Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.

The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (1/3186)

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications. (2/3186)

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity. (3/3186)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment.  (+info)

A pilot study of low-dose erythromycin in bronchiectasis. (4/3186)

Patients with bronchiectasis suffer from sputum production, recurrent exacerbations, and progressive airway destruction. Erythromycin is effective in diffuse panbronchiolitis, another suppurative airway disorder, although its efficacy is unknown in idiopathic bronchiectasis. A double-blind placebo-controlled study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effects of 8-week administration of low dose erythromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) in steady-state idiopathic bronchiectasis. Patients in the erythromycin group (n=11, 8 female, mean age 50+/-15 yrs), but not the placebo group (n=10, 8 female, mean age 59+/-16 yrs) had significantly improved forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and 24-h sputum volume after 8 weeks (p<0.05). There was no parallel improvement in sputum pathogens, leukocytes, interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, or leukotriene B4. The results of this pilot study show that low-dose erythromycin improves lung function and sputum volume in bronchiectasis. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the efficacy of long-term erythromycin therapy in bronchiectasis.  (+info)

Cytokines and inflammatory mediators do not indicate acute infection in cystic fibrosis. (5/3186)

Various treatment regimens and difficulties with research design are encountered with cystic fibrosis (CF) because no standard diagnostic criteria exist for defining acute respiratory exacerbations. This study evaluated the role of serial monitoring of concentrations of selected cytokines and inflammatory mediators in serum and sputum as predictors of respiratory exacerbation, as useful outcome measures for CF, and to guide therapy. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), neutrophil elastase-alpha-1-protease inhibitor complex (NE complex), protein, and alpha-1-protease inhibitor (alpha-1-PI) were measured in serum and sputum collected from CF patients during respiratory exacerbations and periods of well-being. Levels of NE complex, protein, and alpha-1-PI in sputum rose during respiratory exacerbations and fell after institution of antibiotic therapy (P = 0.078, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). Mean (+/- standard error of the mean) levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha were extremely high in sputum (13,780 +/- 916 and 249.4 +/- 23.5 ng/liter, respectively) but did not change significantly with clinical deterioration of the patient (P > 0.23). IL-8 and TNF-alpha were generally undetectable in serum, and therefore these measures were unhelpful. Drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was the only clinical or laboratory parameter that was close to being a determinant of respiratory exacerbation (P = 0.055). This study provides evidence of intense immunological activity occurring continually within the lungs of adult CF patients. Measurement of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in CF sputum is not helpful for identifying acute respiratory exacerbations.  (+info)

A rapid polymerase chain reaction technique for detecting M tuberculosis in a variety of clinical specimens. (6/3186)

A rapid in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is described for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical material. Its performance is compared with two kit based systems. The results of the in-house assay were comparable with the commercial assays, detecting M tuberculosis in 100% of smear positive, culture positive samples. The in-house assay proved to be rapid, easy, and inexpensive to perform, and the inclusion of an internal inhibitor control permitted validation of the PCR results.  (+info)

Comparison of isolation media for recovery of Burkholderia cepacia complex from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis. (7/3186)

Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has previously been devised for isolation of B. cepacia from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis and tested under research laboratory conditions. Here we describe a study in which BCSA, oxidation-fermentation polymyxin bacitracin lactose agar (OFPBL), and Pseudomonas cepacia agar (PCA) were compared in routine culture procedures for the ability to grow B. cepacia and inhibit other organisms. Three hundred twenty-eight specimens from 209 patients at two pediatric centers and 328 specimens from 109 adults were tested. Plates were inoculated, incubated, and read for quality and quantity of growth at 24, 48, and 72 h. Five (1.5%) specimens from 4 (1.9%) children and 75 (22.9%) specimens from 16 (14.7%) adults grew B. cepacia complex. At 24, 48, and 72 h, BCSA achieved 43, 93, and 100% detection, respectively; OFPBL achieved 26, 84, and 96%, respectively; and PCA achieved 33, 74, and 84% detection, respectively. Quality was assessed as pinpoint or good growth. At 24 h, most cultures growing B. cepacia complex had pinpoint colonies. By 48 and 72 h, 48 and 69% of B. cepacia complex cultures, respectively, had good growth on BCSA, while on OFPBL 19 and 30%, respectively, had good growth and on PCA 11 and 18%, respectively, had good growth. BCSA was superior to OFPBL and PCA in suppressing organisms other than B. cepacia complex; 40 non-B. cepacia complex organisms were isolated from BCSA, 263 were isolated from OFPBL, and 116 were isolated from PCA. We conclude that BCSA is superior to OFPBL and PCA in its ability to support the growth of B. cepacia complex and to suppress other respiratory organisms.  (+info)

Survey of outpatient sputum cytology: influence of written instructions on sample quality and who benefits from investigation. (8/3186)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluated quality of outpatient sputum cytology and whether written instructions to patients improve sample quality and to identify variables that predict satisfactory samples. DESIGN: Prospective randomised study. SETTING: Outpatient department of a district general hospital. PATIENTS: 224 patients recruited over 18 months whenever their clinicians requested sputum cytology, randomized to receive oral or oral and written advice. INTERVENTIONS: Oral advice from nurse on producing a sputum sample (114 patients); oral advice plus written instructions (110). MAIN MEASURES: Percentages of satisfactory sputum samples and of patients who produced more than one satisfactory sample; clinical or radiological features identified from subsequent review of patients' notes and radiographs associated with satisfactory samples; final diagnosis of bronchial cancer. RESULTS: 588 sputum samples were requested and 477 received. Patients in the group receiving additional written instructions produced 75(34%) satisfactory samples and 43(39%) of them one or more sets of satisfactory samples. Corresponding figures for the group receiving only oral advice (80(31%) and 46(40%) respectively)were not significantly different. Logistic regression showed that radiological evidence of collapse or consolidation (p<0.01) and hilar mass (p<0.05) were significant predictors of the production of satisfactory samples. Sputum cytology confirmed the diagnosis in only 9(17%) patients with bronchial carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of outpatients' sputum samples was poor and was not improved by written instructions. Sputum cytology should be limited to patients with probable bronchial cancer unsuitable for surgery. IMPLICATIONS: Collection of samples and requests for sputum cytology should be reviewed in other hospitals.  (+info)

Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) is a form of tuberculosis that affects the lungs. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is typically spread through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. PTB can cause a range of symptoms, including coughing, chest pain, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It can also cause coughing up blood or phlegm, shortness of breath, and fatigue.,PTB,、、。

Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterized by the abnormal widening and dilatation of the bronchi, which are the airways that carry air from the trachea to the lungs. This abnormal widening can lead to the accumulation of mucus and other secretions in the bronchi, which can cause inflammation, infection, and damage to the lung tissue. Bronchiectasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, and bronchopneumonia, as well as genetic disorders, environmental factors, and immune system disorders. Symptoms of bronchiectasis may include chronic cough, coughing up mucus, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain, and fever. Treatment for bronchiectasis typically involves a combination of medications to manage symptoms and prevent infections, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to irritants. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged lung tissue or to improve airflow in the affected bronchi.

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems. It is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which codes for a protein that regulates the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. In people with CF, the protein is not functioning properly, leading to the production of thick, sticky mucus in the lungs, pancreas, and other organs. The thick mucus can cause blockages in the airways, leading to chronic lung infections and damage to the lungs over time. It can also affect the pancreas, making it difficult to produce digestive enzymes and leading to malnutrition. In the reproductive system, it can cause infertility in both men and women. CF is a lifelong condition that requires ongoing medical care and management. Treatment typically involves medications to thin the mucus, antibiotics to treat infections, and physical therapy to improve lung function. With proper care, people with CF can lead long and relatively healthy lives, although the condition can still be challenging and require significant lifestyle adjustments.

Bronchitis is a respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which are the airways that carry air from the nose and mouth to the lungs. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is a short-term condition that typically lasts for a few weeks and is caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Symptoms of acute bronchitis include coughing, chest discomfort, and difficulty breathing. In some cases, fever, fatigue, and body aches may also occur. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that lasts for at least three months each year for two consecutive years. It is usually caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or dust. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include a persistent cough that produces mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Both acute and chronic bronchitis can be treated with medications such as antibiotics, bronchodilators, and cough suppressants. In some cases, oxygen therapy may also be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of bronchitis, as untreated bronchitis can lead to more serious respiratory problems such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways in the lungs. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Asthma can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, exercise, and respiratory infections. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to control inflammation and open up the airways, as well as lifestyle changes to avoid triggers and improve overall lung function.

Eosinophil granule proteins (EGPs) are a group of proteins that are stored in the granules of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell. These proteins are released from the eosinophils when they are activated and migrate to sites of inflammation or infection. There are several different types of EGP, including major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN), and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO). These proteins have a variety of functions, including the destruction of pathogens, the promotion of inflammation, and the regulation of immune responses. EGP levels can be measured in the blood as a diagnostic tool for certain conditions, such as asthma and parasitic infections.

Antitubercular agents, also known as antitubercular drugs or TB drugs, are medications used to treat tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These drugs work by inhibiting the growth and reproduction of the bacteria, thereby reducing the severity and duration of the infection. There are several classes of antitubercular agents, including: 1. Isoniazid (INH) 2. Rifampin (RIF) 3. Ethambutol (EMB) 4. Pyrazinamide (PZA) 5. Streptomycin (SM) 6. Fluoroquinolones (FQs) 7. Bedaquiline 8. Delamanid These drugs are typically used in combination to increase their effectiveness and reduce the risk of drug resistance. The duration of treatment depends on the type and severity of the infection, but it can range from several months to a year or more. It is important to note that antitubercular agents can have side effects, and patients should be closely monitored during treatment to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks. Additionally, proper infection control measures should be taken to prevent the spread of TB in healthcare settings and the community.

In the medical field, a cough is a reflex action that involves the contraction of muscles in the chest and throat to expel air from the lungs. It is a common symptom of many respiratory conditions, including colds, flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, and asthma. A cough can be dry, meaning that no phlegm or mucus is produced, or wet, meaning that mucus is produced. A persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, or difficulty breathing may be a sign of a more serious condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Treatment for a cough depends on the underlying cause. For example, a cough caused by a cold or flu may be treated with over-the-counter cough suppressants or expectorants, while a cough caused by a more serious condition may require prescription medication or other medical interventions.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the methods and procedures used to study and manipulate bacteria in the medical field. These techniques are used to identify, isolate, and culture bacteria, as well as to study their characteristics, behavior, and interactions with other microorganisms and the environment. Some common bacteriological techniques used in the medical field include: 1. Culture and isolation: This involves growing bacteria in a controlled environment, such as a petri dish or broth, to study their growth and behavior. 2. Identification: This involves using various methods, such as Gram staining, biochemical tests, and molecular techniques, to identify specific bacterial species. 3. Antibiotic susceptibility testing: This involves testing bacteria to determine their sensitivity to different antibiotics, which can help guide the selection of appropriate antibiotics for treatment. 4. Molecular techniques: These include techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing, which are used to study bacterial genetics and identify specific bacterial strains. 5. Immunological techniques: These include techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunofluorescence, which are used to detect and quantify specific bacterial antigens or antibodies in biological samples. Overall, bacteriological techniques play a critical role in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of bacterial infections and diseases in the medical field.

In the medical field, suppuration refers to the process by which pus is formed and discharged from a wound or infected area of the body. Pus is a thick, yellowish-white fluid that contains white blood cells, dead tissue, and bacteria. Suppuration is a natural response of the body's immune system to fight off infection. It helps to remove harmful bacteria and other microorganisms from the body and prevent the spread of infection. However, excessive or prolonged suppuration can be a sign of a more serious infection and may require medical intervention, such as the use of antibiotics or drainage of the infected area.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term lung disease characterized by a persistent and progressive airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. It is caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes. COPD includes two main conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by inflammation and thickening of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which leads to increased mucus production and difficulty breathing. Emphysema, on the other hand, involves damage to the air sacs in the lungs, which makes it difficult to exhale and leads to shortness of breath. Symptoms of COPD include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The severity of symptoms can vary from person to person and can worsen over time. COPD is a progressive disease, and there is currently no cure. However, treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.

Bronchoscopy is a medical procedure that involves using a flexible or rigid tube called a bronchoscope to examine the inside of the bronchial tubes and lungs. The bronchoscope is inserted through the nose or mouth and advanced down the airways until it reaches the bronchi, which are the main branches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead to the lungs. During a bronchoscopy, a doctor or other healthcare provider can examine the bronchial tubes and lungs for signs of disease, such as inflammation, infection, or cancer. They can also take samples of tissue or fluid from the lungs for further testing. Bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, and infections such as tuberculosis. It can also be used to remove foreign objects from the airways, such as a piece of food or a foreign body. There are two main types of bronchoscopy: flexible bronchoscopy and rigid bronchoscopy. Flexible bronchoscopy uses a flexible, thin tube that can bend and move to access different areas of the airways. Rigid bronchoscopy uses a thicker, more rigid tube that is inserted through the nose or mouth and advanced down the airways to reach the bronchi.

In the medical field, "Administration, Inhalation" refers to the process of delivering medication or other substances to the lungs through inhalation. This method of administration is commonly used to treat respiratory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia, as well as to provide relief from respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. Inhalation administration can be achieved through a variety of devices, including inhalers, nebulizers, and vaporizers. Inhalers are portable devices that contain medication in the form of a powder or liquid that is aerosolized and inhaled through the mouth. Nebulizers, on the other hand, use compressed air to turn medication into a fine mist that is inhaled through a mouthpiece or mask. Vaporizers are devices that heat up liquid medication to produce a vapor that is inhaled. Inhalation administration has several advantages over other methods of medication delivery, including faster onset of action, more targeted delivery of medication to the lungs, and reduced systemic side effects. However, it can also have potential drawbacks, such as the risk of respiratory irritation or infection, and the need for proper technique and device maintenance to ensure effective delivery of medication.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, spine, and kidneys. TB is spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks, and can be transmitted to others who are nearby. TB is a serious and sometimes fatal disease, but it is treatable with a combination of antibiotics taken over several months. However, if left untreated, TB can be life-threatening and can spread to others. There are two main types of TB: latent TB and active TB. Latent TB is when the bacteria are present in the body but do not cause symptoms or harm. Active TB, on the other hand, is when the bacteria are multiplying and causing symptoms such as coughing, fever, and weight loss. TB is a major global health problem, with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths each year. It is most common in low- and middle-income countries, where access to healthcare and treatment may be limited.

Eosinophilia is a medical condition characterized by an increase in the number of eosinophils, a type of white blood cell, in the blood. Eosinophils are a type of granulocyte, which are immune cells that play a role in fighting off infections and parasites. Eosinophilia can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, parasitic infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain types of cancer. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as corticosteroids and some chemotherapy drugs. Eosinophilia can be classified as either absolute eosinophilia, which is an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood regardless of the total number of white blood cells, or relative eosinophilia, which is an increase in the proportion of eosinophils to other types of white blood cells. Eosinophilia can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, and it is important to identify and treat the underlying cause in order to manage the symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment may involve medications to reduce inflammation or to target the underlying cause of the eosinophilia, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms.

Pseudomonas infections are bacterial infections caused by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil, water, and on the surfaces of plants and animals. It can cause a wide range of infections in humans, including pneumonia, urinary tract infections, skin infections, and bloodstream infections. Pseudomonas infections are particularly common in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cystic fibrosis, cancer, or HIV/AIDS. They can also occur in people who have had recent surgery or who are being treated with antibiotics, which can disrupt the normal balance of bacteria in the body and allow Pseudomonas to grow and cause an infection. Pseudomonas infections can be difficult to treat because Pseudomonas is often resistant to antibiotics. Treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and supportive care, such as fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

Leukocyte Elastase is an enzyme that is produced by certain types of white blood cells, specifically neutrophils. It is a protease that plays a role in the immune response by breaking down and digesting proteins, including elastin, a protein found in connective tissue. In the context of the medical field, Leukocyte Elastase is often measured in the blood or sputum of patients with certain lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cystic fibrosis. Elevated levels of Leukocyte Elastase in the blood or sputum can indicate inflammation and tissue damage in the lungs, which can be a sign of these conditions. Leukocyte Elastase is also being studied as a potential biomarker for other diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB) is a form of tuberculosis caused by bacteria that are resistant to at least two of the most effective first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs: isoniazid and rifampin. MDR-TB is a serious public health concern because it is more difficult to treat and is associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality compared to drug-susceptible tuberculosis. MDR-TB can occur in both new and previously treated cases of tuberculosis. It is typically diagnosed through the use of drug susceptibility testing, which can determine the resistance of the bacteria to different anti-tuberculosis drugs. Treatment for MDR-TB typically involves a combination of second-line drugs, which may be more toxic and have more side effects than first-line drugs. It is important to diagnose and treat MDR-TB promptly to prevent the spread of the disease and to improve outcomes for patients.

Lung diseases, obstructive, refer to a group of conditions that obstruct the flow of air in and out of the lungs. These conditions are characterized by a blockage or narrowing of the airways, which can make it difficult to breathe. Some common examples of obstructive lung diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, air pollution, and genetics. Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves medications to open up the airways and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.

Bronchial Provocation Tests (BPTs) are a series of medical tests used to diagnose and evaluate asthma and other respiratory conditions. These tests involve exposing a person to specific substances or conditions that can trigger bronchoconstriction, or narrowing of the airways in the lungs. The goal of BPTs is to determine the specific triggers that cause bronchoconstriction and to help develop an effective treatment plan for the individual. There are several types of BPTs, including: 1. Methacholine Challenge Test: This test involves inhaling increasing concentrations of methacholine, a substance that can cause bronchoconstriction in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. 2. Exercise Challenge Test: This test involves exercising on a treadmill or stationary bike while breathing through a mouthpiece. The exercise can cause bronchoconstriction in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. 3. Cold Air Challenge Test: This test involves breathing in cold air, which can cause bronchoconstriction in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. 4. Food Challenge Test: This test involves eating or drinking a specific food or drink that may trigger bronchoconstriction in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. BPTs are typically performed in a medical setting under the supervision of a healthcare provider. The results of the tests can help guide the development of an individualized treatment plan for the person's specific condition.

In the medical field, "cell count" refers to the measurement of the number of cells present in a specific sample of tissue or fluid. This measurement is typically performed using a microscope and a specialized staining technique to distinguish between different types of cells. For example, a complete blood count (CBC) is a common laboratory test that measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Similarly, a urine analysis may include a cell count to measure the number of white blood cells or bacteria present in the urine. Cell counts can be used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, such as infections, inflammation, or cancer. They can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments or to detect any changes in the body's cellular makeup over time.

Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a group of infections that affect the respiratory system, which includes the nose, throat, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs. RTIs can be caused by a variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. Common symptoms of RTIs include coughing, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, fever, and difficulty breathing. RTIs can range from mild to severe and can affect people of all ages, although young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems are more susceptible to severe infections. Treatment for RTIs depends on the specific cause and severity of the infection, and may include medications, rest, and fluids. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

... is mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways (the trachea and bronchi). In medicine, sputum samples are usually ... Pink sputum - it indicates sputum evenly mixed with blood from alveoli and/or small peripheral bronchi as is seen in potential ... Sputum Color is the Key to Treating Acute COPD Exacerbations Scholia has a topic profile for Sputum. (Articles with short ... Sputum can be (when examined by the naked eye):[citation needed] Bloody (hemoptysis) Blood-streaked sputum -an indicator of ...
A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi that infect the lungs or breathing passages. Sputum is a ... Normally, fresh morning sample is preferred for the bacteriological examination of sputum. A sample of sputum is collected in a ... In a hospital setting, a sputum culture is most commonly ordered if a patient has a pneumonia. The Infectious Diseases Society ... One reason for such a discrepancy is that normal, healthy lungs have bacteria, and sputum cultures collect both normal and ...
An immediate cough with sputum followed by a latent period of about two hours average, respiratory symptoms and signs, ... Symptoms of salt water aspiration syndrome include: Post-dive cough, with or without sputum, usually suppressed during the dive ... In serious cases the sputum may be bloodstained, frothy and copious. Over time further symptoms may develop, including: rigors ... tremors or shivering; nausea or vomiting; hot or cold sensations; dyspnea; cough; sputum; shortness of breath; headaches; ...
The cough is often worse soon after awakening, and the sputum produced may have a yellow or green color and may be streaked ... The most common symptom is a cough, that may or may not produce sputum. Other symptoms may include coughing up mucus, wheezing ... Excess mucus shows itself as a chronic productive cough and its severity and volume of sputum can fluctuate in periods of acute ... Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough - one that produces sputum - that lasts for three months or more per year ...
"SubGenius SPUTUM vs. Spammers". Netsurfer Digest. Online Culture. Netsurfer Communications, Inc. 03 (28). 1997-09-06. Archived ... SPUTUM). This group of Internet-savvy people embarked on a successful campaign to drive the warez traders out of the newsgroup ...
It modules the sputum viscosity in the respiratory tract, making it more fluid and less thick, bringing to an increase of ... It modules the sputum viscosity. Erdosteine efficacy is significant in reducing symptoms associated with Chronic Obstructive ...
The presence of pneumolysin in sputum, urine, CSF and blood can be indicative of an S. pneumoniae infection. Rossjohn, J; ... September 1999). "Detection of pneumolysin in sputum". Journal of Medical Microbiology. 48 (9): 863-6. doi:10.1099/00222615-48- ...
Biosafety level 1. First isolated from sputum, Koblenz, Germany. strain 1389/90 = ATCC 49920 = CIP 105510 = DSM 44017 = JCM ...
Rarely is Brucella isolated from sputum. Genitourinary infection can include epidydemoorchitis or pyonephrosis (rare). ...
Myo Lwin (16-22 March 2009). "Sputum microscopy centre opens in Tarmwe". The Myanmar Times. Archived from the original on 24 ...
Moreover, sputum samples might be less frequently obtained in the elderly. Aspiration (both of microscopic drops and ... New or progressive infiltrate on the chest X-ray with one of the following: Fever > 37.8 °C (100 °F) Purulent sputum ... This is based on studies using sputum samples and intensive care patients, in whom these bacteria were commonly found. cefepime ... Other symptoms may include: A cough with greenish or pus-like phlegm (sputum) Fever and chills General discomfort, uneasiness, ...
Part 2: sputum, vomit, blood, sweat, autopsies". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 43 (1): 90-96. doi:10.1515/CCLM. ...
Egg production begins about three weeks later, and eggs are coughed up and expelled in sputum, or excreted in feces. Larvae may ... Finding M. laryngeus eggs in the sputum or feces is another sure sign of infection. The eggs closely resemble hookworm eggs, ... Eggs do not develop at body temperature, and are expelled in sputum or reswallowed and excreted in feces. Hypothesis #2: The ... Eggs are expelled in sputum or feces. Most often, travelers to tropical climate places become exposed to contaminated sources ...
"Curschmann's spiral in sputum from asthma patient". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2008-11-25. Academic ... They are elongated microscopic mucous casts from small bronchi and are often found in sputum samples from patients with ... Cenci M, Giovagnoli MR, Alderisio M, Vecchione A (November 1998). "Curschmann's spirals in sputum of subjects exposed daily to ... Curschmann's spirals are a microscopic finding in the sputum of asthmatics. They are spiral-shaped mucus plugs from ...
Symptoms include fever, cough and blood-tinged sputum. As the disease progresses, sputum becomes free-flowing and bright red. ...
... is the production of more than 100 mL per day of watery sputum. Chronic bronchitis is a common cause, but it may ... Shimura S, Sasaki T, Sasaki H, Takishima T (1988). "Chemical properties of bronchorrhea sputum in bronchial asthma". Chest. 94 ...
Another method is by taking a sputum sample. This is a mixture of saliva and mucus coughed up from the lungs. The sample is ... "Sputum: Definition, colors, causes, and when to see a doctor". 2017-08-13. Retrieved 2021-11-30. (CS1 ... It can be diagnosed through fecal examination or taking a sputum sample and treated by killing the nematode larvae and adults. ...
His violent coughing continued, bringing up bloody sputum. Apart from Mackenzie, the other doctors, led by Bergmann, now held ... examined Frederick's sputum under a microscope and confirmed the presence of "so-called cancroid bodies...from a cancerous new ...
Laennec's pearls refer to sputum produced by asthmatics; Hamman's murmur, also known as Laënnec-Hamman symptom, Laënnec-Müller- ...
Diagnosis is by sampling of blood, sputum, or skin. The disease can appear similar to tuberculosis, leukaemia, and lymphoma ... More than 90% of cases can be diagnoses with direct histological examination of tissue, such as sputum, bronchial lavage fluid ...
Casual resident in human sputum and gastric lavage specimens. Colony characteristics Smooth, with yellow or orange ...
"Characteristics of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae isolated from purulent sputum samples". J Clin Microbiol. 44 (3): 923-927. ...
Cui, Zelin; Zhou, Yuhua; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shulin; Tang, Shenjie; Guo, Xiaokui (2012). "Complex sputum microbial ...
Also recovered from gastric juice, sputum and urine samples. Strain 2186/92 = ATCC 51985 = CCUG 42422 = CCUG 42559 = CIP 105465 ...
Sampling of sputum from the lungs for sputum culture. It can be performed by special techniques of coughing, or by a protected ... Obtaining excretions or materials that leave the body anyway, such as urine, stool, sputum, or vomitus, by direct collection as ...
"Sputa sull'avversario, tre turni a Castaignos". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 19 February 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2012 ...
This stimulates the cough reflex, and sputum is brought out. This is called postural drainage. Paradoxical Respiration: during ...
In 1860 he found and described cancer cells in sputum. Beale pioneered differential staining. From observing the differences in ...
Almost all experience fever, while around half have cough with sputum, and one-third cough up blood or bloody sputum. Some also ... Diagnosis is by a urinary antigen test and sputum culture. No vaccine is available. Prevention depends on good maintenance of ... Those with Legionnaires' disease usually have fever, chills, and a cough, which may be dry or may produce sputum. ... The Legionella bacteria can be cultured from sputum or other respiratory samples. Legionella spp. stain poorly with Gram stain ...
OPN has also been reported to be increased in the sputum supernatant of smoking asthmatics, as well as the BALF and bronchial ... January 2013). "Increased levels of osteopontin in sputum supernatant of smoking asthmatics". Cytokine. 61 (1): 251-255. doi: ...
Sputum is a thick mucus made in your lungs. It is not the same as spit or saliva. You may cough up sputum if you have an ... A sputum culture is a test that helps diagnose infections of the lungs or airways. ... What is a sputum culture?. A sputum culture is a test that checks for bacteria or another type of organism that may be causing ... Sputum may be referred to as phlegm or mucus. All terms are correct, but sputum and phlegm only refer to the mucus made in the ...
Sometimes you may cough up blood-tinged sputum. Learn about causes (like bronchitis), prevention, and more. ... Sputum is a mixture of saliva and mucus. ... When you cough up phlegm, its called sputum. If your sputum is ... Sputum, or phlegm, is a mixture of saliva and mucus that youve coughed up. Sometimes sputum can have visible streaks of blood ... See your doctor if you have yellow or green sputum. Coughing up yellow or green sputum may be a sign of a respiratory infection ...
... there is no validated instrument for cough and sputum symptoms and their impact on patients daily activities. To fill that gap ... Although cough and sputum production may impact patients well being and functioning in COPD and chronic bronchitis, ... The cough symptom and sputum symptom domains correlated with sputum wet weight (p,0.05; r=-0.56), but not with cough recordings ... Development and validation of a cough and sputum assessment questionnaire Respir Med. 2008 Nov;102(11):1545-55. doi: 10.1016/j. ...
Souprava pro přípravu vzorků sputa k měření na přístroji M10 ...
Sputum clearance. Only one study measured the sputum clearance outcome.28A 3-week RXT found that use of the Aerobika device ... In the context of COPD, improving sputum clearance and sputum production are desirable objectives, both in terms of day to day ... ease-bringing-up-sputum) in COPD patients with sputum production compared with UC (mean difference ±SD; Aerobika 2.70±1.10, UC ... Adjuncts for sputum clearance in COPD: clinical consensus versus actual use. BMJ Open Respir Res 2017;4:e000226. doi:10.1136/ ...
... failed to become sputum negative. Of the delayed sputum conversion patients, 152 (82.2%) became sputum negative in the 3rd ... This decline is linked with inconsistent sputum monitoring, relying on sputum microscopy not considering sputum culture, frail ... Sputum grading is categorized according to the current number of AFB at the time of sputum smear microscopy after scanning ... PTB+ve patients with at least 2 initial sputum smear examinations positive for AFB or one sputum smear examination positive ...
The ERS-education website provides centralised access to all educational material produced by the European Respiratory Society. It is the worlds largest CME collection for lung diseases and treatment offering high quality e-learning and teaching resources for respiratory specialists. This distance learning portal contains up-to-date study material for the state-of-the-art in Pulmonology.
Sputa were collected at baseline from all participants and at 1 and 2 months from the confirmed TB cases. The sputa were ... Conclusion We have discovered novel sputum host biomarkers and biosignatures for screening of tuberculosis and treatment ... development of optimal signatures for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis from other respiratory disorders using ex vivo sputum ... Sputa is vanaf die beginlyn by alle deelnemers versamel en op 1 en 2 maande van die bevestigde TB-gevalle. Die sputa is met ...
Alfahl Z, Einarsson G, Lee A, ONeill K, Johnston E, Bradley J et al.. Quantitative PCR to detect changes in sputum microbial ... Quantitative PCR to detect changes in sputum microbial load in CF patients enrolled in the CFMATTERS Study. / Alfahl, Zina; ... Quantitative PCR to detect changes in sputum microbial load in CF patients enrolled in the CFMATTERS Study. Poster session ... title = "Quantitative PCR to detect changes in sputum microbial load in CF patients enrolled in the CFMATTERS Study", ...
... Includes: 1 Parameter. Sputum AFB - Sputum Acid Fast Bacilli Is A Test Which Gives Indications Of Tuberculosis (TB ... A Positive Result Of Sputum AFB Indicates That You May Have Lung Disease Like Tuberculosis. It Also Helps In Detecting ...
Is a sputum sample required? Sputum collection is not an activity specific to use of this regimen alone. Collection of sputum ... Is sputum induction acceptable? Sputum induction with hypertonic saline is an acceptable method to collect sputum. ... Testing of sputum specimens should be attempted, however, testing of other respiratory specimens is acceptable. If the sputum ... can be considered for testing in patients who are unable to produce sputum; however, a less invasive procedure such as sputum ...
Sputum Induction. If P jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is strongly suspected, obtain a sputum sample by sputum induction for ... Sputum induction is the quickest and least-invasive method for definitively diagnosing PJP. [33] Expectorated sputum has a very ... Sputum P jirovecii PCR testing may be a viable alternative to invasive testing. This could be a more timely method for sample ... The sensitivity of sputum induction varies widely (, 50% to ,90%) and depends on proficiency in using the technique and the ...
Direct sputum smear microscopy is the mainstay of TB diagnosis in most low and middle income countries, and is highly specific ... One millilitre of prepared thinning solution was added to the 1 ml sputum specimen. The top of the sputum container was closed ... Since splitting of the sputum specimens was required prior to allocating sputum to magnetic bead processing or decontamination ... Direct sputum smear microscopy is the mainstay of TB diagnosis in most low and middle income countries, where 95% of TB cases ...
Sputum specimens. Sputum specimens may be used in older children, but not in very young children (, 6 y), who usually do not ... At week 24, sputum culture conversion was observed in 77.6% of patients in the bedaquiline treatment group compared with 57.6% ... This test can be performed using nasopharyngeal specimens in settings where induced sputum and culture are not practical. [15] ... Examination of sputum, gastric lavage, bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue, lymph node tissue, bone marrow, blood, liver, ...
Sputum Examination. Sputum microscopy is a simple and inexpensive test, and although the overall sensitivity of this test is ... Sputum microscopy is performed by placing a small sample of freshly expectorated sputum on a slide digested with 10% potassium ... Sputum specimens processed with 10% potassium hydroxide or a fungal stain are examined first in adolescent and adult patients ... On cytologic examination of specimens such as sputum or tissue aspirates, B dermatitidis typically appears as a round, ...
Find Sputum - Silver Methanamine for PCP Staining Test Information ...
... ../ [FAQ] 05-Jul-1999 00:00 10993 ...
UNSW is located on the unceded territory of the Bedegal (Kensington campus), Gadigal (City and Paddington Campuses) and Ngunnawal peoples (UNSW Canberra) who are the Traditional Owners of the lands where each campus of UNSW is situated. The Uluru Statement ...
The most common pathogens detected with a sputum culture are bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae ... encoded search term (Sputum Culture) and Sputum Culture What to Read Next on Medscape ... Overall, sputum specimens are observed for mucopurulent strands, leukocytes, and blood and culture results. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] ... Sputum culture is used to diagnose pneumonia, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, or pulmonary abscess. It assists in the diagnosis of ...
Sputum processing step by step for selected sputum plugs. * Pour the entire sputum sample into a cell culture dish and select ... depending on the use of either the entire sputum or selected sputum plugs. Sputum plugs are the dense, viscid portions of ... Sputum processing step by step using the entire sample. * Pre-weigh a polystyrene tube, pour in the entire sputum sample, weigh ... How to induce sputum?. Standard procedure. Sputum induction is conducted by inhalation of nebulised sterile saline solution ( ...
... [To Parent Directory]. 9/27/2013 8:07 AM 52599305 Sputum Collection Hi ...
Quality assurance of sputum microscopy in DOTS programmes : regional guidelines in countries in the Western Pacific. by World ... Technical guide for sputum examination for tuberculosis by direct microscopy. by International Union against Tuberculosis and ... sputum examination for tuberculosis by direct microscopy in low income countries.Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ ...
Sputum Collection We have a dedicated sputum induction room in our clinic to help collect mucus from children who do not ...
The sputum transcriptome better predicts COPD exacerbations after the withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids than sputum ... The sputum transcriptome better predicts COPD exacerbations after the withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids than sputum ... The sputum transcriptome better predicts COPD exacerbations after the withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids than sputum ... The sputum transcriptome better predicts COPD exacerbations after the withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids than sputum ...
Sputum Smear Microscopy at Two Months into Continuation-Phase: Should It Be Done in All Patients with Sputum Smear-Positive ... Sputum Smear Microscopy at Two Months into Continuation-Phase: Should It Be Done in All Patients with Sputum Smear-Positive ... Title : Sputum Smear Microscopy at Two Months into Continuation-Phase: Should It Be Done in All Patients with Sputum Smear- ... "Sputum Smear Microscopy at Two Months into Continuation-Phase: Should It Be Done in All Patients with Sputum Smear-Positive ...
Sputa nu este sterila. In timpul unei infectii, in mod obisnuit vor fi prezente, atat flora normala, cat si bacteriile patogene ... Daca se identifica bacterii patogene in timpul unei culturi de sputa, atunci se efectueaza de obicei o antibiograma pentru ... Sputa este mucusul gros expulzat din tractul respirator inferior (bronhii si plamani), prin tuse. O cultura bacteriana a sputei ... Examen sputa (microscopic, bacteriologic, antifungigrama la nevoie). Examen sputa (microscopic, bacteriologic, antifungigrama ...
123 W. Franklin Street Suite 450 Chapel Hill, NC ...
Get detailed info about culture, aerobic, sputum lab test ... sputum lab test Online at best price with sample collection at ... Culture, Aerobic, Sputum Culture, Aerobic, Sputum,sputum C/s Home Collection Charges: 50 Extra ...
Sputum of a Tuberculosis patient. Photo: Edwin Tuyay , digital downloads and prints available from 25.0 ...
  • In pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), the sputum conversion rate at 2 months is frequently used to evaluate treatment outcomes and effectiveness of a TB control programme. (
  • Sputum smear conversion from positive to negative is one of the useful indicators to determine the efficacy of anti-tuberculosis treatment and essential in the clinical evaluation of patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB +ve). (
  • Delayed sputum smear conversion after 2 months of intensive phase has been associated with possible continuity of infectiousness, higher risk of treatment default, treatment failure, development of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and the potential increase in TB mortality (1). (
  • The sputum smear conversion rate is defined as the percentage of registered smear positive TB cases in a given period converting to smear negative after 2 months of anti-tuberculosis treatment (2,3). (
  • Hence, the aim of this project was to profile a broad array of host markers for development of optimal signatures for detection of pulmonary tuberculosis from other respiratory disorders using ex vivo sputum samples Methods We recruited patients who were seeking medical attention at the MRCG at LSHTM outpatients department and Tuberculosis clinic with symptoms suggestive of TB, prior to clinical or microbiological diagnosis. (
  • Conclusion We have discovered novel sputum host biomarkers and biosignatures for screening of tuberculosis and treatment response. (
  • If the sputum sample is not optimal for molecular testing (e.g., low bacillary load), referral of an isolate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis should be considered for baseline molecular susceptibility testing. (
  • Sputum AFB - Sputum Acid Fast Bacilli Is A Test Which Gives Indications Of Tuberculosis (TB). (
  • A Positive Result Of Sputum AFB Indicates That You May Have Lung Disease Like Tuberculosis. (
  • Direct sputum smear microscopy is the mainstay of TB diagnosis in most low and middle income countries, and is highly specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in such settings. (
  • A recent study reported encouraging performance of ligand-coated magnetic beads in combination with FM, in detection of M. tuberculosis in a panel of frozen sputum samples, with good correlation reported between magnetic bead concentration and centrifugation [ 7 ]. (
  • If tuberculosis is suspected, an acid-fast stain should be performed immediately, and the sputum cultured on special media, which are incubated for at least 6 weeks. (
  • Technical guide : sputum examination for tuberculosis by direct microscopy in low income countries. (
  • Sputum Smear Microscopy at Two Months into Continuation-Phase: Should It Be Done in All Patients with Sputum Smear-Positive Tuberculosis? (
  • 85% of sputum smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis under treatment. (
  • The internationally agreed target for 2005 of a treatment success rate of at least 85% under the DOTS strategy was reached globally in 2007, but the case detection rate in 2008 of 62% of patients with sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis lagged behind the 71% target contained in the Global Plan. (
  • Various physical and chemical sputum processing methods have been identified which can improve the sensitivity of microscopy. (
  • Sputum microscopy is a simple and inexpensive test, and although the overall sensitivity of this test is modest (less than 40%), the potential for rapid identification of the pathogen makes it a reasonable initial option. (
  • Sputum microscopy is performed by placing a small sample of freshly expectorated sputum on a slide digested with 10% potassium hydroxide. (
  • Quality assurance of sputum microscopy in DOTS programmes : regional guidelines in countries in the Western Pacific. (
  • If you have an infection or chronic illness affecting the lungs or airways, it can make you cough up sputum. (
  • If you have trouble coughing up enough sputum, your provider may ask you to breathe in a salty mist that can help you cough more deeply. (
  • If you still can't cough up enough sputum, your provider may perform a procedure called a bronchoscopy . (
  • Cough suppressants can lead to airway obstructions or keep the sputum trapped in your lungs, prolonging or worsening an infection. (
  • Although cough and sputum production may impact patients' well being and functioning in COPD and chronic bronchitis, there is no validated instrument for cough and sputum symptoms and their impact on patients' daily activities. (
  • To fill that gap, we developed and validated a specific, multilingual Cough and Sputum Assessment Questionnaire (CASA-Q) that evaluates clinical symptoms and their impact on patients with COPD or chronic bronchitis. (
  • 0.70) for the CASA-Q. The cough impact and sputum impact domains correlated with the SGRQ impact domain and SGRQ total score, as did the cough impact domain with the SF-36 social functioning domain. (
  • The mean CASA-Q cough symptom and sputum symptom domain scores indicated responsiveness towards both worse and improved symptoms, whereas the impact domains scored already in the upper third of the scale range, indicating the need for further improvement of its properties. (
  • Differences in the CASA-Q domain scores by smoking status (current vs. former smokers) were highest for cough symptoms and lowest for sputum impact. (
  • These data indicate that the CASA-Q may be a useful measure of cough and sputum production, and their impact in patients with COPD and/or chronic bronchitis. (
  • Testing of sputum specimens should be attempted, however, testing of other respiratory specimens is acceptable. (
  • Overall, sputum specimens are observed for mucopurulent strands, leukocytes, and blood and culture results. (
  • If you are coughing up red or bloody sputum, call 911 or seek immediate medical attention. (
  • c-e) Spearman correlation testing comparing the enrichment score of PRISE #1 with the c) time to exacerbation, d) sputum eosinophil counts (log 10 ), and e) macrophage cell counts (log 10 ). (
  • 3% sputum eosinophils) were characterised by increased ACQ scores and blood eosinophil counts. (
  • Lower respiratory infections and inhaling a foreign object are the likely causes of blood-tinged sputum in children. (
  • The presence of normal upper respiratory tract flora should be expected in sputum culture. (
  • Therefore, a task force was set up by the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and it published its recommendations for standardisation of sputum induction and processing in 2002 [ 3 - 8 ]. (
  • sputum to identify Haemophilus influenzae in a patient with community-acquired pneumonia. (
  • The rate of sputum smear conversion in the intensive phase of treatment was independently associated with high sputum smear grading at diagnosis, relapsed and treatment interrupted categories, old age and blue-collar occupations. (
  • Isolation and identification of the organism on sputum culture provides absolute confirmation of the diagnosis. (
  • The diagnosis usually involves a tuberculin skin test or a blood test, a chest x-ray, and examination and culture of a sputum sample. (
  • The quality of sputum samples is determined by the minimum number of squamous epithelial cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes per low power field. (
  • Both induction and processing of sputum samples are standardised and several manuals are available to help to educate professionals to perform the technique to the highest standard [ 36 ]. (
  • Induction and processing of sputum samples in a standardised manner is a key component to provide valuable information for clinical decision making [ 9 - 14 ]. (
  • A total of 200 sputum samples were examined. (
  • The study aimed to estimate the rate of delayed sputum conversion and explore its predicting factors at the end of the intensive phase among smear-positive PTB (PTB +ve) patients. (
  • For patients without spontaneous sputum production lower airway secretions can be sampled by sputum induction. (
  • It is however unknown whether clinical differences between patients with eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma are reflected by differential cell surface expression patterns of neutrophils and eosinophils in blood compared to sputum. (
  • The main finding is that granulocytes are highly activated and degranulated in sputum and that expression profiles of activation and degranulation markers on sputum granulocytes were similar for patients with eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma. (
  • Therefore, we conclude that clinical differences between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic asthma patients are most likely not reflected by differences in granulocyte activation in sputum. (
  • Eosinophils and neutrophils from blood and sputum were analysed by flow cytometry for expression of activation and degranulation markers. (
  • Both sputum neutrophils and eosinophils displayed a highly activated and degranulated phenotype compared to cells obtained from blood. (
  • More specifically, degranulation of all granule types was detected in sputum neutrophils and eosinophils, combined with an increased expression of the activation markers (activated) Mac-1, Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) and a decreased expression of L-selectin. (
  • CD69 expression was only increased on sputum eosinophils. (
  • Eosinophil differential count in induced sputum is a recommended, evidence-based mode of assessing airway inflammation in asthma and its use is incorporated into the relevant guidelines. (
  • Differential cell count in induced sputum is of clinical relevance in phenotyping airway inflammation. (
  • Differential gene expression of sputum RNA-sequencing data. (
  • Sputum is not the same as spit or saliva. (
  • Sputum, or phlegm, is a mixture of saliva and mucus that you've coughed up. (
  • The client should be instructed to avoid adding saliva or nasopharyngeal secretions to the sputum sample. (
  • Sputum, also known as phlegm, is a thick type of mucus made in your lungs. (
  • Sputum induction is conducted by inhalation of nebulised sterile saline solution (isotonic or hypertonic) followed by coughing and expectoration of airway secretions. (
  • A sputum culture is a test that checks for bacteria or another type of organism that may be causing an infection in your lungs or the airways leading to the lungs. (
  • Sputum contains cells from the immune system that help fight the bacteria, fungi , or other foreign substances in your lungs or airways. (
  • Your provider may tap you on the chest to help loosen sputum from your lungs. (
  • Introduction Oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices are intended to facilitate sputum clearance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but there is uncertainty as to their place in treatment pathways. (
  • Does the use of oscillating positive expiratory pressure (OPEP) devices impact health-related quality of life and symptoms, exacerbations, lung function parameters and exercise capacity, compared with usual care or alternative sputum clearance techniques in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? (
  • For further information readers are advised to use additional sources of information, such as the task force report [ 3 - 8 ], the ERS website for video-based educational material on sputum induction and the material from the ERS School course on Monitoring of Asthma, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and Other Airway Diseases ( ). (
  • Genetic regulators of sputum mucin concentration and their associations with COPD phenotypes. (
  • Yellowish-green sputum is also common in people with cystic fibrosis . (
  • Comparison of sputum processing techniques in cystic fibrosis. (
  • The most common pathogens detected with a sputum culture are bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella species . (
  • A sputum culture is often done with another test called a Gram stain . (
  • A normal Gram stain of sputum contains polymorphonuclear leukocytes, alveolar macrophages, and a few squamous epithelial cells. (
  • Blood-tinged sputum can sometimes be a symptom of an underlying condition that you can't prevent. (
  • Relevant clinical guidelines incorporate the use of induced sputum for the monitoring of asthma. (
  • Summary Sputum induction is a relatively non-invasive mode of airway sampling that provides an opportunity for analysis of cellular components and infective agents, including bacteria and viruses, together with fluid-phase constituents. (
  • Sputum induction is an important non-invasive tool of airway sampling. (
  • Collect the expectorated sputum in a leak-proof sterile container. (
  • What is a sputum culture? (
  • Why do I need a sputum culture? (
  • What happens during a sputum culture? (
  • Culture of the sputum on blood agar frequently reveals characteristic colonies, and identification is made by various serologic or biochemical tests. (
  • He tested coinfection, and one tested negative by sputum smear positive for COVID-19 and was transferred to the National during admission but was later confirmed by culture to Isolation Centre for treatment. (
  • Children with pulmonary disease who are unable to produce sputum may require invasive procedures, such as bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, percutaneous needle biopsy of lung, and open lung biopsy, for diagnostic confirmation. (
  • Sputa were collected at baseline from all participants and at 1 and 2 months from the confirmed TB cases. (
  • Resuscitation equipment should be available in the place where the sputum induction is undertaken and a physician should be available to supervise the procedure, which can be carried out by an experienced technician. (
  • Sputum analysis has been used as a diagnostic technique for centuries, and reports on sputum in different diseases, containing important aspects of sample processing, were published more than a century ago [ 1 ]. (
  • What Causes Blood-Tinged Sputum, and How Is It Treated? (
  • Sometimes sputum can have visible streaks of blood in it. (
  • But if you're coughing up blood with little or no sputum, seek immediate medical attention. (
  • Treating blood-tinged sputum will require treating the underlying condition that's causing it. (
  • But methods may be available to help prevent some cases of blood-tinged sputum. (
  • Met die beperkinge van die huidige diagnostiese toetse en die belangrikheid van vroeë diagnose en inisiëring van behandeling, sou die biomerk-diagnose van TB 'n optimale opsie wees. (
  • Secondly, we are the first to report the expression of an immune-suppressive receptor PD-L1 on sputum granulocytes, suggesting an immuno-modulatory role of these cells in inflamed airways. (
  • This usually means no disease is present, but large amounts of clear sputum may be a sign of lung disease . (
  • Also, contacts of persons with sputum-positive smears have an increased prevalence of infection as opposed to contacts of those with sputum-negative smears. (
  • For the past 5 years, the sputum conversion rate was reported in the range of 60-80% and the treatment success rate 75-78%, despite the 85% TB treatment success rate defined by the WHO global target (1,9). (
  • Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant independent variables associated with delayed sputum conversion. (
  • There is no risk to providing a sputum sample into a container. (
  • Therefore, evaluating risk factors for delayed sputum conversion is necessary for health care providers and policy-makers to ensure the correct measures to avoid unfavourable outcomes. (