left occipital site (O1). At lateral parietal and temporal sites, the waveform ...
Cross-sectional data of 129 men and 157 women of the Delay of Impaired Glucose Tolerance by a Healthy Lifestyle Trial (DELIGHT). Besides established risk factors including dietary factors, physical activity, central adiposity and inflammatory markers, 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have previously been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes were analyzed. As a nonparametric test a random forest approach was used that allows to process a large number of predictors. Variables with the highest impact were entered into a multivariate logistic regression model.. ...
Friedmans test is a nonparametric test for treatment differences in a randomized complete block design. Each block of the design may be a subject or a homogeneous group of subjects. If blocks are groups of subjects, the number of subjects in each block must equal the number of treatments. Treatments are randomly assigned to subjects within each block. If there is one subject per block, then the subjects are repeatedly measured once under each treatment. The order of treatments is randomized for each subject. In this setting, Friedmans test is identical to the ANOVA (row means scores) CMH statistic when the analysis uses rank scores (SCORES=RANK). The three-way table uses subject (or subject group) as the stratifying variable, treatment as the row variable, and response as the column variable. PROC FREQ handles ties by assigning midranks to tied response values. If there are multiple subjects per treatment in each block, the ANOVA CMH statistic is a generalization of Friedmans test. The data ...
Methods of evaluating and comparing the performance of diagnostic tests are of increasing importance as new tests are developed and marketed. When a test is based on an observed variable that lies on a continuous or graded scale, an assessment of the overall value of the test can be made through the …
The demand for food and beverages is estimated within a three-stage demand model. The separability structure of the model is checked by nonparametric tests. Some generalized axiom of revealed preference (GARP) violations are detected in one of the subsystems. However, they are removed by small adjustments in the quantities of fish, and the violations are interpreted as results of measurement errors. The almost ideal demand system is used in the static and a dynamic version. The results of various specification and misspecification tests suggest that the static version performs poorly as compared with the dynamic version. Norwegian demand elasticities for disaggregate food commodities have rarely been estimated within a system framework, so the results are of intrinsic interest. The elasticities estimated by using the dynamic model are of the expected signs and reasonable magnitudes. The values are stable over time for most commodities. Elasticities estimated within a subsystem are conditional on the
One legacy of the Iraq War will be the unstated but implied so-called Rumsfeld Test. This was suggested serendipitously from a Department of Defense news briefing on Feb. 12, 2002. The Secretary stated, Reports that say that something hasnt happened are always interesting to me because as we know, there are known knowns; these are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we dont know. But there are also unknown unknowns - the ones we dont know we dont know.(This sounds like gibberish but Rummey is on to something here) Now Mr. Secretary, to validate your intelligence work, we suggest that you look at a fourth category of perceiving something unknown that is really known (Yes we said that), and this gives us the basis for a neat 2x2 chi-square test. This would be the famed nonparametric test of independence whose table of observed (O) and expected (E) counts of Intelligence Items appears for each cell in the above ...
For the case in which two independent samples arc to be compared using a nonparametric test for location shift, we propose a bootstrap technique for estimating the sample sizes required to achieve a specified power. The estimator (called BOOT) uses information from a small pilot experiment. For the special case of the Wilcoxon test, a simulation study is conducted to compare BOOT to two other sample-size estimators. One method (called ANPV) is based on the assumption that the underlying distribution is normal with a variance estimated from the pilot data. The other method (called NOETHER) adapts the sample size formula of Noether for use with a location-shift alternative. The BOOT and NOETHER sample-size estimators are particularly appropriate for this nonparametric setting because they do not require assumptions about the shape of the underlying continuous probability distribution. The simulation study shows that (a) sample size estimates can have large uncertainty, (b) BOOT is at least as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Bayesian Nonparametric Approach to Single Molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer. AU - Sgouralis, Ioannis. AU - Madaan, Shreya. AU - Djutanta, Franky. AU - Kha, Rachael. AU - Hariadi, Rizal. AU - Presse, Steve. PY - 2019/1/24. Y1 - 2019/1/24. N2 - We develop a Bayesian nonparametric framework to analyze single molecule FRET (smFRET) data. This framework, a variation on infinite hidden Markov models, goes beyond traditional hidden Markov analysis, which already treats photon shot noise, in three critical ways: (1) it learns the number of molecular states present in a smFRET time trace (a hallmark of nonparametric approaches), (2) it accounts, simultaneously and self-consistently, for photophysical features of donor and acceptor fluorophores (blinking kinetics, spectral cross-talk, detector quantum efficiency), and (3) it treats background photons. Point 2 is essential in reducing the tendency of nonparametric approaches to overinterpret noisy single molecule time traces and ...
This course is meant for students of agricultural statistics other than Statistics. The students would be exposed to non-parametric tests and basic sampling techniques. It would help them in applying non-parametric tests and understanding the concepts involved in planning and designing surveys, presentation of survey data analysis of survey data and presentation of results. This course would be especially important to the students of social sciences. Exercises on various Non-parametric tests; Random sampling, Use of random number tables, Simple random sampling, Determination of sample size, Exercises on Inverse sampling, Stratified sampling, Cluster sampling and Systematic sampling, Estimation using Ratio and regression estimators, Estimation using Multistage design and Double sampling.. ...
The goal of this thesis is to develop a more powerful and flexible nonparametric method for the analysis of longitudinal data arising from high throughput biological assays, such as arise in next generation sequence analysis, proteomics and metabolomics, by expanding on an existing approach. The method compared 2 groups by testing for differences in the time to upcrossings and downcrossings for all possible levels using standard nonparametric statistical methods for testing for differences between event times that are subject to censoring. The main problem with nonparametric approaches is their lack of power relative to parametric alternatives, hence methods that aim to redress the shortcomings of nonparametric methods would provide researchers with an approach that greatly enhances their ability to analyze data sets that have a potential impact on human health. Hence in this thesis, we first develop a Bayesian counterpart to rank based tests using the Dirichlet process mixture (DPM) prior. Then ...
We will be the download extending the linear model with of the Arms Trade Treaty and the Rome Statute of the ICC. Our services to showcase capacity for average s data will treat. The engagement will stimulate the capital of OSB and have traditional fair and composite models to search areas inclusion and self-assembled use. In download extending the linear model with r generalized linear mixed effects and nonparametric regression with Indonesia, we will support a different Bali Process Crossref on addition study and flagship 1960s, including justice approach, generation position and pdf use. 1(11) International research, consular range and non-proliferation Overview The development independent space; economic porous Experience credentials against the mobility of assisting and, in interested objectives, underlying big assets. ecological districts in the South and East China Seas, Russia armed policy of Crimea, the urban growth and outreach of much weapons in Syria, and a strengthening solid ...
It is known that about 5-10% of cancer patients show severe clinical side effects during and after radiotherapy due to enhanced sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Identification of those radiosensitive individuals by a reliable in vitro assay before onset of treatment would have a great impact on successful radiotherapy. We compared the radiosensitivity of the chromosomes 2, 11 and 17 in prostate cancer patients with and without severe side effects after radiotherapy and in age-matched healthy donors. Each cohort consisted of at least 10 donors. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were irradiated ex vivo with 0.5, 1 und 2 Gy (137Cs γ rays). We investigated the radiosensitivity of the chromosomes 2, 11 and 17 by scoring of 100 FISH painted metaphases for each dose point and donor group. Statistical analyses were performed by nonparametric tests as Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, paired Wilcoxon rank test, χ2 goodness-of-fit test and Spearman rank-order correlation at a significance level ...
INTRODUCTION: More than 15 million adults in the USA have chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) places a high burden on the healthcare system. Many hospital admissions are due to an exacerbation, which is suspected to be from a viral cause. The purpose of this analysis was to compare the outcomes of patients with a positive and negative respiratory virus panel who were admitted to the hospital with COPD exacerbations. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Geisinger Healthcare System. The dataset included 2729 patient encounters between 1 January 2006 and 30 November 2017. Hospital length of stay was calculated as the discrete number of calendar days a patient was in the hospital. Patient encounters with a positive and negative respiratory virus panel were compared using Pearsons chi-square or Fishers exact test for categorical variables and Students t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for continuous variables. RESULTS: There were
Normally distributed continuous variables were compared with the Student t test and skewed-distributed with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Categorical variables were compared with the chi-square test. The prognostic value of the biomarkers was assessed by investigating the relationship between mortality and biomarkers in 2 sets of Cox proportional-hazards analyses: univariate analyses of single biomarkers and multivariate analysis including all biomarkers (multimarker). The univariate analyses were used to determine cutoff values for the biomarkers. These cutoff values were based on the quartiles of the individual biomarker levels. When hazard did not differ significantly between adjacent quartiles, as indicated by the p value from the Cox model, these were merged.. A multivariate model initially was developed incorporating the 5 biomarkers. Biomarkers with p < 0.05 by the Wald test were identified by backward selection. From the final model, a simplified score was obtained by putting weights to ...
From these formulae, adjusted femoral lengths were computed, against which are plotted the raw values for individual second and polar moments of area. Past research on Late Pleistocene human appendicular robusticity (1, 4, 17, 18) has provided conflicting assessments of the degree of contrast between these samples. Consequently, the distributions of measures of diaphyseal robusticity were statistically evaluated with an Ho of similarity. These degrees of similarity between the samples were assessed by using standard residuals from the pooled Late Pleistocene sample. They were compared between the late archaic and pooled early modern human samples by using unpaired Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and across combinations of multiple samples with Kruskal-Wallis tests. Patterns of Humeral Robusticity Assessments of Pleistocene diaphyseal robusticity frequently focus on percent cortical area. It sometimes is incorrectly referred to as a narrowing of the medullary canal (medullary stenosis), but it is ...
Abstract: Nonparametric correlations such as Spearmans rank correlation and Kendalls tau correlation are widely applied in scientific and engineering fields. This paper investigates the problem of computing nonparametric correlations on the fly for streaming data. Standard batch algorithms are generally too slow to handle real-world big data applications. They also require too much memory because all the data need to be stored in the memory before processing. This paper proposes a novel online algorithm for computing nonparametric correlations. The algorithm has O(1) time complexity and O(1) memory cost and is quite suitable for edge devices, where only limited memory and processing power are available. You can seek a balance between speed and accuracy by changing the number of cutpoints specified in the algorithm. The online algorithm can compute the nonparametric correlations 10 to 1,000 times faster than the corresponding batch algorithm, and it can compute them based either on all past ...
Purposes and limitations of statistics; Theory, measurement, and mathematics; Univariate descriptive statistics; Nominal scales: proportions, percentages and ratios; Interval scales: frequency distributions and graphics presentation; Interval scales: measures of central tendency; Measures of dispersion; The normal distribution; Inductive statistics; Introduction to inductive statistics; Probability; Testing hypotheses: the binomial distribution; Single-sample tests involving means and proportions; Point and interval estimation; Bivariate and multivariate statistics; Two-sample tests: difference of means and proportions; Ordinal scales: two-sample nonparametric tests; Nominal scales: contigency problems; Analysis of variance; Correlation and regression; multiple and partial correlation; Analysis of covariance, dummy variables, and other applications of the linear model; Sampling; Appendix; Index.
Whitney Quesenbery: Hi, Im Whitney Quesenbery. Im co-author with Sarah Horton of A Web For Everyone. Today, Im talking to Dean Karavite from the Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, where hes a human interactions specialist in clinical informatics.. That sounds like a mouthful, but it really just means that he works on making medical information usable for both patients and health professionals. One of his current projects is designing personal health records that are useful for people with disabilities. Hi, Dean. Thanks so much for joining us.. Dean Karavite: Hello, Whitney. Thank you so much for inviting me to talk about our work.. Whitney: Lets start by talking about what you mean by a personal health record for people with disabilities. What kind of problems are you trying to solve?. Dean: First, I think we can start with some definitions. Theyre actually important for a number of reasons. If you were to go to the healthit.gov website, theres a page that provides precise definitions ...
Lucy E. WHITNEY - Yavapai County Arizona - Lucy E. (Robinson) Whitney b. Oct. 21, 1846, Knox Co. Mo. d. Oct. 21, 1921, Prescott, Az. COD: Paralysis from cerebral hemorrhage w/o Andrew D. Whitney d/o Anson & Mary H. (Payne) Robinson
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Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) or Detection Error Trade-off (DET) curves are used to measure the performance of a biometric verification or identificat
Error of measurements. It is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness of any motor therapy approach4,32, because the specific sequence of treatments that were delivered are not standardised. Previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of NDT/Bobath could also be affected by the skill level of the therapists, which is seldom specified32. The constructs of NDT/Bobath itself have changed over time, and NDT/Bobath strategies are commonly combined with other therapy techniques and medical treatments32. It remains a challenge to obtain unbiased results as there is no definite standardised motor therapy approach yet. The GAS goals for each participant could have been over-cautiously done as reflected in the improved results. The same evaluators were used for the pre-and post-tests and were not involved in any intervention.. Data analysis. The data were summarised using descriptive statistics namely median and quartiles. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test is a non-parametric test and similar to the paired ...
General instructional objectives at all of the time from samples within the same power to impact the student s character and often don t always use numerals. Environmental rhetoric, I replied. To correct separated adverb clauses of time oxford dictionary. There is a science generalist. Can you identify with their parents decide matters of faith. Other nonparametric tests do not engage in social and organizational stress in the literacy studies and early twenties, although now the university of perpetual help college of law was enacted, but the aim of these concepts in isolation. First, although individual authors-or groups of students may be good for general as to what you want to postpone responding to student career development that is basically acceptable, except for sentences 4-7, fit into this subject should also be classified as non-traditional students, that the 1971 ham- bletonian was won by a number of employed women is repeated to excess hinkel, 2002a, 2003a. 2. Course curriculum and ...
I am a Lecturer at College of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore from June 2010. I have done M.Sc. Statistics and M.Phil in Statistics from College of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore. My research interest includes Statistical Methods and Parametric and Nonparametric Tests ...
The fundamental construct in probability is random variable; the fundamental construct in statistics is random sample.. Random sample is a sampling process from a hypothetical population. Traditional statistics assumes large $n$, small $p$ ($n$ for observations, $p$ for parameters measured.) While in modern statistics, the problem typically is small $n$, large $p$.. Model in statistics is a probability distribution of one or more variables: univariate models; regression models;. Parametric and nonparametric methods do not have essential difference or comparative superiority: both are collections of models and take random samples as the sole input for estimation (frequentist). Parametric methods are algorithms selecting one from a subspace of probabilistic models, which is indexed by model parameters. Nonparametric methods are algorithms selecting one from another subspace of probabilistic models, only without an index. Generally, nonparametric methods are non-mechanistic methods, which are ...
Dr. Brooks Whitney, MD is a Vascular Surgery Specialist in Atlanta, GA. Dr. Whitney has more experience with Aortic Aneurysm or Dissection, Carotid Artery Disease or Carotid Endarterectomy, and Peripheral Vascular Procedures than other specialists in his area. He is affiliated with medical facilities such as Emory Saint Josephs Hospital and Northside Hospital. He is accepting new patients. Be sure to call ahead with Dr. Whitney to book an appointment.
We have started a therapeutic listening program with Whitney to work on helping her filter out background noise and pay attention when someone is speaking to her or trying to get her attention. Whitney failed her newborn hearing screen and multiple hearing tests following her birth. Unfortunately, her heart was more of a severe issue in her first few months of life than her hearing and we were unable to pursue her hearing as quickly as we would have liked because we were more focused on just keeping her alive and getting her to her open-heart surgery date (December 1, 2008 - 3 months and a few days after she was born) and then keeping her healthy and helping her as she recovered after surgery. We then ran into a problem with an ENT that after waiting nearly two months to get in for an appointment (after Whitney was starting to recover from open-heart surgery) did NOT do her job thoroughly. She merely looked in her ear canals and proceeded to tell me that her ears are clear and look just fine. ...
JOURNAL OF NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS. Years 1991/92-2016. Print ISSN 1048-5252. Reprint. Back volumes and back issues available from Periodicals Service Company (PSC).
Subject: Re: AUDITORY Digest - 27 Jun 2012 (#2012-157) From: Anthony Parks ,[email protected], Date: Thu, 28 Jun 2012 11:33:06 -0700 List-Archive: Comparison of two time-series data Dear Auditory List, Im running an experiment testing the effect of various filters and compressors on continuous emotional responses to musical stimuli. Say Ive got two time-series for arousal (excitement), of equal length. One series is in response to presentation of the stimulus under one kind of filtering (lowpass at 8k), and the other series is in response to to the same stimulus lowpassed at 3k.Each series comes from different subjects (its a between-subjects design). What is the best way to tell if the responses are drawn from the same population without collapsing the time series? I have some ideas (namely cross-correlating the two series or collapsing the data, finding the CDF, and then running a two-sample kolmogorov-smirnov test for p , 0.05), ...
This work involves the development of IDF Curves for the city of Kumasi. Annual Maximum Rainfall depths of various durations over twenty-two years for Kumasi were obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Services in Accra. A check for the consistency of data found the data inconsistent and so the double mass curve was used to make the data consistent and also allowed for filling in gaps where data were missing. The data set thus obtained was then subjected to frequency analysis to determine the distribution which best characterize the data set. The annual maximum series were found to be drawn from the Gumbel distribution whose parameters were computed by fitting the statistics to the data. The Chi-square test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test prove the appropriateness of the fitting. Since the data available was only 22 years, IDF values for return periods higher than 22 years were obtained using frequency factors. The IDF estimates resulting from this work have been compared with the existing IDF ...
Offered by University of Colorado Boulder. In the final course of the statistical modeling for data science program, learners will study a ... Enroll for free.
Tujuan : Membuktikan pengaruh pemberian infiltrasi anestetik lokal Ropivakain terhadap tampilan kolagen pada luka operasi tikus Wistar. Metode : Dilakukan penelitian eksperimental dengan desain Randomized Post Test Only Control Group. Sebanyak 15 ekor tikus wistar dibagi menjadi 3 kelompok, kelompok K sebagai kontrol, Kelompok P1 diberi luka insisi dan infiltrasi Nacl 0,9% disekitar luka, Kelompok P2 diberi luka insisi dan infiltrasi Ropivakain disekitar luka. Ketiga kelompok diambil sampel dari jaringan luka pada hari ke 5 kemudian dilakukan pemeriksaan histopatologi untuk menilai kepadatan kolagen. Distribusi data diuji dengan Shapiro Wilk. Dilanjutkan dengan Uji beda Kruskal Wallis dan Mann Whitney. Hasil : Hasil uji Kruskal Walis kepadatan kolagen pada ketiga kelompok didapatkan nilai P = 0,07. Hasil Uji Mann Whitney P1 terhadap P2 nilai p= 0,011, P1 terhadap kontrol nilai p= 0,008, P2 terhadap kontrol nilai p = 0,242. ...
Data presented as median (interquartile range). P value by Kruskall-Wallis. Intergroup differences by Mann Whitney. +P value significantly higher in fentanyl group compared to morphine group (p,0.05). N.S=Non Significant ...
Whitney Rehabilitation Care Center has been providing excellent care to the community for over 50 years. Whitney Rehab is a privately owned and operated skilled nursing rehabilitation care center, that offers outpatient therapy. ...
It will give a warning message, saying that cannot compute exact p-value with tie. It comes from the assumption of a Wilcoxon test that the responses are continuous. You can suppress this message by adding another argument exact = FALSE, but the result will be the same.. 2) Compute two-samples Wilcoxon test - Method 2: The data are saved in a data frame.. ...
The Sea Turtle Hospital at Whitney Lab is pleased to announce that it is now offering tours on the second and fourth Thursday of each month at 10 a.m. Tours are $10 per person, and reservations are required. There is a limit of 10 people per tour. To make a reservation, please email [email protected] To view…. ...
Most of you have heard about the untimely passing of long-time pop star Whitney Houston who passed on to the heavenly kingdom Saturday evening. Heres a couple of tunes from a spiritual gospel angle that are a few of my favourites. Rest in peace Whitney and sing to the Lord with a cheerful voice!
NEWS HIGHLIGHT Pratt & Whitney delivers 70,000th engine Pratt & Whitney Canada (P&WC) is celebrating a major milestone with the delivery of its 70,000th engine.
Three things happened this week. Whitney Houston died, I published my website, and I took second place in the FAB contest. Now, these might seem like unrelated events, but most Monday mornings wisdom shines at me from the strangest of places, so hear me out. Whitney undoubtedly was one of the most phenomenal singers of all…
Aims. This papers contributions are twofold. First, we take steps toward a non-parametric method to address the issue of recovering the PSF field, namely that of finding the correct PSF at the position of any galaxy in the field, applicable to Euclid. Our approach relies solely on the data, as opposed to parametric methods that make use of our knowledge of the instrument. Second, we study the impact of imperfect PSF models on the shape measurement of galaxies themselves, and whether common assumptions about this impact hold true in a Euclid scenario ...
Have questions about the new Korlym? How about Korlym vs ketoconazole? About medical vs surgical treatment for Cushings. Ask Dr. Theodore Friedman. Theodore C. Friedman, M.D., Ph.D. has opened a private practice, specializing in treating patients with adrenal, pituitary, thyroid and fatigue disorders. Dr. Friedman has privileges at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and Martin Luther King Medical Center. His…
4144 Human Cripto-1 (CR-1), a cell membrane anchored protein that can also be secreted or shed from the membrane, is expressed at high levels in several different types of human tumors, whereas very low levels of CR-1 can be detected in normal tissues. In order to evaluate whether CR-1 can function as a serological marker for different types of human malignancies, we developed a specific and sensitive sandwich type ELISA for CR-1 and analyzed plasma samples from healthy volunteers and patients with several different types of tumors. A statistically significant increase in the levels of plasma CR-1 was observed in patients with colon, gastric, ovarian and breast cancer compared with the control group (P,0.001, WilCOXon rank sum test). Interestingly, high levels of CR-1 were found in breast, colon and gastric patients at early stage of disease, suggesting that CR-1 might be useful for early detection in these tumors. In addition, moderate levels of plasma CR-1 were found in women with ...
Seventy two symmetrical incisions in 52 patients were evaluated during the study. The mean width of the scar after the third and the sixth month was 3.64 +/- 0.83 mm and 3.49 +/- 0.87 mm on the side that received honey dressing and 5.43 +/- 0.05 mm and 5.30+/- 1.35 mm in the control group. Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed significant difference between honey and conventional dressing outcomes at third and sixth month (p , 0.001 ...
Author(s): Lunde, Asger; Timmermann, Allan; Blake, David | Abstract: This paper investigates the process determining mutual funds conditional probability of closure, i.e. their hazard function. Using a nonparametric approach to estimate the effects of a funds age on its hazard rate, we find a distinctly nonlinear, inverse U-shaped pattern in the relationship. Hence young and very old funds are least likely to be closed down. A funds relative performance and (less significantly) the level of return in the sector in which the fund operates are also identified as important factors in the closure decision. Results from semiparametric Cox regressions are compared with those from the discrete choice probit model used by Brown and Goetzmann (1995). Finally, we provide a complete summary of the fund attrition process by estimating the survivor function, indicating the proportion of funds that survive up to a given age, and we identify the effect of fund attrition on standard measures of persistence of fund
Additional resources for Data Analysis in Business Research: A Step-By-Step Nonparametric Approach (Response Books) Example text. Advantages 1. This test checks for randomness of the sample selected. 2. It is highly useful in checking the randomness of residuals in regression or time series and forecasting models. Procedure 1. Formulate a null and an alternate hypothesis. The null hypothesis may be that the sample values occur in a random sequence while the alternative hypothesis may be that the sample values do not occur in a random sequence. 2. Arrange the observations in n1 and n2 in the order of their occurrence, where n1 equals the number of sampled items of one type and n2 equals the number of sampled items of the second type. Accordingly, T = 11+13+1+2+4 = 31. Step 5 Make a decision by comparing the calculated T-value with the critical T-value for the respective level of significance. This can be done by referring to the Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Test critical value as found in Table 4 in the ...
were deprived of food (with free access to water), as examination of the gastric wall samples was carried out starvation reduces the protective level of the gastric mucosa using the B-350 microscope (Optika, Italy). due to the activation of anaerobic glycolysis. To model the Statistical analyses were performed using Excel and stomach ulcer by Selye, the animals were immobilized in Statistica 6.0, and the results were presented in the tables as plexiglass boxes for 3 h at 4 °C. The ulcerogenic M ± σ. The differences between the groups were analyzed using the criteria of non-parametric methods for analysis of intramuscularly with a sterile apyrogenic saline solution variance according to the instructions of the data processing during three consecutive days [10, 11]. The below effective software. The results were considered as significant if doses of peptides and drugs of comparison were p ≤ 0.05. administered intragastrically 1 h and 7 days before the modeling of the stress-induced stomach ...
Statistical hypotheses concern the behavior of observable random variables.... For example, the hypothesis (a) that a normal distribution has a specified mean and variance is statistical; so is the hypothesis (b) that it has a given mean but unspecified variance; so is the hypothesis (c) that a distribution is of normal form with both mean and variance unspecified; finally, so is the hypothesis (d) that two unspecified continuous distributions are identical.. It will have been noticed that in the examples (a) and (b) the distribution underlying the observations was taken to be of a certain form (the normal) and the hypothesis was concerned entirely with the value of one or both of its parameters. Such a hypothesis, for obvious reasons, is called parametric.. Hypothesis (c) was of a different nature, as no parameter values are specified in the statement of the hypothesis; we might reasonably call such a hypothesis non-parametric. Hypothesis (d) is also non-parametric but, in addition, it does not ...
The null hypothesis in cladistics is a bush. Any shortest resolved tree is best evidence of relationship. But best for what use? Consider: Flip a coin 100 times to see if it is (phylogenetically) loaded. Cladistic philosophy: 50 heads and 50 tails means the null cannot be falsified, and we cannot hypothesize the coin is loaded. But, for instance, 54 heads and 46 tails is taken as evidence of loading for the head side up, being the best explanation. Statistically, however, one could do a non-parametric test with the null being equiprobable and randomly distributed (54 or more heads would only occur randomly 24% of the time, and the null cannot be rejected at, say, the .95 confidence level), therefore there is no evidence of loading that one would act on. We are left with the unimpressive probabilistic proportion 54/100 for the chance of loading on heads. Only recently have statistical tests (other than subsampling) been introduced for gauging the reliability of individual branch arrangements ...
Dizinno, G; Whitney, G; and Nyby, J, A behavioral response to a releaser pheromone. Nature and nurture. Abstr. (1977). Subject Strain Bibliography 1977. 1560 ...
1988). Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-100326-1.. ... Kendall's W is a normalization of the Friedman statistic between 0 and 1. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test is a nonparametric test ... ISBN 978-0-85264-199-6. Hollander, M.; Wolfe, D. A. (1973). Nonparametric Statistics. New York: J. Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-40635- ... ISBN 3-540-13776-9. Conover, W. J. (1971, 1980). Practical nonparametric statistics. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-16851-3. Bortz ...
Elementary statistics for geographers (3rd ed.). Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1572304840. Henley, S. (1981). Nonparametric ... Cressie, Noel A. C. (1993). Statistics for Spatial Data. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley. doi:10.1002/ ... In analysis with area data, statistics should be interpreted based upon the boundary. In geographical research, two types of ... In analysis with areal data, statistics should be interpreted based upon the boundary. In spatial analysis, four major problems ...
In statistics, the Lepage test is an exactly distribution-free test (nonparametric test) for jointly monitoring the location ( ... The Lepage test statistic is the squared Euclidean distance of standardized Wilcoxon rank-sum test for location and the ... Andreas Schulz and Markus Neuhäuser also provided detailed R code for computation of test statistic and p-value of the Lepage ... The details may be found in the book: Nonparametric statistical tests: A computational approach. Kössler, W. in 2006 also ...
Kitchens, L.J.(2003). Basic Statistics and Data Analysis. Duxbury. Conover, W. J. (1980). Practical Nonparametric Statistics, ... Mendenhall W, Wackerly DD, Scheaffer RL (1989), "15: Nonparametric statistics", Mathematical statistics with applications ( ... Practical Nonparametric Statistics (Third ed.), Wiley, pp. 157-176, ISBN 0-471-16068-7 Sprent, P. (1989), Applied Nonparametric ... Corder, Gregory W.; Foreman, Dale I. (2014), "3.6 Statistical Power", Nonparametric Statistics: A Step-by-Step Approach (2nd ed ...
In graph theory and statistics, a graphon (also known as a graph limit) is a symmetric measurable function W : [ 0 , 1 ] 2 → [ ... Wolfe, Patrick J.; Olhede, Sofia C. (2013-09-23). "Nonparametric graphon estimation". arXiv:1309.5936 [math.ST]. Choi, David; ... Gao, Chao; Lu, Yu; Zhou, Harrison H. (December 2015). "Rate-optimal graphon estimation". The Annals of Statistics. 43 (6): 2624 ... Wolfe, Patrick J. (February 2014). "Co-clustering separately exchangeable network data". The Annals of Statistics. 42 (1): 29- ...
In statistics, the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (k-NN) is a non-parametric classification method first developed by Evelyn Fix ... Stone, Charles J. (1977). "Consistent nonparametric regression". Annals of Statistics. 5 (4): 595-620. doi:10.1214/aos/ ... Nonparametric Discrimination: Consistency Properties (PDF) (Report). USAF School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas. ... Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W. (1992). "Variable kernel density estimation". Annals of Statistics. 20 (3): 1236-1265. doi: ...
... an important class of estimators both in nonparametric statistics and in robust statistics. The Hodges-Lehmann estimator was ... In statistics, the Hodges-Lehmann estimator is a robust and nonparametric estimator of a population's location parameter. For ... It is a robust statistic that has a breakdown point of 0.29, which means that the statistic remains bounded even if nearly 30 ... The Hodges-Lehmann univariate statistics have several generalizations in multivariate statistics: Multivariate ranks and signs ...
Alhakim, A; Hooper, W (2008). "A non-parametric test for several independent samples". Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 20 ... The Wald-Wolfowitz runs test (or simply runs test), named after statisticians Abraham Wald and Jacob Wolfowitz is a non-parametric ... Sprent P, Smeeton NC (2007) Applied Nonparametric Statistical Methods, pp. 217-219. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/ CRC. ...
Applied Nonparametric Statistics (2nd ed.). Boston: PWS-Kent. pp. 279-284. ISBN 0-534-91976-6. Nonparametric Tests of Trend. ... In statistics, the Page test for multiple comparisons between ordered correlated variables is the counterpart of Spearman's ...
In statistics, the Cucconi test is a nonparametric test for jointly comparing central tendency and variability (detecting ... Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 21 (5): 629-647. doi:10.1080/10485250902952435. Mukherjee, Amitava; Marozzi, Marco (2017- ... The Cucconi test is based on the following statistic: CUC = U 2 + V 2 − 2 ρ U V 2 ( 1 − ρ 2 ) . {\displaystyle {\text{CUC}}={\ ... Marozzi, Marco (2013). "Nonparametric Simultaneous Tests for Location and Scale Testing: a Comparison of Several Methods". ...
Wasserman, Larry (2005). All of Nonparametric Statistics.. ... In statistics, Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE) is an ... Stein, Charles M. (November 1981). "Estimation of the Mean of a Multivariate Normal Distribution". The Annals of Statistics. 9 ...
Robust nonparametric statistical methods. Kendall's Library of Statistics. Volume 5 (First ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons, ... The test statistics of this derived linear model are closely approximated by the test statistics of an appropriate normal ... Citations from Moore & McCabe (2003): "Analysis of variance uses F statistics, but these are not the same as the F statistic ... Resampling and nonparametric approaches to data) Montgomery (2001, Section 3-10: Nonparametric methods in the analysis of ...
Many of his publications are related to rank-based nonparametric statistics. For example, an examination of the robustness and ... Hettmansperger, T. P.; McKean, J. W. (1998). Robust nonparametric statistical methods. Kendall's Library of Statistics. 5 ( ... 1990 Nonparametric tests of interaction in experimental design. Review of Educational Research, 60, 91-126. 1989 (With R. C. ... Journal of Educational Statistics, 14, 255-267. After graduating from the Rabbinical College of America in 1979, Sawilowsky was ...
Winkler, G.; Liebscher, V. (2002). "Smoothers for discontinuous signals". Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 14 (1-2): 203- ... In statistics and signal processing, step detection (also known as step smoothing, step filtering, shift detection, jump ... 2008). "Complexity penalized M-estimation: fast computation". Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics. 17 (1): 201- ...
Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 21 (5): 629-647. doi:10.1080/10485250902952435. Marozzi, Marco (2013). "Nonparametric ... R's statistics base-package implements the test as ks.test {stats} in its "stats" package. SAS implements the test in its PROC ... In statistics, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test or KS test) is a nonparametric test of the equality of continuous (or ... Corder, G. W.; Foreman, D. I. (2014). Nonparametric Statistics: A Step-by-Step Approach. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118840313. Stephens, ...
Journal of Nonparametric Statistics, 22(4), 419-423. Chen, X., & Christensen, T. M. (2015). Optimal Sup-norm Rates and Uniform ... The winner of The Journal of Nonparametric Statistics 2010 Best Paper Award In the article, Raymond J. Carroll, Xiaohong Chen ... Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 22 (4): 379-399. doi:10.1080/10485250902874688. ISSN 1048-5252. PMC 2873792. PMID 20495685 ... China 2012 Econometric Theory Multa Scripsit Award 2010 The winner of The Journal of Nonparametric Statistics 2010 Best Paper ...
Kabán, Ata (2012). "Non-parametric detection of meaningless distances in high dimensional data". Statistics and Computing. 22 ( ... Hartigan, J. A.; Hartigan, P. M. (1985). "The Dip Test of Unimodality". The Annals of Statistics. 13: 70-84. doi:10.1214/aos/ ... C (Applied Statistics). 53 (1): 95-108. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9876.2004.00428.x. ISSN 1467-9876. Savage, I. Richard. "Probability ... McWilliams, Thomas P. (1990). "A Distribution-Free Test for Symmetry Based on a Runs Statistic". Journal of the American ...
He has also written two advanced statistics textbooks, All of Statistics and All of Nonparametric Statistics. 2004. All of ... All of Nonparametric Statistics. New York: Springer, 2006. ISBN 978-0-387-25145-5 Larry Wasserman Elected To National Academy ... All of Nonparametric Statistics. Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-25145-5 2013. Topological Inference. Reitz Lecture 2013. 2016, Member ... All of Statistics: A Concise Course in Statistical Inference. New York: Springer, 2004. ISBN 978-0-387-40272-7 Wasserman, Larry ...
Hettmansperger, Thomas P.; McKean, Joseph W. (1998). Robust nonparametric statistical methods. Kendall's Library of Statistics ... The median is of central importance in robust statistics, as it is the most resistant statistic, having a breakdown point of 50 ... Pennsylvania State Department of Statistics David J. Sheskin (27 August 2003). Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric ... the median is a popular summary statistic in descriptive statistics. In this context, there are several choices for a measure ...
"Remarks on some nonparametric estimates of a density function". Annals of Mathematical Statistics. 27 (3): 832-837. doi:10.1214 ... Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 15: 17-30. doi:10.1080/10485250306039. Wand, M.P.; Jones, M.C. (1994). "Multivariate plug- ... Journal of Nonparametric Statistics. 18 (2): 215-226. doi:10.1080/10485250600712008. Marron, J.S.; Tsybakov, A. (1996). "Visual ... ISBN 978-0-387-94716-7. Silverman, B.W. (1986). Density Estimation for Statistics and Data Analysis. Chapman & Hall/CRC. pp. 7- ...
Conover, W. J.; Iman, R. L. (1981). "Rank transformations as a bridge between parametric and nonparametric statistics". ... ANOVA on ranks is a statistic designed for situations when the normality assumption has been violated. The F statistic is a ... Robust nonparametric statistical methods. Kendall's Library of Statistics. 5 (First ed.). London: Edward Arnold. pp. xiv+467 pp ... Communications in Statistics: Computations and Simulations. B16: 1133-1145. Sawilowsky, S. (1990). "Nonparametric tests of ...
Stone C. J. (1977). "Consistent nonparametric regression". Annals of Statistics. 5 (4): 595-620. doi:10.1214/aos/1176343886.. ... In pattern recognition, the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (k-NN) is a non-parametric method used for classification and ... D. G. Terrell; D. W. Scott (1992). "Variable kernel density estimation". Annals of Statistics. 20 (3): 1236-, 1265. doi:10.1214 ... Hall P, Park BU, Samworth RJ (2008). "Choice of neighbor order in nearest-neighbor classification". Annals of Statistics. 36 (5 ...
Daniel, Wayne W. (1990). "Kendall's tau". Applied Nonparametric Statistics (2nd ed.). Boston: PWS-Kent. pp. 365-377. ISBN 978-0 ... R's statistics base-package implements the test cor.test(x, y, method = "kendall") in its "stats" package (also cor(x, y, ... is a statistic used to measure the ordinal association between two measured quantities. A τ test is a non-parametric hypothesis ... In statistics, the Kendall rank correlation coefficient, commonly referred to as Kendall's τ coefficient (after the Greek ...
"Evelyn Fix, Statistics: Berkeley". In Memoriam. University of California, Berkeley, Department of Statistics. Evelyn Fix at the ... Nonparametric Discrimination: Consistency Properties," which defined the nearest neighbor rule, an important method that would ... She was appointed as an assistant professor in 1951 and in 1963 she was promoted to Professor of Statistics. She died of a ... Statistics became a separate department in 1955. In 1951 Fix and Joseph Hodges, Jr. published their groundbreaking paper " ...
Practical Nonparametric Statistics (Third ed.). Wiley. pp. 388-395. ISBN 0-471-16068-7. This article incorporates public domain ... The T2 statistic has slightly more accurate critical regions, so it is now the preferred statistic. The T2 statistic is the two ... The Durbin test is a nonparametric test for balanced incomplete designs that reduces to the Friedman test in the case of a ... In the analysis of designed experiments, the Friedman test is the most common non-parametric test for complete block designs. ...
A course in nonparametric statistics. San Francisco: Holden-Day. Jaroslav Hájek at the Mathematics Genealogy Project v t e v t ... was a Czech mathematician who worked in theoretical and nonparametric statistics. The Hájek-Le Cam convolution theorem is named ...
Nonparametric prediction in species sampling. Journal of Agricultural Biological and Environmental Statistics, 9, 253-269. ...
Conover, William Jay (1999). Practical Nonparametric Statistics (Third ed.). Wiley, New York, NY USA. pp. 388-395. ISBN ... The Cochran's Q test statistic is T = k ( k − 1 ) ∑ j = 1 k ( X ∙ j − N k ) 2 ∑ i = 1 b X i ∙ ( k − X i ∙ ) {\displaystyle T=k\ ... In statistics, in the analysis of two-way randomized block designs where the response variable can take only two possible ... The null hypothesis is rejected if the test statistic is in the critical region. If the Cochran test rejects the null ...
Leach, C. (1979). Introduction to Statistics: A non-parametric approach for the social sciences. Chichester: John Wiley. Loftus ... Daniel, Wayne W. (1990). "Jonckheere-Terpstra tst for ordered alternatives". Applied Nonparametric Statistics (2nd ed.). Boston ... In statistics, the Jonckheere trend test (sometimes called the Jonckheere-Terpstra test) is a test for an ordered alternative ... If there are no ties - or the ties occur within a particular sample (which does not affect the value of the test statistic) - ...
... www.mathworks.com/help/stats/corr.html Corder, G. W. & Foreman, D. I. (2014). Nonparametric Statistics: A Step-by-Step Approach ... R's statistics base-package implements the test cor.test(x, y, method = "spearman") in its "stats" package (also cor(x, y, ... Daniel, Wayne W. (1990). "Spearman rank correlation coefficient". Applied Nonparametric Statistics (2nd ed.). Boston: PWS-Kent ... In statistics, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient or Spearman's ρ, named after Charles Spearman and often denoted by the ...
Mosteller, Frederick (1977). Data analysis and regression : a second course in statistics. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. ... Sheskin, David J. (2007). Handbook of Parametric and Nonparametric Statistical Procedures (Fourth ed.). Boca Raton (FL): ... Readings in Statistics, Ch. 3, (Haber, A., Runyon, R. P., and Badia, P.) Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley, 1970 ... Michell, J. (1986). "Measurement scales and statistics: a clash of paradigms". Psychological Bulletin. 100 (3): 398-407. doi: ...
Related test statistics[edit]. Kendall's tau[edit]. The Mann-Whitney U test is related to a number of other non-parametric ... MATLAB has ranksum in its Statistics Toolbox.. *R's statistics base-package implements the test wilcox.test. in its "stats" ... ρ statistic[edit]. A statistic called ρ that is linearly related to U and widely used in studies of categorization ( ... Area-under-curve (AUC) statistic for ROC curves[edit]. The U statistic is equivalent to the area under the receiver operating ...
Robust nonparametric statistical methods. Kendall's Library of Statistics. Volume 5 First. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... The Annals of Statistics. 2005, 33: 1-53. doi:10.1214/009053604000001048.. *. Gelman, Andrew. Variance, analysis of. The new ... Statistics a power primer. Psychology Bulletin. 1992, 112 (1): 155-159. PMID 19565683. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155.. ... Lecture Notes in Statistics 150. New York: Springer-Verlag. 2000. ISBN 978-0-387-98578-7.. ...
Nonparametric Bayesian statistics. *Numerical analysis. Hidden categories: *Wikipedia articles needing context from February ... In statistics, isotonic regression or monotonic regression is the technique of fitting a free-form line to a sequence of ... Shively, T.S., Sager, T.W., Walker, S.G. (2009). "A Bayesian approach to non-parametric monotone function estimation". Journal ...
Resampling (statistics) see section on permutation tests. Nonparametric Permutation Tests are used in fMRI. ...
Kempthorne O (1969). An introduction to genetic statistics. Iowa State University Press.. ... For example, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) was designed specifically for nonparametric and model-free detection of ...
B. S. Everitt: The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (3rd edition, 2006). ISBN 0-521- ... Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ... In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of ... and the science of statistics. There is spread or variability in almost any value that can be measured in a population (e.g. ...
If the statistic is a percentage, this maximum margin of error can be calculated as the radius of the confidence interval for a ... Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ... Lynch, Scott M. Introduction to Bayesian Statistics and Estimation for Social Scientists (2007). ... The margin of error is usually defined as the radius of a confidence interval for a particular statistic from a survey. One ...
Corder, G. W.; Foreman, D. I. (2014), Nonparametric Statistics: A Step-by-Step Approach, New York: Wiley, ISBN 978-1118840313. ... "Chi-squared Statistic". Practical Cryptography. Retrieved 18 February 2015.. *^ "Using Chi Squared to Crack Codes". IB Maths ... In 1900, Pearson published a paper[1] on the χ2 test which is considered to be one of the foundations of modern statistics.[6] ... The test statistic T in this instance could be set to be the sum of squares about the sample mean, divided by the nominal value ...
Asymptotic theory (statistics). References[edit]. *^ a b "Social Research Methods - Knowledge Base - Random Selection & ... Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ... Lecture Notes in Statistics. 150. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-98578-6. .. ... both for pretreatment checks on equivalence and the evaluation of post treatment results using inferential statistics. More ...
The test statistic is Hotelling's two-sample t2: t. 2. =. n. 1. n. 2. n. 1. +. n. 2. (. x. ¯. 1. −. x. ¯. 2. ). ′. S. pooled. − ... When the normality assumption does not hold, a non-parametric alternative to the t-test can often have better statistical power ... The test statistic is Hotelling's t2: t. 2. =. n. (. x. ¯. −. μ. 0. ). ′. S. −. 1. (. x. ¯. −. μ. 0. ). {\displaystyle t^{2}=n ... The t statistic to test whether the means are different can be calculated as follows: t. =. X. ¯. 1. −. X. ¯. 2. s. p. 2. n. {\ ...
Bartholomew, D. J., and Knott, M. (1999) Latent Variable Models and Factor Analysis Kendall's Library of Statistics, vol. 7, ... Nonparametric SEMs permit the estimation of total, direct and indirect effects without making any commitment to the form of the ... "Intelligence Tests". Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics. 2007. doi:10.4135/9781412952644.n220. ISBN 978-1-4129-1611-0. ... Pearl[12] has extended SEM from linear to nonparametric models, and proposed causal and counterfactual interpretations of the ...
The bounds test can also be used.[6][8] For cases 1 and 2, the sup-Wald (i.e., the supremum of a set of Wald statistics), sup- ... Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ... In econometrics and statistics, a structural break is an unexpected change over time in the parameters of regression models, ... In both the statistics and econometrics literature we can find very many of papers related to the detection of changes and ...
Non-parametric linkage analysis, in turn, studies the probability of an allele being identical by descent with itself. ... or non-parametric. Parametric linkage analysis is the traditional approach, whereby the probability that a gene important for a ...
... frequentist statistics studies the sampling distribution while Bayesian statistics updates a probability distribution on the ... Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ... Box, George E.P.; Hunter, William G.; Hunter, J. Stuart (1978). Statistics for Experimenters : An Introduction to Design, Data ... Box, George E.P.; Hunter, William G.; Hunter, J. Stuart (2005). Statistics for Experimenters : Design, Innovation, and ...
Aviva Petrie; Paul Watson (28 February 2013). Statistics for Veterinary and Animal Science. Wiley. pp. 130-131. ISBN 978-1-118- ... Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ...
Howell (2002, Chapter 18: Resampling and nonparametric approaches to data) *^ Montgomery (2001, Section 3-10: Nonparametric ... Citations from Moore & McCabe (2003): "Analysis of variance uses F statistics, but these are not the same as the F statistic ... Biomedical Statistics Archived 7 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine *^ "The Probable Error of a Mean" (PDF). Biometrika. 6: 1 ... The test statistics of this derived linear model are closely approximated by the test statistics of an appropriate normal ...
International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-05-10.. ... K-means is closely related to nonparametric Bayesian modeling.[38] ... Proceedings of 5th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability. 1. University of California Press. pp. 281-, ...
Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ... Applied statistics, theoretical statistics and mathematical statistics[edit]. Applied statistics comprises descriptive ... Descriptive statistics is distinguished from inferential statistics (or inductive statistics), in that descriptive statistics ... 4.1 Descriptive statistics. *4.2 Inferential statistics *4.2.1 Terminology and theory of inferential statistics *4.2.1.1 ...
Further information: Statistical model, Parametric model, Nonparametric statistics, and Model selection. A statistical model is ... In statistics there can be models of mental events as well as models of physical events. For example, a statistical model of ... A nonparametric model has a distribution function without parameters, such as in bootstrapping, and is only loosely confined by ... and may be done with nonparametric means, such as with cross validation. ...
Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ... Rank statistics. *Sign *Sample median. *Signed rank (Wilcoxon) *Hodges-Lehmann estimator. *Rank sum (Mann-Whitney) ...
Other loss functions are used in statistics, particularly in robust statistics. Generalized Bayes estimators[edit]. See also: ... There are parametric and non-parametric approaches to empirical Bayes estimation. Parametric empirical Bayes is usually ... An alternative way of formulating an estimator within Bayesian statistics is maximum a posteriori estimation. ...
"Consistent nonparametric regression". Annals of Statistics. 5 (4): 595-620. doi:10.1214/aos/1176343886 ... "Annals of Statistics. 20 (3): 1236-1265. doi:10.1214/aos/1176348768.. *^ Mills, Peter (2012-08-09). "Efficient statistical ... In pattern recognition, the k-nearest neighbors algorithm (k-NN) is a non-parametric method proposed by Thomas Cover used for ... Samworth, Richard J. (2012). "Optimal weighted nearest neighbour classifiers". Annals of Statistics. 40 (5): 2733-2763. arXiv: ...
"Engineering Statistics Handbook Section 6.5.5.2". Retrieved 19 January 2015.. *^ A.A. Miranda, Y.-A. Le Borgne, and G. Bontempi ... Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ... Shaw P.J.A. (2003) Multivariate statistics for the Environmental Sciences, Hodder-Arnold. ISBN 0-340-80763-6.[page needed] ... a b Jolliffe I.T. Principal Component Analysis, Series: Springer Series in Statistics, 2nd ed., Springer, NY, 2002, XXIX, 487 p ...
See Section Parametric versus Nonparametric Processes, Nonlinear Optics by Robert W. Boyd (3rd ed.), pp. 13-15. ... Nonlinear effects fall into two qualitatively different categories, parametric and non-parametric effects. A parametric non- ...
A common non-parametric technique is the periodogram. The spectral density is usually estimated using Fourier transform methods ... The autocorrelation function is a statistic defined as ... estimation techniques can involve parametric or non-parametric ...
In statistics, a probit model is a type of regression where the dependent variable can take only two values, for example ...
Nonparametric anova *1-way (Kruskal-Wallis). *2-way (Friedman). *Ordered alternative (Jonckheere-Terpstra) ... Statistics.. *^ Anderson, Theodore (1951). "Classification by multivariate analysis". Psychometrika. 16 (1): 31-50. doi:10.1007 ... More mathematical statistics is required for Lohr, for Särndal et alia, and for Cochran (classic[citation needed]): ... "Introduction to the Practice of Statistics". *^ Freedman, David; Pisani, Robert; Purves, Roger. ...
... (Redirected from Non-parametric). Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not ... nonparametric statistics (in the sense of a statistic over data, which is defined to be a function on a sample that has no ... As such it is the opposite of parametric statistics. It includes nonparametric descriptive statistics, statistical models, ... Corder, G. W.; Foreman, D. I. (2014). Nonparametric Statistics: A Step-by-Step Approach. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118840313.. ...
Statistics. *Nonparametric Statistics. Nonparametric Statistics. Section Navigation. Sub Navigation. *Nonparametric Statistics ... and the intuitive nature of nonparametric statistics. Four class hours per week. ... Nonparametric Statistical Methods. Wiley, 2013. Hollander, Wolfe, and Chicken. Amherst Books. TBD. ... We will also investigate correlation, regression, and one-way analysis of variance techniques in a nonparametric setting. A ...
Our aim is to rejuvenate the research activity in nonparametric statistics by bringing scholars from all around the globe in ... School of Mathematics and Statistics, Carleton University Organizers: A.K.Md.Ehsanes Saleh and M.Ould Haye. For additional ... This conference will focus on the current activities in parametric and nonparametric methods and consider new directions on the ... International Conference on Nonparametric Methods for Measurement Error Models and Related Topics. ...
nonparametric statistics business decision making hypothesis development and testing sampling error margin of error spreadsheet ... probability chi-square contingency table Mann-Whitney U Test Kruskall-Wallis Test Spearmans Rank Correlation Excel statistics ... development four levels of measurement parametric statistics binomial ...
nonparametric statistics (a statistic is defined to be a function on a sample; no dependency on a parameter). Order statistics ... Nonparametric statistics includes both descriptive statistics and statistical inference. Nonparametric tests are often used ... Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not based solely on parametrized families of probability ... Practical Nonparametric Statistics (Third ed.), Wiley, pp. 157-176, ISBN 0-471-16068-7 Sprent, P. (1989), Applied Nonparametric ...
Non parametric inference: the bootstrap.. Nonparametric methods for probability density function estimation: histogram, naive, ... to build nonparametric density estimators or nonparametric estimators of the regression function; and to use these methods in ... Nonparametric methods for regression function estimation: kernel smoother; loess.. For the topics introduced by the lecturer, ... M. Hollander, A. W. Douglas, E. Chicken, Nonparametric statistical methods, Wiley, New York, 2014, 3rd edition. ISBN: 978-0-470 ...
Nonparametric statistics. (Redirected from Non-parametric). Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not ... nonparametric statistics (in the sense of a statistic over data, which is defined to be a function on a sample that has no ... As such it is the opposite of parametric statistics. It includes nonparametric descriptive statistics, statistical models, ... Corder, G. W.; Foreman, D. I. (2014). Nonparametric Statistics: A Step-by-Step Approach. Wiley. ISBN 978-1118840313.. ...
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Image processing tools based on mathematical algorithms from statistics or variational methods enable a bulk of applications in ...
Nonparametric Methods in Statistics with SAS Applications teaches students how to apply nonparametric techniques to statistical ... Designed for a graduate course in applied statistics, ... Nonparametric Methods in Statistics with SAS Applications. 1st ... Designed for a graduate course in applied statistics, Nonparametric Methods in Statistics with SAS Applications teaches ... Olga Korosteleva is an associate professor of statistics in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at California State ...
Bureau of Labor Statistics , Office of Survey Methods and Research , More Information. Published Year: 2019 Survey/Program(s): ... U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Office of Survey Methods Research PSB Suite 1950 2 Massachusetts Avenue NE Washington, DC 20212 ... Bayesian Nonparametric Joint Model for Point Estimates and Variances. Julie Gershunskaya and Terrance D Savitsky ... multiplicative bias in observed variances under a nonparametric formulation that allows the data to discover distinct bias ...
9781118840313 Our cheapest price for Nonparametric Statistics A Step-by-Step Approach is $51.37. Free shipping on all orders ... a very useful resource for courses in nonparametric statistics in which the emphasis is on applications rather than on theory. ... Nonparametric Statistics A Step-by-Step Approach. by Corder, Gregory W.; Foreman, Dale I. *ISBN13: 9781118840313. ... It also deserves a place in libraries of all institutions where introductory statistics courses are taught." -CHOICE. ...
The book continues to emphasize the importance of nonparametric methods as a significant branch of modern statistics and equips ... The book is also an ideal textbook for upper-undergraduate and first-year graduate courses in applied nonparametric statistics ... He is active in modern nonparametric statistics research fields, including functional analysis, sequential methods, and complex ... Nonparametric Regression Analysis 490. 9.7. An Introduction to Non-Rank-Based Approaches to Nonparametric Regression Analysis ...
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Opdyke, J.D., A Powerful and Robust Nonparametric Statistic for Joint Mean-Variance Quality Control (October 23, 2010). ... A Powerful and Robust Nonparametric Statistic for Joint Mean-Variance Quality Control. InterStat, September 2009 ... The statistic - OBMax2 - is not computationally intensive, and although initially designed for quality control testing in ... only one two-sample statistic that is not computationally intensive has been designed specifically for the one-sided test of Ho ...
What is nonparametric statistics? Meaning of nonparametric statistics medical term. What does nonparametric statistics mean? ... Looking for online definition of nonparametric statistics in the Medical Dictionary? nonparametric statistics explanation free ... Nonparametric statistics with applications to science and engineering.. Nonparametric statistics with applications to science ... See Actuarial statistics, Coefficient of variation, Cusum statistics, Descriptive statistics, Health statistics, Mean, Standard ...
On How Well Generative Adversarial Networks Learn Densities: Nonparametric and Parametric Results. arXiv:1811.03179, 2018. ... The Annals of Statistics, vol.44, no.4, 1536-1563, 2016. Preprint PDF Project ...
Canadian Journal of StatisticsVolume 34, Issue 1, Version of Record online: 17 FEB 2009. ...
"Nonparametric methods now constitute one of the most successful branches of modern statistics," said Professor Puri. "The ... So theories and methods of nonparametric statistics have evolved to handle data sets such as these. ... Hence, much of statistics is "parametric." A good example is the Gaussian, or "normal distribution," which is dependent on two ... And because nonparametric statistical techniques are valid under less restrictive assumptions than those of a specified ...
Statistics, nonparametric Stroke Sweden Abstract. Stroke, a disease with severe consequences for patients and their families, ... Statistics, nonparametric Sweden Abstract. The aim of this study was to analyze possible differences in the use of ambulance ... Statistics, nonparametric Sweden Abstract. A number of accident characteristics of bus crashes are analyzed in relation to each ... Statistics, nonparametric Wechsler Scales Abstract. The problem of characterising more specifically the cognitive requirements ...
Then, the drift function b is estimated in a compact set A in a non-parametric way using a penalized least squares approach. We ... Citation Information: Statistics & Decisions International mathematical journal for stochastic methods and models, Volume 28, ...
Eubank, R.L. (1999) Nonparametric regression and spline smoothing. Dekker.. Hardle, W. (1990) Applied Nonparametric Regression ... Nonparametric regression provides a very flexible approach to exploring the relationship between a response and an associated ... The test statistic of the general linear hypothesis and its distribution. Confidence intervals and prediction intervals. [5] ... derive key theoretical properties of both parametric and nonparametric estimators, such as the form of the estimators and their ...
I run the nonparametric regression using R, and the package np I get p- values but no df or t statistic. For example For the ... I was thinking about analysing this data with the statistical model ANOVA, using non-parametric tests or Bayesian statistics. ... Nonparametric regression using kernel weights Hi! I am wondering how I can present the results of nonparametric regression. I ... Reporting results of nonparametric regression Hi! I am wondering how you present the results of non parametric regression test ...
This review introduces nonparametric methods for testing differences between more than two groups or treatments. Three of the ... Whitely E, Ball J: Statistics review 6: Nonparametric methods. Crit Care. 2002, 6: 509-513. 10.1186/cc1820.View ArticleGoogle ... Conover WJ: Practical Nonparametric Statistics. 1999, New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 3Google Scholar. ... The advantages and disadvantages of nonparametric methods were discussed in Statistics review 6 [2]. Although the range of ...
As the non-parametric method (Quades) identifies, you are running the ANOVA part of the ANCOVA analysis on the rank-ordered ...
Bo Henry Applied Nonparametric Statistics in Reliability Reihe: Springer Series in Reliability Engineering 9780857291172 ... a nonparametric inference procedure is conducted. Applied Nonparametric Statistics in Reliability will serve the practical ... Applied Nonparametric Statistics in Reliability (Gebundene Ausgabe). Reihe: Springer Series in Reliability Engineering Springer ... Applied Nonparametric Statistics in Reliability is focused on the use of modern statistical methods for the estimation of ...
  • A variety of other topics may be explored in the nonparametric setting including resampling techniques (for example, bootstrapping), categorical data and contingency tables, density estimation, and the two-way layout. (amherst.edu)
  • It covers theory, methodology, applications and computational aspects, addressing topics such as nonparametric curve estimation, regression smoothing, models for time series and more generally dependent data, varying coefficient models, symmetry testing, robust estimation, and rank-based methods for factorial design. (springer.com)
  • The author also describes time-to-event nonparametric estimation methods, such as the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox proportional hazards model, and presents histogram and kernel density estimation methods. (routledge.com)
  • Applied Nonparametric Statistics in Reliability is focused on the use of modern statistical methods for the estimation of dependability measures of reliability systems that operate under different conditions. (buchfreund.de)
  • In this paper, we develop a fully nonparametric approach for the estimation of the cumulative incidence function with Missing At Random right-censored competing risks data. (ssrn.com)
  • This paper investigates nonparametric estimation of density on [0, 1]. (repec.org)
  • Bayesian Approaches to Non-parametric Estimation of Densities on the Unit Interval ," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 3/12, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics. (repec.org)
  • Estimation of Hyperbolic Diffusion Using MCMC Method ," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 18/02, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics. (repec.org)
  • A Bayesian approach to bandwidth selection for multivariate kernel regression with an application to state-price density estimation ," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 11/07, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics. (repec.org)
  • Due to the curse of dimensionality, estimation in a multidimensional nonparametric regression model is in general not feasible. (uzh.ch)
  • Nonparametric and semiparametric statistical methods provide a way to reduce the strength of the assumptions required for estimation and inference, thereby reducing the opportunities for obtaining misleading results. (springer.com)
  • The literature on nonparametric and semiparametric estimation is large and highly technical. (springer.com)
  • It has been shown recently that every statistical learning machine known to be consistent for a nonparametric regression problem is a probability machine that is provably consistent for this estimation problem. (nih.gov)
  • This book presents a systematic and unified approach for modern nonparametric treatment of missing and modified data via examples of density and hazard rate estimation, nonparametric regression, filtering signals, and time series analysis. (routledge.com)
  • He is well known for his work on the theory and application of nonparametric curve estimation and is the author of Nonparametric Curve Estimation: Methods, Theory, and Applications . (routledge.com)
  • The ISNPS 2018 conference in Salerno was organized with the support of the American Statistical Association, the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, the Journal of Nonparametric Statistics and the University of Salerno. (springer.com)
  • JOURNAL OF NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS provides a medium for the publication of research and survey work in the area of nonparametric statistics. (periodicals.com)
  • Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Statistics & Probability 2017 Catalogue. (cambridge.org)
  • Nonparametric statistics includes both descriptive statistics and statistical inference. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the end of the course the student knows the fundamentals of the most relevant nonparametric techniques for statistical inference. (unibo.it)
  • A concrete modelling scheme is chosen for each practical situation and, in consequence, a nonparametric inference procedure is conducted. (buchfreund.de)
  • 15-2 CHAPTER 15 Nonparametric Tests Introduction The most commonly used methods for inference about the means of quan-titativeresponse variables assume that the variables in question have nor-maldistributions in the population or populations from which we draw our data. (sputtr.com)
  • Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Longitudinal Data Version: Sept. 22,2003 Jane-Ling Wang Department of Statistics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A. Email: [email protected] Abstract. (sputtr.com)
  • Abstract: We propose a new nonparametric test for the supposition of independencebetween two continuous random variables. (duhnnae.com)
  • Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Statistics for econometrics, finance and insurance. (cambridge.org)
  • He is the author of over 100 journal articles and book chapters in econometrics and statistics, a winner of the Richard Stone prize in applied econometrics, a fellow of the Econometric Society and American Statistical Association, and a former co-editor of Econometrica . (springer.com)
  • Highlighting the latest advances in nonparametric and semiparametric statistics, this book gathers selected peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 4th Conference of the International Society for Nonparametric Statistics (ISNPS), held in Salerno, Italy, on June 11-15, 2018. (springer.com)
  • Nonparametric tests are often used when the assumptions of parametric tests are violated. (wikipedia.org)
  • I was thinking about analysing this data with the statistical model ANOVA, using non-parametric tests or Bayesian statistics. (talkstats.com)
  • Nonparametric Tests 3.1 Introduction Nonparametric , or distribution free tests are so-called because the assumptions underlying their use are "fewer and weaker than those associated with parametric tests" (Siegel & Castellan, 1988, p. 34). (sputtr.com)
  • He is active in modern nonparametric statistics research fields, including functional analysis, sequential methods, and complex system applications. (wiley.com)
  • Order statistics , which are based on the ranks of observations, are one example of such statistics and these play a central role in many nonparametric approaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gaussian Process Regression and Kernel Ridge Regression are popular nonparametric regression approaches. (wias-berlin.de)
  • The book provides an extensive array of examples that clearly illustrate how to use nonparametric approaches for handling one- or two-sample location and dispersion problems, dichotomous data, and one-way and two-way layout problems. (wiley.com)
  • use the statistical software R to analyse real data using both parametric and nonparametric approaches. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • An emphasis has been on latent variable models, nonparametric approaches and geometrically based models. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • New test procedures are presented under fully nonparametric models for the two-factor mixed and random effects designs. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of the book is to teach master's students applications of popular nonparametric methods making use of SAS 9.3 software. (routledge.com)
  • This book presents the main ideas underlying a variety of nonparametric and semiparametric methods. (springer.com)
  • In the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014, research by the School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science was ranked 25th in the UK for research power and 100% or our research was judged to be of international quality. (kent.ac.uk)
  • An introduction to the mathematics needed for students who plan to take MATH 2208 and MATH 2209 (Introduction to Statistics I and II). (msvu.ca)
  • Restriction B: Not open to students who have taken or are taking MATH 123 , MATH 130 or MATH 131 , except by permission of the Department of Mathematics and Statistics. (mcgill.ca)
  • Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : Review of trigonometry and other Precalculus topics. (mcgill.ca)
  • Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : Review of functions and graphs. (mcgill.ca)
  • Mathematics & Statistics (Sci) : The definite integral. (mcgill.ca)
  • by Sabrina exist statistical Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June 2014 2016 and network from your researchers! (5senkels.de)
  • hemodynamic Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June 2014 2016 is extended for the time of single T children. (5senkels.de)
  • If you are at an Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June 2014 2016 or responsible definition, you can get the access testing to involve a metric across the heart planning for standard or other devices. (5senkels.de)
  • The first meaning of nonparametric covers techniques that do not rely on data belonging to any particular parametric family of probability distributions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The course will emphasize data analysis (with appropriate use of statistical software) and the intuitive nature of nonparametric statistics. (amherst.edu)
  • nonparametric statistics (in the sense of a statistic over data, which is defined to be a function on a sample that has no dependency on a parameter ), whose interpretation does not depend on the population fitting any parameterised distributions. (wikipedia.org)
  • What do you do when you realize that the data set from the study that you have just completed violates the sample size or other requirements needed to apply parametric statistics? (sagepub.com)
  • It also discusses nonparametric and permutation solutions for several different types of data, including ordinal data, spatial data, survival data and the joint modeling of both longitudinal and time-to-event data, permutation and resampling techniques, and practical applications of nonparametric statistics. (springer.com)
  • Designed for a graduate course in applied statistics, Nonparametric Methods in Statistics with SAS Applications teaches students how to apply nonparametric techniques to statistical data. (routledge.com)
  • The proposed formulation generalizes the joint point estimator and variance models to explicitly parameterize a multiplicative bias in observed variances under a nonparametric formulation that allows the data to discover distinct bias regimes. (bls.gov)
  • Thoroughly revised and updated, the new edition of Nonparametric Statistical Methods includes additional modern topics and procedures, more practical data sets, and new problems from real-life situations. (wiley.com)
  • Just like Newton's laws which are not applicable near the speed of light or in situations where quantum mechanics must be used, parametric statistics fall apart when a data set's distribution is unknown or wildly erratic. (iu.edu)
  • So theories and methods of nonparametric statistics have evolved to handle data sets such as these. (iu.edu)
  • I am working with nonparametric data and I was trying to apply a Mardia-Watson-Wheeler uniform-scores test to 2 or more different classes of data to check if they come from the same population. (talkstats.com)
  • I think I am pretty clear on the differences between parametric and nonparametric tests and which is more appropriate to use given the data you have collected. (talkstats.com)
  • The Kruskal-Wallis test uses the same method but, as with many nonparametric tests, the ranks of the data are used in place of the raw data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nonparametric statistics has probably become the leading methodology for researchers performing data analysis. (buchfreund.de)
  • Inferential statistics help us decide, for example, whether the differences between groups that we see in our data are strong enough to provide support for our hypothesis that group differences exist in general, in the entire population. (coursera.org)
  • An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. (uchicago.edu)
  • Six Sigma Statistics with Excel and Minitab offers a complete guide to Six Sigma statistical methods, plus expert coverage of Excel and Minitab, two of today's most popular programs for statistical analysis and data visualization. (indigo.ca)
  • In addition, Six Sigma Statistics with Excel and Minitab enables you to develop a better understanding of the Taguchi Method…use measurement system analysis to find out if measurement processes are accurate…discover how to test ordinal or nominal data with nonparametric statistics…and apply the full range of basic quality tools. (indigo.ca)
  • Next new nonparametric multivariate two sample and multisample tests are developed based on directions of differences between paired data, each member of a pair being from different samples. (illinois.edu)
  • Finally we apply this method to extend Kendall's $\tau$ to a multivariate setting and develop nonparametric multiple and multivariate regression techniques based on directions of data. (illinois.edu)
  • The Kendall-Theil robust line was selected because this robust nonparametric method is resistant to the effects of outliers and nonnormality in residuals that commonly characterize hydrologic data sets. (usgs.gov)
  • The program was developed to provide regression equations with an error component for stochastic data generation because nonparametric multisegment regression tools are not available with the software that is commonly used to develop regression models. (usgs.gov)
  • Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics Craig L. Scanlan, EdD, RRT Parametric statistics assume (1) that the distribution characteristics of a sample's population are known (e.g. the mean, standard deviation, normality) and (2) that the data being analyzed are at the interval or ratio level. (sputtr.com)
  • Two nonparametric methods for the identification of subgroups with outstanding outcome values are described and compared to each other in a simulation study and an application to clinical data. (nih.gov)
  • In the second year, stochastic models and processes, Bayesian statistics and the analysis of large data sets are among the range of topics explored. (kent.ac.uk)
  • This paper investigates the problem of computing nonparametric correlations on the fly for streaming data. (arxiv.org)
  • To compute these statistics, the mean yield data have to be transformed into ranks for each genotype and environment, and the genotypes are considered stable if their ranks are similar across environments. (manzik.com)
  • Nonparametric regression is a category of regression analysis in which the predictor does not take a predetermined form but is constructed according to information derived from the data. (rug.nl)
  • Nonparametric regression requires larger sample sizes than regression based on parametric models because the data must supply the model structure as well as the model estimates. (rug.nl)
  • Example of a curve (red line) fit to a small data set (black points) with nonparametric regression using a Gaussian kernel smoother. (rug.nl)
  • The three nonparametric measures of phenotypic stability Si (1), Si (2) and Si (3) introduced and discussed in Huehn (1990) and the classical parameters: environmental variance, ecovalence, regression coefficient, and sum of squared deviations from regression were computed for winter wheat grain yield data from the official registration trials (1974, 1975 and 1976) in the Federal Republic of Germany. (semanticscholar.org)
  • consider nonparametric lack-of-fit tests in presence of heteroscedastic variances. (k-state.edu)
  • The test statistic turns out to be the "F" statistic that we saw when we looked at when comparing variances. (nmculturenet.org)
  • a very useful resource for courses in nonparametric statistics in which the emphasis is on applications rather than on theory. (ecampus.com)
  • Introduction to the theory of nonparametric statistics by R.H. Randles and D.A. Wolfe, Wiley. (epfl.ch)
  • Robust Statistics: Theory and Methods by D.R. Martin, M. Salibian-Barrera, R.A. Maronna, V.J. Yohai, Wiley. (epfl.ch)
  • In statistics and probability theory, the nonparametric skew is a statistic occasionally used with random variables that take real values. (wikipedia.org)
  • The asymptotic theory of the test statistics is derived under the Neyman-Scott framework, in the sense that the number of levels of both factors is large but the group sizes can remain fixed. (hindawi.com)
  • Mathematical theory can help to understand the performance and limitations of nonparametric Bayes procedures. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods 49 (3): 697-725. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods 47 (10): 2527-2548. (dur.ac.uk)
  • As with the bestselling first edition, "Computational Statistics Handbook with MATLAB" makes computational statistics as accessible as possible by playing down theory and building an understanding of the algorithms used in a wide range of applications. (worldcat.org)
  • Provides access to computational statistics by playing down theory and building an understanding of the algorithms used in a wide range of applications. (worldcat.org)
  • It is nevertheless true that, whereas these methods have already proved highly effective in other applied areas of knowledge such as biostatistics or social sciences, nonparametric analyses in reliability currently form an interesting area of study that has not yet been fully explored. (buchfreund.de)
  • The process of drawing inferences, making predictions, and testing significance are examples of inferential statistics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Inferential statistics are concerned with making inferences based on relations found in the sample, to relations in the population. (coursera.org)
  • He is the author and creator of the NonParametric Combination Test software for multivariate and multistrata permutation tests. (springer.com)
  • The text begins with classical nonparametric hypotheses testing, including the sign, Wilcoxon sign-rank and rank-sum, Ansari-Bradley, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Friedman rank, Kruskal-Wallis H, Spearman rank correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact tests. (routledge.com)
  • I need to choose a good dataset with at least two variables because I'll need to compare them by calculating measures of association, performing two-sample tests and maybe doing a nonparametric regression on R, ... Therefore, I was thinking about choosing a dataset about COVID 19 because. (talkstats.com)
  • In this section, I want to discuss Nonparametric tests. (coursera.org)
  • In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. (uchicago.edu)
  • They are also competitive among other nonparametric tests when samples are from light tailed distributions. (illinois.edu)
  • A novel presentation of rank and permutation tests, with accessible guidance to applications in R Nonparametric testing problems are frequently encountered in many scientific disciplines, such as engineering, medicine and the social sciences. (worldcat.org)
  • This master class on Nonparametric Bayesian Statistics will consist of 4 lectures each from two speakers who are leaders of the field, David Dunson (Duke University) and Harry van Zanten (University of Amsterdam). (warwick.ac.uk)
  • On May 12, 2020 Kirill Efimov successfully defended his dissertation 'Adaptive nonparametric clustering' at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (supervisor Vladimir Spokoiny). (wias-berlin.de)
  • This volume is composed of peer-reviewed papers that have developed from the First Conference of the International Society for Non Parametric Statistics (ISNPS). (bookdepository.com)
  • Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June to Risk Factors to Remember book software, download, and contents that carry your quotation of getting a blood with a precise scan network. (5senkels.de)
  • The Spotahome Blog They will analyze an Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June 2014 from The Great Courses allowing them of your role. (5senkels.de)
  • The test statistic of the general linear hypothesis and its distribution. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Decision Rule The decision will be to reject the null hypothesis if the test statistic from the table is greater than the F critical value with k-1 numerator and N-k denominator degrees of freedom. (nmculturenet.org)
  • The statistic - OBMax2 - is not computationally intensive, and although initially designed for quality control testing in regulatory telecommunications, its range of application is as broad as the number of quality control settings requiring a one-sided test of the first two moments. (ssrn.com)
  • The Kruskal-Wallis test is the nonparametric alternative to one-way analysis of variance, which is used to test for differences between more than two populations when the samples are independent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As can be seen, there is very little difference between the unadjusted and the adjusted test statistics because the number of ties is relatively small. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We will start by considering the basic principles of significance testing: the sampling and test statistic distribution, p-value, significance level, power and type I and type II errors. (coursera.org)
  • Hotelling and Solomons considered the distribution of the test statistic D = n ( m − a ) s {\displaystyle D={\frac {n(m-a)}{s}}} where n is the sample size, m is the sample mean, a is the sample median and s is the sample's standard deviation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Review "Goodness-of-Fit" and the three "Non-parametric" test videos in the Calculations section of the "Statistics Visual Learner" media piece. (payloadz.com)
  • A+ Tutorials PSY-520 Module 8 Exercises Graduate Statistics - Analysis of Variance GCU Review 'Goodness-of-Fit' and the three 'Non-parametric' test videos in the Calculations section of the 'Statistics Visual Learner' media piece. (payloadz.com)
  • The calculation to arrive at the test statistic is quite complicated, hence we will assume that either the reader will be looking at a textbook for this, or rely on a computer. (nmculturenet.org)
  • Image processing tools based on mathematical algorithms from statistics or variational methods enable a bulk of applications in the medical sciences. (wias-berlin.de)
  • The first year of the programme gives you a strong background in statistics, including its mathematical aspects, equivalent to the Graduate Diploma in Statistics. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The ever increasing use of nonparametric Bayesian methods raises all kinds of interesting theoretical, mathematical questions. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Since 2012 he is professor of Mathematical Statistics at the University of Amsterdam. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Professor Sam Efromovich is a Fellow of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics and the American Statistical Association. (routledge.com)
  • We will also investigate correlation, regression, and one-way analysis of variance techniques in a nonparametric setting. (amherst.edu)
  • And because nonparametric statistical techniques are valid under less restrictive assumptions than those of a specified distribution type, they are very versatile, and they have found applications in many new methods of analysis. (iu.edu)
  • It is the nonparametric alternative to one-way analysis of variance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Welfare Analysis of Changing Food Prices: A Nonparametric Examination of Export Ban on Rice in India ," Working Papers 177, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK. (repec.org)
  • Our analysis suggests that the link between IT and increased productivity emerged well before the recent surge in the aggregate productivity statistics and that the current macroeconomic productivity revival may in part reflect the contributions of intangible capital accumulated in the past. (psu.edu)
  • Robust Statistics: The approach based on influence functions by F.R. Hampel, E.M. Ronchetti, P.J. Rousseeuw, W.A. Stahel, Wiley. (epfl.ch)
  • Robust Statistics by P.J. Huber, Wiley (second edition). (epfl.ch)
  • We obtain results on the pointwise asymptotic normality as well as the uniform convergence rate of the proposed nonparametric estimator. (ssrn.com)
  • Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not based solely on parametrized families of probability distributions (common examples of parameters are the mean and variance). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not based solely on parameterized families of probability distributions (common examples of parameters are the mean and variance). (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposed Bayesian nonparametric approach takes advantage of the flexibility of Dirichlet process mixtures to achieve any continuous deformation of linearly combined predictive distributions. (arxiv.org)
  • Nonparametric statistics for health care research : statistics for small samples and unusual distributions / Marjorie A. Pett. (who.int)
  • Nonparametric Statistics for Health Care Research was developed for such scenarios-research undertaken with limited funds, often using a small sample size, with the primary objective of improving client care and obtaining better client outcomes. (sagepub.com)
  • Following the tradition of Carleton University yet another International Conference on Nonparametric methods for Measurement Error Models and Related topics has been arranged. (utoronto.ca)
  • It then discusses smoothing techniques (loess and thin-plate splines) for classical nonparametric regression as well as binary logistic and Poisson models. (routledge.com)
  • Dosses ringleted bayesian nonparametric hidden markov models deforming anagogically? (iklanposkota.tk)
  • Nonparametric Regression STATA 15, nonparametric regression STATA 15 models canshaped any function, either linear or nonlinear. (statisticsforum.com)
  • The relationship of our statistics to Chaudhuri's location estimates based on U-statistics is discussed. (illinois.edu)
  • The Kendall-Theil Robust Line software (KTRLine-version 1.0) is a Visual Basic program that may be used with the Microsoft Windows operating system to calculate parameters for robust, nonparametric estimates of linear-regression coefficients between two continuous variables. (usgs.gov)
  • Regression statistics such as the median error, the median absolute deviation, the prediction error sum of squares, the root mean square error, the confidence interval for the slope, and the bias correction factor for median estimates are calculated by use of nonparametric methods. (usgs.gov)
  • The local polynomial periodogram enables one to obtain nonparametric estimates of the instantaneous frequency (IF) and its derivatives. (unisa.ac.za)
  • We analyse the properties of nonparametric spectral estimates when applied to long memory and trending nonstationary multiple time series. (uc3m.es)
  • 2019. STABILITYSOFT: A new online program to calculate parametric and non-parametric stability statistics for crop traits. (manzik.com)
  • A nonparametric kernel regression model is employed to estimate the relation between the scaled environmental and economic factors, which are determined as regression variables. (mdpi.com)
  • First, it illustrates in details how to implement our proposed nonparametric estimator. (ssrn.com)
  • Secondly, it facilitates a comparison of the nonparametric estimator to a parametric counterpart based on the estimator of Lu and Liang (2008). (ssrn.com)
  • Nonparametric correlations such as Spearman's rank correlation and Kendall's tau correlation are widely applied in scientific and engineering fields. (arxiv.org)
  • This paper proposes a novel online algorithm for computing nonparametric correlations. (arxiv.org)
  • The online algorithm can compute the nonparametric correlations 10 to 1,000 times faster than the corresponding batch algorithm, and it can compute them based either on all past observations or on fixed-size sliding windows. (arxiv.org)
  • The weak posterior consistency of the Bayesian nonparametric calibration is provided under suitable conditions for unknown true density. (arxiv.org)
  • Weiterlesen In download Practical Nonparametric Statistics, to male agency Included on the search chemistry, it has identifying Evangelical thoughtways' into T of method which is 2000-01-12T12:00:00Full file modes. (enddarmpraxis-muenster.de)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Statistics, Nonparametric. (who.int)
  • Annals of Statistics, 33(3):1295-1329. (uzh.ch)
  • The Annals of Statistics, 33 (1), 184-213. (upenn.edu)
  • It also deserves a place in libraries of all institutions where introductory statistics courses are taught. (ecampus.com)
  • Elementary Statistics: A Step By Step Approach is for introductory statistics courses with a basic algebra prerequisite. (ecampus.com)
  • The coefficient of variation is suggested by Francis and Kannenberg (1987) as a stability statistic through the combination of the coefficient of variation, mean yield, and environmental variance. (manzik.com)
  • This course is an introduction to nonparametric and distribution-free statistical procedures and techniques. (amherst.edu)
  • Higgins, James (2004), Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics 2. (sputtr.com)
  • In particular it will prepare those who plan to take MATH 2208 (Introduction to Statistics I) and/or MATH 1102 (Precalculus I). (msvu.ca)
  • Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference that's perfect for anyone with no previous background in the subject. (oreilly.com)
  • In this study, 6 six stability measures consisting of 4 parametric and 2 nonparametric were used to evaluate the genotype by environment interaction (GEI) in 20 durum wheat genotypes. (comu.edu.tr)
  • Both parametric (b(i), S-di(2), R-i(2), P-i) and nonparametric (S-i((1)), S-i((2))) univariate stability statistics were used to determine stability of the durum wheat genotypes. (comu.edu.tr)
  • According to this statistic, the genotypes that show higher values for the θ (i) are considered more stable. (manzik.com)
  • According to this statistic, genotypes with minimum values are intended to be more stable. (manzik.com)
  • Covering the most commonly used nonparametric statistical techniques available in statistical packages and on open-resource statistical websites, this well-organized and accessible Second Edition helps readers, including those beyond the health sciences field, to understand when to use a particular nonparametric statistic, how to generate and interpret the resulting computer printouts, and how to present the results in table and text format. (sagepub.com)
  • Written by leading statisticians, Nonparametric Statistical Methods, Third Edition provides readers with crucial nonparametric techniques in a variety of settings, emphasizing the assumptions underlying the methods. (wiley.com)
  • Essential for achieving Six Sigma goals in any organization, Six Sigma Statistics with Excel and Minitab is a unique, skills-building toolkit for mastering a wide range of vital statistical techniques, and for capitalizing on the potential of Excel and Minitab. (indigo.ca)
  • Authoritative and comprehensive, Six Sigma Statistics with Excel and Minitab is a valuable skills-building resource for mastering all the statistical techniques for Six Sigma operations, while harnessing the power of Excel and Minitab. (indigo.ca)
  • With Statistics in a Nutshell , you learn how to perform most common statistical analyses, and understand statistical techniques presented in research articles. (oreilly.com)
  • DOUGLAS A. WOLFE is Professor and Chair Emeritus in the Department of Statistics at Ohio State University in Columbus. (wiley.com)