Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC 3.4.24.75.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Pneumonia caused by infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS, usually with STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.
A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.
A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
INFLAMMATION of the UDDER in cows.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin of humans (and non-human primates), often causing hospital-acquired infections (CROSS INFECTION).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.
An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.
A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic related to penicillin.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Poisoning by staphylococcal toxins present in contaminated food.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.
A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.
Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.
Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.
An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.
A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
INFLAMMATION of the BREAST, or MAMMARY GLAND.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It is responsible for skin and soft-tissue infections among others, and is part of the normal human skin flora.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, parasites, or viruses.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.
The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.
A genus of gram-positive, spherical bacteria found in soils and fresh water, and frequently on the skin of man and other animals.
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
A persistent skin infection marked by the presence of furuncles, often chronic and recurrent. In humans, the causative agent is various species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS. In salmonid fish (SALMONIDS), the pathogen is AEROMONAS SALMONICIDA.
Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.
A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
Skin diseases caused by bacteria.
A common superficial bacterial infection caused by STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS or group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Characteristics include pustular lesions that rupture and discharge a thin, amber-colored fluid that dries and forms a crust. This condition is commonly located on the face, especially about the mouth and nose.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Infections in the inner or external eye caused by microorganisms belonging to several families of bacteria. Some of the more common genera found are Haemophilus, Neisseria, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Chlamydia.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Antibiotic analog of CLOXACILLIN.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.
Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).
Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A cephalosporin antibiotic.
A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.
An antibiotic compound derived from Streptomyces niveus. It has a chemical structure similar to coumarin. Novobiocin binds to DNA gyrase, and blocks adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p189)
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Analog of KANAMYCIN with antitubercular as well as broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
A family of LINCOMYCIN-related glycosides that contain a pyrrolidine ring linked via an amide-bond to a pyranose moiety. Individual members of this family are defined by the arrangement of specific constituent groups on the lyncomycin molecule. Many lincosamides are ANTIBIOTICS produced by a variety STREPTOMYCES species.
A synthetic fluoroquinolone (FLUOROQUINOLONES) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against most gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Norfloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA GYRASE.
The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It is an important opportunistic pathogen in swine.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.
An enzyme that catalyzes the endonucleolytic cleavage to 3'-phosphomononucleotide and 3'-phospholigonucleotide end-products. It can cause hydrolysis of double- or single-stranded DNA or RNA. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.1.31.1.
A disease of infants due to group 2 phage type 17 staphylococci that produce an epidermolytic exotoxin. Superficial fine vesicles and bullae form and rupture easily, resulting in loss of large sheets of epidermis.
Personal care items used during MENSTRUATION.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family STAPHYLOCOCCACEAE. It commonly causes urinary tract infections in humans.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.

Phagocytic acitivity of bovine leukocytes during pregnancy. (1/12137)

The phagocytic competence, measured as the total number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per mm3 which phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus, strain 321, in vitro, was determined in eight cows during complete pregnancies. Such leukocytes are referred to as "Active PMN'S". There was a gradual decline in the number of these cells from conception to a minimum between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy, followed by a steady increase to the cessation of lactation when a marked drop occurred, after which there was an increase to a maximun during the second week prepartum. From this maximum there was a rapid decrease to an absolute minimum during the first week after parturition. From the second week postpartum there was a gradual increase to conception. The correlation coefficient (r) of number of active PMN'S with time before conception was -0.474 )p-0.01). There were significant differences (p=0.01) in numbers of active PMNS Among the eight cows. It was found that the cows fell into two groups, one whose members had, overall, significantly more active PMNs (p=0.001) than those in the second group. The between cow differences may have been due to 1) age, since the cows with the highest numbers of circulating active PMNs were younger than those in the other group of 2) the combined stress of pregnancy and lactation, as those cows which were both pregnant and milking had the lowest numbers of active PMNs.  (+info)

UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (2/12137)

UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent.  (+info)

Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter. (3/12137)

Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems.  (+info)

The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptides from digestion with a staphylococcal proteinase. (4/12137)

The extracellular proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus strain V8 was used to digest the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa. Of 35 non-overlapping peptides expected from the glutamate content of the polypeptide chain, 29 were isolated and substantially sequenced. The sequences obtained were valuable in providing overlaps for the alignment of about two-thirds of the sequences found in tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J, G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 739-748]. The blocked N-terminal peptide of the protein was isolated. This peptide was sequenced by mass spectrometry, and found to have N-terminal N-acetylserine by Howard R. Morris and Anne Dell, whose results are presented as an Appendix to the main paper. The staphylococcal proteinase showed very high specificity for glutamyl bonds in the NH4HCO3 buffer used. Partial splits of two aspartyl bonds, both Asp-Ile, were probably attributable to the proteinase. No cleavage of glutaminyl or S-carboxymethylcysteinyl bonds was found. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50053 (5 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K, from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 1458 5.  (+info)

Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (5/12137)

BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission.  (+info)

Alpha-toxin and gamma-toxin jointly promote Staphylococcus aureus virulence in murine septic arthritis. (6/12137)

Septic arthritis is a common and feared complication of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of potential virulence factors including certain adhesins and enterotoxins. In this study we have assessed the roles of cytolytic toxins in the development of septic arthritis by inoculating mice with S. aureus wild-type strain 8325-4 or isogenic mutants differing in the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin production patterns. Mice inoculated with either an alpha- or beta-toxin mutant showed degrees of inflammation, joint damage, and weight decrease similar to wild-type-inoculated mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with either double (alpha- and gamma-toxin-deficient)- or triple (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin-deficient)-mutant S. aureus strains showed lower frequency and severity of arthritis, measured both clinically and histologically, than mice inoculated with the wild-type strain. We conclude that simultaneous production of alpha- and gamma-toxin is a virulence factor in S. aureus arthritis.  (+info)

Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (7/12137)

Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP.  (+info)

Hyperproduction of alpha-hemolysin in a sigB mutant is associated with elevated SarA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. (8/12137)

To evaluate the role of SigB in modulating the expression of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus, we constructed a sigB mutant of RN6390, a prototypic S. aureus strain. The mutation in the sigB gene was confirmed by the absence of the SigB protein in the mutant on an immunoblot as well as the failure of the mutant to activate sigmaB-dependent promoters (e.g., the sarC promoter) of S. aureus. Phenotypic analysis indicated that both alpha-hemolysin level and fibrinogen-binding capacity were up-regulated in the mutant strain compared with the parental strain. The increase in fibrinogen-binding capacity correlated with enhanced expression of clumping factor and coagulase on immunoblots. The effect of the sigB mutation on the enhanced expression of the alpha-hemolysin gene (hla) was primarily transcriptional. Upon complementation with a plasmid containing the sigB gene, hla expression returned to near parental levels in the mutant. Detailed immunoblot analysis as well as a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cell extract of the sigB mutant with anti-SarA monoclonal antibody 1D1 revealed that the expression of SarA was higher in the mutant than in the parental control. Despite an elevated SarA level, the transcription of RNAII and RNAIII of the agr locus remained unaltered in the sigB mutant. Because of a lack of perturbation in agr, we hypothesize that inactivation of sigB leads to increased expression of SarA which, in turn, modulates target genes via an agr-independent but SarA-dependent pathway.  (+info)

Here are some True/False questions on Staphylococcus aureus. Click at the bottom of the page for answers and short explanations.. 1) Most people are colonised with Staphylococcus aureus? T/F. 2) The nuc gene is found in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus? T/F. 3) Methicillin is a commonly used antibiotic in many parts of the world? T/F. 4) Staphylococcus aureus can ferment mannitol? T/F. 5) Coagulase is not thought to be an important virulence factor for Staphylococcus aureus? T/F. 6) Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia has a 30 day mortality of 15-20%? T/F. 7) Staphylococcus aureus can cause food poisoning? T/F. 8) Staphylococcus aureus is a motile organism? T/F. 9) Staphylococcus aureus can be intracellular in nasal epithelial cells? T/F. 10) Staphylococcus aureus is acommon contaminant in blood cultures? T/F. Click here for answers and short explanations. ...
Scanning electron micrograph of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surrounded by cellular debris. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It is also called multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA). MRSA is any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, which include penicillins and cephalosporins. Strains unable to resist these antibiotics are classified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, or MSSA. The development of such resistance does not cause the organism to be more intrinsically virulent than strains of Staphylococcus aureus that have no antibiotic resistance, but resistance does make MRSA infection more difficult to treat with standard types of antibiotics and thus more dangerous. MRSA is especially troublesome in hospitals and - Stock Image C028/3297
Background: Glycopeptides such as vancomycin are frequently the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. For the last 10 years incidence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus has been increasing in various parts of the world Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern among hospital and community acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated and identified from patients suffering from skin and wound infections using conventional microbiology techniques. Methicillin resistant strains were investigated by detection of mecA gene using PCR. Strains were also tested for antimicrobial resistance using disc diffusion technique and vancomycin resistance using E ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evaluation of Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors using a silkworm model. AU - Miyazaki, Shinya. AU - Matsumoto, Yasuhiko. AU - Sekimizu, Kazuhisa. AU - Kaito, Chikara. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Previous studies have indicated that the silkworm model is useful for identifying virulence genes of Staphylococcus aureus, a human pathogenic bacterium. Here we examined the scope of S. aureus virulence factors that can be evaluated using the silkworm model. Gene-disrupted mutants of the agr locus, arlS gene and saeS gene, which regulate the expression of cell surface adhesins and hemolysins, exhibited attenuated virulence in silkworms. Mutants of the hla gene encoding α-hemolysin, the hlb gene encoding β-hemolysin, and the psmα and psmβ operons encoding cytolysins, however, showed virulence in silkworms indistinguishable from that of the parent strain. Thus, these S. aureus cytolysins are not required for virulence in silkworms. In contrast, the gene-disrupted mutants ...
Adcock PM, Pastor P, Medley F, Patterson JE, Murphy TV. 1998. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in two child care centers. J Infect Dis 178(2):577-580.. Bhat M, Dumortier C, Taylor BS, Miller M, Vasquez G, Yunen J, et al. 2009. Staphylococcus aureus ST398, New York City and Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis 15(2):285-287.. Bosch T, van Luit M, Pluister GN, Frentz D, Haenen A, Landman F, et al. 2016. Changing characteristics of livestock-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from humans - emergence of a subclade transmitted without livestock exposure, the Netherlands, 2003 to 2014. Euro Surveill 21(21), doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.21.30236.. Chen AE, Cantey JB, Carroll KC, Ross T, Speser S, Siberry GK. 2009. Discordance between Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization and skin infections in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28(3):244-246.. CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute). 2015. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility ...
Definition Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium that can live in the nose, on the skin, or in the lower intestine. MRSA is a form of Staphylococcus aureus that is resistant to the usual antibiotics used to treat it. Some people carry, or become colonized with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria but do not have an infection. However, sometimes Staphylococcus aureus causes infections, which means that the bacterium is making them sick.
Staphylococcus bacteria. Colour transmission electron micrograph of sectioned Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. They are Gram-positive coccal (spherical) bacteria. At centre a bacterium in cross section is seen with its thick cell wall (green). Above and below this bacterium are obliquely sectioned bacteria showing the irregular surface of the bacterial cell walls. Staphylococcus aureus commonly occurs on healthy human skin and mucous membranes, such as the lining of the mouth. It may, however, become pathogenic. It can be responsible for skin boils, infected hair follicles and internal abscesses. Magnification: x58,333 at 6x7cm size. Magnification: x200,000 at 10x8 inch size. - Stock Image B234/0086
TY - JOUR. T1 - Staphylococcus aureus colonization among healthcare workers at a tertiary care hospital. AU - Johnston, Cecilia P.. AU - Stokes, Amy K.. AU - Ross, Tracy. AU - Cai, Mian. AU - Carroll, Karen C.. AU - Cosgrove, Sara E.. AU - Perl, Trish M.. PY - 2007/12. Y1 - 2007/12. N2 - We describe the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus colonization among 200 healthcare workers. The prevalence of S. aureus was 28%, and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 2%. The incidence of MRSA colonization was extremely low. This study suggests that the risk of MRSA transmission to healthcare workers is low in a hospital where MRSA is endemic.. AB - We describe the epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus colonization among 200 healthcare workers. The prevalence of S. aureus was 28%, and the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was 2%. The incidence of MRSA colonization was extremely low. This study suggests that the risk of MRSA transmission to healthcare workers is ...
The number of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) infections on the Navajo Nation has recently been rising. To find out how you can protect yourself and others, read on.. What is staphylococcus aureus? (Staph). Staphylococcus aureus, often referred to simply as staph are bacteria commonly carried on the skin or in the nose of healthy people. About 30 percent of all people have staph bacteria in their nose and the bacteria do not cause an infection in these people. However, at other times, staph bacteria can cause an infection.. What is MRSA?. It is a type of staph bacteria that is resistant to antibiotics such as methicillin. While about 30 percent of the population has staph, about 1 percent has MRSA. The problem with MRSA infections is that they may be very difficult to treat because most of the drugs that are used to treat staph infections dont work against these bacteria.. What does a staph or MRSA infection look like?. Staph bacteria, including MRSA, can cause skin ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staph Aureus, MRSA, MRSA Infection, MRSA Encounter, Vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting are common techniques used to detect and quantify proteins in Staphylococcus aureus culture supernatants, such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). However, protein A (Spa) secreted by most S. aureus strains may interfere with these assays by binding to the capturing and detecting antibodies. Here, we have shown that the addition of diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) inhibits the binding of Spa to rabbit anti-PVL used as the capturing antibody in ELISA. In Western blotting, the presence of DEPC prevented the binding of detecting antibody to Spa. These modified ELISA and Western blot techniques should prove useful for detecting and quantifying proteins in S. aureus culture supernatants ...
Infectious diseases that often occur in humans are skin infections. One of the bacteria that cause infection in humans is Staphylococcus aureus. One of the plants used as an ingredient in traditional medicine and used as an anti-bacterial is a kecombrang plant. This research aims to test the antibacterial activity of leaf extract of kecombrang against Staphylococcus aureus. Kecombrang leaf obtained from Pandeglang Banten. Kecombrang leaves extracted with a maceration method using 96% ethanol solvent. Extracts of leaves are made in a various concentrations (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%). The antibacterial activity test was performed by using the diffusion method to find out the large zone of diameter are formed to inhibiting Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.The results of the antibacterial activity of the leaves extract of kecombrang to Staphylococcus aureus at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% concentrations respectively were 12.67 mm, 14.33 mm, 15.33 mm, and 17.00 mm. The data result showed, that leaf extract of ...
Staphylococcus spp. are globally recognized as colonisers of the skin and important causes of infection in the skin of animals and humans. The increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, and in particular multi-drug resistant methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in dogs has made treatment more challenging. The objectives of this study were to determine bacterial ecology and their antimicrobial susceptibilities from wound and ear swabs with emphasis on Staphylococcus aureus and to determine the prevalence of MRSA/MRSP in normal dogs and surgical patients using phenotypic and genotypic assays. The study also undertook Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of sequenced polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplicons of the resistance determinant. The study was divided into two parts, retrospective and prospective components. The retrospective component of the study was designed to determine ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of humans (1). Cells of S. aureus are surrounded by a thick layer of highly cross-linked cell wall peptidoglycan (2). The peptidoglycan layer is formed from lipid II precursors, C55-(PO3)2-N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc)-(l-Ala-d-iGln-(Gly5)l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala)-GlcNAc (3), via the transpeptidation and transglycosylation reactions of cell wall synthesis to generate [MurNAc-(l-Ala-d-iGln-(Gly5)l-Lys-d-Ala)-GlcNAc]n polymer (4). Assembled peptidoglycan is a single large macromolecule that protects bacteria against osmotic lysis (5) and also functions as scaffold for the anchoring of wall teichoic acids (6) and proteins (7). These secondary cell wall polymers promote specific interactions between staphylococci and host tissues (8). Cell wall-anchored surface proteins are synthesized as precursors with N-terminal signal peptides and C-terminal LPXTG motif sorting signals (9). Following cleavage of the N-terminal signal peptide by signal ...
Staphylococci are recognized as the most frequent causes of biofilm-associated infections as well as community acquired and hospital acquired infections all over the world. HIV is a well established risk factor for nasal colonization of staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is substantial cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV infected patients worldwide. Biofilm production is an important virulence factor of S. aureus which makes the organism more resistant for antimicrobials. The biofilm forming isolates have different spectrum of antibiotic sensitivity which make more therapeutic difficulties. Hence, Rapid and accurate method for detection of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Biofilm production is an important role of clinical microbiology laboratories to avoid treatment failure and to control the endemicity of MRSA. newlineA total of 440 nasal swab samples from 220 HIV positive cases and 220 HIV negative controls were processed, among which 144 isolates of S. aureus were ...
Staphylococcus aureus is one of most common pathogens in humans. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounts for 64 % of S. aureus bacteremia isolated in intensive care units (ICUs), and heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediates S. aureus (hVISA) is a phenotype of MRSA. However, studies focusing on the hVISA impact on critically ill patients are scarce. This was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary medical center from January 2009 to December 2010. All adult patients in ICUs with MRSA bloodstream infection were eligible. A modified population analysis profile and area under the curve method was applied to all isolates to confirm hVISA phenotype. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and the accessory gene regulator (agr) typing were performed individually. Clinical outcomes including in-hospital mortality, length of stay in intensive care unit and hospital after MRSA bacteremia of the patients were also analyzed. A total of 48 patients were
Surface-enhanced IR absorption (SEIRA) microscopy was used to reveal main chemical and physical interactions between Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and different laser-nanostructured bactericidal Si surfaces via simultaneous chemical enhancement of the corresponding IR-absorption in the intact functional chemical groups. A cleaner, less passivated surface of Si nanoripples, laser-patterned in water, exhibits much stronger enhancement of SEIRA signals compared to the bare Si wafer, the surface coating of oxidized Si nanoparticles and oxidized/carbonized Si (nano) ripples, laser-patterned in air and water. Additional very strong bands emerge in the SEIRA spectra on the clean Si nanoripples, indicating the potential chemical modifications in the bacterial membrane and nucleic acids during the bactericidal effect ...
DISCUSSION. 0Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that produces a remarkable array of cell-surface and secreted virulence factors which facilitate disease causation. The organism develops drug resistance at pace with the development of new antimicrobial agents. [15] The organism often colonizes atopic dermatitis-damaged skin and the anterior nares. It spreads from these sites to infect other body sites. It is likely that most of the patients with atopic dermatitis are colonized with Staphylococcus aureus.This could be the result of various host factors such as skin-barrier dysfunction and deficiency of human antimicrobial peptides. Our study reports a high degree (92.4%) of Staphylococcus aureus colonization among atopic dermatitis patients, which is consistent with previous reports. [16],[17],[18] The rather high rates of isolation could be explained by the fact that these subjects were not treated with antibiotics recently. However, contrary to prior reports, no significant ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Very Early-Branching Staphylococcus aureus Lineage Lacking the Carotenoid Pigment Staphyloxanthin. AU - Holt, Deborah. AU - Holden, Matthew. AU - Tong, Steven. AU - Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago. AU - Clarke, Louise. AU - Quail, Michael. AU - Currie, Bart. AU - Parkhill, Julian. AU - Bentley, Stephen. AU - Feil, Edward. AU - Giffard, Philip. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. N2 - Here we discuss the evolution of the northern Australian Staphylococcus aureus isolate MSHR1132 genome. MSHR1132 belongs to the divergent clonal complex 75 lineage. The average nucleotide divergence between orthologous genes in MSHR1132 and typical S. aureus is approximately sevenfold greater than the maximum divergence observed in this species to date. MSHR1132 has a small accessory genome, which includes the well-characterized genomic islands, mSAa and mSab, suggesting that these elements were acquired well before the expansion of the typical S. aureus population. Other mobile elements show mosaic structure (the ...
BioAssay record AID 207652 submitted by ChEMBL: Minimum concentration required to inhibit growth of methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strain 446.
Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effects of ethanol extractof Eremurus persicus leaves on Staphylococcus aureus under laboratory condition. Methods: The ethanol extract of paste leaves were collected using a rotary machine. 12 strain of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from urinary tract infection of Zabol city (Iran). Results: The results showed that MIC and also MBC of Eremurus persicus ethanol extract against Staphylococcus aureus were 5 and 2.55 ppm, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ethanol extract of Eremurus persicus leaves has a significant antibacterial effect and can be used to deal with specific pathogenic bacteria.
The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEPP) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. The combined effect of EEPP and 10 selected antistaphylococcal drugs on S. aureus clinical cultures was also investigated. EEPP composition was analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The flavonoid compounds identified in Polish Propolis included flavones, flavonones, flavonolols, flavonols and phenolic acids. EEPP displayed varying effectiveness against twelve S. aureus strains, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) within the range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/mL, determined by broth microdilution method. The average MIC was 0.54 ± 0.22 mg/mL, while calculated MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.39 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the EEPP ranged from 0.78 to 3.13 mg/mL. The in vitro
Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread gram-positive motionless facultative anaerobic non-spore-forming bacterium related to cocci, spherical bacteria. This microorganism is part of the normal microflora of the skin and mucous membranes in 15-50% of healthy people and animals.. Staphylococcus aureus is found in soil and water, often contaminates food products. It is able to infect all tissues and organs: skin, subcutaneous tissue, lungs, central nervous system, bones, and joints, etc. This bacterium can cause sepsis, purulent skin lesions, and wound infections.. The optimum temperature for Staphylococcus aureus is 30-37 °C. It withstands for 20-30 minutes when 70-80 °C + dry heat. It survives for up to 2 hours. This bacterium is resistant to drying and salinization. It is able to grow on media with 5-10% sodium chloride content, including fish, meat and other products. Most disinfectants destroy Staphylococcus aureus.. Staphylococcus aureus releases a wide variety of toxins. Membranotoxins ...
Defining the burden of morbidity and mortality due to invasive staphylococcus aureus disease and the Impact of drug resistance in Thailand ...
Background & Objective: Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), represent serious nosocomial and community infections. Biofilm formation as an important virulence factor may be affected by sub-inhibitory levels of antibiotics. Few studies examined the effects of all therapeutic antimicrobial agents on clinical S.aureus. The current study aimed at observing the inducing and reducing effects of antibiotics, commonly used to treat staphylococcal infections on the production of staphylococcal biofilm. Methods: Four MRSA (1ATCC and 3 clinical) and 1 methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains with biofilm forming ability, evaluated by the Congo red agar (CRA) plate test, were employed. Biofilm formation was measured by crystal violet microtiter plate assay. Cefazolin, rifampicin, vancomycin, oxacillin, clindamycin, cotrimoxazole, minocycline, linezolid, azithromycin, and clarithromycin were added to wells ranging from 0.06to 128 µg/mL (1× to 1/1024 MIC
Influences of Various Antibiotics on Clinical Biofilm Producing Staphylococcus Aureus Strains. Protease, Lipase, Ürease Activity in Biofilm Forming Strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Articles related to Staphylococcus aureus are open access to read here.
Background: The nasal carriage rate of Staphylococcus aureus in healthcare workers (HCWs) is higher than the general population. Their hands serve as vectors for transmitting S.aureus colonized in the nose to patients. Objectives: To determine the rate of nasal S.aureus carriage and methicillin resistance in HCWs and to evaluate the relationship between carriage and personal risk factors and hand hygiene behaviors. Methods: The questionnaire included questions about sociodemographic characteristics, occupational and personal risk factors for S.aureus carriage, the Hand Hygiene Belief Scale (HHBS), and Hand Hygiene Practices Inventory (HHPI). Nasal culture was taken from all participants. Presence of S.aureus, methicillin and mupirocin resistance were investigated in samples. Results: The study was carried out with 269 HCWs. The prevalence of S.aureus carriage was 20.1% (n:54). Among 54 S.aureus carriers, only one person had MRSA (0.37%). All S.aureus isolates were susceptible to mupirocin. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Participation of CD11c+ leukocytes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clearance from the lung. AU - Martin, Francis J.. AU - Parker, Dane. AU - Harfenist, Bryan S.. AU - Soong, Grace. AU - Prince, Alice. PY - 2011/5/1. Y1 - 2011/5/1. N2 - Staphylococcus aureus causes especially severe pulmonary infection, associated with high morbidity and mortality. In addition to the effects of specific virulence factors, it appears that the intensity of the host proinflammatory response, particularly in the initial stages of infection, contributes substantially to pulmonary damage. We tested the hypothesis that the CD11c+ leukocytes are important in the host response to pulmonary infection with methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) USA300. Clodronate-induced depletion of the alveolar macrophage population resulted in increased numbers of dendritic cells (DCs) and CD4+ cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and was associated with significantly increased mortality by 18 h ...
Blumenthal KG, Shenoy ES, Huang M, Kuhlen JL, Ware WA, Parker RA, Walensky RP. The Impact of Reporting a Prior Penicillin Allergy on the Treatment of Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0159406 ...
The Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus causes a variety of human diseases such as skin infections, pneumonia, and endocarditis. The micrococcal nuclease Nuc1 is one of the major S. aureus virulence factors and allows the bacterium to avoid neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)-mediated killing. We found that addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor clindamycin to S. aureus LAC cultures decreased nuc1 transcription and subsequently blunted nuclease activity in a molecular beacon-based fluorescence assay. We also observed reduced NET degradation through Nuc1 inhibition translating into increased NET-mediated clearance. Similarly, pooled human immunoglobulin specifically inhibited nuclease activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition of nuclease activity by clindamycin and immunoglobulin enhanced S. aureus clearance and should be considered in the treatment of S. aureus infections. ...
OBJECTIVES: The objective of our study was to define the characteristics of patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) presenting with a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included all patients admitted to the ED between January 2003 and December 2004 in whom a staphylococcal infection was documented. The risk factors associated with carriage of MRSA, the diagnosis made in the ED, and the treatment administered were established from the patients medical files. The sites from which the bacteria were isolated, the spectrum of resistance of the staphylococci to different antibiotics, and the presence or absence of the gene coding for Panton-Valentin leukocidin for certain S aureus isolates were determined from the reports issued by the bacteriologic department. Two groups of patients were compared: those with an infection caused by MRSA and those with an infection due to methicillin-susceptible S aureus (MSSA). RESULTS: A total of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The superoxide dismutase gene sodM is unique to Staphylococcus aureus. T2 - Absence of sodM in coagulase-negative staphylococci. AU - Wright Valderas, Michelle. AU - Gatson, Joshua W.. AU - Wreyford, Natalie. AU - Hart, Mark E.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Superoxide dismutase (SOD) profiles of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS) were determined by using whole-cell lysates and activity gels. All S. aureus clinical isolates exhibited three closely migrating bands of activity as previously determined for laboratory strains of S. aureus: SodM, SodA, and a hybrid composed of SodM and SodA (M. W. Valderas and M. E. Hart, J. Bacteriol. 183:3399-3407, 2001). In contrast, the CoNS produced only one SOD activity, which migrated similarly to SodA of S. aureus. Southern analysis of eight CoNS species identified only a single sod gene in each case. A full-length sod gene was cloned from Staphylococcus epidermidis and determined to be more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of β-lactamases in human and bovine isolates of Staphylococcus aureus strains having borderline resistance to penicillinase-resistant penicillins (PRPs) with proteomic methods. AU - Keseru, Judit Szilvia. AU - Szabó, István. AU - Gál, Zsuzsanna. AU - Massidda, Orietta. AU - Mingoia, Marina. AU - Kaszanyitzky, Éva. AU - Jánosi, Szilárd. AU - Hulvely, Julianna. AU - Csorba, Attila. AU - Buzás, Krisztina. AU - Hunyadi-Gulyás, Éva. AU - Medzihradszky, Katalin F.. AU - Biró, Sándor. PY - 2011/1/10. Y1 - 2011/1/10. N2 - Methicillin and oxacillin-hydrolyzing enzymes of 6 borderline methicillin-resistant and 1 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from human clinical samples and 4 borderline methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis were investigated. As previous studies suggested the involvement of an additional enzyme besides the penicillinase BlaZ in the determination of borderline resistance, we analyzed ...
Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcaceae familyasından bakteri türüdür. Gram pozitiflerdendir. Yaklaşık 20 türü bulunur. Nozokomiyal (hastane infeksiyonu) etkenidir. İnsan cilt florasında kommensal olarak da bulunur. Staphylococcus aureus un oksasiline dirençli olup olmaması onun tanımlanmasında etkilidir. Örneğin bu antibiyotiğe hassas (duyarlı, sensitiv) olan bir S. aureus, MSSA (Methycilline Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus) adını alırken, buna dirençli olan suş, MRSA (Methycilline Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) adını alır. Koyun kanlı agarda altın sarısı koloniler üretir. Bu yüzden tür adı, altın anlamına gelen Latince aureusdan türetilmiştir. Bu bakterinin katalaz testi olumludur. Clumping factor ve tüp koagülaz testi pozitif sonuç verir. Çeşitli yüzeylerde glikokaliks denen oluşumlar üretir. Bakterinin bunu yayılma ve bulaşma için kullandığı düşünülmektedir. Bağışıklık sistemi zayıflamış kişilerde, asıl enfeksiyon ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a pathogen of animals. To compare types of infections, clinical outcomes, and risk factors associated with MRSA in dogs with those associated with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections, we conducted a case-control study at 3 veterinary referral hospitals in the United States and Canada during 2001-2007. Risk factors analyzed were signalment, medical and surgical history, and infection site. Among 40 dogs with MRSA and 80 with MSSA infections, highest prevalence of both infections was found in skin and ears. Although most (92.3%) dogs with MRSA infections were discharged from the hospital, we found that significant risk factors for MRSA infection were receipt of antimicrobial drugs (odds ratio [OR] 3.84, p = 0.02), β-lactams (OR 3.58, p = 0.04), or fluoroquinolones (OR 5.34, p = 0.01), and intravenous catheterization (OR 3.72, p = 0.02). Prudent use of antimicrobial drugs in veterinary hospitals is advised.
Global Markets Directs, Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (VRSA) - Pipeline Review, H2 2014, provides an overview of the Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection
Raghunath P, Acharya S, Bhanumathi A, et al. Detection and molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood harvested along the southwest coast of India. Food Microbiol 2008; 25(6): 824-30. Hennekinne JA, de Buyser ML, Dragacci. S. Staphylococcus aureus and its food poisoning toxins: characterization and outbreak investigation. FEMS Microbiol Rev 2011; 36(4): 815-836. Squebola-Cola DM, De Mello GC, Anhê GF, et al. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A and B inhibit human and mice eosinophil chemotaxis and adhesion in vitro. Int Immunopharmacol 2014; 23(2): 664-71. Todd EC, Greig JD, Bartleson CA, et al. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 4. Infective doses and pathogen carriage. J Food Prot 2008; 71(11): 2339-73. Hammad AM, Watanabe W, Fujii T, et al. Occurrence and characteristics of methicillin-resistant and susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from ...
Structural and Enzymatic Analysis of TarM Glycosyltransferase from Staphylococcus aureus Reveals an Oligomeric Protein Specific for the Glycosylation of Wall Teichoic ...
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major pathogens causing serious infections both within the hospital setting and in the community. This pathogen is characterized by rapid acquisition of resistance to antibiotics introduced into clinical practice. Thus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged first in the hospital setting and then spread to the community (CA-MRSA) [1]. In the late 1990s, MRSA strains emerged with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, VISA (vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus) [2] and VRSA (vancomycin-resistant S. aureus) [3]. Tigecycline (TIG) is an antibiotic belonging to the glycylcyclines class and representing a treatment option for infections caused by S. aureus [4]. Surveillance studies of S. aureus have exhibited good activity of this antibiotic, with 99.9 % of isolates found to be susceptible [5]. A high susceptibility rate was also reported in Latin America from 2004 to 2010 [6] and in several countries around the world [7, 8]. The aim of this work was to select ...
The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens that causes severe morbidity and mortality throughout the world. S. aureus can infect skin and soft tissues or become invasive leading to diseases such as pneumonia, endocarditis, sepsis or toxic shock syndrome. In contrast, S. aureus is also a common commensal microbe and is often Cited by:
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of stop codons in development and loss of vancomycin non-susceptibility in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. AU - Doddangoudar, V. C.. AU - ODonoghue, Margaret May. AU - Chong, E. Y.C.. AU - Tsang, D. N.C.. AU - Boost, M. V.. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - Objectives: Problems of vancomycin non-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and subsequent treatment failure are increasing. This study aimed to observe development and loss of vancomycin non-susceptibility, determine exposure time needed for resistance development, and follow mutations in the VraSR and GraSR two-component systems during these processes. Methods: Sequences of vraS, graR and rpoB, proposed as critical sites of mutation associated with non-susceptibility development, were compared in susceptible clinical methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates both initially and following vancomycin induction and its withdrawal, to identify mutations. Mutations were correlated with exposure time, ...
MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) What is MRSA? Staphylococcus aureus, also called staph, is a type of germ known as bacteria. Many healthy people have this germ on their skin and in their
Normally they are among the many harmless organisms found in and on the human body: one in four people have millions of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on their skin and on the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, without being aware of it. In some cases, however, the harmless bacteria can turn into pathogens, which can lead to skin inflammation and lung infections, or-in the worst cases-sepsis. This happens especially when the bacteria multiply too fast, for example when a persons immune system is weakened by an infection or injury, says Prof. Oliver Werz of Friedrich Schiller University Jena in Germany.. The Professor for Pharmaceutical Chemistry and his team have studied the molecular defense mechanisms of the human immune system in the fight against such Staphylococcus aureus infections and made a surprising discovery. As the research team reports in the current issue of the specialist journal Cell Reports, the toxic cocktail with which Staphylococcus aureus damages cells and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The current state of screening and decolonization for the prevention of staphylococcus aureus surgical site infection after total hip and knee arthroplasty. AU - Weiser, Mitchell C.. AU - Moucha, Calin S.. PY - 2014/9/2. Y1 - 2014/9/2. N2 - The most common pathogens in surgical site infections after total hip and knee arthroplasty are methicillinsensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and coagulase-negative staphylococci. Patients colonized withMSSA or MRSA have an increased risk for a staphylococcal infection at the site of a total hip or knee arthroplasty. Most colonized individuals who develop a staphylococcal infection at the site of a total hip or total knee arthroplasty have molecularly identical S. aureus isolates in their nares and wounds. Screening and nasal decolonization of S. aureus can potentially reduce the rates of staphylococcal surgical site infection after total hip and total knee arthroplasty.. AB - The most common ...
The cell surface-associated extracellular adherence protein (Eap) mediates adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to host extracellular matrix components and inhibits inflammation, wound healing, and angiogenesis. A well-characterized collection of S. aureus and non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates (n = 813) was tested for the presence of the Eap-encoding gene (eap) by PCR to investigate the use of the eap gene as a specific diagnostic tool for identification of S. aureus. Whereas all 597 S. aureus isolates were eap positive, this gene was not detectable in 216 non-S. aureus staphylococcal isolates comprising 47 different species and subspecies of coagulase-negative staphylococci and non-S. aureus coagulase-positive or coagulase-variable staphylococci. Furthermore, non-S. aureus isolates did not express Eap homologs, as verified on the transcriptional and protein levels. Based on these data, the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed PCR targeting the eap gene were both 100%. Thus, the ...
Bacterial pathogens regulate virulence factor expression at both the level of transcription initiation and mRNA processing/turnover. Within Staphylococcus aureus, virulence factor transcript synthesis is regulated by a number of two-component regulatory systems, the DNA binding protein SarA, and the SarA family of homologues. However, little is known about the factors that modulate mRNA stability or influence transcript degradation within the organism. As our entree to characterizing these processes, S. aureus GeneChips were used to simultaneously determine the mRNA half-lives of all transcripts produced during log-phase growth. It was found that the majority of log-phase transcripts (90%) have a short half-life (|5 min), whereas others are more stable, suggesting that cis- and/or trans-acting factors influence S. aureus mRNA stability. In support of this, it was found that two virulence factor transcripts, cna and spa, were stabilized in a sarA-dependent manner. These results were validated by
Trends in Staphylococcus aureus infections are not well described. To calculate incidence in overall S. aureus infection and invasive and noninvasive infections according to methicillin susceptibility and location, we conducted a 10-year population-based retrospective cohort study (1999-2008) using patient-level data in the Veterans Affairs Maryland Health Care System. We found 3,674 S. aureus infections: 2,816 (77%) were noninvasive; 2,256 (61%) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA); 2,517 (69%) were community onset, and 1,157 (31%) were hospital onset. Sixty-one percent of noninvasive infections were skin and soft tissue infections; 1,112 (65%) of these were MRSA. Ten-year averaged incidence per 100,000 veterans was 749 (± 132 SD, range 549-954) overall, 178 (± 41 SD, range 114-259) invasive, and 571 (± 152 SD, range 364-801) noninvasive S. aureus infections. Incidence of all S. aureus infections significantly increased (p<0.001), driven by noninvasive, MRSA, and community
Polysomes are macromolecular complexes made up of multiple ribosomes simultaneously translating a single mRNA into polypeptide chains. Together, the cellular mRNAs translated in this way are referred to translatome. Translation determines a cells overall gene expression profile. Studying translatome leads to a better understanding of the translational machinery and of its complex regulatory pathways. Given its fundamental role in cell homeostasis and division, bacterial translation is an important target for antibiotics. However, there are no detailed protocols for polysome purification from Staphylococcus aureus, the human pathogen responsible for the majority of multi-drug resistance issues. We therefore developed methods for the isolation of active polysomes, ribosomes, and ribosomal subunits, examining the purity and quality of each fraction and monitoring polysomal activity during protein synthesis. These steps are mandatory for the use of purified S. aureus polysomes and ribosomes for
TY - JOUR. T1 - The fibronectin binding proteins of Staphylococcus aureus are required for adhesion to and invasion of bovine mammary gland cells. AU - Lammers, A.. AU - Nuijten, P.J.M.. AU - Smith, H.E.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. U2 - 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb08783.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1574-6968.1999.tb08783.x. M3 - Article. VL - 180. SP - 103. EP - 109. JO - FEMS Microbiology Letters. JF - FEMS Microbiology Letters. SN - 0378-1097. ER - ...
BioAssay record AID 525138 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 after 18 to 24 hrs by broth microdilution method.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a big issue in the past 15 years or so, as it turned up outside ... Ive been working on livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus and farming now for almost a decade. In that time, work from my ... We certainly do this with my particular organism of interest, Staphylococcus aureus. There are many reports in the literature ... Back in November, I blogged about one of our studies, examining methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Iowa meat ...
"Rapid Diagnosis and Typing of Staphylococcus aureus". Staphylococcus: Molecular Genetics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1- ... aureus (VISA). GISA, a strain of resistant S. aureus, is glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus and is less suspectible to ... "MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus)". National Library of Medicine - PubMed Health. US National Institutes of ... In humans, Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal microbiota present in the upper respiratory tract,[2] and on skin and in ...
This makes diagnosis of S. aureus from an infection difficult. ... Staphylococcus aureus can infect in a variety of ways leading ... Staphylococcus Aureus Diagnosis. News-Medical. 01 December 2020. ,https://www.news-medical.net/health/Staphylococcus-Aureus- ... Staphylococcus Aureus Diagnosis. News-Medical. https://www.news-medical.net/health/Staphylococcus-Aureus-Diagnosis.aspx. ( ... Staphylococcus aureus can infect in a variety of ways leading to diverse manifestations. In addition, many humans carry strains ...
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are pathogens to both man and other mammals. They are gram positive bacteria that are small ... The coagulase-positive staphylococci constitute the most pathogenic species S aureus. The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS ... Ribitol teichoic acid (Polysaccharide A) is present in Staphylococcus aureus. Protein A uniformly coats surface of S. aureus ... Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are pathogens to both man and other mammals. They are gram positive bacteria that are small ...
The core genome of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus encodes 16 TCSs, one of which (WalRK) is essential. Here we ... Here, the authors show that Staphylococcus aureus can survive in the absence of all its 16 TCSs under growth arrest conditions ... Characterization of S. aureus derivatives containing individual TCSs reveals that each TCS appears to be autonomous and self- ... show that S. aureus can be deprived of its complete sensorial TCS network and still survive under growth arrest conditions ...
Staphylococcus aureus [staf I lō-kok is aw ree us] (staph), is a type of germ that about 30% of people carry in their noses. ... vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA). Although MRSA is often better known, any staph infection can be dangerous ... Populations at risk for Staphylococcus aureus infection. Anyone can develop a staph infection, although certain groups of ... methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). *methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). *vancomycin- ...
... methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) accounted for <15 isolates per year during 1980-2002. However, since 2003 an ... Resistance Patterns of 143 Multiresistant Isolates of Staphylococcus Aureus CC/singleton. Beta. E,C. E,C,F. E,C,G. E,C,M. E,C,T ... Resistance Patterns of 143 Multiresistant Isolates of Staphylococcus Aureus CC/singleton. Beta. E,C. E,C,F. E,C,G. E,C,M. E,C,T ... For many years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a serious and common nosocomial pathogen in ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by S aureus bacteria and can be fatal. There are 2 major ...
... shows that green monkeys in The Gambia acquired Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from humans. ... Green monkeys acquired Staphylococcus aureus from humans. An international team of researchers including scientists at the ... Most of the S. aureus found in monkeys were part of a clade, a group with common ancestors, which appeared to have resulted ... In the study, experts isolated strains of S. aureus from the noses of healthy monkeys in The Gambia and compared the monkey ...
... of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus including the development of MRSA or methicillin resistant staph aureus. ... Development of resistant Staphylococcus aureus over time * Development of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus over time ... Resistant staph aureus can be around with penicillum without worry. * Resistant staph aureus can be around with penicillum ... A module covering the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus including the development of MRSA or ...
MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is a staph germ (bacteria) that does not get better with ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). www.cdc.gov/mrsa/index.html. Updated February 5, 2019. Accessed October 22 ... MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MRSA is a "staph" germ (bacteria) that does not get better with ... Que Y-A, Moreillon P. Staphylococcus aureus (including staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ ...
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus JH1. ›Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus str. JH1. ›Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus ...
Todars Online Textbook of Bacteriology Staphylococcus aureus chapter discusses the bacterium Staphylococcus, including MRSA, ... Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Disease (page 1) (This chapter has 6 pages) © Kenneth Todar, PhD Staphylococcus aureus ... Tag words: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus, staph, staphylococcal, S. aureus, MRSA, MRSA, CA-MRSA, superbug, staph ... Gram stain of Staphylococcus aureus in pustular exudate Table 1. Important phenotypic characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus ...
Vancomycin therapy for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.. Sorrell TC, Packham DR, Shanker S, Foldes M, Munro R. ... Ten patients with bacteremia due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were treated with vancomycin. These patients ... Vancomycin is effective but potentially toxic therapy for most serious infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus. In- ... Fifteen of 19 episodes of serious methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection responded to vancomycin. Severe toxic effects ...
Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) is common. Around 8000 cases occur per year in Australia, of which 60% are hospital- or ... Diagnosis and management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.. Mitchell DH1, Howden BP. ... aureus strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin. ... Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects. *Staphylococcus aureus/ ...
Membrane potential and gentamicin uptake in Staphylococcus aureus. S M Mates, E S Eisenberg, L J Mandel, L Patel, H R Kaback, M ... Membrane potential and gentamicin uptake in Staphylococcus aureus. S M Mates, E S Eisenberg, L J Mandel, L Patel, H R Kaback, M ... Membrane potential and gentamicin uptake in Staphylococcus aureus. S M Mates, E S Eisenberg, L J Mandel, L Patel, H R Kaback, ... At pH 5.0, the electrical potential (delta psi, interior negative) across the plasma membrane of Staphylococcus aureus exhibits ...
Staphylococcus aureusis a leading cause of community-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia. The annual incidence ofS. ... Clinical approach to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in adults. *Clinical manifestations of Staphylococcus aureus infection in ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in adults: Prevention and control. *Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia with ... Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in adults. Authors. Thomas Holland, MD. Thomas Holland, MD ...
Epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus = Souches épidémiques de Staphylococcus aureus résistants à la méticilline ... 1975)‎. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BACTERAEMIA = BACTÉRIÉMIE À STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé ... Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (‎MRSA)‎ in England and Wales, 1986-1990 = Staphylococcus aureus méticillino- ... SURVEILLANCE OF THE RESISTANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TO ANTIBIOTICS = SURVEILLANCE DE LA RÉSISTANCE DE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a aerobic gram positive bacteria,gram positive bacterium that usually forms clusters which resemble ... Staphylococcus aureus (thing). See all of Staphylococcus aureus, no other writeups in this node. ... aureus for Staphylococcus that formed yellow colonies, and S. albus (now called Staphylococcus epidermidis) for white colonies ... Staphylococcus aureus is a aerobic gram positive bacterium that usually forms clusters which resemble grapes when viewed with a ...
Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (‎MRSA)‎ in England and Wales, 1986-1990 = Staphylococcus aureus méticillino- ... SURVEILLANCE OF THE RESISTANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS TO ANTIBIOTICS = SURVEILLANCE DE LA RÉSISTANCE DE STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ... We describe here an inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus exfoliative toxin. The toxin was extracted from an S. aureus strain ... Al Sulami, A.A., Al Rubiay, K.K. & Affat, A.M. (‎2001)‎. An inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus exfoliative toxin. EMHJ - ...
Pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, experience Pi limitation within the host, suggesting that the use of alternative ... Staphylococcus aureus and many other bacterial pathogens rely on metal-binding small molecules to obtain the essential metal ... Staphylococcus aureus remains a global health concern and exemplifies the ability of an opportunistic pathogen to adapt and ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa Alginate Benefits Staphylococcus aureus? In this issue of Journal of Bacteriology, Price et al. show ...
Regulation of agr-Dependent Virulence Genes in Staphylococcus aureus by RNAIII from Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Karin ... Transcriptional Analysis of Different Promoters in the sar Locus in Staphylococcus aureus Adhar C. Manna, Manfred G. Bayer, ... Characterization of the Starvation-Survival Response of Staphylococcus aureus Sean P. Watson, Mark O. Clements, Simon J. Foster ... Genetic Instability of the Global Regulator agrExplains the Phenotype of the xpr Mutation inStaphylococcus aureus KSI9051 Peter ...
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus;. EMRSA,. epidemic MRSA;. MSSA,. methicillin-susceptible S. aureus;. SCCmec,. ... a Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strain That Subsequently Caused a Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ... The evolutionary history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Mark C. Enright, D. Ashley Robinson, Gaynor ... The evolutionary history of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Mark C. Enright, D. Ashley Robinson, Gaynor ...
Staphylococcus aureusis the third most dreaded pathogen posing a severe threat due to its refractory behavior against the ... Lowy F.D., Staphylococcus aureus infections, N. Engl.J. Med.,1998, 339, 520-532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Parker M.T., Hewitt J.H., Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus, Lancet,1970,1, 800-804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Lacey R.W., Mitchell A.A.B., Gentamicin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Lancet, 1969, II, 1425-1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
16 of these yielded greater nuclease assay signals than samples from uninfected controls or individuals with non-S. aureus ... In total, 17 patient plasma samples from culture-confirmed S. aureus bacteremic individuals were tested. ... aureus) in patient plasma samples in less than three hours. ... aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a common condition with high rates ...
... Pascale Trépanier, Claude Tremblay, and Annie ... BACKGROUND: Medical residents may be at risk of becoming colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during ...
Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. N. ... Staphylococcus aureus infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 1998. 339:520-532. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in U.S. hospitals, 1975-1991. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 1992. 13:582-586. ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a community organism. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1995. 21:1308-1312. View this article ...
S. aureus. infections in intensive care units in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. Data include the total ...
  • an infection by MRSA is called healthcare-associated or hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA). (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes diagnosis of S. aureus from an infection difficult. (news-medical.net)
  • In this review we discuss step by step the aspects of neutrophil-mediated killing of S. aureus , such as neutrophil activation, migration to the site of infection, bacterial opsonization, phagocytosis, and subsequent neutrophil-mediated killing. (nih.gov)
  • Pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus , experience P i limitation within the host, suggesting that the use of alternative phosphate sources is important during infection. (asm.org)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are frequently coisolated from multiple infection sites, including the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) and nonhealing diabetic foot ulcers. (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus and many other bacterial pathogens rely on metal-binding small molecules to obtain the essential metal zinc during infection. (asm.org)
  • How long did the symptoms of your staph infection ( Staphylococcus aureus ) last? (medicinenet.com)
  • These findings indicate that Esp hinders S. aureus colonization in vivo through a novel mechanism of bacterial interference, which could lead to the development of novel therapeutics to prevent S. aureus colonization and infection. (nature.com)
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection-Effects on Gums/Teeth? (drugs.com)
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection - Ive been sterotyped, & mis-dia. 5 + yrs. (drugs.com)
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection - My son contracted MRSA several years ago? (drugs.com)
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection - Have mrsa and noticed a place on tongue can? (drugs.com)
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection - Severe diarrhea and nausea? (drugs.com)
  • Join the ' Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection ' group to help and get support from people like you. (drugs.com)
  • Our support group for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection has 94 questions and 85 members. (drugs.com)
  • MRK ), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada , and Intercell AG (VSE: ICLL) today announced that following a pre-specified interim analysis from the Phase II/III clinical trial evaluating V710, an investigational vaccine for the prevention of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection, the independent Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) recommended suspension of enrollment. (prnewswire.com)
  • Secondary bacterial coinfection by organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus is the most common complication of primary IAV infection and is associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus infection is a major public health threat in part due to the spread of antibiotic resistance and repeated failures to develop a protective vaccine. (asm.org)
  • Hospitalized patients with S. aureus infection have five times the risk of in-hospital mortality compared with inpatients without this infection. (aafp.org)
  • Boston, MA -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 12/10/2014 -- Global Markets Direct's, 'Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (VRSA) - Pipeline Review, H2 2014', provides an overview of the Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (VRSA)'s therapeutic pipeline. (sbwire.com)
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (VRSA), complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (sbwire.com)
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for Vancomycin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection (VRSA) and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (sbwire.com)
  • A vaccine designed to protect people from staphylococcus aureus infection -- a serious complication for some hospital patients -- has produced promising results part way into a major clinical trial, its manufacturer, Nabi of Boca Raton, said on Wednesday. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has told Boca Raton-based Nabi that it must conduct an additional, successful clinical trial of its vaccine to fight Staphylococcus aureus infection because the company did not show the drug was effective for the entire 12 months of a goal in its FDA application. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Scientists with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have confirmed that Staphylococcus aureus, better known as a staph infection, has for the first time defended itself from the last remaining drug capable of killing all its strains. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Asymptomatic nasal carriage of mupirocin-resistant, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a pet dog associated with MRSA infection in household contacts. (acronymfinder.com)
  • In a review of hospital records from 2000 to 2001, researchers found that patients diagnosed with S. aureus infections were five times more likely to die in the hospital than were patients without the infection. (bioedonline.org)
  • Although the comparison of the disease manifestations after infection with PVL-positive or PVL-negative S aureus is complicated by the difference in age of the typical patients, we note that the younger and previously healthier group are more at risk of death than their elderly and infirm counterparts. (innovations-report.com)
  • Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus infection (MRSA) is a skin infection caused by a bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus. (privatehealth.co.uk)
  • This infection was discovered in 1961 when genetically mutated staphylococcus aureus bacteria seemed to have developed resistance against the methicillin antibiotic. (privatehealth.co.uk)
  • Learn how take care of a Staphylococcus aureus infection, including how to properly change the bandages. (mn.us)
  • To review the wikidoc page on staphylococcus aureus infection page, click here . (wikidoc.org)
  • The occurrence of S. aureus under these circumstances does not always indicate infection and therefore does not always require treatment (indeed, treatment may be ineffective and re-colonisation may occur). (wikidoc.org)
  • In infants S. aureus infection can cause a severe disease Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). (wikidoc.org)
  • Considering taking medication to treat acute+staphylococcus+aureus+infection+of+the+sinuses? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of acute+staphylococcus+aureus+infection+of+the+sinuses. (webmd.com)
  • Since its implementation in 2009, the National Australian Hand Hygiene Initiative (NHHI) has seen significant, sustained improvements in hand hygiene compliance among Australian healthcare workers, and reduced risks of potentially fatal healthcare-associated Staphylococcus aureus infection, according to new research being presented at this year's European Congress of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) in Amsterdam, Netherlands (13-16 April), and published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases . (eurekalert.org)
  • For every 10% increase in hand hygiene compliance, there was an associated 15% decline in the incidence of S. aureus bloodstream infection in Australia's 132 largest public hospitals, which provide over three-quarters of all public inpatient care (over 15 million patients-days nationally in 2016-17). (eurekalert.org)
  • All hand hygiene compliance auditing was done by direct observation three times a year (measured as a percentage of observed moments), and the clinical impact of the programme was assessed by linking data on hospital-level incidence of S. aureus infection with hospital-level hand hygiene compliance. (eurekalert.org)
  • Overall, average rates of S. aureus infection fell from 1.27 new cases per 10,000 bed-days in 2010-11 to 0.87 per 10,000 bed-days in 2016-17. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers point out that a negative correlation between annual change in hand hygiene compliance and annual change in S. aureus infection at the hospital level (especially for the largest hospitals), suggests that declines in S. aureus infection were not simply time dependent, but were more likely associated with changes in hand hygiene compliance. (eurekalert.org)
  • The most common place to contract Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is typically in a hospital, but community outbreaks during the past decade have been widely observed, leading scientists to distinguish between Hospital-acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (CA-MRSA) . (kenyon.edu)
  • The infectious dose and incubation period for other types of S. aureus infections can be hard to determine, as the bacteria can be carried for unknown amounts of time before causing infection, sometimes months [4] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Virulence factors of S. aureus from:Pathogenesis of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • Glycolipid anchoring of LTA appears to play an important role during infection, as S. aureus variants lacking ltaA display defects in the pathogenesis of animal infections. (labome.org)
  • Each year, around 500,000 patients in hospitals of the United States contract a staphylococcal infection, chiefly by S. aureus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 1930s, doctors began to use a more streamlined test to detect the presence of an S. aureus infection by the means of coagulase testing, which enables detection of an enzyme produced by the bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurs when multiple different types of S. aureus cause an infection within a host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Back in November, I blogged about one of our studies, examining methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Iowa meat products. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) refers to a group of Gram-positive bacteria that are genetically distinct from other strains of Staphylococcus aureus . (wikipedia.org)
  • MRSA is any strain of S. aureus that has developed (through natural selection ) or acquired (through horizontal gene transfer ) a multiple drug resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics . (wikipedia.org)
  • For many years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a serious and common nosocomial pathogen in hospitals outside the Nordic countries and the Netherlands. (medscape.com)
  • A module covering the development of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus including the development of MRSA or methicillin resistant staph aureus. (slideshare.net)
  • Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is endemic in hospitals worldwide, and causes substantial morbidity and mortality. (nih.gov)
  • Only a few small analytical or population-based of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of- studies have been published ( 12 - 14 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Global transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylo- Data on MRSA Cases in the Statutory Swedish coccus aureus (MRSA) has been the subject of many Communicable Disease Notifi cation System studies. (cdc.gov)
  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections that are becoming increasingly difficult to combat because of emerging resistance to all current antibiotic classes. (pnas.org)
  • Using multilocus sequence typing and an algorithm, burst , we analyzed an international collection of 912 MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. (pnas.org)
  • Major MRSA clones have arisen repeatedly from successful epidemic MSSA strains, and isolates with decreased susceptibility to vancomycin, the antibiotic of last resort, are arising from some of these major MRSA clones, highlighting a depressing progression of increasing drug resistance within a small number of ecologically successful S. aureus genotypes. (pnas.org)
  • In 1961 there were reports from the United Kingdom of S. aureus isolates that had acquired resistance to methicillin (methicillin-resistant S. aureus , MRSA) ( 1 ), and MRSA isolates were soon recovered from other European countries, and later from Japan, Australia, and the United States. (pnas.org)
  • MRSA isolates that have decreased susceptibility to glycopeptides (glycopeptide intermediately susceptible S. aureus , GISA) ( 6 , 7 ), reported in recent years, are a cause of great public health concern. (pnas.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Medical residents may be at risk of becoming colonized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) during their training. (hindawi.com)
  • Previous findings have suggested that the nosocomial prevalence of MRSA, like the Netherlands and Denmark, transmission capacity of livestock-associated methicillin- have seen an increase in livestock-associated MRSA (LA- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is lower than MRSA), belonging to clonal complex 398 ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In countries with intensive pig husbandry in stables, the prevalence of livestock-associated (LA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on such farms has remained high in the last few years or has also further increased. (usda.gov)
  • Methicillin -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is highly resistant to some antibiotics. (wisegeek.com)
  • Whereas other forms of S. aureus are treated with antibiotics like methicillin, penicillin and amoxicillin , MRSA does not respond well to these antibiotics. (wisegeek.com)
  • Multiresistente stafylokokker som MRSA (se nedenfor) udgør en voksende fare i form af ubehandlelige infektioner, der medfører døden. (wikipedia.org)
  • Denne typning er dog nu afløst af sekventering for protein A. Dette bruges i dag til overvågning af MRSA, men også til udredning af smittekilder og smitteveje i forbindelse med større udbrud af infektioner med S. aureus . (wikipedia.org)
  • Den almindeligt forekommende Staphylococcus aureus findes nu i en multiresistent udgave - kaldet meticillin-resistent Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) - der et voksende problem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Årsagen til det stigende antal infektioner med MRSA er en for liberal brug af bredspektrede antibiotika . (wikipedia.org)
  • En ny variant af en meticillin-resistent Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blev fundet juni 2011, som pt(2011) ikke kan påvises med standard tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integration of a staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) element into the chromosome converts drug-sensitive S. aureus into the notorious hospital pathogen methicilin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), which is resistant to practically all beta-lactam antibiotics. (nih.gov)
  • Recent epidemiological data imply that MRSA has embarked on another evolutionary path as a community pathogen, as at least one novel SCCmec element seems to have been successful in converting S. aureus strains from the normal human flora into MRSA. (nih.gov)
  • Prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) methicillin susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin resistant (MRSA) among employees of a teaching hospital in Lyon-France. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The wall teichoic acid (WTA) is a major component of cell wall and a pathogenic factor in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (asm.org)
  • 1. Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become endemic in most hospitals and health care facilities in Western nations. (scribd.com)
  • The HA-MRSA strains contain the mobile class I, II and III staphylococcus chromosome cassettes mec (SCCmec) and resistance to the b-lactam antibiotics is due to the encoding of the penicillin binding protein (PBP) 2a by the mecA gene [12e14]. (scribd.com)
  • 1 The National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System 2 found that 60 percent of hospital-acquired S. aureus isolates in 2003 were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). (aafp.org)
  • Physicians should be aware of the regional prevalence of community- acquired MRSA and plan empiric therapy for S. aureus infections accordingly. (aafp.org)
  • MRSA = methicillin-resistant S. aureus. (aafp.org)
  • MRSA that is acquired in a hospital or health care setting is called healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA). (northshore.org)
  • This type of MRSA is called community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). (northshore.org)
  • Most cases of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) begin as mild skin infections such as pimples or boils. (northshore.org)
  • Isolation measures in the hospital management of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): systematic review of the literature. (acronymfinder.com)
  • Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a major problem in U.S. hospitals already dealing with high levels of hospital-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). (rwjf.org)
  • MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that has developed resistance to an entire class of antibiotics (called beta lactams), including methicillin, penicillin, amoxicillin, and oxacillin. (bioedonline.org)
  • A recent study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that hospital-associated strains of S. aureus are still responsible for about 85% of MRSA infections. (bioedonline.org)
  • MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - VeterinaryPartner.com - a VIN company! (thefullwiki.org)
  • También solicitó la proporción de SA resistentes a la meticilina (MRSA) y de EMRSA (MRSA epidémico caracterizado por su resistencia particular a múltiples antibióticos*), al igual que la descripción de los lugares en los que se habían aislado las cepas. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus [MRSA] Screening for Elective Cervical Surgery: Paper #51. (lww.com)
  • To the Editor: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an established nosocomial pathogen worldwide but more recently has emerged as a highly virulent organism in the community, particularly in the United States (1-3). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable nuisance into a serious public health concern. (nih.gov)
  • The first strain of MRSA was observed in 1961, and now approximately 35% of hospital strains of S. aureus are methicillin resistant (isca) In 2002 a new strain of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus was reported in Japan. (kenyon.edu)
  • The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains of S. aureus are known to enter through the breaks in the skin to cause localized infections or spread via blood to cause more generalized infections like that of blood (sepsis), bone (osteomyelitis), brain (meningitis), lungs (pneumonia) etc. (news-medical.net)
  • This is followed up by identification of S. aureus toxins or measurement of antibodies in special cases, such as deep-seated infections or food poisoning. (news-medical.net)
  • From these locations, S. aureus easily leads to infections ranging from relatively mild cutaneous infections to life-threatening infections such as pneumonia, sepsis, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and osteomyelitis in people predisposed with risk factors 10 . (nature.com)
  • Many of these immune evasion proteins target neutrophils, the most important immune cells in clearing S. aureus infections. (nih.gov)
  • Methicillin was introduced in 1959 to treat infections caused by penicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . (pnas.org)
  • Lowy F.D., Staphylococcus aureus infections, N. Engl.J. Med. (springer.com)
  • S. aureus infections in intensive care units in the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System. (jci.org)
  • The role of nasal carriage in Staphylococcus aureus infections. (nature.com)
  • Lowy, F. D. Staphylococcus aureus infections. (nature.com)
  • Intranasal mupirocin to prevent postoperative Staphylococcus aureus infections. (nature.com)
  • Staph infections and food poisoning are among the most notable illnesses S. aureus is responsible for. (wisegeek.com)
  • One strain of Staphylococcus aureus causes staph infections which develop when S. aureus bacteria gains access to the body through an open cut or sore, a catheter or a breathing tube. (wisegeek.com)
  • The majority of infections caused by this pathogen are life threatening, primarily because S. aureus has developed multiple evasion strategies, possesses intracellular persistence for long periods, and targets the skin and soft tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • S. aureus is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections. (prnewswire.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for a multitude of infections ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to more severe invasive diseases. (springer.com)
  • HDPs are small, often cationic, molecules that possess numerous biological activities, such as antimicrobial activity, cellular recruitment, anti-inflammatory properties, and wound healing, all of which play a role in controlling S. aureus infections. (springer.com)
  • Dublin, May 13, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The 'Global Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections Epidemiology and Patient Flow - 2021' report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (yahoo.com)
  • Global Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections Epidemiology and Patient Flow Analysis - 2021, provides Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections epidemiology, demographics, and patient flow. (yahoo.com)
  • The research provides population data to characterize Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections patients, history of the disease at the population level (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections prevalence, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infections incidence) and at the clinical level (from diagnosis to treated patients). (yahoo.com)
  • S. aureus is a leading cause of healthcare- and community-associated bacterial infections. (asm.org)
  • The major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread commensal bacterium but also the most common cause of nosocomial infections. (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections, endocarditis, bacteremia, and osteomyelitis, making it a critical health care concern. (asm.org)
  • Because of high incidence, morbidity, and antimicrobial resistance, Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing concern for family physicians. (aafp.org)
  • Increasing incidence of unrecognized community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections pose a high risk for morbidity and mortality. (aafp.org)
  • Although the incidence of complex S. aureus infections is rising, new antimicrobial agents, including daptomycin and linezolid, are available as treatment. (aafp.org)
  • S. aureus bacteremias are particularly problematic because of the high incidence of associated complicated infections, including infective endocarditis. (aafp.org)
  • Vancomycin (Vancocin) should not be used for known methicillin- susceptible Staphylococcus aureus infections unless there is a betalactam allergy. (aafp.org)
  • S. aureus is a frequent cause of a wide range of infections and some bacterial strains have become resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. (abcam.com)
  • I have been very concerned about recent articles and media reports about infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is believed responsible for about 15 percent of 2 million hospital-related infections recorded in the United States each year, and is implicated in at least 9,000 deaths a year in this country, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Boca Raton-based Nabi Biopharmaceuticals has begun the first clinical trial in Europe of its StaphVAX vaccine intended to combat Staphylococcus aureus infections that afflict many hospital patients, Chief Executive Officer Tom McClain said Tuesday. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • 2007). Staphylococcus infections . (bioedonline.org)
  • 2007). Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in the United States. (bioedonline.org)
  • S. aureus is a normally harmless inhabitant of the upper respiratory tract, but one which can morph into a dangerous pathogen capable of causing severe, and even fatal infections, says Kulkarni. (asm.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate strategies to prevent Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infections in soldiers during infantry training. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus (pronounced /ˌstæfɨlɵˈkɒkəs ˈɔri.əs/ , literally the "golden cluster seed" or "the seed gold" and also known as golden staph and Oro staphira) is a facultatively anaerobic , Gram-positive coccus and is the most common cause of staph infections . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) is a common pathogen that can cause a range of diseases from mild skin infections to life-threatening sepsis in humans. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus can cause multiple forms of infections ranging from superficial skin infections to food poisoning and life-threatening infections. (genome.jp)
  • Staphylococcus aureus ( pronounced /ˌstæfɨləˈkɒkəs ˈɔriəs/ , literally "Golden Cluster Seed" and also known as golden staph , is the most common cause of staph infections . (wikidoc.org)
  • S. aureus infections can be spread through contact with pus from an infected wound, skin-to-skin contact with an infected person by producing hyaluronidase that destroy tissues, and contact with objects such as towels, sheets, clothing, or athletic equipment used by an infected person. (wikidoc.org)
  • Deeply situated S. aureus infections can be very severe. (wikidoc.org)
  • Hospital-acquired infections are a major concern for hospitals around the world and S. aureus is among the most dangerous," says Professor Lindsay Grayson from Hand Hygiene Australia who led the research. (eurekalert.org)
  • S. aureus is the leading Gram-positive bacterium responsible for hospital-acquired infections including endocarditis, acute pneumonia, and sepsis. (eurekalert.org)
  • S. aureus infections are linked to poor hand hygiene compliance. (eurekalert.org)
  • SAN DIEGO--( BUSINESS WIRE )--AmpliPhi Biosciences Corporation (NYSEMKT:APHB), a global leader in the development of bacteriophage-based antibacterial therapies to treat drug-resistant infections, today announced it has completed enrollment of its Phase 1 clinical trial to evaluate the safety of AB-SA01, its proprietary phage cocktail targeting Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) infections. (businesswire.com)
  • Despite vigorous eradication efforts, S. aureus is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired infections. (businesswire.com)
  • S. aureus is the most common type of staphylococci to cause infections because of its ability to evade the immune system and many antibiotics. (kenyon.edu)
  • The most notorious strain of Staphylococcus aureus was identified in the 1960's and is known as the methicillin resistant strain, commonly known for causing mild to severe skin infections resulting in death if not treated promptly [5] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Although S. aureus usually acts as a commensal of the human microbiota it can also become an opportunistic pathogen, being a common cause of skin infections including abscesses, respiratory infections such as sinusitis, and food poisoning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Up to 50,000 deaths each year in the USA are linked with S. aureus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1881, Sir Alexander Ogston, a Scottish surgeon, discovered that Staphylococcus can cause wound infections after noticing groups of bacteria in pus from a surgical abscess during a procedure he was performing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to the 1940s, S. aureus infections were fatal in the majority of patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, doctors discovered that the use of penicillin could cure S. aureus infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a few strains of S. aureus are associated with infections in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core genome of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus encodes 16 TCSs, one of which (WalRK) is essential. (nature.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen routinely isolated as a commensal organism living in different niches, including skin, nares, and mucosal surfaces of more than a third of the human population 9 . (nature.com)
  • Knowing how and with which proteins S. aureus is evading the immune system is important in understanding the pathophysiology of this pathogen. (nih.gov)
  • Staphylococcus aureus remains a global health concern and exemplifies the ability of an opportunistic pathogen to adapt and persist within multiple environments, including host tissue. (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is the third most dreaded pathogen posing a severe threat due to its refractory behavior against the current armamentarium of antimicrobial drugs. (springer.com)
  • Although group A Streptococcus was once considered the primary agent, Staphylococcus aureus has become the major pathogen since the 1980s. (medscape.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human and animal pathogen. (hindawi.com)
  • The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of humans ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that has acquired several mechanisms to evade antibiotic treatment. (asm.org)
  • Diseases caused by S. aureus do not necessarily originate only by direct tissue invasion, but may be due to the action of more than 30 exoproteins codified by the pathogen [ 8 , 9 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus , a major human pathogen, has a collection of virulence factors and the ability to acquire resistance to most antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • S. aureus is a facultative anaerobe and opportunistic pathogen . (wikidoc.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are pathogens to both man and other mammals. (news-medical.net)
  • Here we show that S. aureus can be deprived of its complete sensorial TCS network and still survive under growth arrest conditions similarly to wild-type bacteria. (nature.com)
  • Staphylococcus bacteria were first observed by Robert Koch in 1878 , followed by Louis Pasteur in 1880 . (everything2.com)
  • Staphylococcus or Staph is a group of bacteria that can cause a multitude of diseases. (medicinenet.com)
  • Nowhere has this issue been of greater concern than with the Gram-positive bacteria pneumococci, enterococci, and staphylococci. (jci.org)
  • About 25% of the human population carries S. aureus in their nose, mouth, anal and genital areas and on their skin with little or no effects from the bacteria. (wisegeek.com)
  • Ramoplanin is a lipoglycodepsipeptide antimicrobial active against clinically important Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus are gram-positive bacteria that, although part of the normal flora of humans (nasal passages, skin and mucous membranes), have the potential to become opportunistic pathogens. (abcam.com)
  • It has been described as the etiological agent of various diseases both in humans and animals and is the main representative bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus [ 4 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Staphylococcus is a genus of gram positive bacteria (approximately 0.5-1.0 µm in diameter), of more than 30 species. (bioedonline.org)
  • Carr, J. Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria, # 10041. (bioedonline.org)
  • Now Ritwij Kulkarni of Columbia University, New York, NY, and colleagues show that cigarette smoke actually boosts virulence of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. (asm.org)
  • The CDC estimates that there are over 240,000 cases of Staph aureus each year in this country, and that 100% of the cases are caused by eating food contaminated with the toxin produced by the bacteria. (osu.edu)
  • Staph aureus is found on the human body and anyone who handles food during preparation can transfer some of the bacteria to the food. (osu.edu)
  • Since S. aureus are a part of the natural flora in many humans' nose and mouths, especially humans working in hospitals, the transmission of these bacteria can be difficult to prevent. (kenyon.edu)
  • It is also termed GISA (glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus), indicating resistance to all glycopeptide antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Strains unable to resist these antibiotics are classified as methicillin-susceptible S. aureus , or MSSA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the S. aureus strains are resistant to antibiotics. (news-medical.net)
  • Emergence and Spread in French Hospitals of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with Increasing Susceptibility to Gentamicin and Other Antibiotics. (springer.com)
  • Their optimism was shaken by the emergence of resistance to multiple antibiotics among such pathogens as Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Mycobacterium tuberculosis . (jci.org)
  • As rapidly as new antibiotics are introduced, staphylococci have developed efficient mechanisms to neutralize them (Table 1 ). (jci.org)
  • Today, approximately 50 percent of S. aureus strains isolated in hospitals worldwide are resistant to multiple antibiotics, rendering staphylococcal disease management increasingly difficult and challenging. (prnewswire.com)
  • The shortage of antibiotics against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus has led to the development of new drugs targeting the elongation cycle of fatty acid (FA) synthesis that are progressing toward the clinic. (asm.org)
  • Simultaneous and quantitative monitoring of co-cultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with antibiotics on a diffusometric platform. (abcam.com)
  • The resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to antibiotics, b-lactamase activity, phagotypes, and phage groups were determined. (mdpi.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of community-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia. (uptodate.com)
  • The 30-day all-cause mortality of S. aureus bacteremia is 20 percent [ 4-6 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Clinical approach to Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in adults' . (uptodate.com)
  • Skinner D., Keefer C.S., Significance of bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus. (springer.com)
  • S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, even with appropriate therapy. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in children: Management and outcome' . (uptodate.com)
  • The research, published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology , shows that green monkeys in The Gambia acquired Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) from humans. (bath.ac.uk)
  • is a strain of Staphylococcus aureus that gives resistance to vancomycin at a frequency of 10−6 colonies or even higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two dominant bacterial pathogens that infect the lungs of CF patients are P. aeruginosa and S. aureus , with ∼30% of patients coinfected by both species. (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 27660 (mixture of intact organisms and lysed cells). (abcam.com)
  • The review also explores the possibility of immunity and enzyme-based interventions as new therapeutic modalities and highlights the regulatory concerns on the prescription, usage and formulary development in the developed and developing world to keep the new chemical entities and therapeutic modalities viable to overcome antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus . (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, Esp enhances the susceptibility of S. aureus in biofilms to immune system components. (nature.com)
  • RRSA16 displayed phenotypes, including a thickened cell wall and reduced susceptibility to Triton X-100-induced autolysis, which are associated with vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus strains. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To determine the prevalence and incidence of Staphylococcus aureus strains among preschool- and school-aged pupils and susceptibility of these strains to antimicrobial materials. (mdpi.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus , a commensal and opportunistic microorganism, is capable of colonizing the skin and mucous of individuals and represents a global public health problem [ 1 - 3 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous Gram positive commensal, colonizing about one third of the world's human population. (mdpi.com)
  • We analyzed these 143 cases epidemiologically and characterized isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Staphylococcus protein A ( spa ) typing, multilocus sequence typing, staphylococcal chromosome cassette (SCC) mec typing, and detection of Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes. (medscape.com)
  • The genomes of S . aureus isolates harbor 17 to 22 genes encoding LPXTG motif surface proteins, which can be further classified as precursors with canonical or YSIRK-G/S signal peptides ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • In vitro and in vivo experiments reported in 1992 demonstrated that vancomycin resistance genes from Enterococcus faecalis could be transferred by gene transfer to S. aureus, conferring high-level vancomycin resistance to S. aureus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enterotoxin genes are accessory genetic elements in Staphylococcus aureus , meaning that not all strains of this organism are enterotoxin-producing. (highveld.com)
  • The enterotoxin genes are found on prophage, plasmids, and pathogenicity islands in different strains of Staphylococcus aureus . (highveld.com)
  • Since the first reports of glycopeptide resistant enterococci (GRE) in 1987, concern has been expressed about enterococcal van genes, which encode vancomycin resistance, reaching Staphylococcus aureus. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus and a number of other Gram-positive organisms harbour two genes ( murA and murZ ) encoding UDP- N -acetylglucosamine enolpyruvyl transferase activity for catalysing the first committed step of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • GRUNDLING A, Schneewind O. Genes required for glycolipid synthesis and lipoteichoic acid anchoring in Staphylococcus aureus. (labome.org)
  • Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in the United States, 2001-2002. (nature.com)
  • Prevalence of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in the community. (nature.com)
  • Prevalence of the nasal carriage of S. aureus in this population was the object of several studies but little took into account the respect for the rules of good hygienic practice. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In 1884 Rosenbach proposed the classifications of S. aureus for Staphylococcus that formed yellow colonies, and S. albus (now called Staphylococcus epidermidis ) for white colonies. (everything2.com)
  • Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the presence of Esp-secreting S. epidermidis in the nasal cavities of human volunteers correlates with the absence of S. aureus . (nature.com)
  • In vivo studies have shown that Esp-secreting S. epidermidis eliminates S. aureus nasal colonization. (nature.com)
  • Inhibition of S. aureus biofilm formation and destruction of S. aureus biofilms by S. epidermidis . (nature.com)
  • Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. (genome.jp)
  • The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are now known to comprise over 30 other species. (news-medical.net)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a aerobic gram positive bacterium that usually forms clusters which resemble grapes when viewed with a microscope . (everything2.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogenic bacterium causing various diseases in humans. (asm.org)
  • Commonly called "Staph aureus," this bacterium produces a poison/toxin that cause the illness. (osu.edu)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that often causes severe pneumonia in. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is an extremely common bacterium which colonises human skin and mucosal surfaces, particular in the nose. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus, often called Staph aureus or S. aureus, is a bacterium that is normally carried in the nose of about 30% of the general human population. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Authors of a French study in this week's issue of THE LANCET highlight the link between a specific strain of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and a severe form of pneumonia in children. (innovations-report.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, non-spore forming, nonmotile, cocci bacterium that colonizes in yellow clusters [8] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Because the bacterium is nonmotile, S. aureus is most commonly spread through human-to-human contact or through contaminated surfaces/foods. (kenyon.edu)
  • Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium, a member of the Firmicutes, and is a usual member of the microbiota of the body, frequently found in the upper respiratory tract and on the skin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, in 1884, German scientist Friedrich Julius Rosenbach identified Staphylococcus aureus, discriminating and separating it from Staphylococcus albus, a related bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001) revealed that approximately 22% of the S. aureus genome is non-coding and thus can differ from bacterium to bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. aureus is the leading cause of many ailments and illnesses including pimples and boils as well as pneumonia and meningitis . (wisegeek.com)
  • Braff MH, Jones AL, Skerrett SJ, Rubens CE (2007) Staphylococcus aureus exploits cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides produced during early pneumonia to promote staphylokinase-dependent fibrinolysis. (springer.com)
  • Between 1986 and 1998, eight cases of community-acquired pneumonia due to S aureus strains carrying the gene for the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) were recorded in France, six of which were fatal. (innovations-report.com)
  • Eight retrospective and eight prospective cases of PVL-positive S aureus pneumonia were compared with 36 cases of PVL-negative S aureus pneumonia. (innovations-report.com)
  • Jerome Etienne comments: "PVL-positive strains of S aureus can complicate influenza-like illness in otherwise healthy children and young adults, with rapid progression to severe pneumonia. (innovations-report.com)
  • Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are strains of Staphylococcus aureus that have become resistant to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virulent strains of Staphylococcus aureus secrete exfoliative toxins (ETs) that cause the loss of cell‐cell adhesion in the superficial epidermis. (intechopen.com)
  • Cho SH, Strickland I, Tomkinson A, Fehringer AP, Gelfand EW, Leung DY (2001) Preferential binding of Staphylococcus aureus to skin sites of Th2-mediated inflammation in a murine model. (springer.com)
  • High-level vancomycin resistance in S. aureus has been rarely reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of S. aureus derivatives containing individual TCSs reveals that each TCS appears to be autonomous and self-sufficient to sense and respond to specific environmental cues, although some level of cross-regulation between non-cognate sensor-response regulator pairs occurs in vivo. (nature.com)
  • Siboo I, Chaffin D, Rubens C, Sullam P. Characterization of the accessory Sec system of Staphylococcus aureus. (labome.org)
  • This ability is further augmented by constant emergence of new clones, making S. aureus a "superbug. (asm.org)
  • S. aureus expresses certain proteins and polysaccharides on its surface. (news-medical.net)
  • To date, around 40 immune evasion molecules of S. aureus are known, but its repertoire is still expanding due to the discovery of new evasion proteins and the addition of new functions to already identified evasion proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Surface proteins with canonical signal peptides are secreted and immobilized to peptidoglycan near the cell poles of dividing staphylococci ( 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Are Phage Lytic Proteins the Secret Weapon To Kill Staphylococcus aureus ? (asm.org)
  • The exfoliative toxins (ETs) also known as epidermolytic toxins, are serine proteases secreted by S. aureus that recognize and hydrolyze desmosome proteins in the skin. (intechopen.com)
  • Although the monomer structure of S. aureus YwpF resembles those of T6SS proteins, the dimer/tetramer model of S. aureus YwpF is distinct from the functionally important hexameric ring of T6SS proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • We therefore suggest that the S. aureus YwpF may have a different function compared to T6SS proteins. (rcsb.org)
  • The endogenous Staphylococcus aureus sortase A (SrtA) transpeptidase covalently anchors cell wall-anchored (CWA) proteins equipped with a specific recognition motif (LPXTG) into the peptidoglycan layer of the staphylococcal cell wall. (uva.nl)
  • S. aureus expresses certain surface proteins that are necessary for binding throughout the body. (kenyon.edu)
  • Fibronectin and fibrinogen-binding proteins are also produced by S. aureus as virulence factors. (kenyon.edu)
  • I've blogged previously on a few U.S. studies which investigated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meat products (including chicken, beef, turkey, and pork). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (nih.gov)
  • Generation of ramoplanin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Pupils were colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains belonging to phage group III phagotype 83A and 77. (mdpi.com)
  • The coagulase-positive staphylococci constitute the most pathogenic species S aureus . (news-medical.net)
  • At least 30 species of staphylococci have been recognized by biochemical analysis. (news-medical.net)
  • Abbreviated to S. aureus or Staph aureus in medical literature, S. aureus should not be confused with the similarly named (and also medically relevant) species of the genus Streptococcus . (wikidoc.org)
  • S. aureus is primarily coagulase-positive (meaning that it can produce the enzyme "coagulase" that causes clot formation) while most other Staphylococcus species are coagulase-negative. (wikidoc.org)
  • There is a great deal of genetic variation within the S. aureus species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another notable evolutionary process within the S. aureus species is its co-evolution with its human hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peacock S.J., de Silva I., Lowy F.D., What determines the nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus? (springer.com)
  • The results of our previous study carried out during the international congress of staphylococci (ISSSI, Lyon in August 26-30th, 2012) showed an association between the work in a hospital environment and the increase of the risk of nasal carriage. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Rate of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) among employees of a teaching hospital in Lyon-France according to professional exposure and compliance with good hygiene practices. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Presence or not of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) among employees of a teaching hospital in Lyon-France at particular conditions as long medication intake and overweight. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They will provide nasal swabs to detect Staphylococcus aureus carriage in two time points: 1. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We certainly do this with my particular organism of interest, Staphylococcus aureus. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Seventy episodes of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis occurring over a nine-year period in pediatric cancer patients are reviewed. (aappublications.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus can infect in a variety of ways leading to diverse manifestations. (news-medical.net)
  • S. aureus can infect other tissues when normal barriers have been breached (e.g., skin or mucosal lining). (wikidoc.org)
  • Bera A, Herbert S, Jakob A, Vollmer W, Gotz F (2005) Why are pathogenic staphylococci so lysozyme resistant? (springer.com)
  • The initial presentation of patients with S aureus endocarditis is fever and malaise. (medscape.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence - Anti-Staphylococcus aureus antibody (ab20920) Image courtesy of an anonymous Abreview. (abcam.com)
  • To proactively examine ramoplanin resistance, we subjected S. aureus NCTC 8325-4 to serial passage in the presence of increasing concentrations of ramoplanin, generating the markedly resistant strain RRSA16. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The assay is sensitive enough to be used for comparing the levels of nucleases elaborated by different strains of S. aureus as well as for determining the extent of contamination of S. aureus in food and water samples even at levels at which the conventional spectrophotometric and toluidine blue-DNA methods are totally inadequate. (osti.gov)
  • Purified Esp inhibits biofilm formation and destroys pre-existing S. aureus biofilms. (nature.com)
  • We think control of biofilm formation [and of numerous other virulence factors in S. aureus ] proceeds via agr. (asm.org)
  • Cigarette smoke increases Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation via oxidative stress. (asm.org)
  • In humans, Staphylococcus aureus is part of the normal microbiota present in the upper respiratory tract, [2] and on skin and in the gut mucosa. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the study, experts isolated strains of S. aureus from the noses of healthy monkeys in The Gambia and compared the monkey strains with strains isolated from humans in similar locations. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The results showed that monkeys had acquired S. aureus strains from humans on multiple occasions," he added. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The investigators found no evidence of transmission of S. aureus from monkeys to humans. (bath.ac.uk)
  • At least fifteen strains of S. aureus are infectious to humans. (everything2.com)
  • Staphylococcus aureus asymptomatically colonizes 30% of humans but is also a leading cause of infectious morbidity and mortality. (asm.org)
  • This leads scientists to believe that there are many factors that determine whether S. aureus is carried asymptomatically in humans, including factors that are specific to an individual person. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ywpF gene (SAV2097) of the Staphylococcus aureus strain Mu50 encodes the YwpF protein, which may play a role in antibiotic resistance. (rcsb.org)

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