Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Preoperative Period: The period before a surgical operation.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Intraoperative Period: The period during a surgical operation.Standard of Care: The minimum acceptable patient care, based on statutes, court decisions, policies, or professional guidelines.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Vascular Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.Hepatectomy: Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Digestive System Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Pancreaticoduodenectomy: The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Esophagectomy: Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Pneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Perioperative Period: The time periods immediately before, during and following a surgical operation.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ: A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Ophthalmologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Ambulatory Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic: Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.Blood Transfusion, Autologous: Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Cataract Extraction: The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Colectomy: Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Phacoemulsification: A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)Thoracic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.Neuronavigation: Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Anastomosis, Surgical: Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.Preanesthetic Medication: Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Lasers, Excimer: Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Parathyroidectomy: Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)United StatesCraniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Nomograms: Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Urogenital Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Vitrectomy: Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Anesthesia Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Patient Care Planning: Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.Parathyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.Common Bile Duct Neoplasms: Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Spinal NeoplasmsHeart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
Its stated aims include "the promotion of high standards of perioperative care, the exchange of professional information ... "About AfPP". Association for Preoperative Practice. Retrieved 18 November 2015. Official website Charity Commission. ...
1.1 Preoperative assessment. *1.2 Post anesthesia care unit. *1.3 Ambulatory care. *1.4 Pain management ... Practice standards[edit]. This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (June 2011) ... Post anesthesia care unit[edit]. Nurses provide extensive care to patients in the early stages of emergence from anesthetic and ... Preoperative assessment[edit]. Nurses are responsible for a large amount of the assessment done in pre-operative clinics, where ...
ODPs provide care for patients during the anaesthesia (pre-operative), surgical (intra-operative), and recovery (post-operative ... "Standards of proficiency: Operating department practitioners" (PDF). Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC). Retrieved 25 ... which changed its name in 2012 to Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC). In July 2004, the HPC published standards of ... are a type of health care provider involved with the overall planning and delivery of perioperative care. They are mainly ...
... standard appendectomy and herniorrhaphy without a mesh should be the standard of care. Amyand's hernia is commonly misdiagnosed ... Most of the cases are diagnosed intraoperatively and a preoperative diagnosis is rarely made in such cases. Management should ...
... say the use of various allogeneic blood products and/or pre-operative autologous blood transfusion is the standard of care for ... Crit Care Nurs Q. 30 (3): 263-70. doi:10.1097/01.CNQ.0000278927.44691.8c. PMID 17579310.. Check date values in: ,date=. (help)[ ... Transfusions of pre-operative self-donated (autologous) blood.[23]. Permitted procedures and products[edit]. The following ... Gyamfi C, Berkowitz RL (September 2004). "Responses by pregnant Jehovah's Witnesses on health care proxies". Obstet Gynecol. ...
Standards for operative reports are set by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) and the Joint ... The information in the operative report includes preoperative and postoperative diagnosis and the condition of the patient ...
... say the use of various allogeneic blood products and/or pre-operative autologous blood transfusion is the standard of care for ... Transfusions of pre-operative self-donated (autologous) blood. The following procedures and products are not prohibited, and ... Massiah N, Athimulam S, Loo C, Okolo S, Yoong W (October 2007). "Obstetric care of Jehovah's Witnesses: a 14-year observational ... 4, November/December 1995 Gyamfi C, Berkowitz RL (September 2004). "Responses by pregnant Jehovah's Witnesses on health care ...
Agnew, Neil (2010-04-01). "Preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing". Continuing Education in Anaesthesia Critical Care & ... The Wasserman 9-Panel Plot often called a Nine-Panel Plot is a standard layout for the graphical representation of data ...
Sinha A, Sazawal S, Pradhan A, Ramji S, Opiyo N (2015). "Chlorhexidine skin or cord care for prevention of mortality and ... Under the test conditions of the European Standard EN 1499, no significant difference in the efficacy was found between a 4% ... for preoperative skin preparation and germicidal hand rinses. Chlorhexidine eye drops have been used as a treatment for eyes ... A 2015 Cochrane review has yielded high-quality evidence that within the community setting, chlorhexidine skin or cord care can ...
In the United Kingdom, both an endometrial biopsy and a transvaginal ultrasound used in conjunction are the standard of care ... When pre-operative imaging or clinical evaluation shows tumor invading the cervix, radiation can be given before a total ... CT scans are used for preoperative imaging of tumors that appear advanced on physical exam or have a high-risk subtype (at high ...
Preoperative education is currently an important part of patient care. There is some evidence that it may slightly reduce ... No new standards, such as routine checking of blood metal ion levels, were set, but guidance was updated. Currently, FDA has ... and included navigation and preoperative planning based on a preoperative CT scan of the patient. Improved patient outcomes and ... Standard treatment with anticoagulants is for 7-10 days; however treatment for more than 21 days may be superior. Research from ...
Nevertheless, surgery for resectable metastases has become the standard of care, probably making such a trial (ethically) ... Preoperative evaluation involves imaging of the liver and its metastases, for example with ultrasound, computed tomography or ... January 2008). "Intraoperative sonography in patients with colorectal cancer and resectable liver metastases on preoperative ... although the test can be falsely normal with small lesions or preoperative chemotherapy. Baseline blood tests typically include ...
Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) SCIP is a national partnership of organizations [www.medqic.org/scip] that are ... Hence, "preoperative wait time" will increase as demand for surgery increases and/or surgical supply (operating room ... Standard practices include passive status displays (whiteboards or screens in the surgical suites) and active displays (text ... Part of a manager's job is to clearly communicate these factors to all parties involved in care delivery. There are times when ...
Preoperative teaching if delivered competently is an important aspect of patient care. Positive effects of preoperative ... the education standards are nationwide, requiring an undergraduate nursing degree and graduate diploma in perioperative nursing ... A surgical nurse, also referred to as a theatre nurse or scrub nurse, specializes in preoperative care, providing care to ... "Preoperative Care - procedure, recovery, blood, removal, pain, complications, time, infection". www.surgeryencyclopedia.com. ...
Textbook of Critical Care (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 1523. ISBN 9781437713671. Wheeless' Textbook of ... Hancharenka, V.; Tuzikov, A.; Arkhipau, V.; Kryvanos, A. (March 2009). "Preoperative planning of pelvic and lower limbs surgery ... Walker, J (Nov 9-15, 2011). "Pelvic fractures: classification and nursing management". Nursing standard (Royal College of ...
Other trends include displaying a calm and relaxed attitude during preoperative care. They don't usually experience any ... "Identifying and assessing anxiety in pre-operative patients." Nursing Standard 23.51 (2009): 35-40. Academic Search Premier. ... Treatment of preoperative anxiety may include: Preoperative patient teaching or tours Accurate and thorough information about ... Preoperational anxiety, or preoperative anxiety, is a common reaction experienced by patients who are admitted to a hospital ...
Digison, MB (2007). "A review of anti-septic agents for pre-operative skin preparation". Plastic surgical nursing : official ... Larson, E; Talbot, GH (August 1986). "An approach for selection of health care personnel handwashing agents". Infection control ... www.business-standard.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2017. Retrieved 12 July 2017. C.S.G. Krishnamacharyulu Rural ...
Nonetheless, care should be taken to use low power settings and avoid pulsed wave scanning of the fetal brain unless ... Images from the ultrasound scanner are transferred and displayed using the DICOM standard. Normally, very little post ... preoperative planning, and postoperative surveillance of patients with thyroid cancer. Many other benign and malignant ... To do otherwise would be to perform unnecessary health care to patients, which bring unwarranted costs and may lead to other ...
Donor Site Recovery When it came comparing the quadriceps muscles to the pre-operative baseline test those who used the ... Around $500 million health care dollar will come from ACL injuries. ACL injuries can be categorized into groups- contact and ... Surgeons have historically regarded patellar tendon grafts as the "gold standard" for knee stability. Hamstring grafts ... In addition, there are many health care settings around the nation where readily available, safe, and cost effective allograft ...
There have been reported cases in which pica recurs after gastric bypass in patients with a pre-operative history of the ... A longitudinal interventional study". Diabetes Care. 17 (5): 372-5. doi:10.2337/diacare.17.5.372. PMID 8062602. CS1 maint: ... standard for consideration of surgical treatment, the body mass index (BMI). The BMI is defined as the body weight (in ... and health care use in morbidly obese patients", Ann Surg, 240 (3): 416-23; discussion 423-4, doi:10.1097/01.sla. ...
A proposed standard for trials on intra-abdominal infection. World J Surg 14:148-156, 1990. Wittmann DH, Aprahamian C, ... Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, 15; 201-220, 2000. Wittmann, DH. Staged abdominal Repair: Development and Current Practice ... Suitable preoperative precautions to reduce the risk of post-operative infection following abdominal procedures. Umweltmedizin ... He developed one of the first US surgical critical care fellowship programs at the Medical College of Wisconsin in 1990 and ...
Transarterial embolization has become a standard preoperative procedure in the preoperative management.[26] If invasion of the ... In the case of a grade III meningioma, the current standard of care involves postoperative radiation treatment regardless of ... Grade II tumors may behave variably and there is no standard of whether to give radiotherapy following a gross total resection ...
... is a shape profile modification to the standard excimer laser eye surgery method that has been performed ... During the preoperative screening, a complete examination of the eye is carried out at a consultation with the surgeon to ... flap seals down usually within a few hours and the early postoperative recovery period usually about 7 days during which care ... Laser Blended Vision does not carry specific increased serious risks relative to the standard LASIK laser eye surgery itself. ...
... assuming preoperative refractive standards are met, no complications in the healing process were encountered, asymptomatic with ... a patient considering PRK is recommended to contact an eye-care practitioner for assistance in making an informed decision ... "Standards of Medical Fitness" (PDF). United States Army Medical Services. United States Department of the Army. 4 August 2011. ... provided there are no complications and all other visual standards are met. Pilots should be aware, however, that potential ...
... care units of the hospital are equipped with the latest technology and has maintained the highest standard of anesthesia care. ... The primary aim of the dental section is to provide preoperative dental clearance of the patients undergoing valve surgery. ... While the main area of service is the provision of post operative care to the cardiac surgery patients in the intensive care ... The intensive care has a capacity of 20 beds. The hospital has three Cardiac Catheterization Laboratories. The Institute also ...
... (PVE) is a preoperative procedure performed in interventional radiology to initiate hypertrophy of the anticipated future liver remnant a couple weeks prior to a major liver resection procedure. The procedure involves injecting the right or left portal vein with embolic material to occlude portal blood flow. By occluding the blood flow to areas of the liver that will be resected away, the blood is diverted to healthy parts of the liver and induces hyperplasia. This may allow for a more extensive resection or stage bilateral resections that would otherwise be contraindicated resulting in better oncological treatment outcomes. Indications for PVE depend on the ratio of future liver remnant (FLR) to total estimated liver volume (TELV) and liver condition. Although there is no consensus to the absolute minimum liver volume required for adequate post-resection liver function, a FLR/TELV ratio of at least 25% in recommended in patients with otherwise normal livers. The ...
... (desmethylalprazolam, marketed under the brand names ProSom, Eurodin) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug developed by Upjohn in the 1970s. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Estazolam is an intermediate-acting oral benzodiazepine. It is commonly prescribed for short-term treatment of insomnia. Estazolam is prescribed for the short-term treatment of certain sleep disorders. It is an effective hypnotic drug showing efficacy in increasing the time spent asleep as well as reducing awakenings during the night. Combination with non-pharmacological options for sleep management results in long-term improvements in sleep quality after discontinuation of short-term estazolam therapy. Estazolam is also sometimes used as a preoperative sleep aid. It was found to be superior to triazolam in side effect profile in preoperative patients in a trial. Estazolam also has anxiolytic properties and due to its long half life ...
... techniques include coronary catheterization, echocardiogram, Intravascular ultrasound, Cardiac PET scan, Cardiac CT scan and Cardiac MRI. A physician may recommend cardiac imaging to support a diagnosis of a heart condition. Medical specialty professional organizations discourage the use of routine cardiac imaging during pre-operative assessment for patients about to undergo low or mid-risk non-cardiac surgery because the procedure carries risks and is unlikely to result in the change of a patient's management. Stress cardiac imaging is discouraged in the evaluation of patients without cardiac symptoms or in routine follow-ups. Coronary catheterization uses pressure monitoring and blood sampling through a catheter inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the leg to determine the functioning of the heart, and, following injections of radiocontrast dye, uses X-ray fluoroscopy, typically at 30 frames per second, to visualize the position and volume of blood within the heart ...
The perioperative period (not to be confused with peroperative period - during the course of the operation) is the time period of a patient's surgical procedure. It commonly includes ward admission, anesthesia, surgery, and recovery. Perioperative may refer to the three phases of surgery: preoperative, peroperative, and postoperative, though it is a term most often used for the first and third of these only - a term which is often specifically utilized to imply 'around' the time of the surgery. The primary concern of perioperative care is to provide better conditions for patients before operation (sometimes construed as during operation) and after operation.[1] ...
The average treatment effect (ATE) is a measure used to compare treatments (or interventions) in randomized experiments, evaluation of policy interventions, and medical trials. The ATE measures the difference in mean (average) outcomes between units assigned to the treatment and units assigned to the control. In a randomized trial (i.e., an experimental study), the average treatment effect can be estimated from a sample using a comparison in mean outcomes for treated and untreated units. However, the ATE is generally understood as a causal parameter (i.e., an estimate or property of a population) that a researcher desires to know, defined without reference to the study design or estimation procedure. Both observational studies and experimental study designs with random assignment may enable one to estimate an ATE in a variety of ways. Originating from early statistical analysis in the fields of agriculture and medicine, the term "treatment" is now applied, more generally, to other fields of ...
... of most arrhythmias has a high success rate. Success rates for WPW syndrome have been as high as 95% [1] For SVT, single procedure success is 91% to 96% (95% CI) and multiple procedure success is 92% to 97% (95% CI).[2] For atrial flutter, single procedure success is 88% to 95% (95% CI) and multiple procedure success is 95% to 99% (95% CI).[2] For automatic atrial tachycardias, the success rates are 70-90%.[citation needed] The potential complications include bleeding, blood clots, pericardial tamponade, and heart block, but these risks are very low, ranging from 2.6-3.2%. For atrial fibrillation, several experienced teams of electrophysiologists in US heart centers claim they can achieve up to a 75% success rate. However one recent study claims that the success rates are in fact much lower - at 28% for single procedures. Often, several procedures are needed to raise the success rate to the 70-80% range.[3] One reason for this may be that once the heart has undergone atrial ...
A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations. In modern oncology, many regimens combine several chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy. The majority of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy are cytostatic, many via cytotoxicity. A fundamental philosophy of medical oncology, including combination chemotherapy, is that different drugs work through different mechanisms, and that the results of using multiple drugs will be synergistic to some extent. Because they have different dose-limiting adverse effects, they can be given together at full doses in chemotherapy regimens.[1]. The first successful combination chemotherapy was MOPP, introduced in 1963 for lymphomas. The term "induction regimen" refers to a chemotherapy regimen used for the initial treatment of a disease. A "maintenance regimen" refers to the ongoing use of chemotherapy to reduce the chances of a cancer ...
Surgical Outcomes Analysis & Research, SOAR, is a research laboratory of the Department of Surgery at the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center with expertise in outcomes research. SOAR investigates surgical diseases and perioperative outcomes. The group focuses on pancreatic cancer, other gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary malignancies, vascular disease, and transplant surgery. SOAR's goal is to examine quality, delivery, and financing of care in order to have an immediate impact on patient care and system improvements. The group members utilize national health services and administrative databases, as well as institutional databases, to investigate and to address factors contributing to disease outcomes and healthcare disparities. The work in SOAR incorporates advanced statistical techniques, including logistic regression, prediction score, and decision analysis modeling. Outcomes Research evaluates the ...
30% today in Japan) with curative therapy options. The main problem of ultrasound screening is that, in order to be cost-effective, it should be applied to the general population and not in tertiary hospitals. This raises the importance of the operator and equipment dependent part of the ultrasound examination. The efficiency of such a program is linked to the functional liver parenchyma of the cirrhotic patient. Therefore, some authors argue that screening should be excluded in patients with etiologies that prevent curative treatment or in patients with advanced liver disease (Child-Pugh class C). After curative therapies (surgical resection, local ablative therapies) continuing ultrasound screening is recommended first at 1 month then at 3 months intervals after the therapy to assess the effectiveness of therapy and to detect other nodules. Ultrasound exploration can be an effective procedure for the assessment of liver tumors response to treatment. Over the years, different criteria for ...
Treatment decisions often follow formal or informal algorithmic guidelines. Treatment options can often be ranked or prioritized into lines of therapy: first-line therapy, second-line therapy, third-line therapy, and so on. First-line therapy (sometimes called induction therapy, primary therapy, or front-line therapy)[2] is the first therapy that will be tried. Its priority over other options is usually either: (1) formally recommended on the basis of clinical trial evidence for its best-available combination of efficacy, safety, and tolerability or (2) chosen based on the clinical experience of the physician. If a first-line therapy either fails to resolve the issue or produces intolerable side effects, additional (second-line) therapies may be substituted or added to the treatment regimen, followed by third-line therapies, and so on. An example of a context in which the formalization of treatment algorithms and the ranking of lines of therapy is very extensive is chemotherapy regimens. Because ...
Treatment decisions often follow formal or informal algorithmic guidelines. Treatment options can often be ranked or prioritized into lines of therapy: first-line therapy, second-line therapy, third-line therapy, and so on. First-line therapy (sometimes called induction therapy, primary therapy, or front-line therapy)[2] is the first therapy that will be tried. Its priority over other options is usually either: (1) formally recommended on the basis of clinical trial evidence for its best-available combination of efficacy, safety, and tolerability or (2) chosen based on the clinical experience of the physician. If a first-line therapy either fails to resolve the issue or produces intolerable side effects, additional (second-line) therapies may be substituted or added to the treatment regimen, followed by third-line therapies, and so on. An example of a context in which the formalization of treatment algorithms and the ranking of lines of therapy is very extensive is chemotherapy regimens. Because ...
Complication, in medicine, is an unfavorable evolution or consequence of a disease, a health condition or a therapy. The disease can become worse in its severity or show a higher number of signs, symptoms or new pathological changes, become widespread throughout the body or affect other organ systems. A new disease may also appear as a complication to a previous existing disease. A medical treatment, such as drugs or surgery may produce adverse effects or produce new health problem(s) by itself. Therefore, a complication may be iatrogenic (i.e. literally brought forth by the physician).. Medical knowledge about a disease, procedure or treatment usually entails a list of the most common complications, so that they can be foreseen, prevented or recognized more easily and speedily.. Depending on the degree of vulnerability, susceptibility, age, health status, immune system condition, etc. complications may arise more easily. Complications affect adversely the prognosis of a disease. Non-invasive ...
암펠로데스모스(ampelodesmos, 학명: Ampelodesmos mauritanicus 암펠로데스모스 마우리타니쿠스[*])는 포아풀아과의 단형 족인 암펠로데스모스족(ampelodesmos族, 학명: Ampelodesmeae 암펠로데스메아이[*])의 단형 속인 암펠로데스모스속(ampelodesmos屬, 학명: Ampelodesmos 암펠로데스모스[*])에 속하는 유일한 종이다.[1][2][3][4][5][6] 고대에 나래새족과 산기장족 선조들 사이의 잡종의 일종으로 종분화를 통해 분화한 것으로 추정하고 있다.[6] 암펠로데스모스는 넓게 군락을 지어 자라는 다년생 다발풀의 일종으로 지중해 지역에서 자생한다. 자생지 분포 지역 외부로 도입되어 관상용으로 자배된다. 원추 꽃차례가 고개를 숙이며 키가 60cm에 달한다. 자생지에서 돗자리와 비, 바느질 실 등의 재료로 사용되었다. 지중해 분지 바깥의 비자생 생태계에서는 외래 침입종이 될 수 있다.[7][8][9] ...
Preoperative Upper Endoscopy Should Be Standard of Care for Patients Undergoing Bariatric Surgery. Kshitij Kakar, MD, Vikas ... Currently, preoperative endoscopic evaluation of the proximal GI tract is not the standard of care and is performed only ... The findings of our study suggest that routine EGD should become the standard of care in all patients undergoing bariatric ... CONCLUSION: Preoperative EGD provides useful information in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and helps to diagnose ...
State-of-the-art: Standard(s) of Care in Pre-Operative Treatment for Rectal Cancer. ... State-of-the-art: Standard(s) of Care in Pre-Operative Treatment for Rectal Cancer ...
Standard of care. MRSA screening, Group a MRSA preoperative screening. Other: Preoperative MRSA screening MRSA preoperative ... Keywords provided by Inova Health Care Services: Preoperative screening. MRSA. Incidence. Postoperative infection. Preoperative ... Further study details as provided by Inova Health Care Services:. Primary Outcome Measures: *The primary objective of this ... Design and Methods: Subjects in this study of 975 pre-operative, scheduled surgical patients are in one of the three following ...
Preoperative Behavioural Intervention versus standard care to Reduce Drinking before elective orthopaedic Surgery (PRE-OP BIRDS ... Snowden et al - Preoperative Behavioural Intervention versus standard care to Reduce Drinking before elective orthopaedic ... Preoperative Behavioural Intervention versus standard care to Reduce Drinking before elective orthopaedic Surgery (PRE-OP BIRDS ... Preoperative assessment presents an opportunity to intervene to optimise patients for surgery. This multicentre, two-arm, ...
T1 - Preoperative Behavioural Intervention versus standard care to Reduce Drinking before elective orthopaedic Surgery (PRE-OP ... Preoperative Behavioural Intervention versus standard care to Reduce Drinking before elective orthopaedic Surgery (PRE-OP BIRDS ... Preoperative Behavioural Intervention versus standard care to Reduce Drinking before elective orthopaedic Surgery (PRE-OP BIRDS ... Preoperative Behavioural Intervention versus standard care to Reduce Drinking before elective orthopaedic Surgery (PRE-OP BIRDS ...
The Assessment of Preoperative Psychological Intervention on Stress in Women With Gynecological Malignancies ... Both groups will receive standard care. The control group will interact with a nurse for one hour. The experimental group will ... The Assessment of Preoperative Psychological Intervention on Stress in Women With Gynecological Malignancies Brief description ... The purpose of this study is to asses the impact of a tailored preoperative psychological intervention on women with ...
British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Chee YL, Crawford JC, Watson HG, Greaves M. British Committee for Standards in ... Pre-operative haematological assessment in patients scheduled for major surgery. Munoz M, Gomez-Ramirez S, Kozek-Langeneker S ... Risk associated with preoperative anemia in noncardiac surgery: a single-center cohort study. Beattie WS, Karkouti K, ... Preoperative anaemia and postoperative outcomes in non-cardiac surgery: a retrospective cohort study. Musallam KM, Tamim HM, ...
Gamble Hygiene and Health Care Financial Results, Quarterly Results (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4) & Yearly Results & more financial news ... less: Pre-operative Expenses Capitalised. 0.00. 0.00. 0.00. Total Expenditure. 2374.98. 1778.26. 1706.88. ... Business Standard is happy to inform you of the launch of "Business Standard Premium Services" ... Quick Links for Procter & Gamble Hygiene and Health Care:. * News. Announcements Brokerage Reports Business Earnings Sector ...
Fasting prior to elective cesarean section delivery (standard of care). Experimental: Carbohydrate Drink Subjects will drink 2 ... Preoperative Oral Carbohydrate Drink for Elective Cesarean Delivery and the Effect on Insulin Sensitivity. The safety and ... Preoperative fasting and surgery can cause metabolic stress and insulin resistance. Oral carbohydrate loading has been shown to ... Preoperative Oral Carbohydrate Drink for Elective Cesarean Delivery and the Effect on Insulin Sensitivity. ...
Preoperative Care / standards. Respiratory Insufficiency / etiology, surgery*. Respiratory Tract Fistula / etiology*, pathology ... Tomography, X-Ray Computed / standards. Trachea / injuries*, radiography, surgery. Tracheostomy / adverse effects*, mortality. ...
Summary of Revisions: Standards of medical care in diabetes-2018. Diabetes Care. 2018;41(Suppl 1):S4-S6.Google Scholar ... How do we define cure of diabetes? Diabetes Care. 2009;32(11):2133-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar ... The Impact of Preoperative BMI (Obesity Class I, II, and III) on the 12-Month Evolution of Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic ... Compliance with Ethical Standards. Conflict of Interest. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. ...
Preoperative nutritional counseling versus standard care prior to bariatric surgery. Eur Surg. 2017;49(3):113-7.CrossRefGoogle ... of the departments considered preoperative esophageal manometry to be their standard. Esophageal manometry and combined 24-h pH ... a dietician was routinely included in the preoperative work-up. In 28.6% of the departments, a preoperative abdominal ... Compliance with Ethical Standards. Conflict of Interest. The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. ...
The purpose of the Society of Anesthesia and Sleep Medicine guideline on preoperative screening and assessment of adult ... This practice guideline is not intended to define standards of care or represent absolute requirements for patient care. The ... As very few well-performed randomized studies in this field of perioperative care are available, most of the recommendations ... Josephs Health care, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada; ‖Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Anesthesiology ...
... preoperative. Share your experience with this medication by writing a review. ... Reviews and ratings for scrub care exidine when used in the treatment of skin disinfection, ... We comply with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information - verify here ... User Reviews for Scrub Care Exidine to treat Skin Disinfection, Preoperative. The following information is NOT intended to ...
In addition to the standard pre-operative assessment by organ system, a more global and holistic assessment of an individuals ... Pre-operative discussion and agreement on ones wishes, goals of care, and treatments helps the care team to understand what ... Pre-Operative Education. Counseling and education are vital components of pre-operative preparation, care, and the informed ... www.jointcommission.org/en/standards/standard-faqs/critical-access-hospital/provision-of-care-treatment-and-services-pc/ ...
Preoperative nutritional counseling versus standard care prior to bariatric surgery. case report ... Standards Practice Task Force of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. Dis Colon Rectum. 2014;57(1):5-22. CrossRef ... preoperative corticosteroid treatment worsens outcome. Dig Surg. 2015;32(4):251-7. CrossRefPubMed ... a 20-year experience of a tertiary care center with an aggressive and early surgical policy. J Am Coll Surg. 2003;197(3):379-85 ...
Preoperative assessment • Postoperative care & complications • Cardiac arrest • Spinal/epidural & regional anaesthesia • Nerve ... Standard of care in anaesthesia ... Pre-operative assessment & preparation • Post-operative care & ... Intensive care medicine: • Particular interests: • General intensive care • Acute kidney injury • Vascular access • Hospital- ... Adult intensive care • Percutaneous tracheostomy • Airway care • Fluids & blood transfusion • Vascular access & central venous ...
Anesthesiology / legislation & jurisprudence, methods, standards*. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Pregnancy. Pregnancy ...
Quality standards Remove Quality standards filter * Routine preoperative tests for elective surgery (NG45) This guideline ... Social care guidelines Remove Social care guidelines filter * Highly specialised technologies guidance Remove Highly ... Intrapartum care for women with existing medical conditions or obstetric complications and their babies (NG121) This guideline ... Integrated health and care for people who are homeless through being roofless In development [GID-NG10170] Expected publication ...
Although surgical pathologic staging is now the standard of care for endometrial carcinoma; however, the role of pelvic and ... The mean preoperative SUVmax was 14.34; range (3.90-33.80) and was significantly lower for FIGO I than for higher stages (. ), ... The mean preoperative SUVmax was 14.34; range (3.90-33.80). The mean SUVmax in relation to pathological parameters is shown in ... reported that preoperative SUVmax for the primary tumor in 60 patients with endometrial cancer (FIGO stage I to III) was ...
Preoperative Care. *Follow standard pre-operative care guidelines.. *The bowel needs to be protected from injury. ... Surgical neonates - pathway for provision and location of intensive care. *Surgery - pre-operative and post-operative care of ... Care of the non-surgical Omphalocoele. *Swab the omphalocoele 4 hourly with 70% ethanol alcohol or as per the surgeons ... Gastroschisis/Ruptured Omphalocoele, Postoperative Care of the Pouch (Staged Repair). *Support the silastic pouch by cotton ...
Preoperative care. *Follow standard steps for preoperative care. Postoperative care. *Follow the standard steps for ... Surgical neonates - pathway for provision and location of intensive care. *Surgery - pre-operative and post-operative care of ...
N: number, SD: standard deviation, CPB time: cardiopulmonary bypass time, ICU: intensive care unit, BDI: Beck Depression ... We found that preoperative STAI-T scores were associated with increased 7-year mortality, and these results highlight the ... Patients who died had also higher preoperative BDI, STAI-S, and STAI-T and higher postdischarge BDI and STAI-T scores and a ... The non-responder patients were more likely to spend more than two days in the intensive care unit (ICU), and they more ...
Diabetes care in the hospital: standards of medical care in diabetes -- 2019. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(Suppl 1):S173-S181. PMID: ... Neumayer L, Ghalyaie N. Principles of preoperative and operative surgery. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL ... After you leave the hospital, it is important for you to work with your primary care team to make sure your blood sugar ... Work with your health care provider to come up with the safest surgery plan for you. ...
Preoperative Fasting. For decades, fasting after midnight was the standard of care before surgery. This was thought to reduce ... Nygren J, Thorell A, Ljungqvist O. Preoperative oral carbohydrate nutrition: an update. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2001;4: ... The incidence of preoperative anxiety may be as high as 80%.64 Pharmacological preoperative sedation is the traditional method ... These include preoperative education and counseling, avoiding prolonged starvation times, and preoperative carbohydrate loading ...
  • Measures intended to prevent wound infection typically attempt to modify the host and local tissue factors and include, for example, preoperative optimization of comorbid illness, control of the operative environment, proper cleansing of the skin and use of aseptic surgical technique. (aafp.org)
  • This pilot randomised controlled trial will establish the feasibility and acceptability of trial procedures reducing uncertainties ahead of a definitive randomised controlled trial to establish the effectiveness of brief behavioural intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in the preoperative period and the potential impact on perioperative complications. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • The researchers assigned these subjects to either the intervention group, which received hand massage, or the control group, which received standard care. (massagemag.com)
  • Address correspondence to Dr. Funcke: Department of Anesthesiology, Center of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany. (asahq.org)
  • This guideline covers care during labour and birth for women who need extra support because they have a medical condition or complications in their current or previous pregnancy. (nice.org.uk)
  • 15. Diabetes care in the hospital: standards of medical care in diabetes -- 2019. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each year ACORN contacts its members for expressions of interest in joining the SAT . The 2019 SAT recruitment is now closed and 57 members are currently preparing content for the next edition of the Standards. (acorn.org.au)
  • The 2019 Standards Advisory Team is also currently working on the following six documents for inclusion in the 16th edition. (acorn.org.au)
  • NHMRC released the new guideline in June 2019 and ACORN anticipates that its revised Reprocessing of Reusable Medical Devices standard will be the next released. (acorn.org.au)
  • This guideline covers the care and management of type 2 diabetes in adults (aged 18 and over). (nice.org.uk)
  • The guideline also covers women who have had no antenatal care. (nice.org.uk)
  • When a particular standard, guideline or position statement is targetted for development or review a small group of SAT members are convened into a specialised team based on their interest and expertise in the specific subject of the document under review. (acorn.org.au)
  • However, these calculators only address one aspect of preoperative planning and do not routinely incorporate disease-specific parameters. (facs.org)
  • Provide the most complete and highest quality medical care available, which will make our delivery system attractive to insurance carriers. (careerbuilder.com)
  • Consent to standard anesthetic and analgesic protocol, with medical care as deemed necessary by an anesthesiologist, and have no contraindications. (rush.edu)
  • or to standard medical care (SMC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Get immediate medical care if you have chest pain that does not go away, crushing pain or pressure in the chest, or chest pain along with nausea, sweating, dizziness or shortness of breath. (patientsville.com)