State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.United StatesGovernment: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)PrintingHandbooksMuseumsPaintingsPensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Pelvic Infection: Infection involving the tissues or organs in the PELVIS.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Law Enforcement: Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Schools: Educational institutions.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.IllinoisChicagoMeaningful Use: Using certified ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS technology to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and reduce HEALTHCARE DISPARITIES; engage patients and families in their health care; improve care coordination; improve population and public health; while maintaining privacy and security.Licensure, Nursing: The granting of a license to practice the profession of nursing.Pacific States: The geographic designation for states bordering on or located in the Pacific Ocean. The states so designated are Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington. (U.S. Geologic Survey telephone communication)United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.United States Department of Homeland Security: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to domestic national security.New YorkNewspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)OregonEducation, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Underachievement: Performance, usually in school work, poorer than that predicted from aptitude and/or intelligence testing.Financing, Construction: Funding resources and procedures for capital improvement or the construction of facilities.

Settling for less? Tobacco industry. (1/592)

In November 1998, a coalition of state negotiators and five tobacco companies reached an agreement in which the cigarette makers would pay out the biggest financial settlement in history, $206 billion over the next 25 years to 46 states, to compensate for the medical treatment of patients suffering from tobacco-related health problems. Critics of the settlement say the tobacco companies are getting off the hook too easily, and that the deal's public health provisions are unacceptably riddled with loopholes. But the attorneys general who negotiated the settlement defended it as a good deal-but clearly not as a panacea. Ultimately, they feel, Congress should pass legislation to provide essential reforms, including full Food and Drug Administration authority over tobacco.  (+info)

State laws on youth access to tobacco in the United States: measuring their extensiveness with a new rating system. (2/592)

OBJECTIVE: To develop and implement a rating system evaluating the extensiveness of state laws restricting youth access to tobacco. DESIGN: State laws on youth access to tobacco were analysed and assigned ratings on nine items. Six items addressed specific tobacco-control provisions, and three related to enforcement provisions. For each item, a target was specified reflecting public health objectives. Achieving the target resulted in a rating of +4 points; for three items, a rating of +5 was possible if the target was exceeded. Criteria for lower ratings were established for situations when the target was not met. SETTING: United States. RESULTS: State scores (sum of the ratings across all nine items) ranged from 0-18 in 1993, 2-21 in 1994, and 1-21 in 1995 and 1996, out of a possible total of 39. The average score across states was 7.2 in 1993, 7.9 in 1994, 8.2 in 1995, and 9.0 in 1996. The overall mean rating (per item) was 0.80 in 1993, 0.88 in 1994, 0.91 in 1995, and 1.00 in 1996, on a scale where 4.0 indicates that the target goals (per item) were met. From 1993 to 1996, scores increased for 20 states, decreased for one state, and remained unchanged for the others. The number of states for which state preemption of local tobacco regulation was a factor doubled from 10 states in 1993 to 20 states in 1996. CONCLUSIONS: Although all states have laws addressing youth access to tobacco, this analysis reveals that, as of the end of 1996, the progress towards meeting health policy targets is slow, and state legislation that preempts local tobacco regulation is becoming more common.  (+info)

A process evaluation of the National Cancer Institute's Data-based Intervention Research program: a study of organizational capacity building. (3/592)

This paper reports on a qualitative process evaluation of the Data-based Intervention Research (DBIR) program, that was funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and operated in 21 states and the District of Columbia. The goal of DBIR was to build a foundation within state health agencies to ensure the translation of cancer control science into practice. NCI's objective reflected the readiness of cancer control research for public health application, the paucity of cancer control activity within public health settings and the recognition that state health agencies could play a critical role in the effective transfer of research results into public health practice. The qualitative process evaluation reported in this paper is based on one case study of four DBIR programs. The present study indicates that the four state health agencies executed the DBIR program with fidelity. Also, the four states offered a balanced assessment of NCI's role in enabling the state agency operation of DBIR, providing numerous citations illustrating how NCI successfully facilitated organizational capacity as compared to fewer mentions of ways NCI was less than successful. Thus, in funding the DBIR model, NCI was successful in raising state health agency capacity to implement cancer prevention and control programming. Implications for capacity building in state health departments are discussed.  (+info)

The impact of the National Cancer Institute's Data-based Intervention Research program on state health agencies. (4/592)

To assist state health agencies adopt a new role in cancer prevention and control, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) initiated the Data-based Intervention Research (DBIR) program. The goal of DBIR was to stimulate data-driven activities and to build capacity for ongoing programs within state health agencies to ensure the translation of cancer prevention and control science into practice across the US. Each state funded under the DBIR program was required to conduct four phases of activity: identifying and analyzing relevant data, using these data to develop a state cancer control plan, and implementing and evaluating prevention and control interventions at the local level. This paper presents the results of survey of the 22 states that participated in the DBIR program. The survey is intended as a supplement to the case study also reported in this issue of Health Education Research. Results indicated that states were able to implement the DBIR model and they show the process to be useful to their cancer prevention efforts. DBIR had a major impact on how states will use data in future planning for cancer prevention and control. States had a number of recommendations for how NCI could improve its working relationships with state health agencies.  (+info)

Diabetes management: current diagnostic criteria, drug therapies, and state legislation. (5/592)

The policies, standards, guidelines, and criteria that each member of the healthcare team uses to assist in the delivery of comprehensive healthcare are constantly being defined and redefined. This article has discussed many of those changes as they relate to diabetes management. The entire healthcare team must have a working knowledge of these changes so that they can continue to deliver the best possible care to patients with diabetes. Improvements in quality of life, decreases in mortality and morbidity, and subsequent declines in healthcare costs will benefit both individual patients and society. The profession of pharmacy has realized the need for additional education and training in managing the patient with diabetes. Many colleges of pharmacy, as well as companies in the pharmaceutical industry, are offering diabetes certification and diabetes disease management programs to pharmacists to enhance their ability to manage these patients (Lyons T, Gourley DR, unpublished data, 1997. Similar efforts in diabetes management have been made in other health professions as well, such as nursing.  (+info)

Regulating the financial incentives facing physicians in managed care plans. (6/592)

Recent accounts of enrolees in managed care plans being denied access to potentially lifesaving services have heightened public anxiety about the impact of managed care on the accessibility and appropriateness of care, and this anxiety has been translated into legislative action. The present review focuses on an area of managed care operations that has received considerable attention in state legistlatures and in Congress during the past 2 years: the financial relationship between managed care health plans and physicians. Twelve states now mandate that managed care plans disclose information about their financial relationship with physicians, and 11 states regulate the method used by managed care health plans to compensate physicians. Most laws that regulate methods of compensation prohibit health plans from providing physicians an inducement to reduce or limit the delivery of "medically necessary" services. Moreover, in 1996 the Health Care Financing Administration finalized its regulations governing the financial incentives facing physicians in plans that treat Medicaid or Medicare patients, and these regulations went into effect on January 1, 1997. These regulations also are examined in this study.  (+info)

Counting the uninsured using state-level hospitalization data. (7/592)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the appropriateness of using state-level data on uninsured hospitalizations to estimate the uninsured population. METHODS: The authors used 1992-1996 data on hospitalizations of newborns and of appendectomy and heart attack patients in Florida to estimate the number of people in the state without health insurance coverage. These conditions were selected because they usually require hospitalization and they are common across demographic categories. RESULTS: Adjusted for the gender and ethnic composition of the population, the percentages of uninsured hospitalizations for appendectomies and heart attacks produced estimates of the state's uninsured population 1.6 percentage points lower than those reported for 1996 in the US Census March Current Population Survey. CONCLUSION: Data reported by hospitals to state agencies can be used to monitor trends in health insurance coverage and provides an alternative data source for a state-level analysis of the uninsured population.  (+info)

The Senior Assessment Coupler: point-of-care decision support and data acquisition tool. (8/592)

In an effort to provide more effective, point-of-care management of the elderly population in the state of Vermont and to begin to collect data on health care outcomes across this population, the Vermont Department of Aging and Disabilities partnered with the PKC Corporation to pilot test the Senior Assessment Coupler. Results of this pilot have shown that the Coupler is an effective tool for collecting health status information, providing decision support at the point of care, facilitating reporting to various state and federal agencies, and empowering elderly Vermonters to make informed decisions about their health care and quality of life.  (+info)

  • Kolkata, May 8 (PTI) With 130 new cases West Bengal witnessed the highest single-day spike in coronavirus cases, while nine more people died of the respiratory infection in the last 24 hours taking the toll in the state to 88, the health department said on Friday. (
  • In all, states figure to be one of the big winners from federal tax reform-they stand to collect a windfall of cash without having to make any change in their own policies. (
  • The passage of federal tax reform could mean an increase of between $150 million and $200 million annually in state revenue in Oregon, state economist Mark McMullen told the Oregon Senate Committee on Revenue and Finance earlier this month. (
  • An expanded corporate tax base and one-time repatriation (under the federal tax reform, corporations can pay a one-time tax to bring $2.6 trillion in overseas assets) will also boost state tax revenues as those assets suddenly reappear on businesses' tax returns. (
  • The Enugu State Commissioner for Agriculture, Mr Emeka Edeh, said that the state government has decided to shifted its focus to agriculture, as part of its efforts to fast-track the state's development. (
  • In fact, if the loss of the SALT deduction encourages more taxpayers to take the standard deduction instead of itemizing deductions, it may tip a little more revenue into state coffers, The Tax Foundation estimates . (
  • However, by-elections to three parliamentary and 48 state assembly seats in June suggest that public support for the nuclear tests does not translate into many votes: the BJP made some modest overall gains, especially in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, but fared indifferently elsewhere. (
  • This was a clear signal that she might withdraw support unless the BJP met her main demand: the sacking of the state government in Tamil Nadu. (
  • The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs must use census data to develop its state projections of veterans' facilities and benefits. (
  • Edeh informed news men in Enugu on Friday, October 27, that the state government was ready to invest in agricultural value chains in which it had comparative advantages. (
  • As a practical matter, it lets Republican lawmakers have their cake and eat it, too, by promising economic growth, fatter worker paychecks and more government revenue. (
  • Besides, the commissioner said the state government was involved in cassava production and processing, adding that the government was similarly developing other crops in which it had comparative advantages. (
  • Taxpayers could end up sending hundreds of millions of dollars more to state treasuries as a result of slashing federal deductions and exemptions. (
  • Taxpayers in 36 states begin their state returns with their federal gross or taxable income, says Joseph Bishop-Henchman, vice president of the Tax Foundation, a tax policy think tank based in Washington, D.C. Nine states have no income tax, leaving just a handful of states with no direct connection to the federal tax code. (
  • Unless states follow suit by reducing their tax rates, the result will be a larger level of taxable income for state-level taxpayers, McMullen says. (
  • Taxpayers in high-tax states will be allowed to deduct only $10,000 for property, income, and sales taxes on their federal return. (
  • Hogan, a Republican, has called for changes to state policy to prevent residents of Maryland (one of those high-tax states where taxpayers will get whacked by the elimination of the SALT deduction) from facing higher tax bills. (
  • Hogan has not yet released a detailed proposal, but he told the Sun last week that his proposal would return to taxpayers any additional state revenue received as a result of the loss of federal deductions and exemptions. (
  • This page publicly reports the U.S. Department of State's progress in meeting the requirements of the Digital Government Strategy and implementing the Open Data Policy. (
  • The BJP-led central government was thirsty for me and my government's blood from day one since I assumed office in February 2014,' said Harish Rawat, the state's sacked Congress chief minister. (
  • The information is public through the state's open records laws, which are designed to give citizens the ability to access the inner workings of their government. (
  • It does so, first, by providing provides an inventory of national practices regarding the application of the Guidelines recommendation that governments should develop and issue an ownership policy that defines the overall objectives of state ownership, the state's role in the corporate governance of state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and how it will implement its ownership policy. (
  • The State's Commissioner for Budget and Planning, Aisha Bello, said that the Government was prepared to provide the required counterpart funding for the joint projects' implementation from its NGN 274-billion budget. (
  • Gov. Rick Scott declares state of emergency for red tide outbreak in southwest Florida The massive fish kill is from a particularly strong red tide algae bloom that's been in parts of seven southwest Florida counties since October. (
  • There's mostly anecdotal evidence cited here, but the article refers to the Govt allowing increased THC content in authorised products (from 2% up to 9%) in response to consumer feedback. (
  • To provide an accessibility model in which web content authors, format designers, and software developers within State agencies understand their roles in providing persons with disabilities, access to existing and developing State web sites. (
  • The Commonwealth enterprise standards are generally based on standards used by the Federal government for technology accessibility for people with disabilities, and web content accessibility guidelines developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). (
  • TRENTON, N.J. (AP) - The New Jersey Supreme Court will decide if state Attorney General Gurbir Grewal can order the release of police disciplinary files dating back 20 years. (
  • Federal government === * '''[[Washington, DC]]''' is the location of many important US buildings, including the White House, US Capitol Building, Library of Congress, and the US Supreme Court. (
  • A new podcast from CPR News takes an in-depth look at Colorado's Taxpayer's Bill Of Rights-TABOR- considered either the worst thing that's happened to the state, or the best. (
  • Subscribe to receive news and updates from the New York State Education Department. (
  • News that the United States would recognize the rebel government as the legitimate authority in Libya spread quickly in the rugged desert mountains south of Tripoli, where rebel fighters have been battling Libyan troops . (
  • Media Center » Video Immigration News In October of this year, the United States will start to take submissions for the Green Card Lottery to determine who the recipients will be for 55,000. (
  • Media Center » Video Immigration News Many governments of the world are currently changing and reforming their immigration and migration laws and regulations. (
  • PSU » Hatfield School of Government » Center for Women's Leadership » News » Mauri Matsuda, Criminology and Criminal Justice faculty, received a Faculty Enhancement Grant for her project entitled "An Exploration of Correlates and Trajectories of Delinquency Involvement and Justice-System Contact among Sexual Minority Youth. (
  • President Pranab Mukherjee sacked the Uttarakhand leadership on the recommendation of Mr Modi's government after nine local Congress MPs rebelled against their own chief minister, leaving Mr Rawat short of a majority. (
  • It is the second time this year that a Congress-led state government has been dismissed following the defection of its members. (
  • I n Arunachal Pradesh, another Himalayan state in India's northeastern, rebel Congress MPs joined forces with BJP members to ultimately form a new state government. (
  • Equally up in the air is whether states, which are necessary partners in Trump's plan to bypass Congress, will sign on. (
  • With demand for print publications falling and a move underway to digital document production and preservation, the name of the GPO was officially changed to "Government Publishing Office" in a provision of an omnibus government funding bill passed by Congress in December 2014. (
  • The Office of Government Relations and Special Projects (OGRSP) is responsible for advising Congress, the Office of Management and Budget, and the president on ethical implications of monetary, economic, and corporate policy. (
  • Since 2008, the U.S. Trade Representative's Office (USTR) has repeatedly stated that ACTA was negotiated as a "sole executive agreement" under the President's power to conclude agreements regarding matters delegated to the President under Article II of the U.S. Constitution, and therefore does not need to be put before Congress for review and approval. (
  • Ambassador Kirk quoted from the State Department's letter , suggesting that Congress had authorized the Executive to negotiate ACTA, and stated that ACTA was in fact already binding on the United States. (
  • For the first time in 17 years - the U.S. government shut down after members of Congress failed to compromise on a funding bill. (
  • The United States and Australia are the main examples of federal systems in which the term "state" is used for the subnational components of the federation. (
  • T he National Consensus Forces, one of Sudan's main opposition groups, said the response to Bashir's declaration of a state of emergency should be more protests. (
  • Types === There are a few notable types of government buildings: the main ones are the capitol buildings, which are found in Washington DC and state capital cities. (
  • This prolonged period of economic decline has led the United States into recession which began in large part with the subprime mortgage crisis. (
  • And that goes for the businesses government oversees, too. (
  • The report was reviewed by the OECD Working Party on State Ownership and Privatisation Practices, which oversees implementation of the Guidelines, and is current as of October 2014. (
  • Arvada Mayor Marc Williams implored his impatient constituents to write Gov. Hickenlooper and the PUC demanding they let the train line open. (
  • Advances in cloud computing have opened the doors to state and city governments, enabling complete, cohesive, IT solutions for forward-thinking agency leaders and their constituents. (
  • The large red brick building that houses the GPO was erected in 1903 and is unusual in being one of the few large, red brick government structures in a city where most government buildings are mostly marble and granite. (
  • It also casts doubt on the degree to which state government functional structures systematically reflect voters' recent ideological preferences. (
  • We find that government structures are most strongly associated with state economic structures, with location and income playing more limited roles. (
  • We conclude that the online footprint of governments offers a broad and comprehensive window on how they are structured that can help deepen understanding of those structures. (
  • Kano State is among the State Governments benefitting from the AfDB-funded Agricultural Transformation Agenda Support Programme Phase-I (ATASP-I). The programme will construct 330 kilometres of feeder roads, 230 kilometres of irrigation and water conveyance canals, 229 hydraulic structures, nine boreholes, as well as build two community markets and two health centres in the State. (
  • In order to comply with the FSCP, an inter-bureau working group within the State Department has drafted policy to address the technical implementation of the FSCP mandates. (
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio (AP) - The Ohio governor's positive, then negative, tests for COVID-19 have provided fuel for skeptics of government pandemic mandates and critics of his often-aggressive policies. (
  • SAO PAULO, July 20 (Reuters) - Brazil's government is considering a 2 billion reais ($530.10 million) capital injection in the state-owned lender Caixa Econômica Federal to raise its capital ratio, newspaper O Estado de S. Paulo reported on Friday. (
  • The Act also provides investments of $17 billion into the public transportation system and high speed rail, $25 billion in school construction bonds and $7 billion in expanded broadband coverage in the United States. (
  • For full conference coverage of Outlook in the States and Localities, click here. (
  • While pension obligations are legally binding, often backed by explicit state constitutional or statutory guarantees, states are generally free to change any provision of their retiree health plans, including terminating them, because they do not carry the same legal protections. (
  • It would manage the financial risk to the state if mineral and energy resource tenure holders did not comply with their environmental management and rehabilitation obligations. (
  • In 2002, there were 21.0 million government-employed workers, made up of 2.7 million federal workers, 5.1 million state workers, and 13.2 million employed by local governments. (
  • The Election Commission has directed the Punjab government to shift the reappointed Punjab Civil Service (PCS) officers whose names had surfaced in the 2002 PPSC cash-for-job scam and who are currently holding the post of returning officer. (
  • More state and local governments enacted significant modifications to improve the long-term sustainability of their retirement plans in 2010 than in any other year in recent history. (
  • I ndia's government imposed central rule on the Himalayan state of Uttarakhand on Sunday, the second time this year it has removed an opposition-led state leadership using a controversial emergency law. (
  • The government is targeting a consolidated budget deficit of just under 3 percent of economic output -- the European Union's ceiling -- this year. (
  • More than 80% juvenile recidivism (3 year re--‐arrest rate) *All data from Illinois state agency sources. (
  • This is the fourth year the program combined both Boys and Girls State. (
  • The group, headed by former transportation chief William K. Hellmann, will present its conclusions at year-end on such questions as whether to sell the World Trade Center or the Port of Baltimore, whether to sell or lease Baltimore-Washington International Airport, whether to sell toll roads to private operators and whether to lease state health facilities to for-profit ventures. (
  • Using a data set on 40 state governments over a seven year period, I find that there is a significant response to changes in the yield spread. (
  • A multi-state, five-year Youth Employment Programme in Agribusiness currently being developed will also create training and employment opportunities for 6,000 youths per State, including Kano. (
  • TRENTON, N.J. (AP) - All police officers on patrol across New Jersey will be required to wear body cameras under legislation advanced following the summer's Black Lives Matter protests and signed into law Tuesday by Democratic Gov. Phil Murphy. (
  • Seven students from Cohasset High learned firsthand how to run a democratic government during a weeklong program sponsored by the American Legion. (
  • Together, they would form an interim government to rule in Gaddafi's place and then guide the country through democratic reforms and, ultimately, the election of a new government. (
  • While the Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act require the State to address accessibility in general, the IITAA requires the State to establish and follow specific, functional accessibility standards and to address accessibility proactively. (
  • We also find that the footprint reflects extensive diversity among these state functional hierarchies. (
  • Find behavioral health treatment facilities in your state. (
  • Find incredible places and experiences that help you bring home a story through! (
  • The State Library was established in 1826 to collect, deposit, and house the Commonwealth's collections of maps, statute books, and government documents in a single central location. (
  • Labor Minister Olguta Vasilescu told reporters in Budapest that under the plan, after 2022 all state pensions would increase with inflation plus 50 percent of the real growth in average wages. (
  • Originally, government pensions were designed as an incentive to encourage nonproductive bureaucrats to leave service earlier than they might otherwise do to thin out the dead wood in an organization. (