Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Microbial Sensitivity Tests
Staphylococcal Protein A
Staphylococcal Skin Infections
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field
Colony Count, Microbial
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Soft Tissue Infections
Molecular Sequence Data
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Anti-Infective Agents, Local
Amino Acid Sequence
Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Eye Infections, Bacterial
Multilocus Sequence Typing
Blood Bactericidal Activity
Latex Fixation Tests
Disease Models, Animal
Sensitivity and Specificity
Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests
Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome
DNA Transposable Elements
Phagocytic acitivity of bovine leukocytes during pregnancy. (1/12137)The phagocytic competence, measured as the total number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per mm3 which phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus, strain 321, in vitro, was determined in eight cows during complete pregnancies. Such leukocytes are referred to as "Active PMN'S". There was a gradual decline in the number of these cells from conception to a minimum between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy, followed by a steady increase to the cessation of lactation when a marked drop occurred, after which there was an increase to a maximun during the second week prepartum. From this maximum there was a rapid decrease to an absolute minimum during the first week after parturition. From the second week postpartum there was a gradual increase to conception. The correlation coefficient (r) of number of active PMN'S with time before conception was -0.474 )p-0.01). There were significant differences (p=0.01) in numbers of active PMNS Among the eight cows. It was found that the cows fell into two groups, one whose members had, overall, significantly more active PMNs (p=0.001) than those in the second group. The between cow differences may have been due to 1) age, since the cows with the highest numbers of circulating active PMNs were younger than those in the other group of 2) the combined stress of pregnancy and lactation, as those cows which were both pregnant and milking had the lowest numbers of active PMNs. (+info)
UK-18892, a new aminoglycoside: an in vitro study. (2/12137)UK-18892 is a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, a derivative of kanamycin A structurally related to amikacin. It was found to be active against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including many gentamicin-resistant strains. The spectrum and degree of activity of UK-18892 were similar to those of amikacin, and differences were relatively minor. UK-18892 was about twice as active as amikacin against gentamicin-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both amikacin and UK-18892 were equally active against gentamicin-resistant strains of P. aeruginosa. There were no appreciable differences in the activity of UK-18892 and amikacin against Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus aureus. Cross-resistance between these two antimicrobials was also apparent. (+info)
Automated food microbiology: potential for the hydrophobic grid-membrane filter. (3/12137)Bacterial counts obtained on hydrophobic grid-membrane filters were comparable to conventional plate counts for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus in homogenates from a range of foods. The wide numerical operating range of the hydrophobic grid-membrane filters allowed sequential diluting to be reduced or even eliminated, making them attractive as components in automated systems of analysis. Food debris could be rinsed completely from the unincubated hydrophobic grid-membrane filter surface without affecting the subsequent count, thus eliminating the possibility of counting food particles, a common source of error in electronic counting systems. (+info)
The amino acid sequence of Neurospora NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Peptides from digestion with a staphylococcal proteinase. (4/12137)The extracellular proteinase of Staphylococcus aureus strain V8 was used to digest the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of Neurospora crassa. Of 35 non-overlapping peptides expected from the glutamate content of the polypeptide chain, 29 were isolated and substantially sequenced. The sequences obtained were valuable in providing overlaps for the alignment of about two-thirds of the sequences found in tryptic peptides [Wootton, J. C., Taylor, J, G., Jackson, A. A., Chambers, G. K. & Fincham, J. R. S. (1975) Biochem. J. 149, 739-748]. The blocked N-terminal peptide of the protein was isolated. This peptide was sequenced by mass spectrometry, and found to have N-terminal N-acetylserine by Howard R. Morris and Anne Dell, whose results are presented as an Appendix to the main paper. The staphylococcal proteinase showed very high specificity for glutamyl bonds in the NH4HCO3 buffer used. Partial splits of two aspartyl bonds, both Asp-Ile, were probably attributable to the proteinase. No cleavage of glutaminyl or S-carboxymethylcysteinyl bonds was found. Additional experimental detail has been deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50053 (5 pages) with the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, W. Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K, from whom copies may be obtained under the terms given in Biochem. J. (1975) 1458 5. (+info)
Emergence of vancomycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Glycopeptide-Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Working Group. (5/12137)BACKGROUND: Since the emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the glycopeptide vancomycin has been the only uniformly effective treatment for staphylococcal infections. In 1997, two infections due to S. aureus with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin were identified in the United States. METHODS: We investigated the two patients with infections due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides, as defined by a minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of 8 to 16 microg per milliliter. To assess the carriage and transmission of these strains of S. aureus, we cultured samples from the patients and their contacts and evaluated the isolates. RESULTS: The first patient was a 59-year-old man in Michigan with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure. Peritonitis due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus peritonitis associated with dialysis. The removal of the peritoneal catheter plus treatment with rifampin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole eradicated the infection. The second patient was a 66-year-old man with diabetes in New Jersey. A bloodstream infection due to S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides developed after 18 weeks of vancomycin treatment for recurrent methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. This infection was eradicated with vancomycin, gentamicin, and rifampin. Both patients died. The glycopeptide-intermediate S. aureus isolates differed by two bands on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. On electron microscopy, the isolates from the infected patients had thicker extracellular matrixes than control methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. No carriage was documented among 177 contacts of the two patients. CONCLUSIONS: The emergence of S. aureus with intermediate resistance to glycopeptides emphasizes the importance of the prudent use of antibiotics, the laboratory capacity to identify resistant strains, and the use of infection-control precautions to prevent transmission. (+info)
Alpha-toxin and gamma-toxin jointly promote Staphylococcus aureus virulence in murine septic arthritis. (6/12137)Septic arthritis is a common and feared complication of staphylococcal infections. Staphylococcus aureus produces a number of potential virulence factors including certain adhesins and enterotoxins. In this study we have assessed the roles of cytolytic toxins in the development of septic arthritis by inoculating mice with S. aureus wild-type strain 8325-4 or isogenic mutants differing in the expression of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin production patterns. Mice inoculated with either an alpha- or beta-toxin mutant showed degrees of inflammation, joint damage, and weight decrease similar to wild-type-inoculated mice. In contrast, mice inoculated with either double (alpha- and gamma-toxin-deficient)- or triple (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-toxin-deficient)-mutant S. aureus strains showed lower frequency and severity of arthritis, measured both clinically and histologically, than mice inoculated with the wild-type strain. We conclude that simultaneous production of alpha- and gamma-toxin is a virulence factor in S. aureus arthritis. (+info)
Role of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase cascade in human neutrophil killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans and in migration. (7/12137)Killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans by neutrophils involves adherence of the microorganisms, phagocytosis, and a collaborative action of oxygen reactive species and components of the granules. While a number of intracellular signalling pathways have been proposed to regulate neutrophil responses, the extent to which each pathway contributes to the killing of S. aureus and C. albicans has not been clearly defined. We have therefore examined the effect of blocking one such pathway, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) cascade, using the specific inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase, PD98059, on the ability of human neutrophils to kill S. aureus and C. albicans. Our data demonstrate the presence of ERK2 and a 43-kDa form of ERK but not ERK1 in human neutrophils. Upon stimulation with formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine (fMLP), the activities of both ERK2 and the 43-kDa form were stimulated. Despite abrogating the activity of both ERK forms, PD98059 only slightly reduced the ability of neutrophils to kill S. aureus or C. albicans. This is consistent with our finding that PD98059 had no effect on neutrophil adherence or degranulation, although pretreatment of neutrophils with PD98059 inhibited fMLP-stimulated superoxide production by 50%, suggesting that a change in superoxide production per se is not strictly correlated with microbicidal activity. However, fMLP-stimulated chemokinesis was markedly inhibited, while random migration and fMLP-stimulated chemotaxis were partially inhibited, by PD98059. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that the ERK cascade plays only a minor role in the microbicidal activity of neutrophils and that the ERK cascade is involved primarily in regulating neutrophil migration in response to fMLP. (+info)
Hyperproduction of alpha-hemolysin in a sigB mutant is associated with elevated SarA expression in Staphylococcus aureus. (8/12137)To evaluate the role of SigB in modulating the expression of virulence determinants in Staphylococcus aureus, we constructed a sigB mutant of RN6390, a prototypic S. aureus strain. The mutation in the sigB gene was confirmed by the absence of the SigB protein in the mutant on an immunoblot as well as the failure of the mutant to activate sigmaB-dependent promoters (e.g., the sarC promoter) of S. aureus. Phenotypic analysis indicated that both alpha-hemolysin level and fibrinogen-binding capacity were up-regulated in the mutant strain compared with the parental strain. The increase in fibrinogen-binding capacity correlated with enhanced expression of clumping factor and coagulase on immunoblots. The effect of the sigB mutation on the enhanced expression of the alpha-hemolysin gene (hla) was primarily transcriptional. Upon complementation with a plasmid containing the sigB gene, hla expression returned to near parental levels in the mutant. Detailed immunoblot analysis as well as a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of the cell extract of the sigB mutant with anti-SarA monoclonal antibody 1D1 revealed that the expression of SarA was higher in the mutant than in the parental control. Despite an elevated SarA level, the transcription of RNAII and RNAIII of the agr locus remained unaltered in the sigB mutant. Because of a lack of perturbation in agr, we hypothesize that inactivation of sigB leads to increased expression of SarA which, in turn, modulates target genes via an agr-independent but SarA-dependent pathway. (+info)
Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:
1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.
2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.
Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:
1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections
Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:
1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath
Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.
Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:
1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.
Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:
1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.
It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Some common types of staphylococcal skin infections include:
1. Boils: A boil is a red, swollen, and painful bump on the skin that is caused by an infection of a hair follicle or oil gland.
2. Abscesses: An abscess is a collection of pus that forms as a result of an infection. Staphylococcal abscesses can occur anywhere on the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including cuts, burns, and insect bites.
3. Cellulitis: This is a bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissues that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth in the affected area.
4. Furuncles: These are small, painful boils that occur under the skin, often on the face or neck.
5. Carbuncles: These are larger and more severe than furuncles, and can form in the armpits, groin, or other areas of the body.
6. Skin fold infections: These are infections that occur in skin folds, such as those found in obese individuals or those with skin conditions like eczema or dermatitis.
Staphylococcal skin infections can be caused by a variety of factors, including cuts, scrapes, insect bites, and contaminated tattoo or piercing equipment. They are typically treated with antibiotics, and in severe cases, may require surgical drainage of the infected area.
Preventive measures for staphylococcal skin infections include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands regularly and thoroughly cleaning any cuts or scrapes.
2. Covering wounds with bandages to prevent germs from entering the body.
3. Avoiding sharing personal items, such as towels or razors, that may come into contact with infected skin.
4. Properly caring for and cleaning any tattoos or piercings.
5. Avoiding close contact with individuals who have staphylococcal infections.
6. Using mupirocin ointment or other antibiotic ointments to help prevent infection in individuals at high risk, such as those with skin conditions like eczema or dermatitis.
7. Using steroid-free topical products and avoiding the use of harsh soaps and cleansers that can strip the skin of its natural oils and make it more susceptible to infection.
8. Keeping wounds moist with antibiotic ointment and dressings to promote healing and prevent infection.
Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:
* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:
* Muscle aches
* Shortness of breath
Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for bacteremia include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures
Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.
In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.
Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:
1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.
Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.
In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.
Staphylococcal pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that occurs when the bacteria enter the lungs and cause inflammation. This condition can be particularly dangerous for certain groups of people, such as children under the age of two, adults over the age of 65, and those with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions.
The symptoms of staphylococcal pneumonia can vary depending on the severity of the infection, but they may include:
* Fever and chills
* Cough, which may be dry or produce mucus
* Chest pain that worsens with deep breathing or coughing
* Shortness of breath
* Muscle aches and fatigue
* Confusion or disorientation in older adults
Staphylococcal pneumonia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and reduce symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation.
Prevention of staphylococcal pneumonia is key, and this includes:
* Vaccination: The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is recommended for children under the age of two and adults over the age of 65, as well as those with certain medical conditions.
* Good hygiene practices: Washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of the bacteria.
* Avoiding risky behaviors: Avoiding sharing personal items, such as toothbrushes or drinking glasses, and not engaging in risky behaviors like unprotected sex or sharing needles can also help prevent the spread of the bacteria.
It is important to seek medical attention if you or a loved one is experiencing symptoms of pneumonia, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Causes and risk factors:
The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:
* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis
The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Joint pain or swelling
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds
Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart
The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.
Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.
The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.
Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.
Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:
* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)
Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:
* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.
Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:
* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.
Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:
* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.
In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.
The most common symptoms of bovine mastitis include:
1. Swelling and redness of the udder
2. Increased temperature of the affected quarter
3. Pain or discomfort in the udder
4. Decreased milk production
5. Abnormal milk appearance (e.g., clots, pus, or blood)
If left untreated, mastitis can lead to more severe complications such as abscesses, septicemia, or even death of the animal. Therefore, early detection and proper treatment are crucial to prevent the spread of infection and reduce the severity of clinical signs.
Diagnosis of bovine mastitis is typically based on a combination of clinical examination, milk culture, and laboratory tests (e.g., blood counts, serum biochemistry). Treatment involves antibiotics, supportive care (e.g., fluids, pain management), and identification of the underlying cause to prevent future occurrences.
Prevention of bovine mastitis is key to maintaining a healthy and productive dairy herd. This includes proper sanitation and hygiene practices, regular milking techniques, and effective dry cow therapy. Vaccination against common mastitis-causing pathogens may also be considered in some cases.
Overall, bovine mastitis is a significant health issue in dairy cattle that can have significant economic and welfare implications for farmers and the industry as a whole. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies are essential to maintain a healthy and productive herd.
There are several types of abscesses, including:
1. Skin abscesses: These occur when a bacterial infection causes pus to accumulate under the skin. They may appear as red, swollen bumps on the surface of the skin.
2. Internal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within an internal organ or tissue. Examples include abscesses that form in the liver, lungs, or brain.
3. Perianal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate near the anus. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including poor hygiene, anal sex, or underlying conditions such as Crohn's disease.
4. Dental abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within a tooth or the surrounding tissue. They are often caused by poor oral hygiene or dental trauma.
The symptoms of an abscess can vary depending on its location and severity. Common symptoms include:
* Redness, swelling, and warmth around the affected area
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Fever or chills
* Discharge of pus from the affected area
* Bad breath (if the abscess is located in the mouth)
If an abscess is not treated, it can lead to serious complications, including:
* Further spread of the infection to other parts of the body
* Inflammation of surrounding tissues and organs
* Formation of a pocket of pus that can become infected and lead to further complications
* Sepsis, a life-threatening condition caused by the spread of infection through the bloodstream.
Treatment of an abscess usually involves drainage of the pus and antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or repair damaged structures.
It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have an abscess, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.
Examples of CAIs include:
1. Respiratory infections such as bronchitis, pneumonia, and influenza.
2. Skin and soft tissue infections such as cellulitis, abscesses, and wound infections.
3. Gastrointestinal infections such as food poisoning, diarrhea, and gastroenteritis.
4. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by bacteria that enter the urinary tract through the urethra or bladder.
5. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
6. Bacterial infections such as staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pneumoniae, and haemophilus influenzae.
7. Viral infections such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), human papillomavirus (HPV), and norovirus.
CAIs can be treated with antibiotics, antivirals, or other medications depending on the cause of the infection. It's important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated CAIs can lead to serious complications and potentially life-threatening conditions.
The term "osteomyelitis" comes from the Greek words "osteon," meaning bone, and "myelitis," meaning inflammation of the spinal cord. The condition is caused by an infection that spreads to the bone from another part of the body, such as a skin wound or a urinary tract infection.
There are several different types of osteomyelitis, including:
1. Acute osteomyelitis: This type of infection occurs suddenly and can be caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pneumoniae.
2. Chronic osteomyelitis: This type of infection develops slowly over time and is often caused by bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
3. Pyogenic osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by bacteria that enter the body through a skin wound or other opening.
4. Tubercular osteomyelitis: This type of infection is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is often associated with tuberculosis.
Symptoms of osteomyelitis can include fever, chills, fatigue, swelling, redness, and pain in the affected area. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to fight the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged bone.
Preventing osteomyelitis involves taking steps to avoid infections altogether, such as practicing good hygiene, getting vaccinated against certain diseases, and seeking medical attention promptly if an infection is suspected.
Soft tissue infections are typically caused by bacteria or fungi that enter the body through cuts, wounds, or other openings in the skin. They can also be caused by spread of infection from nearby tissues or organs, such as bone or joint infections.
Symptoms of soft tissue infections may include redness, swelling, warmth, and pain in the affected area, as well as fever and chills. In severe cases, these infections can lead to serious complications, such as abscesses or gangrene.
Treatment for soft tissue infections typically involves antibiotics or antifungal medications, depending on the type of infection and the severity of symptoms. In some cases, surgical drainage may be necessary to remove infected tissue or abscesses.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have a soft tissue infection, as early treatment can help prevent complications and promote faster healing. Your healthcare provider may perform a physical examination, take a sample of the affected tissue for testing, and order imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans to determine the extent of the infection and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
Staphylococcal food poisoning is typically caused by consuming food that has been contaminated with the bacterium, often through improper handling or storage of food products. Symptoms usually begin within 1-7 days after consumption of contaminated food, and can last for several days to a week or more.
Treatment for staphylococcal food poisoning typically involves supportive care, such as hydration and rest, as well as antibiotics in severe cases. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as kidney failure or sepsis. Prevention measures include proper handling and storage of food products, cooking food to the appropriate temperature, and avoiding cross-contamination of foods.
Symptoms of wound infection may include:
* Redness, swelling, or increased pain around the wound
* Increased drainage or pus from the wound
* Bad smell or discharge from the wound
* Fever or chills
* Swollen lymph nodes
Treatment of wound infection usually involves antibiotics and may require surgical intervention to remove infected tissue. It is important to practice good wound care, such as keeping the wound clean and dry, changing dressings regularly, and monitoring for signs of infection to prevent the development of a wound infection.
Preventive measures include:
* Proper sterilization and technique during surgery or medical procedures
* Keeping the wound site clean and dry
* Removing any dead tissue or debris from the wound
* Using antibiotic ointment or cream to prevent infection
* Covering the wound with a sterile dressing
If you suspect that you have a wound infection, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. A healthcare professional can evaluate the wound and provide appropriate treatment to prevent further complications.
Some common examples of bacterial infections include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
2. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Skin infections such as cellulitis and abscesses
4. Bone and joint infections such as osteomyelitis
5. Infected wounds or burns
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia and gonorrhea
7. Food poisoning caused by bacteria such as salmonella and E. coli.
In severe cases, bacterial infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis or blood poisoning. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper diagnosis and treatment can help prevent these complications and ensure a full recovery.
Symptoms of mastitis may include:
* Pain and tenderness in the breast
* Redness and swelling of the skin
* Fever and chills
* Difficulty breathing (in severe cases)
Treatment for mastitis usually involves antibiotics to clear up any bacterial infections, as well as measures to relieve pain and discomfort such as warm compresses, massage, and over-the-counter pain medication. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary if the infection is severe or if the person has a fever that is difficult to control.
Preventative measures for mastitis include:
* Properly storing and handling breast milk
* Frequently checking and emptying the breasts to prevent clogged milk ducts
* Avoiding tight clothing or bras that can constrict the breasts
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands before handling the breasts
It is important for individuals with mastitis to seek medical attention if they experience any of the following symptoms:
* High fever (over 101°F)
* Difficulty breathing
* Severe pain that does not improve with medication
* Redness or swelling that spreads beyond the breast area.
1. Impetigo: A highly contagious bacterial infection that causes sores on the face, arms, and legs.
2. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): A type of bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause skin infections, including boils and abscesses.
3. Folliculitis: An infection of the hair follicles, often caused by bacteria or fungi, that can lead to redness, itching, and pus-filled bumps.
4. Cellulitis: A bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area.
5. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that causes small, painful blisters on the skin, often around the mouth or genitals.
6. Human papillomavirus (HPV): A viral infection that can cause warts on the skin, as well as other types of cancer.
7. Scabies: A highly contagious parasitic infestation that causes itching and a rash, often on the hands, feet, and genital area.
8. Ringworm: A fungal infection that causes a ring-shaped rash on the skin, often on the arms, legs, or trunk.
These are just a few examples of infectious skin diseases, but there are many others that can affect the skin and cause a range of symptoms. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have an infectious skin disease, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
There are several types of prosthesis-related infections, including:
1. Bacterial infections: These are the most common type of prosthesis-related infection and can occur around any type of implanted device. They are caused by bacteria that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
2. Fungal infections: These types of infections are less common and typically occur in individuals who have a weakened immune system or who have been taking antibiotics for another infection.
3. Viral infections: These infections can occur around implanted devices, such as pacemakers, and are caused by viruses that enter the body through a surgical incision or other opening.
4. Parasitic infections: These types of infections are rare and occur when parasites, such as tapeworms, infect the implanted device or the surrounding tissue.
Prosthesis-related infections can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and fever. In severe cases, these infections can lead to sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when bacteria or other microorganisms enter the bloodstream.
Prosthesis-related infections are typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to identify the type of microorganism causing the infection. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other antimicrobial agents to eliminate the infection, and may also involve surgical removal of the infected implant.
Prevention is key in avoiding prosthesis-related infections. This includes proper wound care after surgery, keeping the surgical site clean and dry, and taking antibiotics as directed by your healthcare provider to prevent infection. Additionally, it is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions for caring for your prosthesis, such as regularly cleaning and disinfecting the device and avoiding certain activities that may put excessive stress on the implant.
Overall, while prosthesis-related infections can be serious, prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help to effectively manage these complications and prevent long-term damage or loss of function. It is important to work closely with your healthcare provider to monitor for signs of infection and take steps to prevent and manage any potential complications associated with your prosthesis.
The term "furunculosis" is derived from the Latin word "furuncle," which means "boil." This condition is also known as "staphylococcal furunculosis" or "boils and carbuncles." It can affect anyone, but it is more common in certain populations such as children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems.
The treatment of furunculosis typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection and drainage of the affected area to help relieve symptoms and promote healing. In severe cases, surgical drainage may be necessary. It is important to practice good hygiene and avoid sharing personal items to prevent the spread of the infection.
Preventive measures for furunculosis include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with people who have the infection, and keeping wounds clean and covered. In addition, using antibacterial soap and avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or clothing can help reduce the risk of developing the condition.
Overall, furunculosis is a common bacterial infection that can cause discomfort and pain, but with proper treatment and prevention measures, it can be effectively managed.
Some common examples of gram-positive bacterial infections include:
1. Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections: These are infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which is a type of gram-positive bacteria that is resistant to many antibiotics.
2. Streptococcal infections: These are infections caused by streptococcus bacteria, such as strep throat and cellulitis.
3. Pneumococcal infections: These are infections caused by pneumococcus bacteria, such as pneumonia.
4. Enterococcal infections: These are infections caused by enterococcus bacteria, such as urinary tract infections and endocarditis.
5. Candidiasis: This is a type of fungal infection caused by candida, which is a type of gram-positive fungus.
Gram-positive bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin and ampicillin, but the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has made the treatment of these infections more challenging. In some cases, gram-positive bacterial infections may require more aggressive treatment, such as combination therapy with multiple antibiotics or the use of antifungal medications.
Overall, gram-positive bacterial infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
Surgical wound infections can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Poor surgical technique: If the surgeon does not follow proper surgical techniques, such as properly cleaning and closing the incision, the risk of infection increases.
2. Contamination of the wound site: If the wound site is contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms during the surgery, this can lead to an infection.
3. Use of contaminated instruments: If the instruments used during the surgery are contaminated with bacteria or other microorganisms, this can also lead to an infection.
4. Poor post-operative care: If the patient does not receive proper post-operative care, such as timely changing of dressings and adequate pain management, the risk of infection increases.
There are several types of surgical wound infections, including:
1. Superficial wound infections: These infections occur only in the skin and subcutaneous tissues and can be treated with antibiotics.
2. Deep wound infections: These infections occur in the deeper tissues, such as muscle or bone, and can be more difficult to treat.
3. Wound hernias: These occur when the intestine bulges through the incision site, creating a hernia.
4. Abscesses: These occur when pus collects in the wound site, creating a pocket of infection.
Surgical wound infections can be diagnosed using a variety of tests, including:
1. Cultures: These are used to identify the type of bacteria or other microorganisms causing the infection.
2. Imaging studies: These can help to determine the extent of the infection and whether it has spread to other areas of the body.
3. Physical examination: The surgeon will typically perform a physical examination of the wound site to look for signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or drainage.
Treatment of surgical wound infections typically involves a combination of antibiotics and wound care. In some cases, additional surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged structures.
Prevention is key when it comes to surgical wound infections. To reduce the risk of infection, surgeons and healthcare providers can take several steps, including:
1. Proper sterilization and disinfection of equipment and the surgical site.
2. Use of antibiotic prophylaxis, which is the use of antibiotics to prevent infections in high-risk patients.
3. Closure of the incision site with sutures or staples to reduce the risk of bacterial entry.
4. Monitoring for signs of infection and prompt treatment if an infection develops.
5. Proper wound care, including keeping the wound clean and dry, and changing dressings as needed.
6. Avoiding unnecessary delays in surgical procedure, which can increase the risk of infection.
7. Proper patient education on wound care and signs of infection.
8. Use of biological dressings such as antimicrobial impregnated dressings, which can help reduce the risk of infection.
9. Use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) which can help to promote wound healing and reduce the risk of infection.
10. Proper handling and disposal of sharps and other medical waste to reduce the risk of infection.
It is important for patients to follow their healthcare provider's instructions for wound care and to seek medical attention if they notice any signs of infection, such as redness, swelling, or increased pain. By taking these precautions, the risk of surgical wound infections can be significantly reduced, leading to better outcomes for patients.
1. Impetigo: A highly contagious infection that causes red sores on the face, arms, and legs. It is most commonly seen in children and is usually treated with antibiotics.
2. Cellulitis: A bacterial infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth. It is often caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus bacteria and may require hospitalization for treatment.
3. MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus): A type of staph infection that is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin and soft tissue infections. It is often seen in hospitals and healthcare settings and can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces.
4. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes red, raised borders on the skin, often on the face, legs, or arms. It is caused by Streptococcus bacteria and may require antibiotics to treat.
5. Folliculitis: An infection of the hair follicles that can cause redness, swelling, and pus-filled bumps. It is often caused by Staphylococcus bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
6. Boils: A type of abscess that forms when a hair follicle or oil gland becomes infected. They can be caused by either Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria and may require draining and antibiotics to treat.
7. Carbuncles: A type of boil that is larger and more severe, often requiring surgical drainage and antibiotics to treat.
8. Erythrasma: A mild infection that causes small, red patches on the skin. It is caused by Corynebacterium bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
9. Cellulitis: An infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissue that can cause swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected area. It is often caused by Staphylococcus bacteria and may require antibiotics to treat.
10. Impetigo: A highly contagious infection that causes red sores or blisters on the skin, often around the nose, mouth, or limbs. It is caused by Staphylococcus or Streptococcus bacteria and may be treated with antibiotics or topical creams.
These are just a few examples of common skin infections and there are many more types that can occur. If you suspect you or someone else has a skin infection, it's important to seek medical attention as soon as possible for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Impetigo typically appears as red, crusted sores on the face, arms, and legs. The sores are usually itchy and may ooze fluid. In severe cases, impetigo can lead to more serious complications, such as kidney inflammation or infection of the bloodstream (sepsis).
Treatment for impetigo typically involves topical antibiotics or oral antibiotics if the infection is widespread or severe. Proper hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing, can also help prevent the spread of impetigo. In some cases, antibiotic ointment may be prescribed to help clear up the infection.
Preventive measures include good hygiene practices such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who have impetigo, and keeping wounds covered and clean. Additionally, using topical antibiotics or ointments can help prevent the spread of the infection.
A type of arthritis that is caused by an infection in the joint, typically bacterial or viral. The most common form of infectious arthritis is Lyme disease, which is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick. Other types of infectious arthritis include septic arthritis (caused by bacterial infection) and reactive arthritis (caused by a bacterial or viral infection in another part of the body).
Symptoms: Pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limited range of motion in the affected joint. Fever may also be present.
Diagnosis: A diagnosis is made based on symptoms, physical examination, blood tests (such as a complete blood count or a polymerase chain reaction test to detect the presence of bacteria or viruses), and imaging studies (such as X-rays or ultrasound).
Treatment: Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection, as well as medication to manage symptoms such as pain and inflammation. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or joints.
1. Conjunctivitis: This is an infection of the conjunctiva, which is the thin membrane that covers the white part of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. It is often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae bacteria.
2. Corneal ulcers: These are open sores that develop on the surface of the cornea, which is the clear dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye. Corneal ulcers can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes.
3. Endophthalmitis: This is an infection that occurs inside the eye, often as a complication of cataract surgery or other types of ocular surgery. It can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis.
4. Keratitis: This is an infection of the cornea that can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii.
5. Retinitis: This is an infection of the retina, which is the layer of tissue at the back of the eye that senses light and sends visual signals to the brain. Retinitis can be caused by a variety of bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Bacterial eye infections can cause a range of symptoms, including redness, swelling, discharge, pain, and blurred vision. Treatment typically involves antibiotic eye drops or ointments, and in more severe cases, oral antibiotics may be prescribed. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of a bacterial eye infection, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Here are some key points to define sepsis:
1. Inflammatory response: Sepsis is characterized by an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response to an infection. This can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction.
2. Systemic symptoms: Patients with sepsis often have systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and confusion. They may also experience nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Organ dysfunction: Sepsis can cause dysfunction in multiple organs, including the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This can lead to organ failure and death if not treated promptly.
4. Infection source: Sepsis is usually caused by a bacterial infection, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. The infection can be localized or widespread, and it can affect different parts of the body.
5. Severe sepsis: Severe sepsis is a more severe form of sepsis that is characterized by severe organ dysfunction and a higher risk of death. Patients with severe sepsis may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mechanical ventilation.
6. Septic shock: Septic shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is severe circulatory dysfunction due to sepsis. It is characterized by hypotension, vasopressor use, and organ failure.
Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are critical to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes. The Sepsis-3 definition is widely used in clinical practice to diagnose sepsis and severe sepsis.
Symptoms of endocarditis may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, the condition can lead to serious complications, such as heart valve damage, stroke, or death.
Treatment for endocarditis typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. Preventive measures include good dental hygiene, avoiding risky behaviors such as injecting drugs, and keeping wounds clean and covered.
Endocarditis is a serious condition that can have long-term consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and ensure the best possible outcome for patients.
There are two main types of hemolysis:
1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.
Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.
Some common causes of hemolysis include:
1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.
Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.
Shock refers to a severe and sudden drop in blood pressure, which can lead to inadequate perfusion of vital organs such as the brain, heart, and lungs. There are several types of shock, including hypovolemic shock (caused by bleeding or dehydration), septic shock (caused by an overwhelming bacterial infection), and cardiogenic shock (caused by a heart attack or other cardiac condition).
Septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream, which can cause a range of symptoms including fever, chills, and confusion. Sepsis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can lead to organ failure and death if left untreated.
Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, which is the body's systemic inflammatory response to an infection. Septic shock is characterized by severe vasopressor (a medication used to increase blood pressure) and hypotension (low blood pressure), and it can lead to multiple organ failure and death if not treated promptly and effectively.
In summary, shock refers to a drop in blood pressure, while septic refers to the presence of bacteria or other microorganisms in the bloodstream. Septic shock is a specific type of shock that occurs as a result of sepsis, and it can be a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly and effectively.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
In the medical field, autolysis is a term used to describe the self-destruction or breakdown of cells or tissues within an organism. This process occurs naturally in response to various forms of cellular stress, such as exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, and it is also involved in the immune system's removal of dead cells and debris. Autolysis can be triggered by a variety of factors, including oxidative stress, heat shock, and exposure to certain enzymes or toxins.
There are several types of autolysis, including:
1. Autophagy: a process by which cells break down and recycle their own components, such as proteins and organelles, in order to maintain cellular homeostasis and survive under conditions of limited nutrient availability.
2. Necrosis: a form of autolysis that occurs as a result of cellular injury or stress, leading to the release of harmful substances into the surrounding tissue and triggering an inflammatory response.
3. Apoptosis: a programmed form of cell death that involves the breakdown of cells and their components, and is involved in various physiological processes, such as development and immune system function.
4. Lipofuscinogenesis: a process by which lipid-rich organelles undergo autolysis, leading to the formation of lipofuscin, a type of cellular waste product.
5. Chaperone-mediated autophagy: a process by which proteins are broken down and recycled in the presence of chaperone proteins, which help to fold and stabilize the target proteins.
Autolysis can be studied using various techniques, including:
1. Light microscopy: a technique that uses visible light to visualize cells and their components, allowing researchers to observe the effects of autolysis on cellular structures.
2. Electron microscopy: a technique that uses a beam of electrons to produce high-resolution images of cells and their components, allowing researchers to observe the ultrastructure of cells and the effects of autolysis at the molecular level.
3. Biochemical assays: techniques that measure the levels of specific cellular components or metabolites in order to assess the progress of autolysis.
4. Gene expression analysis: a technique that measures the levels of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in order to assess the activity of genes involved in autolysis.
5. Proteomics: a technique that measures the levels and modifications of specific proteins in order to assess the effects of autolysis on protein turnover and degradation.
Autolysis plays an important role in various cellular processes, including:
1. Cellular detoxification: Autolysis can help to remove damaged or misfolded proteins, which can be toxic to cells, by breaking them down into smaller peptides and amino acids that can be further degraded.
2. Cellular renewal: Autolysis can help to remove old or damaged cellular components, such as organelles and protein aggregates, and recycle their building blocks to support the synthesis of new cellular components.
3. Cellular defense: Autolysis can help to protect cells against pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, by breaking down and removing infected cellular components.
4. Apoptosis: Autolysis is involved in the execution of apoptosis, a programmed form of cell death that is important for maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing cancer.
Dysregulation of autolysis has been implicated in various diseases, including:
1. Cancer: Autolysis can promote the growth and survival of cancer cells by providing them with a source of energy and building blocks for protein synthesis.
2. Neurodegenerative diseases: Autolysis can contribute to the degeneration of neurons in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
3. Infectious diseases: Autolysis can help pathogens to evade the host immune system by breaking down and removing infected cellular components.
4. Aging: Dysregulation of autolysis has been implicated in the aging process, as it can lead to the accumulation of damaged or misfolded proteins and the degradation of cellular components.
Overall, autolysis is a complex and highly regulated process that plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and responding to environmental stressors. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms of autolysis and its implications for human health and disease.
The most common types of CRIs include:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the catheter and cause an infection in the bladder, kidneys, or ureters.
2. Catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria (CAB): This occurs when bacteria are present in the urine but do not cause symptoms.
3. Catheter-associated symptomatic urinary tract infections (CAUTI): These occur when bacteria cause symptoms such as burning during urination, frequent urination, or cloudy urine.
4. Pyelonephritis: This is a type of UTI that affects the kidneys and can be life-threatening if left untreated.
5. Septicemia: This occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream through the catheter and cause a systemic infection.
6. Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs): These occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through the catheter and cause an infection.
7. Catheter-associated fungal infections: These occur when fungi grow in the urinary tract or on the catheter, causing an infection.
8. Catheter-associated viral infections: These occur when a virus infects the urinary tract or the catheter.
CRIs can be prevented by using sterile equipment, proper insertion and maintenance techniques, and regularly cleaning and disinfecting the catheter. Early detection and treatment of CRIs are critical to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The syndrome is characterized by four main features:
1. Severe skin damage: The bacteria release toxins that cause the skin to die and slough off, leading to large areas of denuded skin.
2. Edema: The infection causes swelling in the affected area, which can be severe enough to require hospitalization.
3. Fever: Patients with SSSS typically experience high fevers, often above 103°F (39.4°C).
4. Hypotension: The infection can cause a drop in blood pressure, leading to signs of shock.
The symptoms of SSSS usually develop within 24-48 hours after the skin is injured, and they can progress rapidly. If left untreated, the condition can lead to severe complications, such as sepsis, organ failure, and death.
Treatment of SSSS typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and wound dressing. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit may be necessary. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The symptoms of peritonitis can vary depending on the severity and location of the inflammation, but they may include:
* Abdominal pain and tenderness
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Loss of appetite
* Low blood pressure
Peritonitis can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as a CT scan, MRI or ultrasound. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to clear the infection and supportive care to manage symptoms. In severe cases, surgery may be required to remove any infected tissue or repair damaged organs.
Prompt medical attention is essential for effective treatment and prevention of complications such as sepsis, organ failure, and death.
Endophthalmitis can be classified into several types based on its causes, such as:
1. Postoperative endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis occurs after cataract surgery or other intraocular surgeries. It is caused by bacterial infection that enters the eye through the surgical incision.
2. Endogenous endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis is caused by an infection that originates within the eye, such as from a retinal detachment or uveitis.
3. Exogenous endophthalmitis: This type of endophthalmitis is caused by an infection that enters the eye from outside, such as from a penetrating injury or a foreign object in the eye.
The symptoms of endophthalmitis can include:
1. Severe pain in the eye
2. Redness and swelling of the conjunctiva
3. Difficulty seeing or blind spots in the visual field
4. Sensitivity to light
5. Increased sensitivity to touch or pressure on the eye
6. Fever and chills
7. Swollen lymph nodes
8. Enlarged pupil
9. Clouding of the vitreous humor
If you suspect that you or someone else has endophthalmitis, it is important to seek medical attention immediately. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent vision loss. Treatment options for endophthalmitis may include antibiotics, vitrectomy (removal of the vitreous humor), and in some cases, removal of the affected eye.
The most common bacteria that cause pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae (also known as pneumococcus), Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus. These bacteria can infect the lungs through various routes, including respiratory droplets, contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person.
Symptoms of pneumonia may include cough, fever, chills, shortness of breath, and chest pain. In severe cases, pneumonia can lead to serious complications such as respiratory failure, sepsis, and death.
Diagnosis of pneumonia typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays or blood cultures. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Vaccines are also available to protect against certain types of bacterial pneumonia, particularly in children and older adults.
Preventative measures for bacterial pneumonia include:
* Getting vaccinated against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly and covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying hydrated and getting enough rest
* Quitting smoking, if applicable
* Managing underlying medical conditions, such as diabetes or heart disease
It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms of pneumonia develop, particularly in high-risk populations. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for patients with bacterial pneumonia.
Also known as: Corneal inflammation, Eye inflammation, Keratoconjunctivitis, Ocular inflammation.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Staphopain A (Staphylococcus aureus)
Staphylococcus aureus delta toxin
Staphylococcus aureus beta toxin
Friedrich Julius Rosenbach
Toxic shock syndrome toxin
History of penicillin
Production of antibiotics
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1
Skin and skin structure infection
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
MRSA | CDC
Persistence of the Staphylococcus aureus epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC) in Belgium - PubMed
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Staphylococcus Aureus Infection Workup: Laboratory Studies, Imaging Studies, Procedures
NHANES 2003-2004: Methicillin - Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Data Documentation, Codebook, and Frequencies
NIH Guide: NETWORK ON ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
Staphylococcus aureus drives atopic skin inflammation | NIAMS
Staphylococcus aureus infections - PubMed
Staphylococcus aureus with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin -- United States, 1997
Methicillin-Susceptible, Vancomycin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Brazil - Volume 21, Number 10-October 2015 - Emerging...
Trial of Existing Antibiotic for Treating Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Begins | NIH: National Institute of Allergy and...
Awareness of World Health Organization methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus guidelines at Alexandria university hospitals
Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections Among Persons Who Inject Drugs - Six Sites, 2005-2016 | MMWR
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus in cystic fibrosis | Thorax
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus | American Board of Family Medicine
Parallel Epidemics of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Infection in North and South...
SCOPe 2.01: Species: Staphylococcus aureus [TaxId: 1280]
Trophic cooperation promotes bacterial survival of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa | bioRxiv
WHO EMRO | Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit | Volume 25, issue 7 | EMHJ...
Fatores associados à infecção de corrente sangüínea por Staphylococcus aureus portador...
Staphylococcus aureus: a new mechanism involved in virulence and antibiotic resistance - News from the Institut Pasteur
Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Eurasian Beavers (Castor fiber) carry a novel phage-borne bicomponent leukocidin related to...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) widespread in German pig breeding stocks - BfR
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a cause of staph infection that is difficult to treat because of resistance to some antibiotics. (cdc.gov)
- Only a few small analytical or population-based of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) of- studies have been published ( 12 - 14 ). (cdc.gov)
- Global transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylo- Data on MRSA Cases in the Statutory Swedish coccus aureus (MRSA) has been the subject of many Communicable Disease Notifi cation System studies. (cdc.gov)
- An erythromycin-induction test, or D-test, should always be performed with staphylococcal sensitivities to reveal inducible clindamycin resistance among community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA). (medscape.com)
- Antimicrobial resistance in S. aureus has increased dramatically, particularly in the hospital, where the rapid emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the appearance of S. aureus isolates with resistance to vancomycin have led to concern that this organism may become untreatable with currently available antimicrobials. (cdc.gov)
- MRSA), intermediate to OX, and every 10th isolate sensitive to OX [i.e., methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA)] by disk diffusion were saved for additional testing of organism characteristics. (cdc.gov)
- Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of both hospital- and community-acquired infections worldwide, and the antimicrobial agent vancomycin has been used to treat many S. aureus infections, particularly those caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). (cdc.gov)
- Editorial Note: Since the 1980s, when MRSA emerged in the United States, vancomycin has been the last uniformly effective antimicrobial available for treatment of serious S. aureus infections. (cdc.gov)
- Acquisition of high-level vancomycin resistance by Staphylococcus aureus represents a major public health risk because this antimicrobial drug continues to be the first-line and most inexpensive therapy to treat methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) despite concerns about its clinical efficacy. (cdc.gov)
- Persons who inject drugs were an estimated 16.3 times more likely to develop invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections than others. (cdc.gov)
- To assess the effects of the opioid epidemic on invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections during 2005-2016, surveillance data from CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP) were analyzed ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
- Methicillin-resistant S. Aureus (MRSA or ´mersa') are staph bacteria commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. (acphd.org)
- Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA or ´mersa´) is a staph that has developed resistance to a commonly used class antibiotics called ´beta-lactams´ (i.e. penicillins - methicillin, nafcillin, amoxicillin, oxacillin, among others). (acphd.org)
- The global and national burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases continues to rise, thus making access to Healthcare workers (HCWs) colonized with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) may pose transmission risk to vulnerable patients including neonates. (who.int)
- Neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients are at high risk of acquiring colonization and infection by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (1). (who.int)
- The community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) epidemic in the United States is attributed to the spread of the USA300 clone. (nih.gov)
- S.aureus SCCmec type IV é prevalente em nosso hospital e mais de 10% das bacteremias nosocomiais por MRSA eram causadas por quatro clones diferentes de MRSA tipo IV. (usp.br)
- Staphylococcus aureus SCCmec type IV is prevalent in our hospital and more than 10% of the nosocomial MRSA bacteremias were caused by 4 different type IV MRSA clones. (usp.br)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) widespread in. (bund.de)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are widespread in pig breeding stocks in Germany. (bund.de)
- One of the strains belonged to the Hungarian meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone ST239-MRSA-III and the other two to the New York/Japan MRSA clone ST5-MRSA-II. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- In the presence of 10 % normal serum, the extent of phagocytosis and killing by blood granulocytes was equivalent for hVISA, MRSA and meticillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis and susceptibility testing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a global public health problem and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, imposing serious economic costs on patients and hospitals. (bl.uk)
- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in rehabilitation and chronic-care-facilities: what is the best strategy? (experts123.com)
- GROUND: The risk associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been decreasing for several years in intensive care departments, but is now increasing in rehabilitation and chronic-care-facilities (R-CCF). (experts123.com)
- The MRSA [methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus] ST398 genome consists of a circular chromosome of 2,872,582 bp, as well as 3 circular plasmids [sizes of plasmids 1-3 are 5,246bp, 4,381bp and 3,158bp, respectively]. (harvard.edu)
- The main objective of the present study was to report the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among bovines used for milk production in Mathura, India. (scialert.net)
Resistant Staphylococcus aureus3
- Bugging the bugs: novel approaches in the strategic management of resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. (nih.gov)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are widespread pathogens. (bund.de)
- Whole genome analysis of a livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST398 isolate from a case of human endocarditis. (harvard.edu)
- A tube coagulase test using rabbit plasma with EDTA was then performed on Staphaurex-negative isolates from BAP with morphology consistent with S. aureus and Staphaurex-positive isolates with morphology inconsistent with S. aureus (non-hemolytic). (cdc.gov)
- Staphaurex-positive isolates and Staphaurex-negative tube coagulase-positive isolates were identified as S. aureus and saved for further testing. (cdc.gov)
- S. aureus isolates were screened for methicillin resistance following the NCCLS disk diffusion method. (cdc.gov)
- Six isolates of S. aureus obtained from one specimen from this patient in July were sent to CDC for species confirmation and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. (cdc.gov)
- 9 Long term prophylactic antibiotic treatment reduced the frequency of isolates of S aureus from sputum culture compared with intermittent therapy. (bmj.com)
- The aim of the present study was to study S. aureus isolates from deceased wild beavers ( Castor fiber ). (nature.com)
- Isolates were characterised using S. aureus -specific DNA microarrays, spa typing and whole-genome sequencing. (nature.com)
- The CC49 and CC1956 isolates carried distinct lukF/S genes related to the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) from human isolates of S. aureus . (nature.com)
- Similarly, twenty four S. aureus isolates were intermediate to vancomycin while three were vancomycin susceptible and no isolate was resistant to vancomycin. (scialert.net)
- This report describes the first isolation of VISA from a patient in the United States, which may be an early warning that S. aureus strains with full resistance to vancomycin will emerge. (cdc.gov)
- This report documents the emergence of VISA in the United States and may signal the eventual emergence of S. aureus strains with full resistance to vancomycin. (cdc.gov)
- To accurately detect staphylococci with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin, antimicrobial susceptibility should be determined with a quantitative method (broth dilution, agar dilution, or agar gradient diffusion) using a full 24 hours of incubation at 95 F (35 C). Strains of staphylococci with vancomycin MICs of 8 ug/mL were not detected using disk-diffusion procedures. (cdc.gov)
- Detailed recommendations for the prevention, detection, and control of S. aureus strains with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin are outlined in 'Interim Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Staphylococcal Infection Associated with Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin,' published previously in MMWR (4). (cdc.gov)
- We characterized a clinical isolate of vancomycin-resistant, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (VR-MSSA) and document the in vivo transfer of the vanA gene cluster to 2 unrelated S. aureus strains causing bacteremia within the same patient. (cdc.gov)
- We demonstrated that acetoin is (i) produced by clinical S. aureus strains, (ii) detected in sputa from CF patients, and (iii) involved in P. aeruginosa's aco system induction. (biorxiv.org)
- This competitive interaction between P. aeruginosa and S. aureus is observed for both environmental and clinical strains as both pathogens are frequently co-isolated from wounds and CF lung samples ( 7 , 8 ). (biorxiv.org)
- A 1 year surveillance study of glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus strains in a French hospital. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- show that the gene for PVL is always present in S. aureus strains that cause pyomyosistis in Cambodian children, but is rarely found in S. aureus taken from the noses of their healthy counterparts. (elifesciences.org)
- The size of the chromosome is comparable to that of other sequenced S. aureus strains. (harvard.edu)
- S. aureus infections led to nearly 20,000 deaths in 2017 in the United States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (nih.gov)
- Dalbavancin is currently FDA-approved in the United States for treating acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, including those caused by S. aureus . (nih.gov)
- Dalbavancin is appealing as a potential option for treatment of these serious S. aureus infections, and we need high quality data to find out if it works," said Dr. Holland, "This trial will provide clinicians and patients with that data. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest that inhibition of SpdC could be used as an approach to combat S. aureus infections and understand the mechanisms involved in its transition from commensal to pathogen. (pasteur.fr)
- Staphylococcus aureus can be a harmless coloniser, but it can also cause severe infections in humans, livestock and wildlife. (nature.com)
- Risk factors for invasive infections by heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) may involve resistance to opsonophagocytosis and bacterial killing. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Here in red you see one of these so-called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that's ensnared Staphylococcus aureus (green), a type of bacteria known for causing a range of illnesses from skin infections to pneumonia. (nih.gov)
- For example, the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus can cause blood infections or a severe and painful infection of the muscle called pyomyositis, which is very common in children who live in the tropics. (elifesciences.org)
- As a result, the Belgian national reference centre (NRC) was commissioned to update the epidemiology of S. aureus causing community-onset skin and soft tissues infection (CO-SSTI) to assess the proportion of EEFIC among them. (nih.gov)
- Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of skin and soft tissue infection in both the health care and community settings. (cdc.gov)
- The trial will enroll 200 adults hospitalized with complicated S. aureus infection at approximately 20 trial sites around the United States. (nih.gov)
- S. aureus is a leading cause of antibiotic-resistant infection. (nih.gov)
- S. aureus bacteremia-an infection of the blood-often requires inserting a central intravenous (IV) catheter to deliver long courses of antibiotics, an invasive procedure that can involve long-term care in healthcare facilities. (nih.gov)
- Pulmonary infection with S aureus is a frequent problem in patients with cystic fibrosis, particularly during the first decade of life. (bmj.com)
- 3 Infection with S aureus is usually associated with symptoms, but asymptomatic carriage is also common. (bmj.com)
- The approach to the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis with S aureus infection of the airways varies. (bmj.com)
- 4 In some centres patients are started on oral antistaphylococcal medication from diagnosis, 5 while in others continuous antimicrobial treatment is started when the first infection with S aureus occurs. (bmj.com)
- This organism is a key factor in the amplification of pulmonary inflammation and lung injury and is associated with a much worse prognosis than intermittent infection with S aureus . (bmj.com)
- In the context of infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are frequently co-isolated, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. (biorxiv.org)
- Staphylococcus aureus infection in haemodialysis patients. (microbiologyresearch.org)
- Pyomyositis is a severe bacterial infection of skeletal muscle, commonly affecting children in tropical regions, predominantly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . (elifesciences.org)
- We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. (cdc.gov)
- Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat. (cdc.gov)
- Staphylococcus aureus (staph) is a type of bacteria found on people's skin. (cdc.gov)
- The antibiotic dalbavancin has strong activity against gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus , which suggests it could be an effective treatment for S. aureus bacteremia. (nih.gov)
- Staph´ bacteria (Staphylococcus aures or S. Aureus) are commonly found on the skin and in the nose of healthy people. (acphd.org)
- Due to its beneficial effects on both bacteria, acetoin catabolism could testify to the establishment of trophic cooperation between S. aureus and P. aeruginosa in the CF lung environment, thus promoting their persistence. (biorxiv.org)
- Scientists believe that pyomyositis happens when S. aureus bacteria in the blood stream infect the muscles. (elifesciences.org)
- One potential cause is a toxin produced by some S. aureus bacteria called Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL). (elifesciences.org)
- A clinical trial to test the antibiotic dalbavancin for safety and efficacy in treating complicated Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus ) bacteremia has begun. (nih.gov)
- If the two-dose regimen being tested in this trial proves effective, it could lead to a shorter, less invasive treatment for S. aureus bacteremia that does not require an indwelling IV access for daily therapy. (nih.gov)
- It is called the "Dalbavancin as an Option for Treatment of S. aureus Bacteremia (DOTS)" trial. (nih.gov)
- There is discordance between providers' use of cardiovascular imaging (CVI) in assessing patients for infective endocarditis (IE) with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). (bvsalud.org)
- Staphylococcus aureus is a widespread and extremely versatile bacterium that colonises about 20-30% of any human population. (nature.com)
- Among them, Staphylococcus aureus is particularly sensitive to P. aeruginosa virulence factors and they can directly lyse staphylococci ( 7 ). (biorxiv.org)
- An Institut Pasteur-CNRS research team has characterized a Staphylococcus aureus gene involved in virulence, biofilm formation and resistance to certain antibiotics. (pasteur.fr)
- These results open up new avenues for understanding the control of S. aureus virulence mechanisms. (pasteur.fr)
- Nasal swabs were first examined for proper labeling and integrity, and then plated on mannitol salt agar (MSA), a selective media for the isolation of S. aureus . (cdc.gov)
- Milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. aureus using standard bacteriological procedures. (scialert.net)
- The pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus in the trauma patient and potential future therapies. (nih.gov)
- The Signaling and Pathogenesis of Staphylococci team, led by Tarek Msadek, a researcher in the Biology of Gram-positive Pathogens Unit at the Institut Pasteur (CNRS ERL 3526), is studying bacterial responses to environmental variations and their role in Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis and host interactions. (pasteur.fr)
- Here the isdgenes (iron-regulated surface determinant) of Staphylococcus aureus were found to encode factors responsible for hemoglobin binding and passage of heme-iron to the cytoplasm, where it acts as an essential nutrient. (caltech.edu)
- NETWORK ON ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Release Date: April 1, 1998 RFP AVAILABLE: NIH-NIAID-DMID-98-24 P.T. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases has a requirement to operate and maintain the NIAID Network on Antimicrobial Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (NARSA). (nih.gov)
- An important public health issue is the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements spreading across different Staphylococcus species including S. aureus . (nature.com)
- Glycopeptide resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. (nih.gov)
- Optimizing cardiovascular imaging in Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis. (bvsalud.org)
- 1 Department of Microbiology, LHUB-ULB, National Reference Centre for Staphylococcus aureus and other species, Université libre de Bruxelles, route de Lennik 808, 1070 Brussels, Belgium. (nih.gov)
- The value of prophylactic antibiotic treatment against Staphylococcus aureus in the management of infants and children is an example of a logical practice which has developed on the basis of experience, but which requires careful review as to its efficacy and potential deleterious effects. (bmj.com)
- Several antibiotics appear to be effective in eradicating S aureus , though none of the studies compared antibiotic treatment with a placebo. (bmj.com)
- In August 2018, a public health alert was issued in Belgium regarding clusters of impetigo cases caused by the epidemic European fusidic acid-resistant impetigo clone (EEFIC) of Staphylococcus aureus. (nih.gov)
- To understand the contribution of bacterial genomic factors to pyomyositis, we conducted a genome-wide association study of S. aureus cultured from 101 children with pyomyositis and 417 children with asymptomatic nasal carriage attending the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia. (elifesciences.org)
- They conclusively confirm that antistaphylococcal treatment consistently achieves sputum clearance of S aureus in patients with cystic fibrosis. (bmj.com)
- In the present study, we explored the impact of S. aureus on the physiology of P. aeruginosa in the context of coexistence. (biorxiv.org)
- Transcriptomic analyses showed that S. aureus significantly and specifically affects the expression of numerous genes involved in P. aeruginosa carbon and amino acid metabolism. (biorxiv.org)
- Furthermore, acetoin is catabolized by P. aeruginosa , a metabolic process that improves the survival of both pathogens by providing a new carbon source for P. aeruginosa and avoiding the toxic accumulation of acetoin on S. aureus . (biorxiv.org)
- For 1 year, Belgian clinical laboratories were asked to send their first three S. aureus isolated from CO-SSTI each month. (nih.gov)
- The results revealed that the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical as well as sub-clinical mastitis was higher in cattle in comparison to buffaloes. (scialert.net)
- QM/MM study of the reaction mechanism of the carboxyl transferase domain of pyruvate carboxylase from Staphylococcus aureus. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Major autolysin (Atl) of Staphylococcus aureusis a cell surface associated peptidoglycan hydrolase with amidase and glucosaminidase domains. (amrita.edu)
- Thus, the findings are useful for formulating specific control programs for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus in this region. (scialert.net)