The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
Brief closing of the eyelids by involuntary normal periodic closing, as a protective measure, or by voluntary action.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of G(M2) GANGLIOSIDE in neurons and other tissues. It is caused by mutation in the common beta subunit of HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Thus this disease is also known as the O variant since both hexosaminidase A and B are missing. Clinically, it is indistinguishable from TAY-SACHS DISEASE.
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is comprized of hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset in infancy of an exaggerated startle response, followed by paralysis, dementia, and blindness. It is caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of the HEXOSAMINIDASE A resulting in lipid-laden ganglion cells. It is also known as the B variant (with increased HEXOSAMINIDASE B but absence of hexosaminidase A) and is strongly associated with Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry.
A mammalian beta-hexosaminidase isoform that is a heteromeric protein comprized of both hexosaminidase alpha and hexosaminidase beta subunits. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase alpha subunit is a case of TAY-SACHS DISEASE. Deficiency of hexosaminidase A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B due to mutations in the gene encoding the hexosaminidase beta subunit is a case of SANDHOFF DISEASE.
An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.
A glycosphingolipid that accumulates due to a deficiency of hexosaminidase A or B (BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASES), or GM2 activator protein, resulting in GANGLIOSIDOSES, heredity metabolic disorders that include TAY-SACHS DISEASE and SANDHOFF DISEASE.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
Former members of the armed services.
A class of traumatic stress disorders that is characterized by the significant dissociative states seen immediately after overwhelming trauma. By definition it cannot last longer than 1 month, if it persists, a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC) is more appropriate.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
The use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behavior and to facilitate physical, mental, and emotional well-being. The chemicals comprising essential oils in plants has a host of therapeutic properties and has been used historically in Africa, Asia, and India. Its greatest application is in the field of alternative medicine. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; from Dr. Atiba Vheir, Dove Center, Washington, D.C.)
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
The systematic and methodical manipulations of body tissues best performed with the hands for the purpose of affecting the nervous and muscular systems and the general circulation.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Deciduous plant rich in volatile oil (OILS, VOLATILE). It is used as a flavoring agent and has many other uses both internally and topically.

Modeling geriatric depression in animals: biochemical and behavioral effects of olfactory bulbectomy in young versus aged rats. (1/1077)

Geriatric depression exhibits biological and therapeutic differences relative to early-onset depression. We studied olfactory bulbectomy (OBX), a paradigm that shares major features of human depression, in young versus aged rats to determine mechanisms underlying these differences. Young OBX rats showed locomotor hyperactivity and a loss of passive avoidance and tactile startle. In contrast, aged OBX animals maintained avoidance and startle responses but showed greater locomotor stimulation; the aged group also exhibited decreased grooming and suppressed feeding with novel presentation of chocolate milk, effects which were not seen in young OBX. These behavioral contrasts were accompanied by greater atrophy of the frontal/parietal cortex and midbrain in aged OBX. Serotonin transporter sites were increased in the cortex and hippocampus of young OBX rats, but were decreased in the aged OBX group. Cell signaling cascades also showed age-dependent effects, with increased adenylyl cyclase responses to monoaminergic stimulation in young OBX but no change or a decrease in aged OBX. These data indicate that there are biological distinctions in effects of OBX in young and aged animals, which, if present in geriatric depression, provide a mechanistic basis for differences in biological markers and drug responses. OBX may provide a useful animal model with which to test therapeutic interventions for geriatric depression.  (+info)

M100907, a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist and putative antipsychotic, blocks dizocilpine-induced prepulse inhibition deficits in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. (2/1077)

In a recent study using Wistar rats, the serotonergic 5-HT2 receptor antagonists ketanserin and risperidone reduced the disruptive effects of the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dizocilpine on prepulse inhibition (PPI), suggesting that there is an interaction between serotonin and glutamate in the modulation of PPI. In contrast, studies using the noncompetitive NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) in Sprague-Dawley rats found no effect with 5-HT2 antagonists. To test the hypothesis that strain differences might explain the discrepancy in these findings, risperidone was tested for its ability to reduce the PPI-disruptive effects of dizocilpine in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, to determine which serotonergic receptor subtype may mediate this effect, the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 (formerly MDL 100,907) and the 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SDZ SER 082 were tested against dizocilpine. Recent studies have found that the PPI-disruptive effects of PCP are reduced by the alpha 1 adrenergic receptor antagonist prazosin. Furthermore, the alpha 1 receptor agonist cirazoline disrupts PPI. As risperidone and M100907 have affinity at the alpha 1 receptor, a final study examined whether M100907 would block the effects of cirazoline on PPI. Risperidone partially, but nonsignificantly, reduced the effects of dizocilpine in Wistar rats, although this effect was smaller than previously reported. Consistent with previous studies, risperidone did not alter the effects of dizocilpine in Sprague-Dawley rats. Most importantly, M100907 pretreatment fully blocked the effect of dizocilpine in both strains; whereas SDZ SER 082 had no effect. M100907 had no influence on PPI by itself and did not reduce the effects of cirazoline on PPI. These studies confirm the suggestion that serotonin and glutamate interact in modulating PPI and indicate that the 5-HT2A receptor subtype mediates this interaction. Furthermore, this interaction occurs in at least two rat strains.  (+info)

Characterization of progressive motor deficits in mice transgenic for the human Huntington's disease mutation. (3/1077)

Transgenic mice expressing exon 1 of the human Huntington's disease (HD) gene carrying a 141-157 CAG repeat (line R6/2) develop a progressive neurological phenotype with motor symptoms resembling those seen in HD. We have characterized the motor deficits in R6/2 mice using a battery of behavioral tests selected to measure motor aspects of swimming, fore- and hindlimb coordination, balance, and sensorimotor gating [swimming tank, rotarod, raised beam, fore- and hindpaw footprinting, and acoustic startle/prepulse inhibition (PPI)]. Behavioral testing was performed on female hemizygotic R6/2 transgenic mice (n = 9) and female wild-type littermates (n = 22) between 5 and 14 weeks of age. Transgenic mice did not show an overt behavioral phenotype until around 8 weeks of age. However, as early as 5-6 weeks of age they had significant difficulty swimming, traversing the narrowest square (5 mm) raised beam, and maintaining balance on the rotarod at rotation speeds of 33-44 rpm. Furthermore, they showed significant impairment in prepulse inhibition (an impairment also seen in patients with HD). Between 8 and 15 weeks, R6/2 transgenic mice showed a progressive deterioration in performance on all of the motor tests. Thus R6/2 mice show measurable deficits in motor behavior that begin subtly and increase progressively until death. Our data support the use of R6/2 mice as a model of HD and indicate that they may be useful for evaluating therapeutic strategies for HD, particularly those aimed at reducing the severity of motor symptoms or slowing the course of the disease.  (+info)

Increased exploratory activity and altered response to LSD in mice lacking the 5-HT(5A) receptor. (4/1077)

In order to determine the distribution and function of the 5-HT5A serotonin receptor subtype, we generated knockout mice lacking the 5-HT5A gene. Comparative autoradiography studies of brains of wild-type (wt) and 5-HT5A knockout (5A-KO) mice revealed the existence of binding sites with high affinity for [125I]LSD that correspond to 5-HT5A receptors and that are concentrated in the olfactory bulb, neocortex, and medial habenula. When exposed to novel environments, the 5A-KO mice displayed increased exploratory activity but no change in anxiety-related behaviors. In addition, the stimulatory effect of LSD on exploratory activity was attenuated in 5A-KO mice. These results suggest that 5-HT5A receptors modulate the activity of neural circuits involved specifically in exploratory behavior and suggest that some of the psychotropic effects of LSD may be mediated by 5-HT5A receptors.  (+info)

Patterned ballistic movements triggered by a startle in healthy humans. (5/1077)

1. The reaction time to a visual stimulus shortens significantly when an unexpected acoustic startle is delivered together with the 'go' signal in healthy human subjects. In this paper we have investigated the physiological mechanisms underlying this effect. If the commands for the startle and the voluntary reaction were superimposed at some level in the CNS, then we would expect to see alterations in the configuration of the voluntary response. Conversely, if the circuit activated by the startling stimulus is somehow involved in the execution of voluntary movements, then reaction time would be sped up but the configuration of the motor programme would be preserved. 2. Fourteen healthy male and female volunteers were instructed to react as fast as possible to a visual 'go' signal by flexing or extending their wrist, or rising onto tiptoe from a standing position. These movements generated consistent and characteristic patterns of EMG activation. In random trials, the 'go' signal was accompanied by a very loud acoustic stimulus. This stimulus was sufficient to produce a startle reflex when given unexpectedly on its own. 3. The startling stimulus almost halved the latency of the voluntary response but did not change the configuration of the EMG pattern in either the arm or the leg. In some subjects the reaction times were shorter than the calculated minimum time for processing of sensory information at the cerebral cortex. Most subjects reported that the very rapid responses were produced by something other than their own will. 4. We conclude that the very short reaction times were not produced by an early startle reflex adding on to a later voluntary response. This would have changed the form of the EMG pattern associated with the voluntary response. Instead, we suggest that such rapid reactions were triggered entirely by activity at subcortical levels, probably involving the startle circuit. 5. The implication is that instructions for voluntary movement can in some circumstances be stored and released from subcortical structures.  (+info)

EMG responses to free fall in elderly subjects and akinetic rigid patients. (6/1077)

OBJECTIVES: The EMG startle response to free fall was studied in young and old normal subjects, patients with absent vestibular function, and patients with akinetic-rigid syndromes. The aim was to detect any derangement in this early phase of the "landing response" in patient groups with a tendency to fall. In normal subjects the characteristics of a voluntary muscle contraction (tibialis anterior) was also compared when evoked by a non-startling sound and by the free fall startle. METHODS: Subjects lay supine on a couch which was unexpectedly released into free fall. Latencies of multiple surface EMG recordings to the onset of free fall, detected by a head mounted linear accelerometer, were measured. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: (1) EMG responses in younger normal subjects occurred at: sternomastoid 54 ms, abdominals 69 ms, quadriceps 78 ms, deltoid 80 ms, and tibialis anterior 85 ms. This pattern of muscle activation, which is not a simple rostrocaudal progression, may be temporally/spatially organised in the startle brainstem centres. (2) Voluntary tibialis EMG activation was earlier and stronger in response to a startling stimulus (fall) than in response to a non-startling stimulus (sound). This suggests that the startle response can be regarded as a reticular mechanism enhancing motor responsiveness. (3) Elderly subjects showed similar activation sequences but delayed by about 20 ms. This delay is more than can be accounted for by slowing of central and peripheral motor conduction, therefore suggesting age dependent delay in central processing. (4) Avestibular patients had normal latencies indicating that the free fall startle can be elicited by non-vestibular inputs. (5) Latencies in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease were normal whereas responses were earlier in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and delayed or absent in patients with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski (SRO) syndrome. The findings in this patient group suggest: (1) lack of dopaminergic influence on the timing of the startle response, (2) concurrent cerebellar involvement in MSA may cause startle disinhibition, and (3) extensive reticular damage in SRO severely interferes with the response to free fall.  (+info)

Effect of nonaversive and aversive stimulations in infancy on the acoustic startle response in adult rats. (7/1077)

Two groups, each consisting of 8 three-week-old rat pups, were exposed to different behavioral treatments with the aim to determine how the experimental manipulation influenced their adult emotional reactivity. Every day for two weeks the pups from the first group received 15 min of handling whereas the animals from the second group were exposed to various aversive stimuli, differing each day. Following these manipulations, after a 5-day break the acoustic startle response (ASR) was measured in all animals and the testing was repeated after another four weeks. Statistical analysis of the data revealed significant differences between groups in the ASR parameters. Surprisingly, in the test which directly followed the treatment the mean ASR amplitudes were similar in both groups. Highly significant differences, however, were observed in the ASR amplitude four weeks later. The rats from the handling group responded with greater amplitudes. The latency of the ASR was significantly shorter in the nonaversive group compared with the second group exposed to aversive stimuli. The results suggest that early exposure to aversive stimulation significantly decreases rats emotional reactivity whereas nonaversive and impoverished stimulation clearly elevates arousal levels when the animal is placed in a novel situation.  (+info)

Midazolam effects on prepulse inhibition of the acoustic blink reflex. (8/1077)

AIMS: The eye-blink response following sudden acoustic noise bursts is part of the startle reflex. The magnitude of the startle response can be attenuated by presentation of a weak stimulus before the 'startle-eliciting' stimulus (prepulse inhibition, PPI). PPI is a stable finding in awake humans but may be altered by anaesthetic drugs. We investigated whether the application of benzodiazepines altered the magnitude of PPI in healthy male volunteers. METHODS: In an open-label noncontrolled investigation, the effect of the benzodiazepine agonist midazolam on PPI was assessed in the absence and presence of the antagonist flumazenil. After an initial control period of 60 min three consecutive periods, each of 60 min, with progressively increasing concentrations of midazolam were studied (0. 02, 0.06, 0.14 mg kg-1 h-1 ). A final 60 min period during the administration of flumazenil (0.004 mg kg-1 h-1 ) and while the agonist was still present was also studied. Drug was administered intravenuously as a combination of bolus, 50% of total dose and continuous infusion over the 60 min period. Electromyographic (EMG) response of the right orbicularis oculi muscle was used to assess the startle response to noise bursts of 50 ms duration (95 dB(A)). Noise bursts were randomly preceded by nonstartling prepulses (800 Hz sinus, 50 ms duration, 65 dB(A), prepulse to noise interval 120 ms). The magnitude of PPI was calculated by dividing the EMG response to nonprepulsed stimuli by the response to prepulsed stimuli for each individual and period. Eleven subjects participated in the study, two of them were excluded from the statistical analysis because startle responses could not be reliably elicited (final sample size n=9). RESULTS: The magnitude of PPI was inversely related to the concentration of midazolam. This relationship was described by a sigmoidal Emax model, giving an Emax of 0.65+/-0.13, an ED50 of 33.9+/-10.9 ng ml-1 and gamma of 3.5+/-1.0. During infusion of flumazenil and in the presence of midazolam, the magnitude of PPI increased by 0.11 (95% CI, 0-0.22, P+info)

Background: Pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) is a process in which the motor response to a startling stimulus is inhibited by a less intense stimulus immediately preceding it. Diminished PPI represents one of the many sensory integration impairments observed in patients with schizophrenia and autism. Objectives: The objective of our project is to explore potential neuropharmacological mechanisms of clozapine-mediated PPI improvement. Methods: In the current study 36 female Sprague-Dawley rats were used to study mixed-modal PPI with an acoustic prepulse and a tactile (air-puff) startling stimulus. Animals were chronically administered via osmotic minipump the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (0.15 mg/kg/day), the H1 histamine receptor antagonist, pyrilamine (50 mg/kg/day), the combination of the two drugs or the saline vehicle (N=9/group). Following the completion of these psychopharmacological studies, we performed postmortem radioligand assays on histological sections to determine ...
Cardiac-cycle-time effects are attributed to variations in baroreceptor (BR) activity and have been shown to impinge on subcortical as well as cortical processes. However, cognitive and sensorimotor processes mediating voluntary responses seem to be differentially affected. We sought to disentangle cardiac-cycle-time effects on subcortical and cortical levels as well as sensorimotor and cognitive processes within a spatial stimulus-response-compatibility paradigm employing startling stimuli of different modalities. Air-puffs and white noise-bursts were presented unilaterally during either cardiac systole or diastole while bilateral startle EMG responses were recorded. Modality, laterality and cardiac-cycle-time were randomly varied within-subjects. Cognitive and sensorimotor stimulus-response-compatibility was orthogonally varied between-subjects: Participants (N = 80) responded to the stimuli via left/right button-push made with either the contra- or ipsilateral hand (sensorimotor compatibility) on
BX-795 is a potent PDK1 inhibitor that blocks PDK1/Akt signaling in tumor cells and inhibits the anchorage-dependent growth of a variety of tumor cell lines in culture or induced apoptosis.
This lesson requires a Biopac Student Lab (BSL) System and the following hardware. If your BSL System does not include all hardware items, expand your system by selecting required items below. For more details, review the Lesson: L# BSL Lessons - see the Lab Manual or launch BSL; A# and H# BSL PRO Lessons, click the PDF link above to review full setup, recording, and analysis procedures.. ...
Several studies have suggested a role of BDNF in the development of schizophrenia. For example, post-mortem studies have shown significantly reduced levels of BDNF protein expression in the brain of schizophrenia patients. We investigated the relationship between reduced levels of BDNF in the brain and the regulation of prepulse inhibition (PPI), a behavioral endophenotype of schizophrenia. We used BDNF heterozygous mutant rats which display a 50% decrease of mature BDNF protein levels. Previously, we observed normal baseline PPI and responses to the dopamine D1/D2 receptor agonist, apomorphine, in these rats. Here, we focused on the effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801, its interaction with mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 receptors, and the PPI response to serotonergic drugs. MK-801 administration caused a dose-dependent reduction of PPI and increase of startle amplitudes. Baseline PPI and the effect of 0.02-0.1mg/kg of MK-801 were not significantly altered in male or female BDNF heterozygous rats,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Startle evokes nearly identical movements in multi-jointed, two-dimensional reaching tasks. AU - Ossanna, Meilin R.. AU - Zong, Xi. AU - Ravichandran, Vengateswaran J.. AU - Honeycutt, Claire. N1 - Funding Information: Funding This study was made possible through funding from the National Institutes of Health (R00 HD073240), Arizona State Universitys Fulton Undergraduate Research Initiative (FURI), and Barrett, The Honors College. Publisher Copyright: © 2018, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.. PY - 2019/1/31. Y1 - 2019/1/31. N2 - StartReact is the ability of the startle reflex to involuntarily release a planned movement in the presence of a loud acoustic stimulus resulting in muscle activity patterns and kinematics that are tightly regulated and scaled with the intended action. Previous studies demonstrated startReacts robustness during simple single-joint reaching tasks and found no difference between startReact and voluntary movements for movement ...
He sido una beauty junkie incluso desde antes que estuviera de moda esto de tener blog. Siempre me ha gustado el maquillaje high end (el que venden en las tiendas departamentales), y más desde que mi mamá me regaló mi primer quinteto y gloss de Dior. Varias amigas y conocidas me han pedido recomendaciones de productos, y algunas veces hasta las he maquillado. Por ello, un día decidí que debía compartir un poquito más esta afición escribiendo un blog ...
Recent experiments pairing a startling stimulus with a simple reaction time (RT) task have shown that when participants are startled, a prepared movement was initiated earlier in comparison to...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of energy spectrum from laser-accelerated protons with a 100 fs intense prepulse. AU - Glinec, Y.. AU - Genoud, G.. AU - Lundh, O.. AU - Persson, A.. AU - Wahlström, C. G.. PY - 2008/11/1. Y1 - 2008/11/1. N2 - A parametric study is reported where a femtosecond prepulse is used to change the target properties before the interaction with a multi-terawatt laser pulse which accelerates protons from a foil target. The proton spectrum as function of the prepulse delay and intensity, up to 1.5 ns and up to 3×1016 W/cm2, respectively, shows a global decrease of the maximum proton energy with delay and intensity. However, under appropriate conditions, it is found that the maximum proton energy increases by more than 10% and that the spectral shape changes.. AB - A parametric study is reported where a femtosecond prepulse is used to change the target properties before the interaction with a multi-terawatt laser pulse which accelerates protons from a foil target. The proton ...
The acoustic startle reflex (ASR), a defensive response, is a contraction of the skeletal and facial muscles in response to an abrupt, intense (> 80 db) auditory stimulus, which has been extensively...
The onset of DNA replication which is the essential step in the reproduction of any cell requires specific interactions of initiator proteins at defined loci called origins. Although the origin size varies from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex which is one of the major players initiating DNA replication across the species is conserved. The orchestrated binding of ORC facilitates DNA melting which in turn is the inception for the duplication of the DNA thus helping to emanate bidirectionally from the origins. The conserved DNA binding domains, ATP regulation and the structural properties of the DNA are the key features of the replication machinery. The ORC proteins exhibit a multifaceted role besides its fundamental role in DNA replication. The ORC mutations leads to various diseases.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Galantamine and donepezil attenuate pharmacologically induced deficits in prepulse inhibition in rats. AU - Hohnadel, Elizabeth. AU - Bouchard, Kristy. AU - Terry, Alvin V.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Educations Pre-doctoral Fellowship program and by the National Institute of Mental Health (MH 066233 to AVT). Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/2. Y1 - 2007/2. N2 - Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are currently being evaluated as adjunctive therapy for the cognitive dysfunction of schizophrenia. This core symptom of schizophrenia has often been attributed to impaired attention and abnormal sensory motor gating, features that are also found in Huntingtons Disease, autism, and several other psychiatric and neurological disorders. The ability to improve prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response may predict the efficacy of compounds as cognitive ...
Gap detection or gap pre-pulse inhibition of the acoustic startle (GPIAS) has been successfully used in rat and guinea pig models of tinnitus, yet this system has proven to have low efficacy in CBA mice, with low basal GPIAS and subtle tinnitus like effects. Here, we tested five mouse strains (CBA, BalbC, CD-1, C57BL/6 and sv129) for pre-pulse inhibition and gap detection with varying interstimulus intervals (ISI) and found the that mice from a CBA genetic background had the poorest capacities of suppressing the startle response in presence of a pre-pulse or a gap. CD-1 mice displayed variable responses throughout all ISI. Interestingly, C57BL/6, sv129 and BalbC showed efficient suppression with either pre-pulses or gaps with shorter ISI. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) is expressed in support cells from the cochlea and buffers the excess of glutamate. We hypothesized that loss of GLAST function could sensitize the ear to tinnitus-inducing agents, such as salicylate. Using shorter ISI to
Several important results were obtained from the present studies. First, in accordance with many previous reports, PCP was found repeatedly to disrupt PPI (Bakshi and Geyer, 1995; Bakshi et al., 1994; Mansbach and Geyer, 1989; Swerdlow et al., 1996; Wiley, 1994; Varty and Higgins, 1994; Johansson et al., 1994b). Second, the selective alpha-1 noradrenergic antagonist prazosin prevented the PCP-induced deficit in PPI. This effect was produced by multiple prazosin doses, was observed over multiple prepulse intensities and was replicated in a second separate experiment. Finally, selective antagonists for eitheralpha-2 (RX821002), muscarinic M1 (pirenzepine) or GABA-A (pitrazepin) receptors had no effect on the disruption of PPI produced by PCP. Taken together, these results indicate strongly that the impairment of sensorimotor gating induced by PCP involves the presumably indirect activation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, but probably not alpha-2, M1 or GABA-A receptors.. To the best of our ...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
an Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (OAM) mechanism for connectivity check and connection verification. This is achieved by providing a simplified mechanism with large portions of negotiation aspects eliminated, resulting in a faster and simpler provisioning. Because of this simplified mechanism, due to a misconfiguration, an SBFDInitiator could send S-BFD control packets to a target that does not exist or that is outside the S-BFD administrative domain. As explained in Section 7.3.1, an SBFDInitiator can be a persistent initiator or a when needed one. When an S-BFD persistent SBFDInitiator is used, it SHOULD be controlled that S-BFD control packet do not propagate for an extended period of time outside of the administrative domain that uses it. Further, operational measures SHOULD be taken to identify if S-BFD packets are not responded to for an extended period of time, and remediate the situation. These potential concerns are largely mitigated by dynamic advertisement ...
PHENOTYPE: Mice homozygous for one knock-out allele exhibit increased marble burying, increased startle response, and decreased prepulse inhibition. [provided by MGI curators ...
Habituation is a simple form of learning that all animals, including people, are capable of. In this lesson, you will learn what it is, how it...
Anticorps-enligne.fr offre des lysats de cellules entières de lhumain, la souris, le rat et le poulet. Ces lysats peuvent être utilisés dans des applicati...
Several important results were obtained from the present studies. First, in accordance with many previous reports, PCP was found repeatedly to disrupt PPI (Bakshi and Geyer, 1995; Bakshi et al., 1994; Mansbach and Geyer, 1989; Swerdlow et al., 1996; Wiley, 1994; Varty and Higgins, 1994; Johansson et al., 1994b). Second, the selective alpha-1 noradrenergic antagonist prazosin prevented the PCP-induced deficit in PPI. This effect was produced by multiple prazosin doses, was observed over multiple prepulse intensities and was replicated in a second separate experiment. Finally, selective antagonists for eitheralpha-2 (RX821002), muscarinic M1 (pirenzepine) or GABA-A (pitrazepin) receptors had no effect on the disruption of PPI produced by PCP. Taken together, these results indicate strongly that the impairment of sensorimotor gating induced by PCP involves the presumably indirect activation of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors, but probably not alpha-2, M1 or GABA-A receptors.. To the best of our ...
Background: Reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory startle reflex is a hallmark feature of attention-processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that these deficits may also be present before the onset of psychosis in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) and become progressively worse as psychosis develops. We conducted a longitudinal follow-up study to observe the development of PPI over time in UHR adolescents and healthy controls. Methods: Two-year follow-up data of PPI measures were compared between UHR adolescents and a matched control group of typically developing individuals. Results: We included 42 UHR adolescents and 32 matched controls in our study. Compared with controls, UHR individuals showed reduced PPI at both assessments. Clinical improvement in UHR individuals was associated with an increase in PPI parameters. Limitations: A developmental increase in startle magnitude partially confined the interpretation ...
Some of the symptoms of schizophrenia such as hallucinations and delusions cannot be assessed easily in animals. For other abnormalities such as cognitive dysfunction and affective symptoms, some proxy measures have been developed to test animals. For example, prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition are commonly used to detect attention-related deficits, whereas PST and TST can indicate a depression-related phenotype. Recently reported DISC1 transgenics or mutants exhibit some abnormalities consistent with a schizophrenia phenotype (Table 1). For example, strain 31L has a predominant mood disorder-like phenotype with reduced Pde4b activity, whereas the 100P strain shows profound deficits in prepulse inhibition and latent inhibition (Clapcote et al., 2007). However, neither 129 mice with spontaneous Disc1 truncation (Koike et al., 2006, Ishizuka et al., 2007) nor DN-DISC1 mice using an ectopic (Hikida et al., 2007) or inducible promoter (Pletnikov et al., 2008) display significant changes in ...
Background Tuberculosis is one of the worlds leading killers, stealing 1. cell immune responses in infected NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, C3HeB/FeJ and C57/BL6 mice. Gr-1+ cells could be found on the edges of necrotic lung lesions in NOS2-/-, RAG-/-, and C3HeB/FeJ, but were absent in wild-type mice. Both populations of Gr1+CD11b+ cells expressed high levels of arginase-1, AMD 070 irreversible inhibition and IL-17, additional markers of myeloid derived suppressor cells. We then sorted the Gr1hi and Gr1int populations from infected NOS-/- mice and placed the sorted both Gr1int populations at different ratios with na?ve or infected splenocytes and evaluated their ability to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+T cells. Our results showed that both Gr1hi and Gr1int cells were able to induce activation and proliferation of CD4+ T cells. However this response was reduced as the ratio AMD 070 irreversible inhibition of CD4+ T to Gr1+ cells elevated. Our outcomes illustrate a however unrecognized interplay ...
Recent evidence suggests that prepulse inhibition (PPI) levels relate to executive function possibly by a prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine (DA) link. We explored the effects of enhanced PFC DA signaling by the nonstimulant catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone, on PPI and working memory of subjects homozygous for the Val (low PFC DA) and the Met (high PFC DA) alleles of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism. Twelve Val/Val and eleven Met/Met healthy male subjects entered the study. Tolcapone 200 mg was administered in two weekly sessions, according to a balanced, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. PPI was assessed with 5 dB and 15 dB above background prepulses, at 30-, 60-, and 120 ms prepulse-pulse intervals. Subjects also underwent the n-back and the letter-number sequencing (LNS) tasks. PPI was lower in the Val/Val compared to the Met/Met group in the placebo condition. Tolcapone increased PPI significantly in the Val/Val group and tended to have the opposite effect in
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm. Prepulse inhibition is a robust operational measure of sensorimotor gating, a fundamental form of information processing. Deficits in prepulse inhibition manifest as the inability to filter out extraneous sensory stimuli. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia and other mental disorders, as well as
Introduction: There is now general awareness that treatment with proton pump inhibitors (ppi) may cause moderate rises in circulating concentrations of gastrin and/or chromogranin A (CgA), thus decreasing the specificity of these markers in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Due to their high efficacy, proton pump inhibitors (ppi) are one of the most frequently prescribed classes of drugs worldwide. Several studies in various countries report that 30% or more of in-patients have been prescribed ppi. Patients who are suspected of having a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) often have gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms for which ppi are prescribed and therefore they may be already taking ppi when their first blood sample is assayed for NET markers. We previously encountered a case of extreme rise in CgA which flagged the possibility of a NET, but was later shown to be due to ppi therapy alone. We present CgA and gastrin data in relation to ppi therapy and withdrawal for this patient. In order to ...
This issue, if you look at it properly has not been created by consumers, it has been created by the firms that shouldnt have sold the product to unsuspecting people in the first place! Like it or not consumers do not have time to investigate what they had that may have been miss-sold however long ago let alone remember what they previously had now they have moved on to mortgage, loan or credit card number 6, 7, 8 or 9 over the last 10 years! Enter the claims management companies who have jumped on the bandwagon to help consumers regain what is rightfully theirs whilst taking a nice healthy slice of the pie in the process. If the banks and product providers want this over and done with, then they should have to go through their records on what THEY have miss-sold and just give it back to the consumer. There is nothing about this that is fair on people who have genuinely through no fault of their own been sold a product that they didnt need in the first place, yet they are the ones who are ...
MFR#:90361 UPC:736676903610 This genuine Ruger factory magazine with Ruger logo feeds as reliably as the standard 10-round Ruger rotary magazine.
Hey Divij! I have the same epigastric dull, heavy pain for 2 months! 2 weeks after treatment I feel some improvement, so I think your symptoms might improve as well with time. Your therapy is a little bit strange for me, it usually contains 2 antibiotics and a PPI at the same time and last 10-14 day ...
如果上述评估检查后吞咽困难仍然存在,应该行经验性治疗,内镜下食管扩张术是常用的治疗手段,尽管目前关于内镜下食管扩张术疗效的评估是相互矛盾的[13-16]。食管高敏感性可能是食管功能性吞咽困难重要原因,但是目前仅有有限的数据支持使用抗抑郁药物及其他神经调节药物;在临床实践中,这种治疗方法是有效的,因此可能同时伴有其他食管功能症状[17-19]。如果患者有GERD症状,应该给予PPI治疗[5]。对于伴有吞咽困难的患者,在针对食管体部检查没有明确病因时,应该再次检查患者口咽部以排除口咽部病变的肯能性。除此之外,吞咽困难的诊断及治疗方案仍有局限性,应重点加强患者适当饮食及咀嚼技巧方面的教育[19,20]。下图列举关于内镜检查阴性的吞咽困难处理方法。. ...
Looking for online definition of hyperekplexia in the Medical Dictionary? hyperekplexia explanation free. What is hyperekplexia? Meaning of hyperekplexia medical term. What does hyperekplexia mean?
JL13 [5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5] benzoxazepine fumarate] is a substance with a close structural resemblance to clozapine. However, it is less sensitive to oxidation and may therefore have less hematological side effects. In the present study, JL13 was compared with clozapine and haloperidol in several animal models for schizophrenia. The paw test represents a screening model for antipsychotic drugs that can discriminate between drugs with extrapyramidal side effects and drugs without. Haloperidol increased both forelimb retraction time and hindlimb retraction time (HRT), whereas both clozapine and JL13 increased only HRT. In the prepulse inhibition paradigm, all three drugs reversed the apomorphine- and the amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. However, whereas haloperidol was equally effective against both dopaminergic drugs, JL13 and clozapine were more effective against amphetamine. Finally, only JL13 was able to increase prepulse inhibition in ...
Also known as Startle Disease, this extrapyramidal and movement disorder causes children to freeze when startled, sometimes even slightly. It can be confused with some forms of epilepsy.
The device consists of a container separated into an outer and an inner part by a mesh screen. The mesh screen prevents direct contact between the ice (placed in the outer part) and the hand of the subject (placed in the inner part). The water is regularly mixed to maintain the temperature in the inner part near to 0°C. The subject places his hand, wide open and to the wrist, into the inner part of the container. He is asked to keep it in the water until he feels an intolerable sensation of pain and is forced to remove his hand from the container, in any case for a maximum time of 2 min ...
PHENOTYPE: Homozygous mutant mice show a decreased mean percentage of natural killer cells when compared with controls. Male homozygous mutant mice exhibit impaired sensorimotor gating/attention during prepulse inhibition testing. [provided by MGI curators ...
Conservative therapies for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI) are often the initial therapy offered to patients after radical prostatectomy. Lifestyle modifications have been shown to have some...
A method and neurostimulation system of providing therapy to a patient is provided. At least one electrode is placed in contact with tissue of a patient. A sub-threshold, hyperpolarizing, conditioning pre-pulse (e.g., an anodic pulse) is conveyed from the electrode(s) to render a first region of the tissue (e.g., dorsal root fibers) less excitable to stimulation, and a depolarizing stimulation pulse (e.g., a cathodic pulse) is conveyed from the electrode(s) to stimulate a second different region of the tissue (e.g., dorsal column fibers). The conditioning pre-pulse has a relatively short duration (e.g., less than 200 μs).
Regulation of cell function with a nonthermal, physiological-level electromagnetic field offers prospect of vascular tissue recovery therapies and advancing cross types bioelectronic technology. their classification regarding frequency, location, as well as the electric properties from the model elements. The results present a stunning difference in the rate of recurrence dependence of EF penetration and cell response between cells suspended in an electrolyte and cells attached to a substrate. The EF structure in the cell is definitely strongly inhomogeneous and is sensitive to the physical properties of the cell and its environment. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms for frequency-dependent cell reactions to EF that regulate cell function, which may possess important implications for EF-based therapies and biotechnology development. [50] prolonged Schwans theory by taking into account the conductivity using constant, oscillating and pulsed EF. Additional geometriescylindrical, ...
When ovariectomized females were tested with allopregnanolone alone here also reduced CRF enahnced startle reaction.. In another set of experiments the researchers discovered that lactating female rats with high natural progesterone were markedly lower CRF-enhanced startle responses compared to virgin females with intact ovaries. The results of theses initial experiments revealed the conclusion that progesterone […]. ...
MECANISMES REGULATEURS DE LA TOLERANCE AUX ALLOGREFFES CHEZ LE RAT ETUDE DES MECANISMES REGULATEURS DINDUCTION ET DE MAINTIEN DE LA TOLERANCE AUX ALLOGREFFES CARDIAQUES CHEZ LE RAT. Biology Editions universitaires europeennes (2011-04-27) - ISBN-13: 978-613-1-57379-8 ...
Haplotype: GRIN2B_T200G - GRIN2B_A5806C - GRIN2B_T5988C(T-C-C), GRIN2B_T200G - GRIN2B_A5806C - GRIN2B_T5988C(T-A-C), GRIN2B_T200G - GRIN2B_A5806C - GRIN2B_T5988C(G-C-C), GRIN2B_T200G - GRIN2B_A5806C - GRIN2B_T5988C(G-A-C), GRIN2B_T200G - GRIN2B_A5806C - GRIN2B_T5988C(T-C-T), GRIN2B_T200G - GRIN2B_A5806C - GRIN2B_T5988C(G-C-T ...
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ABSTRACT BLAST-INDUCED TINNITUS: A COMBINED BEHAVIORAL, MEMRE, AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY STUDY by JESSICA OUYANG May 2014 Advisor: Drs. Steve Cala & Jinsheng Zhang Major: Physiology Degree: Doctor of Philosophy Tinnitus and hearing loss are the frequent auditory-related co-morbidities of blast trauma. The etiology of blast-induced tinnitus is also muddled by brain mechanisms associated with emotional and cognitive problems such as anxiety, memory loss, and depression. We set out to develop a realistic and ecologically valid model to address changes of cognitive status and psychological state that are associated with blast- induced tinnitus. In this study, 19 adult rats were randomly divided into the sham group (n=6) and the blast group (n=13). Blast exposure (14 psi) was conducted via a shock wave tube to expose the left ears of the rats in the blast group, and a sham exposure was conducted to the rats in the sham group. Blast-induced tinnitus was evaluated with gap detection and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI)
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The most common physiological response measured to gauge FPS response in humans is eyeblink, or the reflexive act of blinking. Currently, the most widely accepted/used means with which to measure the eyeblink reflex is by using a technology called electromyographic recording (EMG). EMG provides eyeblink rate data by measuring and recording activity of the eyelid muscles using two electrodes. In order to obtain an optimal reading, the persons skin must be cleaned, dried, and covered with a thin layer of electrode gel in only the spots where the measures will be taken; one electrode is placed in the center of the persons forehead above the nose, and two recording electrodes are placed directly underneath the eye, approximately two centimeters apart. The participant should be looking forward for the duration of data collection. If noises are used as the catalyst for the FPS response in a study (acoustic startle), the volume must be both controlled and reported, as noises around 50/60 Hz can ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Global quantitative analysis of phosphorylation underlying phencyclidine signaling and sensorimotor gating in the prefrontal cortex. AU - McClatchy, D. B.. AU - Savas, J. N.. AU - Martínez-Bartolomé, S.. AU - Park, S. K.. AU - Maher, P.. AU - Powell, S. B.. AU - Yates, J. R.. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an example of sensorimotor gating and deficits in PPI have been demonstrated in schizophrenia patients. Phencyclidine (PCP) suppression of PPI in animals has been studied to elucidate the pathological elements of schizophrenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PCP treatment or PPI in the brain are still poorly understood. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis was performed on the prefrontal cortex from rats that were subjected to PPI after being systemically injected with PCP or saline. PCP downregulated phosphorylation events were significantly enriched in proteins associated with long-term potentiation (LTP). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The role of Akt-GSK-3β signaling and synaptic strength in phencyclidine-induced neurodegeneration. AU - Lei, Gang. AU - Xia, Yan. AU - Johnson, Kenneth M.. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) can induce positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia in humans and related effects in rodents. PCP treatment of developing rats induces apoptotic neurodegeneration and behavioral deficits later in life that mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia. The precise mechanism of PCP-induced neural degeneration is unknown. This study used selective antagonists, siRNA, and Western analysis to investigate the role of the Akt-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) pathway in PCP-induced neuronal apoptosis in both neuronal culture and postnatal day 7 rats. PCP administration in vivo and in vitro reduced the phosphorylation of AktSer427 and GSK-3βSer9, decreasing Akt activity and increasing GSK-3β activity. The alteration of ...
Background:. Pakistan was placed on the grey list by the FATF in June last year for failing to curb anti-terror financing. It has been scrambling in recent months to avoid being added to a list of countries deemed non-compliant with anti-money laundering and terrorist financing regulations by the Paris-based FATF, a measure that officials here fear could further hurt its economy.. About FATF:. What is it? The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) is an inter-governmental body established in 1989 on the initiative of the G7. It is a policy-making body which works to generate the necessary political will to bring about national legislative and regulatory reforms in various areas. The FATF Secretariat is housed at the OECD headquarters in Paris.. Objectives: The objectives of the FATF are to set standards and promote effective implementation of legal, regulatory and operational measures for combating money laundering, terrorist financing and other related threats to the integrity of the ...
Abstract: The serotonergic system in the brain plays a major role in mood and anxiety regulation when exposed to stress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Sertraline administration in coping with stress using the behavioural paradigms of the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) and its prepulse inhibition (PPI) in both sexes. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: intact animals and exposed to restraint stress (RS) 3 times per day during 7 days, which were then subdivided into three other groups: injected with Sertraline (5 mg/kg/day) or the drug vehicle saline for 8 consecutive days, and non-injected. ASR and PPI values were analyzed along 4 sessions to determine behavioral changes. Upon it, we also determine the effects of acute immobilization stress analyzing physiological stress indicators in blood. Our data show sex differences in response to stress paradigms. RS affected more intensely males than females, disturbing the males growth and the long-term startle ...
0090] Although a case where each of the pre-pulse laser beam P and the main pulse laser beam M has a circular cross-section and each of the droplet DL and the diffused target has a circular cross-section has been described so far, this disclosure is not limited thereto. When the cross-section is not circular, the relationship between the spot size of a given laser beam and the size of a droplet may be defined two-dimensionally in terms of the area. For example, an area (mathematical) of a region (two-dimensional plane) where the beam intensity distribution along the cross-section of the pre-pulse laser beam P has substantial uniformity may exceed the area (mathematical) of the maximum cross-section of the droplet DL. Further, the minimum area of the region where the beam intensity distribution along the cross-section of the pre-pulse laser beam P has substantial uniformity may be equal to or larger than the sum of the area of the maximum cross-section of the droplet DL and the variation in the ...
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A proteolytic enzyme that converts Plasminogen to Fibrinolysin where the preferential cleavage is between Arginine and Valine. It was isolated originally from Human URINE, but is found in most Tissues of most Vertebrates ...
Her reaction was startling. She ran screaming and crying to her village and in a moment we were surrounded by her hostile ...
... is an acute reaction that includes a range of behaviors resulting from the stress of battle that ... This term can be applied to any stress reaction in the military unit environment. Many reactions look like symptoms of mental ... although any of these may commence as a combat stress reaction. The US Army uses the term/acronym COSR (Combat Stress Reaction ... Combat stress reaction (CSR) is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical ...
Blushing, tears, erections and the startle reaction are examples. This type of communication is usually unintentional, but ...
The feature was used to get a genuinely startled reaction from Pratt. Although motion capture was used in the previous film to ... Hall, Jacob (May 21, 2018). "'Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom' Reactions from the Spanish Premiere: Here is What People Are ... rex roar that he sometimes used to get a natural reaction from the actors. In particular, Bayona played unexpected sounds and ...
"Startled is a weak word to describe my reaction. Every wall covered with paintings that reached the ceilings. In some places, ...
Kumari V, Kaviani H, Raven PW, Gray JA, Checkley SA (January 2001). "Enhanced startle reactions to acoustic stimuli in patients ...
A baby's startled reaction, startled response an embrace reflex. After filming over 200 persons in Reggio Emilia the pole has ... Sidén explains her own reaction to the advertisements that she found in the journal: Glancing through some of the magazines it ...
It is an unplanned reaction to a "startling event". It is an exception to the hearsay rule. The statement must be spontaneously ... An excited utterance does not have to be made at time of the startling event, but must be made while the declarant is still in ... An excited utterance, in the law of evidence, is a statement made by a person in response to a startling or shocking event or ... Time lapse between the startling event and the statement is a factor for both admissibility and weight. A statement made long ...
"The role of neuroticism in startle reactions to fearful and disgusting stimuli" (PDF). Ormel, Johan; Bastiaansen, A.; Riese, ... The startle reflex is a reflex in response to a loud noise which one typically has no control over, though anticipation can ... A measure of the startle reflex can be used to predict the trait neuroticism with good accuracy; a fact that is thought by some ... Studies have found that the mean reaction times will not differ between individuals high in neuroticism and those low in ...
Wood, Mikael (April 14, 2017). "Our 3 instant reactions to Kendrick Lamar's startling new album". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved ...
Escape response Fight-or-flight response Flight zone Startle reaction Rosenthal R. J. (1971). "Trophic interaction between the ... It is a reaction to undesirable sensations or feedback that leads to avoiding the behavior that is followed by this unpleasant ...
... hypervigilance and intense startle reactions. Some research suggests that VA disability benefits achieve their goal of helping ... startle response, insomnia, trouble concentrating, or chronic irritability; anhedonia, social detachment, excessively negative ...
The reaction startled Mary Shelley, who promised her publisher a more popular book next time. Nonetheless, she later spoke of ...
Wimal is startled as he hears this and his reaction upsets Kumari. Richard tries to convince Kumari that he cares for her and ...
... his startled reaction to a car that robotically warns, "You are standing too close to this vehicle"; the way he flinches when a ...
... a neurologic syndrome associated with an exaggerated startle reaction. Glycine receptor Stiff person syndrome Hyperekplexia ... Seri M, Bolino A, Galietta LJ, Lerone M, Silengo M, Romeo G (1997). "Startle disease in an Italian family by mutation (K276E): ... Schorderet DF, Pescia G, Bernasconi A, Regli F (1995). "An additional family with Startle disease and a G1192A mutation at the ... Rees MI, Andrew M, Jawad S, Owen MJ (1995). "Evidence for recessive as well as dominant forms of startle disease (hyperekplexia ...
The ads showed the startled reactions of customers that Burger King would discontinue selling its most popular sandwich. A ...
Visibly startled, Trump responded to the audience: "I didn't expect that reaction." Trump lies about the trivial, claiming that ... Trump is not shy about lying to more sophisticated audiences, but he is surprised when crowd reaction is not what he expected, ... Like Jeffress, Richard Land refused to cut ties with Trump after his reaction to the Charlottesville white supremacist rally, ... The absolutist rhetoric employed heavily favors crowd reaction over veracity, with a large number of lies which Trump presents ...
It is his reaction, blank, startled, etc., always underplayed, that creates or releases the humor". The film was major box ...
The artist has aptly observed the startled reaction of the rooster nearest to the fox. The other fowl appear unaware of the ...
Dumont's character would often give a short, startled or confused reaction to these insults, but appeared to forget them ...
The scene was filmed in a single take, and the startled reaction of the actors was genuine. Trophically-transmitted parasites ... Scott intentionally withheld key details from them in order to elicit genuine reactions. Poulin, Robert (2007). Evolutionary ...
The opposite reaction, Prepulse Facilitation (PPF)-- the tendency for a subject to have an increased startle response following ... Hoffman HS, Fleshler M (September 1963). "Startle Reaction: Modification by Background Acoustic Stimulation". Science. 141 ( ... Startle response is measured in rodents using the so-called automated "startle chambers" or "stabilimeter chambers", with ... Reporting the signal deflection evoked by the startle stimulus, the term mean amplitude (mA) refers to the average startle ...
A strong candidate for schizophrenia endophenotype is prepulse inhibition, the ability to inhibit the reaction to startling ... Cadenhead KS, Swerdlow NR, Shafer KM, Diaz M, Braff DL (October 2000). "Modulation of the startle response and startle ...
When the first beam of sunlight shines down, it sets off an optical reaction that startles the horses. Then the shadow of the ...
Pasc's startled reaction goes unnoticed as Helena calls the techlab, asking for the Archanons to report to Medical. They leave ...
This process could in itself bring on tension since Madame Iturbi's reactions could be quite dramatic and startling. ...
The scene was filmed in a single take, and the startled reaction of the actors was genuine.[4][127] ... Scott intentionally withheld key details from them in order to elicit genuine reactions.. ...
... for increased vocalisation in the shock collar group was that this was due to a startle response rather than pain reactions. ... In the test, dogs were walked past a "provocateur" who attempted to taunt the dog into a reaction. If the dog reacted, it was ... The first, a path test, involved observing the dogs' reactions to a set of novel stimuli (rag pulled across the track, bundle ... The second test involved monitoring the dog's reaction to a free-roaming sheep flock in a field. In this study they identified ...
When Zhenhuan is shown to the Emperor and Dowager Empress, a startling reaction leaves her fate up in the air. After much ...
Boubli, Lizzie (2003). "Michelangelo and Spain: on the Dissemination of his Draughtsmanship". Reactions to the Master edited by ... El Greco's altarpieces are renowned for their dynamic compositions and startling innovations. ...
It is intended to be deliberately shocking, Wilson states that he "does not want its ideas to seem any less startling than they ... I'm just asking you to dispassionately observe your own reaction to these accounts".[citation needed] ...
... "a uniquely candid reaction to illness and mortality", achieved number 27 on Billboard's Adult Contemporary chart.[212][213] The ... which at times startled visitors by rattling the Harrisons' windows.[11] When Louise was pregnant with George, she often ... the consensus reaction to the tour was negative.[114] Some fans found Shankar's significant presence to be a bizarre ...
... is a startling, deeply satisfying record".[36] Steve Hochman of the Los Angeles Times predicted that "the scale of its success ... The reaction from the executives only served to put more stress on Corgan.[9] Corgan worked overtime, practically living in the ... and received a positive reaction.[12] Soon afterward, executives from Virgin Records came to observe the band after hearing ...
... and reaction was mixed. The ALP initially supported the idea, however Kevin Rudd withdrew this support just before the election ... are nowhere as startling as those exposed by a recent report into youth justice undertaken by the Australian Institute of ...
... and Carstairs remarks on the cat at her feet which provokes a startled reaction from Settle. ... Mrs Harter is somewhat startled that day at lunch when Charles comments that, when he was coming up the drive of the house the ... Somewhat oblivious to this, Geoffrey nevertheless asks his startled mother if he can play with the little boy that he sometimes ... Going into the house, they make the acquaintance of Lady Carmichael and Miss Patterson, and again Carstairs causes a reaction ...
... "startling overall spacy sound."[14] Although not a concept album, the album has been described as possessing a trademark sound ... "the reaction we got was very encouraging and we went down well."[3] ...
Gross stress reaction is defined as a "normal personality [utilizing] established patterns of reaction to deal with ... Heightened startle responses and a smaller hippocampal volume have been identified as biomarkers for the risk of developing ... Posttraumatic stress reactions have not been studied as well in children and adolescents as adults.[10] The rate of PTSD may be ... Holmstrom LL, Burgess AW (1978). The Victim of Rape: Institutional Reactions. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 978-0471407850. .. ...
Reactions[edit]. Russian officials[edit]. President Dmitry Medvedev ordered an investigation into allegations of vote-rigging, ... "On Russian TV, a Straightforward Account Is Startling". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 December 2011 ... Other reactions[edit]. Mikhail Gorbachev, former President of the Soviet Union and General Secretary of the Soviet Communist ...
... startled reaction" but that "it was a hostile audience" that year for other performers also.[10] ... Reasons for the crowd's reaction[edit]. Filmmaker Murray Lerner and others present at Newport argued that the boos were from ... He was not expecting that audience's reaction and he was concerned about Bob's image since they were part of the same family of ... and asked about his reaction at the time, he replied, "I kind of think: 'You silly young bugger.'"[32] ...
The stone buildings imposed on England by the Romans would have been 'startling' and 'exceptional', and following the collapse ... It seems, for example, that the death of Bishop Æthelwold in 984 had precipitated further reaction against certain ...
The normal reaction is for the newborn to laterally flex toward the stimulated side. ...
19) Exaggerated response to minor surprises or being startled.. (20) Difficulty in concentrating or mind going blank, because ... Intolerance of uncertainty therapy (IUT) refers to a consistent negative reaction to uncertain and ambiguous events regardless ... negative cognitive reactions to emotions, maladaptive emotion management and regulation, experiential avoidance, and behavioral ...
Power, D. M. (1966). "Antiphonal duetting and evidence for auditory reaction time in the Orange-chinned Parakeet". Auk. 83: 314 ... Marcus, Gary F. (2006-04-27). "Language: Startling starlings". Nature. 440 (7088): 1117-1118. doi:10.1038/4401117a. PMID ... Thorpe, W. H. (23 February 1963). "Antiphonal Singing in Birds as Evidence for Avian Auditory Reaction Time". Nature. 197 (4869 ...
Their first reaction to threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when ... flight is impossible or if their young are threatened.[88] They also tend to be curious; when startled, they will often ...
"startling to the classically-trained musician, but second-nature to the folk musician."[60] Structurally, also, Bartók often ... The plethora of directions that music took in the first quarter of the 20th century led to a reaction by many composers. Led by ... "is the audience reaction ... you really get that audience feedback."[82] ...
Unless startled or injured, most snakes prefer to avoid contact and will not attack humans. With the exception of large ... For this reason, people who are allergic to horses are more likely to suffer an allergic reaction to antivenom.[95] Antivenom ... generates a reaction force directed forward and towards the midline of the snake, resulting in forward thrust while the lateral ...
This startling coincidence in value led Maxwell to make the inference that light itself is a type of electromagnetic wave. ... and thus causing chemical reactions. Short wavelength UV and the shorter wavelength radiation above it (X-rays and gamma rays) ... invisible light rays that induced certain chemical reactions). These behaved similarly to visible violet light rays, but were ...
Startled, the pirates countered with cannon and musket fire while attempting to outrun the sloop.[189] Unable to shake off San ... Commodore Porter's reaction to what was later known as the Fajardo Affair led to a diplomatic crisis which threatened war ...
When startled by or alarmed by a predator, it leaps straight upwards while extending the hind legs and flashing the white sides ... The alarm or fear reaction consists of a high-pitched scream. Another sound, emitted by males in a pair when approached by an ...
However, public reaction to the result of the case involving William S. "Billy" Milligan was strongly negative, and since that ... and increased and persistent vigilance and startle responses to sound. DID patients may also demonstrate altered neuroanatomy.[ ... "reaction" to psychobiological stressors-a theory first put forth by Adolf Meyer in 1906-many trauma-induced conditions ... a concept and term coined by members of the False Memory Syndrome Foundation in reaction to memories of abuse they allege were ...
Chou, C.Y.; Marca, R.L.; Steptoe, A.; Brewin, C.R. (2014). "Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories". ... Enzymes, being the regulators or catalysts of virtually all biochemical reactions - are sensitive to pH and will change shape ... Hypoxia (an insufficient supply of oxygen) leads to decreasing HRs, since metabolic reactions fueling heart contraction are ... their reaction to an unforeseen occurrence (the cause of stress) during a performance was observed in terms of heart rate. In ...
Right pupillary reflex means reaction of the right pupil, whether light is shone into the left eye, right eye, or both eyes. In ... A pupil examination simulator, demonstrating the changes in pupil reactions for various nerve lesions. ... a time delay between the instant in which the light pulse reaches the retina and the beginning of iridal reaction due nerve ...
Critical reaction[edit]. A survey in Great Britain, conducted by the BBC's literacy campaign for World Book Day, found Curious ... It's startling how believably and comfortably this story puts you into what you might have thought were likely to be some ... corporeal space through an incremental layering of his perspectives and reactions ... The narrative also bristles with diagrams ...
... and the reaction of uneducated audiences to these paintings caused concern throughout the 19th century.[11][B] Many critics ... and a startling effect", the work was poorly executed overall. Its depiction of women drew particular ire: "the expression of ...
"In light of these startling numbers, ABC News' What Would You Do? rigged hidden cameras on a busy Hoboken, N.J., street corner ... resulting in both positive and negative reaction from local residents and businesses.[203] ...
However, a bear's first reaction upon detecting a human is to run away.[2] Fergus lists a few possible causes for this ... Most bear attacks result from hunters suddenly appearing in front of them, startling a bear into an instinctive act of ... this hunger has also triggered an unexpected reaction: bears began to follow gunfire because they associate it with dead ... they try to hide their movements so as not to startle game. ... instinctive reaction, each a speculation or theory based more ...
Fear potentiated startleEdit. Fear-potentiated startle (FPS) has been utilized as a psychophysiological index of fear reaction ... Startle reflexes have been shown to be modulated by emotion. For example, healthy participants tend to show enhanced startle ... The startle response to a particular stimulus is greater under conditions of threat.[78] A common example given to indicate ... Vrana, S. R.; Spence, E. L.; Lang, P. J. (1988). "The startle probe response: A new measure of emotion?". Journal of Abnormal ...
The monster is parodied in the South Park season 12 episode "Pandemic 2: The Startling". The episode is a parody of the ... Reeves described the creature's reaction to its surroundings thus: "It's this new environment that it finds frightening". To ...
The directors did not like this because, according to Greno, Flynn "did this reaction where [he] treated her like she's nuts". ... "a subtle yet startling twist for Disney" by The New York Times -[5] in order to avoid creating a character who is too "safe", ... "Making the leading man an unlikable thief is a subtle yet startling twist for Disney, and Flynn ... is glib in a way that many ... Although both directors agreed that Flynn's reaction was funny, Greno and Howard wanted the characters to "connect" emotionally ...
Our 3 instant reactions to Kendrick Lamars startling new album Kendrick Lamar, shown in Los Angeles last year, released his ... 3. Meeting the breadth of sounds provided by those varied collaborators, Lamar shows off a startling range of vocal approaches ... But, for now, here are three instant reactions to the new music. ...
1. startle reaction (n.). a complicated involuntary reaction to a sudden unexpected stimulus (especially a loud noise); ... involves flexion of most skeletal muscles and a variety of visceral reactions ...
You are here: Home / Press Releases / Obamas Startling Reaction To Funeral Service For Baby Killed After Failed Abortion ... Obamas Startling Reaction To Funeral Service For Baby Killed After Failed Abortion Renews Calls For Prosecution. November 10, ... In startling response to the media, an Obama spokesperson accused Rev. Dozier of engaging in "the most disgusting and ... WATCH VIDEO featuring news clips from Baby Shanices funeral and the Obama reaction. (4 min. 13 sec.) ...
The current study examined the effect of the timing of the prepulse on startle-induced reaction times and the startle reflex. ... The differential effect of the prepulse on the startle reflex and reaction time acceleration confirm different neural pathways ... However, an auditory prepulse presented in advance of a startling stimulus can reduce the effect of the startling stimulus. ... the reaction time acceleration associated with the startling acoustic stimulus (SAS) was unaffected. ...
... task have shown that when participants are startled, a prepared movement was initiated earlier in comparison to... ... Recent experiments pairing a startling stimulus with a simple reaction time (RT) ... Startle Electromyography Reaction time Orbicularis oculi Sternocleidomastoid This is a preview of subscription content, log in ... Carlsen AN, Chua R, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2003) Startle response is dishabituated during a reaction time task. ...
... but this patient may be the first to present with an exaggerated startle reflex. ... His exaggerated startle reaction to visual and tactile stimuli rapidly diminished. On discharge, the only remaining symptom was ... On admission, a neurological examination showed an excessive startle reaction of his upper trunk evoked by visual and tactile ... A 69-year old Caucasian man presented with a two-week history of pronounced startle myoclonus elicited by unexpected visual or ...
A startle reaction to even mild stimuli *Only partial head control *Abnormalities in the movements of the eyes and infant ... This triggers an immune reaction (the body s defences) against the body s own molecules. The effects of this reaction are the ...
... the middle ear muscular reflex activity in the startle reaction was measured in a control series, in patients with otoscle ... By means of extratympanic phonometry, the middle ear muscular reflex activity in the startle reaction was measured in a control ... Middle Ear Reflex Activity in the Startle Reaction. Arch Otolaryngol. 1975;101(6):348-353. doi:10.1001/archotol. ... In comparison with the stapedius reflex, the startle reflex was found to be much more variable regarding latency, amplitude, ...
Increased startle reaction. *Irritability. *Listlessness. *Seizures. Exams and Tests. The health care provider will examine the ...
Startle reactions‎ (11 F). *. ► Statocyst‎ (1 C, 12 F). *. ► Stimming‎ (20 F) ...
The acoustic startle reflex (ASR), a defensive response, is a contraction of the skeletal and facial muscles in response to an ... Hoffman HS, Searle JL (1965) Acoustic variables in the modification of startle reaction in the rat. J Comp Physiol Psychol 60(1 ... Acoustic startle reflex Prepulse inhibition Fear modulation PPI computational model Abbreviations. ASR. Acoustic startle reflex ... Winslow JT, Parr LA, Davis M (2002) Acoustic startle, prepulse inhibition, and fear-potentiated startle measured in rhesus ...
To assess cardiovascular reactions to the startle presentation, beat-to-beat values of interbeat intervals and systolic and ... The modulation of startle-induced blink reactions during appetitive and aversive affective states is believed to reflect the ... EMG amplitudes of the startle reactions were logarithmically transformed. The z score was then related to individual dark ... Analysis of mean interbeat interval and systolic and diastolic blood pressure reactions over 11 seconds after the dark startles ...
"Routine noises elicited startle reactions." Gradually the treatment restored her vitality, but when the IV antibiotic was ... "Routine noises elicited startle reactions." Gradually the treatment restored her vitality, but when the IV antibiotic was ...
increased startle reaction to sound,. *early blindness,. *seizures,. *spasticity (non-voluntary and awkward movement), ...
Startle reaction time is not modulated by emotional valence. Stevenson, A. J., Maslovat, D. & Franks, I. M., 2010, Canadian ... Feed-forward control of phonetic gestures in CV syllables: Evidence from responses to auditory startle. Chiu, C., Stevenson, A ... magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex can influence the early release of a preplanned movement by a startling ...
Normally a warning stimulus reduces startle reactions. Recently, both nicotine effects and the effect of nicotinic glutamate ... and they also display lowered reactions to sensory challenges (e.g. phasic reactions or "trait") (Schoen et al, submitted). The ... With tactile startle, a dose effect of clozopine on the intensity of response is also noted. As the amount of clozopine ... Areas included in past and ongoing research include: neuro-physiological reactions to sensory stimuli in children and adults; ...
Their reaction startled her. "All of a sudden they stood up, grabbed each others arms and joined in this prayer," she said. "I ...
Their reaction startled her. All of a sudden they stood up, grabbed each others arms and joined in this prayer, she said. I ...
Intense startle reaction. *Loss of motor skills. *Mental decline. *Muscle paralysis. *Seizures ...
Her reaction was startling. She ran screaming and crying to her village and in a moment we were surrounded by her hostile ...
being easily startled.. Most people who have been through a very frightening event will have a noticeable reaction in the days ... and an extreme startle response. Some clinicians think that this abnormally intense startle response may be the most ... and an extreme startle response. Some clinicians think that this abnormally intense startle response may be the most ... Ones reaction at the time of the trauma is an important predictor of post-traumatic stress (Asarnow et al. 1999; Ballenger et ...
1975) Middle ear reflex activity in the startle reaction. Arch Otolaryngol 101:348-353. ... For saccade performance, trials were excluded if: (i) the reaction time to initiate the saccade was ,250 ms or (ii) the eyes ... and nonacoustic startle reflexes (51, 57⇓⇓⇓-61), and have been found to exhibit activity associated with movements of the head ...
It is like an excessive startle reaction. A sudden noise (even a relatively faint one) will often make my heart race. ... My reaction was like a wild animal. At first touching was aversive, and then it became pleasant. In my opinion, tactual ... When I moved out to Arizona to go to graduate school, I went out to the feedlots to study the reactions of the cattle in ... One day about 12 years ago, a Siamese cats reaction to me changed after I had used the squeeze machine. This cat used to run ...
No startle reaction, no panic, nothing unusual.. Success! However, if she became startled I would know that we werent done ... Then watch your clients reactions. Are they startled? Do they squirm or become angry, tearful or insulted? If so, dig for more ... If, on the other hand, there is no reaction except for smiles and calm demeanors, then you have solid evidence of success.. ... I chose this as a foundational issue and spent the next hour using EFT on her reaction to having her shoulder touched from ...
Pyrotechnics also produce startle reactions in birds. However, birds can gradually habituate to pyrotechnic devices. Other ... Secondarily, at greater distances, the sounds could cause startle reactions that scared the birds but did not cause discomfort ... startle reflex reaction. However, without reinforcement that this bang represents a potential threat to the birds, birds soon ... However, the sudden onset and/or loud volume of the sounds may startle birds into departing an area on occasion. Birds also may ...
Studies on aromatherapy have examined a variety of other conditions: sedation and arousal;[11,12] startle reflex and reaction ... Allergic reactions are sometimes reported, especially after topical administration. As essential oils age, they are often ... Millot JL, Brand G, Morand N: Effects of ambient odors on reaction time in humans. Neurosci Lett 322 (2): 79-82, 2002. [PUBMED ... Miltner W, Matjak M, Braun C, et al.: Emotional qualities of odors and their influence on the startle reflex in humans. ...
Usually the onset of the startle response is a startle reflex reaction. The startle reflex is a brainstem reflectory reaction ( ... During neuromotor examinations of newborns, it is noted that, for a number of techniques, the patterns of the startle reaction ... The startle response is implicated in the formation of specific phobias.[citation needed] A startle reflex can occur in the ... Davis, M. (1984). "The mammalian startle response". In R. Eaton (Ed.), Neural stop of Startle Behavior (pp. 287-351). Plenum ...
startle reaction, startle response - a complicated involuntary reaction to a sudden unexpected stimulus (especially a loud ... startle, jump. inborn reflex, innate reflex, instinctive reflex, physiological reaction, reflex, reflex action, reflex response ... start - move or jump suddenly, as if in surprise or alarm; "She startled when I walked into the room". jump, startle ... Moro reflex, startle reflex - a normal reflex of young infants; a sudden loud noise causes the child to stretch out the arms ...
exaggerated startle reaction. *developmental regression. *skeletal abnormalities. *seizures. *visual impairment. Treatment for ...
Startle Reaction / physiology*. Statistics, Nonparametric. Comments/Corrections. Corrected and Republished From: Physiol Behav ... The acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition of ASR did not differ between ci3 rats and controls. The reduced ...
  • Responses to startling acoustic stimuli indicate that movement-related activation does not build up in anticipation of action. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A 69-year old Caucasian man presented with a two-week history of pronounced startle myoclonus elicited by unexpected visual or tactile stimuli to his upper body, which had led to a fall shortly before admission. (medscape.com)
  • His exaggerated startle reaction to visual and tactile stimuli rapidly diminished. (medscape.com)
  • Startle modulation was calculated as the difference between startle responses under negative and positive affective stimuli. (ahajournals.org)
  • In contrast to salt-resistant subjects, salt-sensitive subjects showed significantly enhanced startle amplitudes under negative stimuli and diminished amplitudes under positive stimuli. (ahajournals.org)
  • In animals, including humans, the startle response is a largely unconscious defensive response to sudden or threatening stimuli, such as sudden noise or sharp movement, and is associated with negative affect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The startle reflex is a brainstem reflectory reaction (reflex) that serves to protect vulnerable parts, such as the back of the neck (whole-body startle) and the eyes (eyeblink) and facilitates escape from sudden stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior cingulate cortex in the brain is largely thought to be the main area associated with emotional response and awareness, which can contribute to the way an individual reacts to startle-inducing stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hyperekplexia (startle disease) is a rare non-epileptic disorder characterised by an exaggerated persistent startle reaction to unexpected auditory, somatosensory and visual stimuli, generalised muscular rigidity, and nocturnal myoclonus. (bmj.com)
  • Early manifestations include abnormal responses to unexpected auditory, visual, and somatosensory stimuli such as sustained tonic spasm, exaggerated startle response, and fetal posture with clenched fists and anxious stare. (bmj.com)
  • We sought to disentangle cardiac-cycle-time effects on subcortical and cortical levels as well as sensorimotor and cognitive processes within a spatial stimulus-response-compatibility paradigm employing startling stimuli of different modalities. (nature.com)
  • However, an auditory prepulse presented in advance of a startling stimulus can reduce the effect of the startling stimulus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Brown P, Rothwell JC, Thompson PD, Britton TC, Day BL, Marsden CD (1991) New observations on the normal auditory startle reflex in man. (springer.com)
  • Kohfeld DL (1969) Effects of the intensity of auditory and visual ready signals on simple reaction time. (springer.com)
  • The acoustic startle reflex is thought to be caused by an auditory stimulus greater than 80 decibels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the BNST by certain hormones is thought to promote a startle response The auditory pathway for this response was largely elucidated in rats in the 1980s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stimulus in question is usually of auditory (e.g., loud noise) or visual (e.g., bright light) nature, and startle response measures include eyeblink rates and pulse / heart rate . (wikipedia.org)
  • 3) Hyperarousal is characterized by heightened physiological reactivity as evidenced by exaggerated startle response, difficulty concentrating, and hypervigilance. (frontiersin.org)
  • and (3) frequently feeling under threat manifested as, for example, hypervigilance and intense startle reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of prepulse inhibition timing on the startle reflex and reaction time. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The current study examined the effect of the timing of the prepulse on startle-induced reaction times and the startle reflex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Yeomans JS, Frankland PW (1996) The acoustic startle reflex: neurons and connections. (springer.com)
  • By means of extratympanic phonometry, the middle ear muscular reflex activity in the startle reaction was measured in a control series, in patients with otosclerosis and in patients with operation cavities without a functioning tensor tympani muscle. (jamanetwork.com)
  • In comparison with the stapedius reflex, the startle reflex was found to be much more variable regarding latency, amplitude, and configuration. (jamanetwork.com)
  • It was possible to elicit a distinct startle reflex in operation cavities without a functioning tensor tympani muscle, probably because of contraction of the Eustachian tube muscles. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of ASR is the normal suppression of the startle reflex when an intense stimulus is preceded by a weak non-starting pre-stimulus. (springer.com)
  • Depoortere R et al (1997) Potentiation of prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in rats: pharmacological evaluation of the procedure as a model for detecting antipsychotic activity. (springer.com)
  • Fendt M et al (2001) Brain stem circuits mediating prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex. (springer.com)
  • Grillon C et al (1997) Darkness facilitates the acoustic startle reflex in humans. (springer.com)
  • Hoffman HS, Ison JR (1980) Reflex modification in the domain of startle: I. Some empirical findings and their implications for how the nervous system processes sensory input. (springer.com)
  • Usually the onset of the startle response is a startle reflex reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] A startle reflex can occur in the body through a combination of actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A reflex from hearing a sudden loud noise will happen in the primary acoustic startle reflex pathway consisting of three main central synapses, or signals that travel through the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • During neuromotor examinations of newborns, it is noted that, for a number of techniques, the patterns of the startle reaction and the Moro reflex may significantly overlap, the notable distinction being the absence of arm abduction (spreading) during startle responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The role of the BNST in the acoustic startle reflex may be attributed to specific areas within the nucleus responsible for stress and anxiety responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Startle reflex, a normal reticular and cortical reflex is elicited to a minor degree in normal newborns and infants. (bmj.com)
  • Neural pathways underpinning startle reflex and limb stretch reflexes evolved independently and have served vastly different purposes. (edu.au)
  • This mini review discusses the nature of startle and stretch reflex interactions in human and non-human primates and the involvement of the primary motor cortex in their regulation. (edu.au)
  • 11 When a pathologically exaggerated startle response interferes with normal activities, causing apnoea and frequent falls and injuries, the pathological state is termed as startle disease or hyperekplexia. (bmj.com)
  • A loud acoustic stimulus has been shown to provoke a reflexive startle response and accelerate simple reaction times. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Grillon C (1998) Effect of darkness on acoustic startle in Vietnam veterans with PTSD. (springer.com)
  • Hoffman HS, Searle JL (1965) Acoustic variables in the modification of startle reaction in the rat. (springer.com)
  • Koch M et al (1992) Loss of the acoustic startle response following neurotoxic lesions of the caudal pontine reticular formation: possible role of giant neurons. (springer.com)
  • In a separate session, subjects viewed a series of 42 pictures of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), varying in pleasure and arousal, while acoustic startle probes were administered randomly, and electromyogram activity of the orbicular eye muscle was continuously recorded. (ahajournals.org)
  • The acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition of ASR did not differ between ci3 rats and controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • If noises are used as the catalyst for the FPS response in a study (acoustic startle), the volume must be both controlled and reported, as noises around 50/60 Hz can compromise the accuracy of the recordings taken by the EMG. (wikipedia.org)
  • Startle activation is additive with voluntary cortical activation irrespective of stimulus modality. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recent experiments pairing a startling stimulus with a simple reaction time (RT) task have shown that when participants are startled, a prepared movement was initiated earlier in comparison to voluntary initiation. (springer.com)
  • The presented data show that RTs associated with a startle response are separate from stimulus intensity facilitated responses. (springer.com)
  • Blumenthal TD (1996) Inhibition of the human startle response is affected by both prepulse intensity and eliciting stimulus intensity. (springer.com)
  • Fear-potentiated startle (FPS) is a reflexive physiological reaction to a presented stimulus, and is an indicator of the fear reaction in an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • And in yet another study, Kerry Ressler's group at Emory University showed that the so-called "startle response" to a sudden stimulus - a marker of anxiety - is more pronounced in kids whose mothers were physically abused as children then in those whose mothers were not abused. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Blumenthal TD, Cuthbert BN, Filion DL, Hackley S, Lipp OV, Van Boxtel A (2005) Committee report: guidelines for human startle eyeblink electromyographic studies. (springer.com)
  • Bast T et al (2001) Hyperactivity, decreased startle reactivity, and disrupted prepulse inhibition following disinhibition of the rat ventral hippocampus by the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin. (springer.com)
  • Braff DL et al (2001) Human studies of prepulse inhibition of startle: normal subjects, patient groups, and pharmacological studies. (springer.com)
  • Heekeren K et al (2004) Attentional modulation of prepulse inhibition: a new startle paradigm. (springer.com)
  • These fear-induced reactions result from communication between the amygdala and a variety of other brain regions (such as the brain stem and hypothalamus ), resulting in a variety of physiological responses in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Air-puffs and white noise-bursts were presented unilaterally during either cardiac systole or diastole while bilateral startle EMG responses were recorded. (nature.com)
  • We studied reactivity to mental stress and startle modulation in 14 salt-sensitive healthy white male students and 14 salt-resistant control subjects, who were well matched for age, body mass index, physical fitness, and family history of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • 11 In a recent study, Gautier and Cook 12 observed an association between startle modulation under negative versus positive affective conditions and cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. (ahajournals.org)
  • There are many various reflexes that can occur simultaneously during a startle response. (wikipedia.org)
  • In startling response to the media, an Obama spokesperson accused Rev. Dozier of engaging in "the most disgusting and manipulative kind of hate politics around. (operationrescue.org)
  • An examination of the startle response during upper limb stretch perturbations. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has been argued that the startle acts to trigger the response involuntarily. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, this startle facilitation is more highly associated with sternocleidomastoid electromyographic (EMG) activity, rather than the EMG from the widely used startle response indicator muscle orbicularis oculi. (springer.com)
  • Carlsen AN, Chua R, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2003) Startle response is dishabituated during a reaction time task. (springer.com)
  • Davis M (1984) The mammalian startle response. (springer.com)
  • Siegmund GP, Inglis JT, SandersonDJ (2001) Startle response of human neck muscles sculpted by readiness to perform ballistic head movements. (springer.com)
  • Although an enhanced pressor response is associated with higher affective startle modulation in men, an association between salt sensitivity of blood pressure and affective startle modulation has not been studied so far. (ahajournals.org)
  • On the basis of studies in animal models, tools for the study of central mechanisms, including the startle response to threat and danger, have been developed for use in human studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • In their study, high startle modulators displayed a higher systolic stress response than did intermediate and low startle modulators. (ahajournals.org)
  • The startle response is implicated in the formation of specific phobias. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the central nucleus of the amygdala is stimulated - what is popularly referred to as the " fight-or-flight " response is activated - the organism in question reacts passively (is rendered frozen in its tracks, becomes hyper-vigilantly attentive, etc.), or displays a physiological reaction geared toward facilitating an aggressive reaction (e.g., increased heart-rate/pulse, rapid breathing). (wikipedia.org)
  • 3 10 Hyperekplexia may occur in a minor form in which the startle response is exaggerated from normal, or a major form in which patients present with generalised muscular rigidity during the neonatal period. (bmj.com)
  • 13-16 Experimental data suggest the importance of nucleus gigantocellularis in the pathogenesis of the abnormal startle response. (bmj.com)
  • All horses share the basic response, but reactions to sudden sounds vary from one horse to the next. (equisearch.com)
  • an anxiety response or startle reaction. (bigsurlandtrust.org)
  • Davis M (2006) Neural systems involved in fear and anxiety measured with fear-potentiated startle. (springer.com)
  • Many reactions look like symptoms of mental illness (such as panic, extreme anxiety, depression, and hallucinations), but they are only transient reactions to the traumatic stress of combat and the cumulative stresses of military operations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanisms and dynamics of the neurotic battle reaction have been reported in detail in recent years, but little attention has been paid to the means by which the normal soldier develops defenses against the anxiety produced by the combat environment and, more particularly, the manner in which the normal soldier becomes emotionally incapacitated under stress. (army.mil)
  • Carlsen AN, Chua R, Inglis JT, Sanderson DJ, Franks IM (2004a) Prepared movements are elicited early by startle. (springer.com)
  • Valls-Solé J, Rothwell JC, Goulart F, Cossu G, Muñoz E (1999) Patterned ballistic movements triggered by a startle in healthy humans. (springer.com)
  • 8 It is a basic alerting reaction consisting of facial grimacing with blinking, followed by involuntary movements of head flexion, hunching of shoulders, adduction of the arms, and flexion of the trunk and the knees, causing falling without a protective reaction. (bmj.com)
  • They also develop an exaggerated startle reaction to loud noises. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is a matter of needing to understand the context of a person's experiences and therefore the nature of their emotional and physiological reactions. (hubpages.com)
  • In: Eaton RC (ed) Neural mechanisms of startle behavior. (springer.com)
  • His involuntary grunt and sharp movement drew a startled sound from his patient. (baen.com)
  • 5 6 A year later Gastaut and Villeneuve reported 12 patients without a family history of exaggerated startle and corrected the Greek spelling to hyperekplexia which has been adopted since. (bmj.com)
  • The most common symptoms are fatigue, slower reaction times, indecision, disconnection from one's surroundings, and the inability to prioritize. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combat stress reaction symptoms align with the symptoms also found in psychological trauma , which is closely related to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, researchers have suggested that variability arises from parental modelling, with offspring calibrating their pathogen avoidance based on their parents' reactions to pathogen cues. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The increased startle modulation of salt-sensitive subjects suggests an enhanced activity of the central nucleus of the amygdala. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, the aim of our present study was to examine the hypothesis that salt sensitivity of blood pressure may also be associated with an enhanced affective startle modulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Combat stress reaction ( CSR ) is a term used within the military to describe acute behavioral disorganization seen by medical personnel as a direct result of the trauma of war. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also known as "combat fatigue" or "battle neurosis", it has some overlap with the diagnosis of acute stress reaction used in civilian psychiatry . (wikipedia.org)
  • Combat stress reaction is an acute reaction that includes a range of behaviors resulting from the stress of battle that decrease the combatant's fighting efficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combat stress reaction is generally short-term and should not be confused with acute stress disorder , post-traumatic stress disorder , or other long-term disorders attributable to combat stress, although any of these may commence as a combat stress reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Startle was inhibited during systole irrespective of modality or compatibility. (nature.com)
  • The effects of this reaction are the lesions observed on the skin and brain defects (encephalopathy). (medindia.net)
  • If a sound is especially loud or startling the fetus may jump in reaction to it. (angelfire.com)
  • I end up toppling sideways, but my reactions are normal for other simple motor tests of cerebellar dysfunction. (autism.com)
  • There are normal reactions to disasters, but medical help may be necessary when certain reactions last longer than normally expected. (aboutkidshealth.ca)
  • The activation of the facial motor nucleus causes a jerk of the head while an activation in the spinal cord causes the whole body to startle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The US Army uses the term/acronym COSR (Combat Stress Reaction) in official medical reports. (wikipedia.org)