**Statistics, Nonparametric**: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Genetic Linkage**: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.

**Lod Score**: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."

**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**Statistics as Topic**: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.

**Computer Simulation**: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

**Biometry**: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.

**Models, Genetic**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Chromosome Mapping**: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.

**Bayes Theorem**: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

**Vital Statistics**: Used for general articles concerning statistics of births, deaths, marriages, etc.

**Genetic Markers**: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.

**Likelihood Functions**: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.

**Pedigree**: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**Nuclear Family**: A family composed of spouses and their children.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1**: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.

**Monte Carlo Method**: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

**Genetic Heterogeneity**: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

**Genome, Human**: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.

**Sample Size**: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)

**Microsatellite Repeats**: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).

**Genetic Predisposition to Disease**: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

**Matched-Pair Analysis**: A type of analysis in which subjects in a study group and a comparison group are made comparable with respect to extraneous factors by individually pairing study subjects with the comparison group subjects (e.g., age-matched controls).

**Biostatistics**: The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.

**Quantitative Trait Loci**: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.

**Software**: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.

**National Center for Health Statistics (U.S.)**: A center in the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE which is primarily concerned with the collection, analysis, and dissemination of health statistics on vital events and health activities to reflect the health status of people, health needs, and health resources.

**Regression Analysis**: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2**: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.

**Genotype**: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

**Quantitative Trait, Heritable**: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

**ROC Curve**: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6**: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Family Health**: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7**: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10**: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Genetic Diseases, Inborn**: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.

**Siblings**: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)

**Decision Theory**: A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.

**Markov Chains**: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.

**Population**: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.

**Confidence Intervals**: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

**Bias (Epidemiology)**: Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4**: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Penetrance**: The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)

**Normal Distribution**: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.

**Genes, Dominant**: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12**: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**United States**

**Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis**: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**Models, Biological**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Analysis of Variance**: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

**Research Design**: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.

**Haplotypes**: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.

**Reference Values**: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

**Gene Expression Profiling**: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3**: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.

**Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted**: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.

**Alleles**: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.

**Linear Models**: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

**Models, Theoretical**: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

**Age Factors**: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

**Cluster Analysis**: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

**Linkage Disequilibrium**: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.

**Genes, Recessive**: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.

**Infant, Newborn**: An infant during the first month after birth.

**Case-Control Studies**: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

**Epistasis, Genetic**: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.

**Genome-Wide Association Study**: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.

**Phenotype**: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

**Longitudinal Studies**: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

**Pattern Recognition, Automated**: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)

**Cohort Studies**: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

**False Positive Reactions**: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Family**: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.

**Age of Onset**: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

**Image Enhancement**: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.

**Retrospective Studies**: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

**Risk Factors**: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

**Nonlinear Dynamics**: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.

**Risk Assessment**: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

**Questionnaires**: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

**Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide**: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

**Image Processing, Computer-Assisted**: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.

**Computational Biology**: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

**Multivariate Analysis**: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

**Cross-Sectional Studies**: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

**Sex Factors**: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

**Prospective Studies**: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

**Logistic Models**: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

**Quality Control**: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

**Genome**: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.

**Survival Analysis**: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18**: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Genetic Variation**: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.

**Principal Component Analysis**: Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.

**Treatment Outcome**: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

**Area Under Curve**: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)

**Pregnancy**: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

**European Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.

**Databases, Factual**: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

**Chromosomes, Human**: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16**: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17**: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5**: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15**: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Genetic Testing**: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9**: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Genetics, Population**: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20**: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic**: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.

**Artificial Intelligence**: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.

**Epidemiologic Methods**: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.

**Magnetic Resonance Imaging**: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

**Prostatic Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.

**Imaging, Three-Dimensional**: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.

**Biological Markers**: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

**Death Certificates**: Official records of individual deaths including the cause of death certified by a physician, and any other required identifying information.

**Phylogeny**: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.

**Breast Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.

**Breeding**: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.

**Brain**: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

**Gene Frequency**: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.

**Incidence**: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.

**Genetic Loci**: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.

**Finland**

**Clinical Trials as Topic**: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11**: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Follow-Up Studies**: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19**: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Chi-Square Distribution**: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

**Neoplasms**: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

**Proportional Hazards Models**: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.

**Nephelometry and Turbidimetry**: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.

**Space-Time Clustering**: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.

**Physical Chromosome Mapping**: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)

**Observer Variation**: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).

**Prevalence**: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

**Severity of Illness Index**: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

**Genomics**: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.

**Prognosis**: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.

**Blood Chemical Analysis**: An examination of chemicals in the blood.

**Statistical Distributions**: The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.

**Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2**: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

**Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13**: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.

**Sequence Analysis, DNA**: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.

**Gestational Age**: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.

**Databases, Genetic**: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.

**Pilot Projects**: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.

**Mortality**: All deaths reported in a given population.

**Brazil**

**Europe**

**Random Allocation**: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.

**Cause of Death**: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.

**Bipolar Disorder**: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.

**Statistics**

**Evolution, Molecular**: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

**Data Collection**: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.

**Body Mass Index**: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

**Schizophrenia**: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.

**HIV Infections**: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

**Alcoholism**: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)

**Age Distribution**: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Poisson Distribution**: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.

**England**

**Quality of Life**: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.

**Registries**: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.

**Population Surveillance**: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.

**Sex Distribution**: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Canada**: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.

**Anti-Bacterial Agents**: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.

**Tumor Markers, Biological**: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

**Brain Neoplasms**: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.

**Demography**: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

**Obesity**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

**Double-Blind Method**: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.

**Socioeconomic Factors**: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

**Wounds and Injuries**: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.

**Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic**: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.

**Mutation**: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

**Health Surveys**: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.

**Geographic Information Systems**: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.

**Poisoning**: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.

**Birth Certificates**: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.

**Birth Rate**: The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.

**Life Expectancy**: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.

**Infant Mortality**: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.

**International Classification of Diseases**: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.

**Nature**: The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)

**Geography**: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)

**Dose-Response Relationship, Drug**: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.

**Diffusion Tensor Imaging**: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.

**Anisotropy**: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.

**Wales**

## Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparison of outside-in and all-inside techniques. (1/11504)

The aim of this prospective study was to compare two arthroscopic techniques for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament, the "outside-in" (two incisions) and the "all-inside" (one incision) techniques. The results obtained for 30 patients operated on using the "outside-in" technique (group I) were compared with those for 29 patients operated on using the "all-inside" technique (group II). Before surgery, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, patellofemoral pain score, or knee laxity. Both groups displayed significant improvements in Lysholm score after 24 months, from 69 (16) to 91 (9) in group I and from 70 (17) to 90 (15) in group II (means (SD)). There were also significant improvements in patellofemoral pain scores in both groups, from 13 (6) to 18 (5) in group I and from 14 (6) to 18 (4) in group II after 24 months. No difference was found between the groups in knee stability at the 24 month follow up. The IKDC score was identical in both groups at follow up. The operation took significantly longer for patients in group I (mean 94 (15)) than for those in group II (mean 86 (20)) (p = 0.03). The mean sick leave was 7.7 (6.2) weeks in group I and 12.3 (9.7) weeks in group II (p = 0.026), indicating that there may be a higher morbidity associated with the "all-inside" technique. It can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the two different techniques in terms of functional results, knee laxity, or postoperative complications. The results were satisfactory and the outcome was similar in both treatment groups. (+info)## Statistical inference by confidence intervals: issues of interpretation and utilization. (2/11504)

This article examines the role of the confidence interval (CI) in statistical inference and its advantages over conventional hypothesis testing, particularly when data are applied in the context of clinical practice. A CI provides a range of population values with which a sample statistic is consistent at a given level of confidence (usually 95%). Conventional hypothesis testing serves to either reject or retain a null hypothesis. A CI, while also functioning as a hypothesis test, provides additional information on the variability of an observed sample statistic (ie, its precision) and on its probable relationship to the value of this statistic in the population from which the sample was drawn (ie, its accuracy). Thus, the CI focuses attention on the magnitude and the probability of a treatment or other effect. It thereby assists in determining the clinical usefulness and importance of, as well as the statistical significance of, findings. The CI is appropriate for both parametric and nonparametric analyses and for both individual studies and aggregated data in meta-analyses. It is recommended that, when inferential statistical analysis is performed, CIs should accompany point estimates and conventional hypothesis tests wherever possible. (+info)## Comparison of in vivo and in vitro tests of resistance in patients treated with chloroquine in Yaounde, Cameroon. (3/11504)

The usefulness of an isotopic in vitro assay in the field was evaluated by comparing its results with the therapeutic response determined by the simplified WHO in vivo test in symptomatic Cameroonian patients treated with chloroquine. Of the 117 enrolled patients, 102 (87%) completed the 14-day follow-up, and 95 isolates obtained from these patients (46 children, 49 adults) yielded an interpretable in vitro test. A total of 57 of 95 patients (60%; 28 children and 29 adults) had an adequate clinical response with negative smears (n = 46) or with an asymptomatic parasitaemia (n = 11) on day 7 and/or day 14. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentration of the isolates obtained from these patients was 63.3 nmol/l. Late and early treatment failure was observed in 29 (30.5%) and 9 (9.5%) patients, respectively. The geometric mean 50% inhibitory concentrations of the corresponding isolates were 173 nmol/l and 302 nmol/l. Among the patients responding with late and early treatment failure, five isolates and one isolate, respectively, yielded a discordant result (in vivo resistance and in vitro sensitivity). The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the in vitro test to detect chloroquine-sensitive cases was 67%, 84% and 86%, respectively. There was moderate concordance between the in vitro and in vivo tests (kappa value = 0.48). The in vitro assay agrees relatively well with the therapeutic response and excludes several host factors that influence the results of the in vivo test. However, in view of some discordant results, the in vitro test cannot substitute for in vivo data on therapeutic efficacy. The only reliable definition of "resistance" in malaria parasites is based on clinical and parasitological response in symptomatic patients, and the in vivo test provides the standard method to determine drug sensitivity or resistance as well as to guide national drug policies. (+info)## Elevated hepatic lipase activity and low levels of high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population. (4/11504)

Low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and, in the United States, are often associated with hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In Turkey, low HDL-C levels are highly prevalent, 53% of men and 26% of women having HDL-C levels <35 mg/dl, in the absence of hypertriglyceridemia and obesity. In this study to investigate the cause of low HDL-C levels in Turks, various factors affecting HDL metabolism were assessed in normotriglyceridemic Turkish men and women living in Istanbul and in non-Turkish men and women living in San Francisco. Turkish men and women had significantly lower HDL-C levels than the San Francisco men and women, as well as markedly lower apolipoprotein A-I levels (25 and 39 mg/dl lower, respectively). In both Turkish and non-Turkish subjects, the mean body mass index was <27 kg/m2, the mean triglyceride level was <120 mg/dl, and the mean total cholesterol was 170-180 mg/dl. The mean hepatic triglyceride lipase activity was 21% and 31% higher in Turkish men and women, respectively, than in non-Turkish men and women, and remained higher even after subjects with a body mass index >50th percentile for men and women in the United States were excluded from the analysis. As no dietary or behavioral factors have been identified in the Turkish population that account for increased hepatic triglyceride lipase activity, the elevation most likely has a genetic basis. high density lipoprotein in a normotriglyceridemic, nonobese Turkish population. (+info)## Results of three to 10 year follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve. (5/11504)

BACKGROUND: The results of immediate and short term follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve have been well documented, but there is limited information on long term follow up. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of three to 10 year follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve in children and adolescents. SETTING: Tertiary care centre/university hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS AND RESULTS: 85 patients (aged between 1 day and 20 years, mean (SD) 7.0 (6.4) years) underwent balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve during an 11 year period ending August 1994. There was a resultant reduction in the peak to peak gradient from 87 (38) to 26 (22) mm Hg. Immediate surgical intervention was not required. Residual gradients of 29 (17) mm Hg were measured by catheterisation (n = 47) and echo Doppler (n = 82) at intermediate term follow up (two years). When individual results were scrutinised, nine of 82 patients had restenosis, defined as a peak gradient of 50 mm Hg or more. Seven of these patients underwent repeat balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve: peak gradients were reduced from 89 (40) to 38 (20) mm Hg. Clinical evaluation and echo Doppler data of 80 patients showed that residual peak instantaneous Doppler gradients were 17 (15) mm Hg at long term follow up (three to 10 years, median seven), with evidence for late restenosis in one patient (1.3%). Surgical intervention was necessary to relieve fixed infundibular stenosis in three patients and supravalvar pulmonary stenosis in one. Repeat balloon dilatation was performed to relieve restenosis in two patients. Actuarial reintervention free rates at one, two, five, and 10 years were 94%, 89%, 88%, and 84%, respectively. Pulmonary valve regurgitation was noted in 70 of 80 patients at late follow up, but neither right ventricular dilatation nor paradoxical interventricular septal motion developed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of late follow up of balloon dilatation of the pulmonary valve are excellent. Repeat balloon dilatation was performed in 11% of patients and surgical intervention for subvalvlar or supravalvar stenosis in 5%. Most patients had mild residual pulmonary regurgitation but right ventricular volume overload was not required. Balloon dilatation is the treatment of choice in the management of moderate to severe stenosis of the pulmonary valve. Further follow up studies should be undertaken to evaluate the significance of residual pulmonary regurgitation. (+info)## Cyclical etidronate increases bone density in the spine and hip of postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study. (6/11504)

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of cyclic etidronate in secondary prevention of corticosteroid induced osteoporosis. METHODS: A double blind, randomised placebo controlled study comparing cyclic etidronate and placebo during two years in 37 postmenopausal women receiving long term corticosteroid treatment, mainly for polymyalgia rheumatica (40% of the patients) and rheumatoid arthritis (30%). Bone density was measured in the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. RESULTS: After two years of treatment there was a significant difference between the groups in mean per cent change from baseline in bone density in the spine in favour of etidronate (p = 0.003). The estimated treatment difference (mean (SD)) was 9.3 (2.1)%. Etidronate increased bone density in the spine (4.9 (2.1)%, p < 0.05) whereas the placebo group lost bone (-2.4 (1.6)%). At the femoral neck there was an estimated difference of 5.3 (2.6)% between the groups (etidronate: 3.6% (1.4)%, p < 0.05, placebo: -2.4 (2.1)%). The estimated difference at the trochanter was 8.2 (3.0) (etidronate: 9.0 (1.5)%, p < 0.0001, placebo: 0.5 (2.3)%). No significant bone loss occurred in the hip in placebo treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Cyclic etidronate is an effective treatment for postmenopausal women receiving corticosteroid treatment and is well tolerated. (+info)## Progression from colorectal adenoma to carcinoma is associated with non-random chromosomal gains as detected by comparative genomic hybridisation. (7/11504)

AIMS: Chromosomal gains and losses were surveyed by comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) in a series of colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, in search of high risk genomic changes involved in colorectal carcinogenesis. METHODS: Nine colorectal adenomas and 14 carcinomas were analysed by CGH, and DNA ploidy was assessed with both flow and image cytometry. RESULTS: In the nine adenomas analysed, an average of 6.6 (range 1 to 11) chromosomal aberrations were identified. In the 14 carcinomas an average of 11.9 (range 5 to 17) events were found per tumour. In the adenomas the number of gains and losses was in balance (3.6 v 3.0) while in carcinomas gains occurred more often than losses (8.2 v 3.7). Frequent gains involved 13q, 7p, 8q, and 20q, whereas losses most often occurred at 18q, 4q, and 8p. Gains of 13q, 8q, and 20q, and loss of 18q occurred more often in carcinomas than in adenomas (p = 0.005, p = 0.05, p = 0.05, and p = 0.02, respectively). Aneuploid tumours showed more gains than losses (mean 9.3 v 4.9, p = 0.02), in contrast to diploid tumours where gains and losses were nearly balanced (mean 3.1 v 4.1, p = 0.5). CONCLUSIONS: The most striking difference between chromosomal aberrations in colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, as detected by CGH, is an increased number of chromosomal gains that show a nonrandom distribution. Gains of 13q and also of 20q and 8q seem especially to be involved in the progression of adenomas to carcinomas, possibly owing to low level overexpression of oncogenes at these loci. (+info)## Effect of 5-HT4 receptor stimulation on the pacemaker current I(f) in human isolated atrial myocytes. (8/11504)

OBJECTIVE: 5-HT4 receptors are present in human atrial cells and their stimulation has been implicated in the genesis of atrial arrhythmias including atrial fibrillation. An I(f)-like current has been recorded in human atrial myocytes, where it is modulated by beta-adrenergic stimulation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on I(f) electrophysiological properties, in order to get an insight into the possible contribution of I(f) to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atria. METHODS: Human atrial myocytes were isolated by enzymatic digestion from samples of atrial appendage of patients undergoing coeffective cardiac surgery. Patch-clamped cells were superfused with a modified Tyrode's solution in order to amplify I(f) and reduce overlapping currents. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A time-dependent, cesium-sensitive increasing inward current, that we had previously described having the electrophysiological properties of the pacemaker current I(f), was elicited by negative steps (-60 to -130 mV) from a holding potential of -40 mV. Boltzmann fit of control activation curves gave a midpoint (V1/2) of -88.9 +/- 2.6 mV (n = 14). 5-HT (1 microM) consistently caused a positive shift of V1/2 of 11.0 +/- 2.0 mV (n = 8, p < 0.001) of the activation curve toward less negative potentials, thus increasing the amount of current activated by clamp steps near the physiological maximum diastolic potential of these cells. The effect was dose-dependent, the EC50 being 0.14 microM. Maximum current amplitude was not changed by 5-HT. 5-HT did not increase I(f) amplitude when the current was maximally activated by cAMP perfused into the cell. The selective 5-HT4 antagonists, DAU 6285 (10 microM) and GR 125487 (1 microM), completely prevented the effect of 5-HT on I(f). The shift of V1/2 caused by 1 microM 5-HT in the presence of DAU 6285 or GR 125487 was 0.3 +/- 1 mV (n = 6) and 1.0 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 5), respectively (p < 0.01 versus 5-HT alone). The effect of 5-HT4 receptor blockade was specific, since neither DAU 6285 nor GR 125487 prevented the effect of 1 microM isoprenaline on I(f). Thus, 5-HT4 stimulation increases I(f) in human atrial myocytes; this effect may contribute to the arrhythmogenic action of 5-HT in human atrium. (+info)###### Nonparametric tests for the pathwise properties of semimartingales

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###### Estimation13

- A variety of other topics may be explored in the nonparametric setting including resampling techniques (for example, bootstrapping), categorical data and contingency tables, density estimation, and the two-way layout. (amherst.edu)
- It covers theory, methodology, applications and computational aspects, addressing topics such as nonparametric curve estimation, regression smoothing, models for time series and more generally dependent data, varying coefficient models, symmetry testing, robust estimation, and rank-based methods for factorial design. (springer.com)
- The author also describes time-to-event nonparametric estimation methods, such as the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and Cox proportional hazards model, and presents histogram and kernel density estimation methods. (routledge.com)
- Applied Nonparametric Statistics in Reliability is focused on the use of modern statistical methods for the estimation of dependability measures of reliability systems that operate under different conditions. (buchfreund.de)
- In this paper, we develop a fully nonparametric approach for the estimation of the cumulative incidence function with Missing At Random right-censored competing risks data. (ssrn.com)
- This paper investigates nonparametric estimation of density on [0, (repec.org)
- Bayesian Approaches to Non-parametric Estimation of Densities on the Unit Interval ," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 3/12, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics. (repec.org)
- Estimation of Hyperbolic Diffusion Using MCMC Method ," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 18/02, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics. (repec.org)
- A Bayesian approach to bandwidth selection for multivariate kernel regression with an application to state-price density estimation ," Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers 11/07, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics. (repec.org)
- Due to the curse of dimensionality, estimation in a multidimensional nonparametric regression model is in general not feasible. (uzh.ch)
- Nonparametric and semiparametric statistical methods provide a way to reduce the strength of the assumptions required for estimation and inference, thereby reducing the opportunities for obtaining misleading results. (springer.com)
- The literature on nonparametric and semiparametric estimation is large and highly technical. (springer.com)
- It has been shown recently that every statistical learning machine known to be consistent for a nonparametric regression problem is a probability machine that is provably consistent for this estimation problem. (nih.gov)

###### Journal of Nonparametric Statistics2

- The ISNPS 2018 conference in Salerno was organized with the support of the American Statistical Association, the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, the Journal of Nonparametric Statistics and the University of Salerno. (springer.com)
- JOURNAL OF NONPARAMETRIC STATISTICS provides a medium for the publication of research and survey work in the area of nonparametric statistics. (periodicals.com)

###### 20171

- Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Statistics & Probability 2017 Catalogue. (cambridge.org)

###### Inference4

- Nonparametric statistics includes both descriptive statistics and statistical inference. (wikipedia.org)
- By the end of the course the student knows the fundamentals of the most relevant nonparametric techniques for statistical inference. (unibo.it)
- A concrete modelling scheme is chosen for each practical situation and, in consequence, a nonparametric inference procedure is conducted. (buchfreund.de)
- 15-2 CHAPTER 15 Nonparametric Tests Introduction The most commonly used methods for inference about the means of quan-titativeresponse variables assume that the variables in question have nor-maldistributions in the population or populations from which we draw our data. (sputtr.com)

###### Test Statistic5

- We will start by considering the basic principles of significance testing: the sampling and test statistic distribution, p-value, significance level, power and type I and type II errors. (coursera.org)
- Hotelling and Solomons considered the distribution of the test statistic D = n ( m − a ) s {\displaystyle D={\frac {n(m-a)}{s}}} where n is the sample size, m is the sample mean, a is the sample median and s is the sample's standard deviation. (wikipedia.org)
- Decision Rule The decision will be to reject the null hypothesis if the test statistic from the table is greater than the F critical value with k-1 numerator and N-k denominator degrees of freedom. (nmculturenet.org)
- The test statistic turns out to be the "F" statistic that we saw when we looked at when comparing variances. (nmculturenet.org)
- The calculation to arrive at the test statistic is quite complicated, hence we will assume that either the reader will be looking at a textbook for this, or rely on a computer. (nmculturenet.org)

###### Abstract2

- Nonparametric Regression Analysis of Longitudinal Data Version: Sept. 22,2003 Jane-Ling Wang Department of Statistics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, U.S.A. Email: [email protected] Abstract. (sputtr.com)
- Abstract: We propose a new nonparametric test for the supposition of independencebetween two continuous random variables. (duhnnae.com)

###### Econometrics2

- Receive email alerts on new books, offers and news in Statistics for econometrics, finance and insurance. (cambridge.org)
- He is the author of over 100 journal articles and book chapters in econometrics and statistics, a winner of the Richard Stone prize in applied econometrics, a fellow of the Econometric Society and American Statistical Association, and a former co-editor of Econometrica . (springer.com)

###### 20181

- Highlighting the latest advances in nonparametric and semiparametric statistics, this book gathers selected peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 4th Conference of the International Society for Nonparametric Statistics (ISNPS), held in Salerno, Italy, on June 11-15, 2018. (springer.com)

###### Generalized nonparametric regression1

- Multiple and generalized nonparametric regression / John Fox. (who.int)

###### Fully nonparametric1

- New test procedures are presented under fully nonparametric models for the two-factor mixed and random effects designs. (hindawi.com)

###### Bayesian nonparametric3

- Dosses ringleted bayesian nonparametric hidden markov models deforming anagogically? (iklanposkota.tk)
- The proposed Bayesian nonparametric approach takes advantage of the flexibility of Dirichlet process mixtures to achieve any continuous deformation of linearly combined predictive distributions. (arxiv.org)
- The weak posterior consistency of the Bayesian nonparametric calibration is provided under suitable conditions for unknown true density. (arxiv.org)

###### Descriptive statistics1

- Data analysis will include descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, including nonparametric statistics. (majortests.com)

###### Semiparametric1

- This book presents the main ideas underlying a variety of nonparametric and semiparametric methods. (springer.com)

###### Mathematics3

- In the Research Excellence Framework (REF) 2014, research by the School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science was ranked 25th in the UK for research power and 100% or our research was judged to be of international quality. (kent.ac.uk)
- An introduction to the mathematics needed for students who plan to take MATH 2208 and MATH 2209 (Introduction to Statistics I and II). (msvu.ca)
- Statistics used prove or disprove theories or questions by using the collection of data and mathematics. (majortests.com)

###### Data33

- The course will emphasize data analysis (with appropriate use of statistical software) and the intuitive nature of nonparametric statistics. (amherst.edu)
- The first meaning of nonparametric covers techniques that do not rely on data belonging to any particular distribution. (wikipedia.org)
- nonparametric statistics (in the sense of a statistic over data, which is defined to be a function on a sample that has no dependency on a parameter), whose interpretation does not depend on the population fitting any parameterised distributions. (wikipedia.org)
- What do you do when you realize that the data set from the study that you have just completed violates the sample size or other requirements needed to apply parametric statistics? (sagepub.com)
- It also discusses nonparametric and permutation solutions for several different types of data, including ordinal data, spatial data, survival data and the joint modeling of both longitudinal and time-to-event data, permutation and resampling techniques, and practical applications of nonparametric statistics. (springer.com)
- Designed for a graduate course in applied statistics, Nonparametric Methods in Statistics with SAS Applications teaches students how to apply nonparametric techniques to statistical data. (routledge.com)
- The proposed formulation generalizes the joint point estimator and variance models to explicitly parameterize a multiplicative bias in observed variances under a nonparametric formulation that allows the data to discover distinct bias regimes. (bls.gov)
- Thoroughly revised and updated, the new edition of Nonparametric Statistical Methods includes additional modern topics and procedures, more practical data sets, and new problems from real-life situations. (wiley.com)
- The book provides an extensive array of examples that clearly illustrate how to use nonparametric approaches for handling one- or two-sample location and dispersion problems, dichotomous data, and one-way and two-way layout problems. (wiley.com)
- Just like Newton's laws which are not applicable near the speed of light or in situations where quantum mechanics must be used, parametric statistics fall apart when a data set's distribution is unknown or wildly erratic. (iu.edu)
- So theories and methods of nonparametric statistics have evolved to handle data sets such as these. (iu.edu)
- I am working with nonparametric data and I was trying to apply a Mardia-Watson-Wheeler uniform-scores test to 2 or more different classes of data to check if they come from the same population. (talkstats.com)
- I was thinking about analysing this data with the statistical model ANOVA, using non-parametric tests or Bayesian statistics. (talkstats.com)
- I think I am pretty clear on the differences between parametric and nonparametric tests and which is more appropriate to use given the data you have collected. (talkstats.com)
- The Kruskal-Wallis test uses the same method but, as with many nonparametric tests, the ranks of the data are used in place of the raw data. (biomedcentral.com)
- Nonparametric statistics has probably become the leading methodology for researchers performing data analysis. (buchfreund.de)
- Inferential statistics help us decide, for example, whether the differences between groups that we see in our data are strong enough to provide support for our hypothesis that group differences exist in general, in the entire population. (coursera.org)
- An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. (uchicago.edu)
- Six Sigma Statistics with Excel and Minitab offers a complete guide to Six Sigma statistical methods, plus expert coverage of Excel and Minitab, two of today's most popular programs for statistical analysis and data visualization. (indigo.ca)
- In addition, Six Sigma Statistics with Excel and Minitab enables you to develop a better understanding of the Taguchi Method…use measurement system analysis to find out if measurement processes are accurate…discover how to test ordinal or nominal data with nonparametric statistics…and apply the full range of basic quality tools. (indigo.ca)
- In the second year, stochastic models and processes, Bayesian statistics and the analysis of large data sets are among the range of topics explored. (kent.ac.uk)
- Next new nonparametric multivariate two sample and multisample tests are developed based on directions of differences between paired data, each member of a pair being from different samples. (illinois.edu)
- Finally we apply this method to extend Kendall's $\tau$ to a multivariate setting and develop nonparametric multiple and multivariate regression techniques based on directions of data. (illinois.edu)
- The Kendall-Theil robust line was selected because this robust nonparametric method is resistant to the effects of outliers and nonnormality in residuals that commonly characterize hydrologic data sets. (usgs.gov)
- The program was developed to provide regression equations with an error component for stochastic data generation because nonparametric multisegment regression tools are not available with the software that is commonly used to develop regression models. (usgs.gov)
- Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics Craig L. Scanlan, EdD, RRT Parametric statistics assume (1) that the distribution characteristics of a sample's population are known (e.g. the mean, standard deviation, normality) and (2) that the data being analyzed are at the interval or ratio level. (sputtr.com)
- Two nonparametric methods for the identification of subgroups with outstanding outcome values are described and compared to each other in a simulation study and an application to clinical data. (nih.gov)
- This paper investigates the problem of computing nonparametric correlations on the fly for streaming data. (arxiv.org)
- To compute these statistics, the mean yield data have to be transformed into ranks for each genotype and environment, and the genotypes are considered stable if their ranks are similar across environments. (manzik.com)
- Focusing on practical solutions, the book also offers a crash course in practical statistics and covers elegant methods for dealing with messy and incomplete data using features of R. (manning.com)
- Nonparametric regression is a category of regression analysis in which the predictor does not take a predetermined form but is constructed according to information derived from the data. (rug.nl)
- Nonparametric regression requires larger sample sizes than regression based on parametric models because the data must supply the model structure as well as the model estimates. (rug.nl)
- Example of a curve (red line) fit to a small data set (black points) with nonparametric regression using a Gaussian kernel smoother. (rug.nl)

###### Tests10

- He is the author and creator of the NonParametric Combination Test software for multivariate and multistrata permutation tests. (springer.com)
- The text begins with classical nonparametric hypotheses testing, including the sign, Wilcoxon sign-rank and rank-sum, Ansari-Bradley, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Friedman rank, Kruskal-Wallis H, Spearman rank correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact tests. (routledge.com)
- I need to choose a good dataset with at least two variables because I'll need to compare them by calculating measures of association, performing two-sample tests and maybe doing a nonparametric regression on R, ... Therefore, I was thinking about choosing a dataset about COVID 19 because. (talkstats.com)
- In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. (uchicago.edu)
- In this section, I want to discuss Nonparametric tests. (coursera.org)
- They are also competitive among other nonparametric tests when samples are from light tailed distributions. (illinois.edu)
- Nonparametric Tests 3.1 Introduction Nonparametric , or distribution free tests are so-called because the assumptions underlying their use are "fewer and weaker than those associated with parametric tests" (Siegel & Castellan, 1988, p. 34). (sputtr.com)
- A novel presentation of rank and permutation tests, with accessible guidance to applications in R Nonparametric testing problems are frequently encountered in many scientific disciplines, such as engineering, medicine and the social sciences. (worldcat.org)
- consider nonparametric lack-of-ﬁt tests in presence of heteroscedastic variances. (k-state.edu)
- As such, dedicated time cannot be given to describing and explaining theory and statistical tests (these are taught on our 5 day course - Introduction to research methods and statistics ). (ucl.ac.uk)

###### Biostatistics1

- It is nevertheless true that, whereas these methods have already proved highly effective in other applied areas of knowledge such as biostatistics or social sciences, nonparametric analyses in reliability currently form an interesting area of study that has not yet been fully explored. (buchfreund.de)

###### ISNPS6

- This volume is composed of peer-reviewed papers that have developed from the First Conference of the International Society for Non Parametric Statistics (ISNPS). (bookdepository.com)
- Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June to Risk Factors to Remember book software, download, and contents that carry your quotation of getting a blood with a precise scan network. (5senkels.de)
- The Spotahome Blog They will analyze an Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June 2014 from The Great Courses allowing them of your role. (5senkels.de)
- by Sabrina exist statistical Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June 2014 2016 and network from your researchers! (5senkels.de)
- hemodynamic Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June 2014 2016 is extended for the time of single T children. (5senkels.de)
- If you are at an Nonparametric Statistics: 2nd ISNPS, Cádiz, June 2014 2016 or responsible definition, you can get the access testing to involve a metric across the heart planning for standard or other devices. (5senkels.de)

###### Stochastic1

- This book is concerned with the theory of stochastic processes and the theoretical aspects of statistics for stochastic processes. (iste.co.uk)

###### Inferential2

- The process of drawing inferences, making predictions, and testing significance are examples of inferential statistics. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Inferential statistics are concerned with making inferences based on relations found in the sample, to relations in the population. (coursera.org)

###### Distributions2

- Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not based solely on parameterized families of probability distributions (common examples of parameters are the mean and variance). (wikipedia.org)
- Nonparametric statistics for health care research : statistics for small samples and unusual distributions / Marjorie A. Pett. (who.int)

###### Normality1

- We obtain results on the pointwise asymptotic normality as well as the uniform convergence rate of the proposed nonparametric estimator. (ssrn.com)

###### Theory7

- a very useful resource for courses in nonparametric statistics in which the emphasis is on applications rather than on theory. (ecampus.com)
- The asymptotic theory of the test statistics is derived under the Neyman-Scott framework, in the sense that the number of levels of both factors is large but the group sizes can remain fixed. (hindawi.com)
- In statistics and probability theory, the nonparametric skew is a statistic occasionally used with random variables that take real values. (wikipedia.org)
- Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods 49 (3): 697-725. (dur.ac.uk)
- Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods 47 (10): 2527-2548. (dur.ac.uk)
- As with the bestselling first edition, "Computational Statistics Handbook with MATLAB" makes computational statistics as accessible as possible by playing down theory and building an understanding of the algorithms used in a wide range of applications. (worldcat.org)
- Provides access to computational statistics by playing down theory and building an understanding of the algorithms used in a wide range of applications. (worldcat.org)

###### Estimates5

- The relationship of our statistics to Chaudhuri's location estimates based on U-statistics is discussed. (illinois.edu)
- The Kendall-Theil Robust Line software (KTRLine-version 1.0) is a Visual Basic program that may be used with the Microsoft Windows operating system to calculate parameters for robust, nonparametric estimates of linear-regression coefficients between two continuous variables. (usgs.gov)
- Regression statistics such as the median error, the median absolute deviation, the prediction error sum of squares, the root mean square error, the confidence interval for the slope, and the bias correction factor for median estimates are calculated by use of nonparametric methods. (usgs.gov)
- The local polynomial periodogram enables one to obtain nonparametric estimates of the instantaneous frequency (IF) and its derivatives. (unisa.ac.za)
- We analyse the properties of nonparametric spectral estimates when applied to long memory and trending nonstationary multiple time series. (uc3m.es)

###### Models3

- Following the tradition of Carleton University yet another International Conference on Nonparametric methods for Measurement Error Models and Related topics has been arranged. (utoronto.ca)
- It then discusses smoothing techniques (loess and thin-plate splines) for classical nonparametric regression as well as binary logistic and Poisson models. (routledge.com)
- Nonparametric Regression STATA 15, nonparametric regression STATA 15 models canshaped any function, either linear or nonlinear. (statisticsforum.com)

###### 20191

- 2019. STABILITYSOFT: A new online program to calculate parametric and non-parametric stability statistics for crop traits. (manzik.com)

###### Kernel1

- A nonparametric kernel regression model is employed to estimate the relation between the scaled environmental and economic factors, which are determined as regression variables. (mdpi.com)

###### Mathematical2

- Image processing tools based on mathematical algorithms from statistics or variational methods enable a bulk of applications in the medical sciences. (wias-berlin.de)
- The first year of the programme gives you a strong background in statistics, including its mathematical aspects, equivalent to the Graduate Diploma in Statistics. (kent.ac.uk)

###### Estimator2

- First, it illustrates in details how to implement our proposed nonparametric estimator. (ssrn.com)
- Secondly, it facilitates a comparison of the nonparametric estimator to a parametric counterpart based on the estimator of Lu and Liang (2008). (ssrn.com)

###### Approaches1

- Order statistics, which are based on the ranks of observations, are one example of such statistics and these play a central role in many nonparametric approaches. (wikipedia.org)

###### Analysis8

- We will also investigate correlation, regression, and one-way analysis of variance techniques in a nonparametric setting. (amherst.edu)
- He is active in modern nonparametric statistics research fields, including functional analysis, sequential methods, and complex system applications. (wiley.com)
- And because nonparametric statistical techniques are valid under less restrictive assumptions than those of a specified distribution type, they are very versatile, and they have found applications in many new methods of analysis. (iu.edu)
- The Kruskal-Wallis test is the nonparametric alternative to one-way analysis of variance, which is used to test for differences between more than two populations when the samples are independent. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is the nonparametric alternative to one-way analysis of variance. (biomedcentral.com)
- Welfare Analysis of Changing Food Prices: A Nonparametric Examination of Export Ban on Rice in India ," Working Papers 177, Department of Economics, SOAS, University of London, UK. (repec.org)
- A+ Tutorials PSY-520 Module 8 Exercises Graduate Statistics - Analysis of Variance GCU Review 'Goodness-of-Fit' and the three 'Non-parametric' test videos in the Calculations section of the 'Statistics Visual Learner' media piece. (payloadz.com)
- Our analysis suggests that the link between IT and increased productivity emerged well before the recent surge in the aggregate productivity statistics and that the current macroeconomic productivity revival may in part reflect the contributions of intangible capital accumulated in the past. (psu.edu)

###### Correlations3

- Nonparametric correlations such as Spearman's rank correlation and Kendall's tau correlation are widely applied in scientific and engineering fields. (arxiv.org)
- This paper proposes a novel online algorithm for computing nonparametric correlations. (arxiv.org)
- The online algorithm can compute the nonparametric correlations 10 to 1,000 times faster than the corresponding batch algorithm, and it can compute them based either on all past observations or on fixed-size sliding windows. (arxiv.org)

###### Annals2

- Annals of Statistics, 33(3):1295-1329. (uzh.ch)
- The Annals of Statistics, 33 (1), 184-213. (upenn.edu)

###### Introductory statistics2

- It also deserves a place in libraries of all institutions where introductory statistics courses are taught. (ecampus.com)
- Elementary Statistics: A Step By Step Approach is for introductory statistics courses with a basic algebra prerequisite. (ecampus.com)

###### Variance1

- The coefficient of variation is suggested by Francis and Kannenberg (1987) as a stability statistic through the combination of the coefficient of variation, mean yield, and environmental variance. (manzik.com)

###### Outcomes1

- Nonparametric Statistics for Health Care Research was developed for such scenarios-research undertaken with limited funds, often using a small sample size, with the primary objective of improving client care and obtaining better client outcomes. (sagepub.com)

###### Research7

- This conference will focus on the current activities in parametric and nonparametric methods and consider new directions on the approach one should take developing these area of research. (utoronto.ca)
- 2nd Ed of a classic text for nonparametric stats in health care research. (sagepub.com)
- M. Luz G?miz is an associate professor in the Department of Statistics and Operational Research at the University of Granada, Granada, Spain. (buchfreund.de)
- The Statistics Group is forward-thinking, with varied research, and received consistently high rankings in the last two Research Assessment Exercises. (kent.ac.uk)
- With Statistics in a Nutshell , you learn how to perform most common statistical analyses, and understand statistical techniques presented in research articles. (oreilly.com)
- Research and Statistics in Psychology Psychology uses statistics and research to validate or disapprove theories. (majortests.com)
- This five-day course offers a comprehensive introduction to the fundamental aspects of research methods and statistics. (ucl.ac.uk)

###### Search2

- Weiterlesen In download Practical Nonparametric Statistics, to male agency Included on the search chemistry, it has identifying Evangelical thoughtways' into T of method which is 2000-01-12T12:00:00Full file modes. (enddarmpraxis-muenster.de)
- WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Statistics, Nonparametric. (who.int)

###### Rocca1

- Michele La Rocca is a Full Professor of Statistics at the University of Salerno, Italy. (springer.com)

###### Introduction4

- This course is an introduction to nonparametric and distribution-free statistical procedures and techniques. (amherst.edu)
- In particular it will prepare those who plan to take MATH 2208 (Introduction to Statistics I) and/or MATH 1102 (Precalculus I). (msvu.ca)
- Higgins, James (2004), Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics 2. (sputtr.com)
- Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference that's perfect for anyone with no previous background in the subject. (oreilly.com)

###### Significance1

- All of the measures of correlation with the standard instability index are positive, and the two non-parametric statistics show significance at confidence levels around 90 percent. (thefreedictionary.com)