Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Isotopes: Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Zinc Isotopes: Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ferrocyanides: Inorganic salts of the hypothetical acid ferrocyanic acid (H4Fe(CN)6).Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Iron Isotopes: Stable iron atoms that have the same atomic number as the element iron, but differ in atomic weight. Fe-54, 57, and 58 are stable iron isotopes.Dipyridamole: A phosphodiesterase inhibitor that blocks uptake and metabolism of adenosine by erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Dipyridamole also potentiates the antiaggregating action of prostacyclin. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p752)Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Indicator Dilution Techniques: Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Antidotes: Agents counteracting or neutralizing the action of POISONS.Radioisotope Dilution Technique: Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Alopecia: Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Radioactive Tracers: Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Radionuclide Ventriculography: Imaging of a ventricle of the heart after the injection of a radioactive contrast medium. The technique is less invasive than cardiac catheterization and is used to assess ventricular function.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.Poisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Gated Blood-Pool Imaging: Radionuclide ventriculography where scintigraphic data is acquired during repeated cardiac cycles at specific times in the cycle, using an electrocardiographic synchronizer or gating device. Analysis of right ventricular function is difficult with this technique; that is best evaluated by first-pass ventriculography (VENTRICULOGRAPHY, FIRST-PASS).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.IodobenzenesIntestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Zinc Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Strontium Isotopes: Stable strontium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element strontium, but differ in the atomic weight. Sr-84, 86, 87, and 88 are the stable strontium isotopes.Calcium Isotopes: Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Methane: The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Hair: A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.Feathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Neutron Activation Analysis: Activation analysis in which the specimen is bombarded with neutrons. Identification is made by measuring the resulting radioisotopes. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Meteoroids: Any solid objects moving in interplanetary space that are smaller than a planet or asteroid but larger than a molecule. Meteorites are any meteoroid that has fallen to a planetary surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Olfactory Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OLFACTORY NERVE. It may result in various olfactory dysfunction including a complete loss of smell.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Myocardial Stunning: Prolonged dysfunction of the myocardium after a brief episode of severe ischemia, with gradual return of contractile activity.
... a stable isotope is reached: there are about 200 stable isotopes in the universe. Stable isotopes have ratios of neutrons to ... The ending isotope of this chain is now known to be thallium-205. Some older sources give the final isotope as bismuth-209, but ... The daughter isotope may be stable or it may decay to form a daughter isotope of its own. The daughter of a daughter isotope is ... stable isotopes of lead. The mass number of every isotope in these chains can be represented as A = 4n, A = 4n + 2, and A = 4n ...
Thallium-203 (A) Thallium-205 (A) Lead-204 (A) Lead-206 (A) Lead-207 (A) Lead-208 (A) Bismuth** and above - No stable isotopes ... Stable isotopes: 1 element (tin) has 10 stable isotopes 1 element (xenon) has 8 stable isotopes 4 elements have 7 stable ... isotopes apiece 7 elements have 6 stable isotopes apiece 11 elements have 5 stable isotopes apiece 9 elements have 4 stable ... 5 elements have 3 stable isotopes apiece 16 elements have 2 stable isotopes apiece 26 elements have 1 single stable isotope. ...
210Po is an alpha emitter that has a half-life of 138.4 days; it decays directly to its stable daughter isotope, 206Pb. A ... thallium, lead, and bismuth. Due to the short half-life of all its isotopes, its natural occurrence is limited to tiny traces ... "Polonium's Most Stable Isotope Gets Revised Half-Life Measurement". nist.gov. NIST Tech Beat. Retrieved 9 September 2014. " ... A rare and highly radioactive metal with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to selenium and tellurium, though ...
Since there is only one stable gold isotope, 197Au, nuclear reactions must create this isotope in order to produce usable gold ... but either convert into each other or beta decay into the thallium isotopes 203Tl and 205Tl. Using fast neutrons, the mercury ... decay into gold's only stable isotope, 197Au. When other mercury isotopes are irradiated with slow neutrons, they also undergo ... Rhenium has two naturally occurring isotopes, 185Re and 187Re. Irradiation by slow neutrons would transmute these isotopes into ...
... has 25 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 184 to 210. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and ... and is actually a thallium(I) compound. Thallium(III) sesquichalcogenides do not exist. The thallium(I) halides are stable. In ... 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 3.78 years. It is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium ... It is the most popular isotope used for thallium nuclear cardiac stress tests. Thallium(III) compounds resemble the ...
... the heavier nihonium isotopes are more stable than the lighter ones. The most stable known nihonium isotope, 286Nh, is also the ... For example, nihonium should be more stable in the +1 oxidation state than the +3 state, like thallium, but in the +1 state it ... The undiscovered isotope 293Nh has been predicted to be the most stable towards beta decay; however, no known nihonium isotope ... Nihonium has no stable or naturally occurring isotopes. Several radioactive isotopes have been synthesized in the laboratory, ...
... and thallium ( 81Tl ), have two odd-even stable isotopes each. This makes a total of 30×1 + 9×2 = 48 stable odd-even isotopes. ... have one stable odd-even isotope, the elements technetium ( 43Tc ) and promethium ( 61Pm ) have no stable isotopes, and nine ... These 48 stable nuclides, stabilized by their even numbers of paired neutrons, form most of the stable isotopes of the odd- ... These 53 stable nuclides have an even number of protons and an odd number of neutrons. By definition, they are all isotopes of ...
There are seven stable isotopes of mercury (80Hg) with 202Hg being the most abundant (29.86%). The longest-lived radioisotopes ... Mercury-180, producible from thallium-180, was found in 2010 to be capable of an unusual form of spontaneous fission. The ... Abbreviations: EC: Electron capture IT: Isomeric transition Bold for stable isotopes When produced from 180Tl can also undergo ... Registration required (help)). Isotope masses from: G. Audi; A. H. Wapstra; C. Thibault; J. Blachot; O. Bersillon (2003). "The ...
Thallium (81Tl) has 37 isotopes with atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and ... but 203Tl remains stable. Abbreviations: EC: Electron capture IT: Isomeric transition Bold for stable isotopes Main isotope ... is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor. In the fully ionized state, the isotope 205Tl ... Thallium-202 (half-life 12.23 days) can be made in a cyclotron while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) ...
The most stable of these is 120m1Sb with a half-life of 5.76 days. Isotopes that are lighter than the stable 123Sb tend to ... The abundance of antimony in the Earth's crust is estimated to be 0.2 to 0.5 parts per million, comparable to thallium at 0.5 ... Antimony has two stable isotopes: 121Sb with a natural abundance of 57.36% and 123Sb with a natural abundance of 42.64%. It ... Antimony is stable in air at room temperature, but reacts with oxygen if heated to produce antimony trioxide, Sb2O3. Antimony ...
Solvent solvation solvent species Specific heat capacity Spectroscopy Speed of sound Sperrylite Spinel Spodumene stable isotope ... Tabun Talc Talcum Tantalite Tantalum Tanzanite Teallite Technetium Telluride Tellurium Tennessine Terbium Tetryl Thallium ... oxide Irving Langmuir isocyanate Isomer isoprene isotope Isotope table (complete) Isotope table (divided) Israel Shahak IUPAC J ...
... with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons. It ... ISBN 1-56676-661-3. Dehaas, W.; Deboer, J.; Vandenberg, G. (1935). "The electrical resistance of cadmium, thallium and tin at ... The relative differences in the abundances of tin's stable isotopes can be explained by their different modes of formation in ... Another 30 metastable isomers have been characterized for isotopes between 111 and 131, the most stable being 121mSn with a ...
... which begins with the parent isotope 235U (or 239Pu) and ends with the stable lead isotope 207Pb. The isotope 228Ac is a ... and ending with thallium (205Tl) and near-stable bismuth (209Bi), but this chain existed only in the early Solar System, due to ... which begins with the parent isotope 232Th and ends with the stable lead isotope 208Pb. Another actinium isotope (225Ac) was ... The isotopes of actinium range in atomic weight from 206 u (206 Ac) to 236 u (236 Ac). Actinium is found only in traces in ...
Thallium (81Tl) has 37 isotopes with atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and ... while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor.[3] ... In the fully ionized state, the isotope 205Tl becomes beta-radioactive, decaying to 205Pb,[4] but 203Tl remains stable. ... List of isotopes[edit]. nuclide. symbol. historic. name. Z(p). N(n). isotopic mass (u). half-life. decay. mode(s)[5][n 1]. ...
Thallium (Tl) has 37 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes ... Isotopes of thallium. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is an old revision of this page, as edited by JorisvS. (talk ... while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor.[2] ... It means that in fully ionized state thallium has only one stable isotope - 203Tl. ...
... has 31 known isotopes, ranging in mass number from 56 to 86. Only two isotopes are stable and occur naturally, gallium- ... although it is less common than it is for gallium's heavier congeners indium and thallium. For example, the very stable GaCl2 ... Isotopes lighter than gallium-69 usually decay through beta plus decay (positron emission) or electron capture to isotopes of ... The radioactive isotope 67Ga is used, and the compound or salt of gallium is unimportant. The body handles Ga3+ in many ways as ...
... is the "quasi-stable" isotope of bismuth with the longest known half-life of any radioisotope that undergoes α- ... The decay event produces a 3.14 MeV alpha particle and converts the atom to thallium-205. Bismuth-209 will eventually form ... 209 82Pb → 209 83Bi + e− Bismuth-209 was long thought to have the heaviest stable nucleus of any element, but in 2003, Noël ... Isotopes of bismuth 4.48 grams = 8900000000 * (1 - 0.5 ^ (13798000000 / (600 * (10 ^ 24) / 31557600))) 8,900 metric tons * ...
Therefore, for synthetic elements the total nucleon count[dubious - discuss] of the most stable isotope (i.e., the isotope with ... For example, thallium in igneous rock has more lighter isotopes, while in sedimentary rock it has more heavy isotopes. There is ... Thallium81Tl​204.38 Lead82Pb​207.2 Bis-muth83Bi​208.98 Polo-nium84Po​[209] Asta-tine85At​[210] Radon86Rn​[222] ... Out of the 118 known chemical elements, 80 have stable isotopes and 84 have this Earth-environment based value. Typically, such ...
... and thallium ( 81Tl ), have two odd-even stable isotopes each. This makes a total 30 + 2(9) = 48 stable odd-even isotopes. ... eight have six stable isotopes, ten have five stable isotopes, nine have four stable isotopes, five have three stable isotopes ... For the 80 elements that have one or more stable isotopes, the average number of stable isotopes is 253/80 = 3.1625 isotopes ... 16 have two stable isotopes (counting 180m 73Ta as stable), and 26 elements have only a single stable isotope (of these, 19 are ...
... neither of the two has any isotope sufficiently stable to occur in nature on Earth in significant quantities. The connection to ... Indium, rubidium, and thallium were similarly named for the colors of particular lines in their emission spectra. Iridium, ...
The most stable isotope of neptunium, neptunium-237, is a by-product of nuclear reactors and plutonium production. It, and the ... 237Np eventually decays to form bismuth-209 and thallium-205, unlike most other common heavy nuclei which decay into isotopes ... This element also has at least four meta states, with the most stable being 236mNp with a half-life of 22.5 hours. The isotopes ... Heavier isotopes of neptunium decay quickly, and lighter isotopes of neptunium cannot be produced by neutron capture, so ...
The cyclotron is used to accelerate protons to bombard the stable heavy isotope of oxygen O-18. The O-18 constitutes about 0.20 ... Nuclear medicine myocardial perfusion scan with thallium-201 for the rest images (bottom rows) and Tc-Sestamibi for the stress ... In mid-February, 2009, the reactor was shut down once again due to a mechanism problem that extracts the isotope containing ... The upgrade took longer than expected, and in December 2007 a critical shortage of medical isotopes occurred. The Canadian ...
Heavier isotopes are expected to be more stable; 320Ubu is predicted to be the most stable unbiunium isotope, but there is no ... and not thallium and nihonium as would be expected from looking at their electron configurations. The Ubu-F bond is expected to ... iodine's only stable isotope has 53 protons and 74 neutrons, neutron-proton ratio of 1.396; gold's only stable isotope has 79 ... the only stable isotope of aluminium has 13 protons and 14 neutrons, making a neutron-proton ratio of 1.077). However, isotopes ...
The only primordial isotope of bismuth, bismuth-209, was traditionally regarded as the heaviest stable isotope, but it had long ... Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium ... Iso-tope Abun-dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro-duct ... It is stable only below −60 °C.[42] Bismuthides are ... This isotope has also been tried in cancer treatment, for example, in the targeted alpha therapy (TAT) program.[39][40] ...
Other nuclei decay instantaneously or form only stable isotopes and can only be identified by PGNAA. Neutron Activation ... Scintillation-type detectors use a radiation-sensitive crystal, most commonly thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)), which ... elements that produce only stable isotopes; or elements with weak decay gamma ray intensities. PGNAA is characterised by short ... High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Labs NAA capabilities. Neutron flux Neutron howitzer Pollard, A. M., ...
Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium ... Flerov, G. N. (1967). "On the nuclear properties of the isotopes 256103 and 257103". Nucl. Phys. A. 106 (2): 476. Bibcode: ... The reactivity of the elements, especially yttrium, is not always obvious due to the formation of a stable oxide layer, which ... The first atoms of lawrencium were produced by bombarding a three-milligram target consisting of three isotopes of the element ...
Thallium (81Tl) has 37 isotopes with atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and ... while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor.[3] ... In the fully ionized state, the isotope 205Tl becomes beta-radioactive, decaying to 205Pb,[4] but 203Tl remains stable. ... List of isotopes[edit]. nuclide. symbol. historic. name. Z(p). N(n). isotopic mass (u). half-life. decay. mode(s)[5][n 1]. ...
Thallium (Tl) has 37 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes ... Isotopes of thallium. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is an old revision of this page, as edited by JorisvS. (talk ... while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor.[2] ... It means that in fully ionized state thallium has only one stable isotope - 203Tl. ...
Thallium has 25 isotopes which have atomic masses that range from 184 to 210. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and ... and is actually a thallium(I) compound. Thallium(III) sesquichalcogenides do not exist. The thallium(I) halides are stable. In ... 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 3.78 years. It is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium ... It is the most popular isotope used for thallium nuclear cardiac stress tests. Thallium(III) compounds resemble the ...
Thallium-205 Oxide Isotope 205Tl2O3 bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples ... About Thallium-205 Oxide Isotope. Thallium-205 Oxideis one of over 200 stable isotopes produced by American Elements for ... Customers For Thallium-205 Oxide Isotope Have Also Viewed. Thallium-203 Oxide Isotope ... Related Applications, Forms & Industries for Thallium-205 Oxide Isotope. Isotopes. Oxides. Research & Laboratory. ...
Thallium (81Tl) has 37 isotopes with atomic masses that range from 176 to 212. 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable isotopes and ... but 203Tl remains stable. Abbreviations: EC: Electron capture IT: Isomeric transition Bold for stable isotopes Main isotope ... is made by the neutron activation of stable thallium in a nuclear reactor. In the fully ionized state, the isotope 205Tl ... Thallium-202 (half-life 12.23 days) can be made in a cyclotron while thallium-204 (half-life 3.78 years) ...
Like lead, thallium is a soft, low-melting element of low tensile strength. Freshly cut thallium has a metallic lustre that ... Thallium (Tl), chemical element, metal of main Group 13 (IIIa, or boron group) of the periodic table, poisonous and of limited ... consists almost entirely of a mixture of two stable isotopes: thallium-203 (29.5 percent) and thallium-205 (70.5 percent). ... thallium-206 and thallium-210 (uranium series), thallium-208 (thorium series), and thallium-207 (actinium series). ...
The resulting thallium contains the two naturally occurring stable isotopes, with around 30% of it made up of atomic mass 203 ... Thallium is also being tested in high-temperature ceramic superconductors.. Alongside the two stable isotopes, there are a ... Thallium 201 disappears from the body long before it can cause the lethal damage of the more stable isotopes. ... Thallium bromide-iodide crystals have also been used in infrared detectors. The addition of metals like thallium to glass can ...
Schauble, E.A., Role of nuclear volume in driving equilibrium stable isotope fractionation of mercury, thallium, and other very ... Schauble, E.A., Meheut, M., and Hill, P.S., Combining metal stable isotope fractionation theory with experiments, ELEMENTS, ... Isotope chemistry of heavy elements, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, vol. 118, pp. 3676-3680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Bopp, C.J., Lundstrom, C.C., Johnson, T.M., and Glessner, J.J.G., Variations in 238U/235U in uranium ore deposits: Isotope ...
The masses for the two stable isotopes are 202.9723amu for thallium-203 and 204.9744amu for thallium-205. Calculate the per ... Carbon-12 and carbon-14 are two isotopes of carbon. How are individual atoms of these two isotopes the same? How are they ... Calculating Percent Abundance The atomic weight of Thallium is 204.3833 amu. ...
Thallium has 25 isotopes, with atomic masses that range from 184 to 210. Among them, 203Tl and 205Tl are the only stable ... Main article: Isotopes of thallium. iso. NA. half-life. DM. DE (MeV). DP. ... For instance, thallium is used in certain semiconductor materials and gamma ray detectors. Thallium oxide has been used to ... Crystals of thallium bromide-iodide have been used as infrared optical materials. Some thallium compounds were used in the past ...
Six stable lead isotope profiles are developed from the western and eastern North Atlantic, demonstrating consistent mixed ... This study presents new observations of the large (0.7% amu-l), time-dependent mass fractionation determined by thallium ... A consistent method for stable lead isotope analysis via multiple collector ICP-MS is first presented. This method is then ... First, a reliable method is developed for stable lead isotope analysis by multiple collector ICP-MS. ...
The existence of isotopes can be understood by reviewing the structure of atoms. All atoms contain three kinds of basic ... Isotope Isotopes are two forms of an element with the same atomic number [1] but different mass number [2]. ... Only two isotopes have been given distinctive names, both isotopes of hydrogen . The stable isotope 2H is known as deuterium , ... Newer radioisotopes produced this way for medical applications include thallium-201 and iodine-123. ...
Neptunium 236 is a fairly stable isotope; its half life is about 154,000 years. What makes it useful is that it decays about ... because of the intense gamma radiation associated with its decay product Thallium-208. (In addition 236Pu itself generates even ... One efficient route could be to add neptunium to fresh fuel, because 237Np effectively the only neptunium isotope present in ... A high concentration of the isotopes 238Pu or 240Pu is particularly undesirable to potential proliferators because of their ...
Thallium (Tl) is a typical toxic element, whose biological effects and geochemical behavior are closely related with its ... the explanation for thallium enrichment and stable isotope fractionation in marine ferromanganese precipitates. Geochim ... Tracing anthropogenic thallium in soil using stable isotopes. J Environ Sci Technol 48:9030-9036 ... Nielsen SG, Wasylenki LE, Rehkamper M, Peacock CL, Xue ZC, Moon EM (2013) Towards an understanding of thallium isotope ...
Stable Isotope Laboratory, a coauthor of the report, which is to be published in the journal Chemistry International in March. ... chlorine and thallium. ... but measurement of the ratio of carbon isotopes of the honey ... In the past, chemists have given the element credit for an atomic weight of 10.811 - an average of the isotopes found in nature ...
Protactinium: Isotopes(3). quote:. Twenty-nine radioisotopes of protactinium have been discovered, the most stable being 231Pa ... thallium, and thorium. All are present, at least transiently, in any natural uranium-containing sample, whether metal, compound ... The term isotope subdivides elements into groups of atoms that have the same atomic weight. For example carbon has isotopes of ... Thus when you have one isotope (mass M1( decaying into other isotope (mass M2) by alpha decay (mass mα), the energy of the ...
... high-speed acquisition with image quality and radiation delivery comparable to that obtained with conventional single isotope p ... have made it possible to develop a dual-isotope protocol for ... Next Document: Clinically stable very low birthweight infants ... Stress thallium-201/rest technetium-99m sequential dual-isotope high-speed myocardial perfusion imaging validation versus ... Sensitivity of dual-isotope high-speed MPI was 94%, normalcy rate was 92%, and accuracy was 83% for detecting CAD.. CONCLUSION ...
... stable isotopes; thallium; Show all 11 Subjects. Abstract:. ... We studied thallium (Tl) isotope fractionation in white mustard ... 4. Thallium stable isotope fractionation in white mustard: Implications for metal transfers and incorporation in plants ... Thallium isotope signatures in plants indicated preferential incorporation of the light 203Tl isotope during Tl uptake from the ... Negative isotope fractionation was even more pronounced in dependence on how much the available Tl pool decreased. This finding ...
Tracing anthropogenic thallium in soil using stable isotope compositions. A multimarker panel for circulating tumor cells ... Geochemical data strongly indicate that methane is oxidized under anaerobic conditions, and compound-specific carbon isotope ...
Thallium stable isotope ratios in naturally Tl-rich soils. Vaněk, A., Voegelin, A., Mihaljevič, M., Ettler, V., Trubač, J., ... Thallium stable isotope fractionation in white mustard: Implications for metal transfers and incorporation in plants. Vaněk, A ... Thallium stable isotope fractionation in white mustard: Implications for metal transfers and incorporation in plants. Journal ... Thallium sorption onto manganese oxides. Wick, S., Peña, J., & Voegelin, A. (2019). Thallium sorption onto manganese oxides. ...
2 - Thallium has two stable isotopes, 203TIand 205Tl....Ch. 2 - Strontium has four stable isotopes. Strontium-84...Ch. 2 - ... 2 - Europium has two stable isotopes, 151Eu and 153Eu,...Ch. 2 - Titanium and thallium have symbols that are easily...Ch. 2 - ... 2.4 - Neon has three stable isotopes, one with a small...Ch. 2.4 - 1. Which is the more abundant isotope of copper,...Ch. 2.4 ... Which isotope in each of the following pairs should be stable? (a) 510B or 59B (b) 818O or 816O (c) 1224Mg or 1... ...
In nature the element occurs in the form of two stable isotopes, 203T1 (29.5 percent) and 205T1 (70.5 percent), and in the form ... Thallium in the organism. Thallium is always present in plant and animal tissue. Its average content in the soil is 10-5 ... Thallium amalgam, which solidifies at - 59°C, is used in low-temperature thermometers. Metallic thallium is used in the ... Poisoning by thallium and its compounds is possible during preparation and use. Thallium enters the body through the ...
There are two main methods of removing both radioactive and stable isotopes of thallium from humans. First known was to use ... Thallium poisoning Thallium poisoning is poisoning due to thallium and its compounds which are often highly toxic.[1] Contact ... Thallium compounds. The odorless and tasteless thallium sulfate was also used as rat poison and ant killer. Since 1975, this ... What is thallium?, BBC, November 19, 2006. Retrieved November 21, 2006.. * Marea Donnelly, "Post-war days of thallium and old ...
Polonium, which is classified as a metal and metalloid, is the most radioactive element that has no stable isotopes. It occurs ... Ti 81 Thallium 204.3833 Pb 82 Lead 207.2 Bi 83 Bismuth 208.980 Po 84 Polonium (209) At 85 Astatine (210) Rn 86 Radon (222) ... Thallium - Tl. Thorium - Th. Thulium - Tm. Tin - Sn. Titanium - Ti. Tungsten - W. Ununoctium - Uuo. Ununpentium - Uup. ... Many radioactive isotopes have been isolated as well. The list of radioactive elements includes berkelium, radon, polonium, ...
Its atomic number is 13, and it has one stable isotope, 27Al. Aluminum belongs to group 3a of the periodic table, along with ... boron, indium, gallium, and thallium. It most commonly forms trivalent ionic (Al3+) compounds, but it has some covalent ...
  • Thereafter, gfr remains stable % to % urinary tract infection clinical course varies depending on the negative likelihood ratios ranged from. (behereforme.org)
  • For example, ratios of the three oxygen isotopes will differ depending on whether the oxygen is in air, groundwater, fruit juice or bone. (blogspot.com)
  • This variation is what makes isotopes such a powerful scientific tool: the relative ratios of the different carbon isotopes can tell scientists if ivory came from an elephant that ate shrubby savanna plants or woody jungle trees. (blogspot.com)
  • Alongside the unique rock samples, the cutting-edge analytical equipment that makes it possible to measure stable isotope ratios from small amounts of rock powders played a crucial role. (ttu.ee)
  • British chemist Sir William Crookes discovered (1861) thallium by observing the prominent green spectral line generated by selenium-bearing pyrites that had been used in the manufacture of sulfuric acid. (britannica.com)
  • Thallium (from the Greek word τάλλός , meaning "a green shoot or twig") was discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 in England while he was making spectroscopic determinations for tellurium on residues from a sulfuric acid plant. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Recent advances in nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) have made it possible to develop a dual-isotope protocol for high-speed acquisition with image quality and radiation delivery comparable to that obtained with conventional single isotope protocols. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Thus, it remains mostly a feasibility study of a dual isotope protocol using low-dose thallium-201. (paperity.org)
  • However, the +1 state, which is far more prominent in thallium than the elements above it, recalls the chemistry of alkali metals, and thallium(I) ions are found geologically mostly in potassium-based ores, and (when ingested) are handled in many ways like potassium ions (K+) by ion pumps in living cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Commercially, thallium is produced not from potassium ores, but as a byproduct from refining of heavy metal sulfide ores. (wikipedia.org)
  • in the roasting of these ores, the thallium becomes concentrated in the flue dusts, from which it is recovered. (britannica.com)
  • The major source of commercial thallium is the trace amounts found in the sulfide ores of copper , lead , zinc , and other metals. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Dorazio M, Biagioni C, Dini A, Vezzoni S (2016) Thallium-rich pyrite ores from the Apuan Alps, Tuscany, Italy: constraints for their origin and environmental concerns. (springer.com)
  • These ceased to function a billion years ago, and as the longest lived isotope is americium-247, with a half-life of 7370 years, none has survived to the present day. (rsc.org)
  • Thallium is primarily used for its electrical conductivity as thallium sulfide, which changes with exposure to infrared light. (americanelements.com)
  • This thallium speciation analysis implied that the dominant Tl (I) species in the river water studied might be due to the weathering of sulfide mineral-bearing rocks, mining, and smelting activities in the studied area. (springer.com)
  • All the elements and isotopes we encounter on Earth, with the exceptions of hydrogen, deuterium, helium, helium-3, and perhaps trace amounts of stable lithium and beryllium isotopes which were created in the Big Bang, were created by the s-process or the r-process in stars, and for those to be today a part of the Earth, must have been created not later than 4.5 billion years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, counterfeiters often try to pass off Indonesian or Chinese honey as high-grade New Zealand honey, but measurement of the ratio of carbon isotopes of the honey can readily identify its origin. (latimes.com)
  • In this work, the researchers focused on the study of carbon, sulphur and thallium isotopes. (ttu.ee)
  • While this logic is based on sound physiological concept,2 the study did not actually demonstrate that this is true by comparing this protocol to a single-isotope, Tc-99m-based one. (paperity.org)
  • 3. Is the higher radiation dose compared to a low-dose, single-isotope Tc-99m protocol justified by a higher diagnostic accuracy and more accurate quantification of myocardial ischemia? (paperity.org)
  • When I was watching CSI: New York the other night, I saw they were going to analyze a pond water sample for the oxygen isotopes. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thallium (chemical symbol Tl , atomic number 81) is a soft, malleable metal . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Second, isotopes may be designated by the chemical symbol of the element with a superscript that shows their mass number. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The advantage of using two or more isotopes of the same element is that the isotopes will all have the same chemical properties but may differ from each other because of their mass differences. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thallium (Tl) is a typical toxic element, whose biological effects and geochemical behavior are closely related with its chemical speciation in the environment. (springer.com)
  • Beginning chemistry students who haven't yet heard about isotopes might have a more difficult time with the concept, and Coplen says he simply doesn't know what the best solution is, but that the problem is now in the hands of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry 's chemical education group. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Radioactive tracers have many advantages over other tracers, which include the identity of chemical and physical properties of all isotopes of a given element, the emission of radiation is a specific property of the tracer which is not affected by interference from other materials in the system, radioisotopes are measurable with high sensitivity and therefore detectable in very low concentration and the measurement in situ is possible. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • SPECT isotopes are chosen on the basis of their chemical, biologic, and nuclear properties. (ajnr.org)
  • So far, no study has compared dual-isotope high-speed MPI to invasive coronary angiography (ICA) in a large cohort using a Cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Spect, By Isotopes. (marketresearch.com)
  • In the present study, we used 123 I BMIPP and thallium-201 SPECT to evaluate the distribution and extent of metabolic and perfusion abnormalities in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and examined the relation of these SPECT findings to clinicopathological variables and to the clinical course. (bmj.com)
  • The increased photon counting sensitivity of camera can be used to explore novel protocols like dual isotope (rapid stress Tl-201/rest Tc-99m protocol for use with high-speed SPECT MPI). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Part of the reason for thallium's high toxicity is that, when present in aqueous solution as the univalent thallium(I) ion (Tl + ), it exhibits some similarities with essential alkali metal cations, particularly potassium (due to similar ionic radii ). (orange.com)
  • For this purpose, we used the formation temperature of hydrothermal pitchblende and a maximum estimate of the fractionation factor for 238 U and 235 U isotopes in the solution-solid phase system under normal (25°C) conditions (Murphy et al. (springer.com)
  • First, a reliable method is developed for stable lead isotope analysis by multiple collector ICP-MS. This study presents new observations of the large (0.7% amu-l), time-dependent mass fractionation determined by thallium normalization, including preferential light ion transmission induced by the acceleration potential and nebulizer conditions. (mit.edu)
  • We studied thallium (Tl) isotope fractionation in white mustard grown hydroponically at different Tl doses. (usda.gov)
  • Negative isotope fractionation was even more pronounced in dependence on how much the available Tl pool decreased. (usda.gov)
  • Like the alkali metals, thallium is concentrated in the upper part of the earth's crust, the granite layer, where its average content is 1.5 × 10 -4 percent. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the properties of an isotope is its half-life, the time by which half of an initial number of identical parent radioisotopes have decayed to their daughters, which is inversely related to λ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PET radioisotopes market is dominated by Fluoride-18 (F-18), followed by Rubidium-82 (Rb-82), While Therapeutic market is further classified into beta emitters, brachytherapy isotopes, and alpha emitters. (meticulousresearch.com)
  • These experiments show equivalent results for three empirical correction laws, and the previously proposed [beta]Pb/[beta]TI correction does not improve isotope ratio accuracy under these conditions. (mit.edu)
  • It will enable teachers to introduce students to things called stable isotopes, which is great because we're made up of stable isotopes, and that ratio varies depending on what we eat. (scientificamerican.com)
  • This culminated in the development by R. Hofstadter in 1948 of sodium iodide (NaI)-thallium (Tl)-activated crystals for the detection of gamma radiation. (sciencedocbox.com)
  • Gold, fluorine, aluminum and sodium, each of which exists in only one stable version, will be left alone. (blogspot.com)
  • In parallel, my research has been driven by the measurement of both conventional long-lived radiogenic isotopes and non-traditional stable isotopes, with an emphasis on measuring isotope compositions to a very high precision with enhanced spatial resolution (i.e. on smaller samples). (dur.ac.uk)
  • Thallium technetium subtraction scanning less sensitive. (behereforme.org)
  • The use of dual isotope imaging is very interesting because this imaging combines the use of thallium-201 with technetium-99m agents permitting optimal image resolution and simultaneous assessment of viability, all with an exam duration of approximately 20 minutes. (clinicaltrials.gov)