Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.
Proteins found in EOSINOPHIL granules. They are primarily basic proteins that play a role in host defense and the proinflammatory actions of activated eosinophils.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Agents that increase mucous excretion. Mucolytic agents, that is drugs that liquefy mucous secretions, are also included here.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A pathologic process consisting in the formation of pus.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of proteins, including elastin. It cleaves preferentially bonds at the carboxyl side of Ala and Val, with greater specificity for Ala. EC 3.4.21.37.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.
Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the respiratory tract or its organs. It includes RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS.
The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.

The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (1/3186)

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship linked to the water supply system: clinical and public health implications. (2/3186)

The occurrence of legionnaires' disease has been described previously in passengers of cruise ships, but determination of the source has been rare. A 67-year-old, male cigarette smoker with heart disease contracted legionnaires' disease during a cruise in September 1995 and died 9 days after disembarking. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from the patient's sputum and the ship's water supply. Samples from the air-conditioning system were negative. L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from the water supply matched the patient's isolate, by both monoclonal antibody subtyping and genomic fingerprinting. None of 116 crew members had significant antibody titers to L. pneumophila serogroup 1. One clinically suspected case of legionnaires' disease and one confirmed case were subsequently diagnosed among passengers cruising on the same ship in November 1995 and October 1996, respectively. This is the first documented evidence of the involvement of a water supply system in the transmission of legionella infection on ships. These cases were identified because of the presence of a unique international system of surveillance and collaboration between public health authorities.  (+info)

Airway inflammatory response to ozone in subjects with different asthma severity. (3/3186)

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether ozone exposure induces a similar airway inflammatory response in subjects with different degrees of asthma severity. Two groups of asthmatic subjects were studied: seven with intermittent mild asthma not requiring regular treatment (group A); and seven with persistent mild asthma requiring regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta2-agonists (group B). All subjects were exposed, in a randomized cross-over design, to air or O3 (0.26 parts per million (ppm) for 2 h with intermittent exercise); subjects in group B withdrew from regular treatment 72 h before each exposure. Before the exposure, and 1 and 2 h after the beginning of the exposure they performed a pulmonary function test, and a questionnaire was completed to obtain a total symptom score (TSS). Six hours after the end of the exposure, hypertonic saline (HS) sputum induction was conducted. Sputum cell percentages, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 concentrations in the sputum supernatant were measured. TSS significantly increased and forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) significantly decreased after O3 exposure in comparison with air exposure in group A, whereas no changes were observed in group B except for a significant decrement of FEV1 2 h after the beginning of O3 exposure. Sputum neutrophil percentage was significantly higher after O3 exposure than after air exposure in both groups (Group A: 70.2% (28-87) versus 26.6% (8.6-73.2); Group B: 62.1% (25-82.4) versus 27.9% (14.4-54)). IL-8 was higher in sputum supernatant collected 6 h after O3 exposure than after air, only in group A. No change due to O3 has been found in sputum eosinophil percentage and ECP concentration in both groups. In conclusion, the degree of airway response to a short-term exposure to ozone is different in subjects with asthma of different severity. The available data do not allow elucidation of whether this difference depends on the severity of the disease or on the regular anti-inflammatory treatment.  (+info)

A pilot study of low-dose erythromycin in bronchiectasis. (4/3186)

Patients with bronchiectasis suffer from sputum production, recurrent exacerbations, and progressive airway destruction. Erythromycin is effective in diffuse panbronchiolitis, another suppurative airway disorder, although its efficacy is unknown in idiopathic bronchiectasis. A double-blind placebo-controlled study was therefore conducted to evaluate the effects of 8-week administration of low dose erythromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) in steady-state idiopathic bronchiectasis. Patients in the erythromycin group (n=11, 8 female, mean age 50+/-15 yrs), but not the placebo group (n=10, 8 female, mean age 59+/-16 yrs) had significantly improved forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity and 24-h sputum volume after 8 weeks (p<0.05). There was no parallel improvement in sputum pathogens, leukocytes, interleukin (IL)-1alpha and IL-8, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, or leukotriene B4. The results of this pilot study show that low-dose erythromycin improves lung function and sputum volume in bronchiectasis. Further studies are indicated to evaluate the efficacy of long-term erythromycin therapy in bronchiectasis.  (+info)

Cytokines and inflammatory mediators do not indicate acute infection in cystic fibrosis. (5/3186)

Various treatment regimens and difficulties with research design are encountered with cystic fibrosis (CF) because no standard diagnostic criteria exist for defining acute respiratory exacerbations. This study evaluated the role of serial monitoring of concentrations of selected cytokines and inflammatory mediators in serum and sputum as predictors of respiratory exacerbation, as useful outcome measures for CF, and to guide therapy. Interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), neutrophil elastase-alpha-1-protease inhibitor complex (NE complex), protein, and alpha-1-protease inhibitor (alpha-1-PI) were measured in serum and sputum collected from CF patients during respiratory exacerbations and periods of well-being. Levels of NE complex, protein, and alpha-1-PI in sputum rose during respiratory exacerbations and fell after institution of antibiotic therapy (P = 0.078, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). Mean (+/- standard error of the mean) levels of IL-8 and TNF-alpha were extremely high in sputum (13,780 +/- 916 and 249.4 +/- 23.5 ng/liter, respectively) but did not change significantly with clinical deterioration of the patient (P > 0.23). IL-8 and TNF-alpha were generally undetectable in serum, and therefore these measures were unhelpful. Drop in forced expiratory volume in 1 s was the only clinical or laboratory parameter that was close to being a determinant of respiratory exacerbation (P = 0.055). This study provides evidence of intense immunological activity occurring continually within the lungs of adult CF patients. Measurement of cytokines and inflammatory mediators in CF sputum is not helpful for identifying acute respiratory exacerbations.  (+info)

A rapid polymerase chain reaction technique for detecting M tuberculosis in a variety of clinical specimens. (6/3186)

A rapid in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is described for the direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical material. Its performance is compared with two kit based systems. The results of the in-house assay were comparable with the commercial assays, detecting M tuberculosis in 100% of smear positive, culture positive samples. The in-house assay proved to be rapid, easy, and inexpensive to perform, and the inclusion of an internal inhibitor control permitted validation of the PCR results.  (+info)

Comparison of isolation media for recovery of Burkholderia cepacia complex from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis. (7/3186)

Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has previously been devised for isolation of B. cepacia from respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis and tested under research laboratory conditions. Here we describe a study in which BCSA, oxidation-fermentation polymyxin bacitracin lactose agar (OFPBL), and Pseudomonas cepacia agar (PCA) were compared in routine culture procedures for the ability to grow B. cepacia and inhibit other organisms. Three hundred twenty-eight specimens from 209 patients at two pediatric centers and 328 specimens from 109 adults were tested. Plates were inoculated, incubated, and read for quality and quantity of growth at 24, 48, and 72 h. Five (1.5%) specimens from 4 (1.9%) children and 75 (22.9%) specimens from 16 (14.7%) adults grew B. cepacia complex. At 24, 48, and 72 h, BCSA achieved 43, 93, and 100% detection, respectively; OFPBL achieved 26, 84, and 96%, respectively; and PCA achieved 33, 74, and 84% detection, respectively. Quality was assessed as pinpoint or good growth. At 24 h, most cultures growing B. cepacia complex had pinpoint colonies. By 48 and 72 h, 48 and 69% of B. cepacia complex cultures, respectively, had good growth on BCSA, while on OFPBL 19 and 30%, respectively, had good growth and on PCA 11 and 18%, respectively, had good growth. BCSA was superior to OFPBL and PCA in suppressing organisms other than B. cepacia complex; 40 non-B. cepacia complex organisms were isolated from BCSA, 263 were isolated from OFPBL, and 116 were isolated from PCA. We conclude that BCSA is superior to OFPBL and PCA in its ability to support the growth of B. cepacia complex and to suppress other respiratory organisms.  (+info)

Survey of outpatient sputum cytology: influence of written instructions on sample quality and who benefits from investigation. (8/3186)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluated quality of outpatient sputum cytology and whether written instructions to patients improve sample quality and to identify variables that predict satisfactory samples. DESIGN: Prospective randomised study. SETTING: Outpatient department of a district general hospital. PATIENTS: 224 patients recruited over 18 months whenever their clinicians requested sputum cytology, randomized to receive oral or oral and written advice. INTERVENTIONS: Oral advice from nurse on producing a sputum sample (114 patients); oral advice plus written instructions (110). MAIN MEASURES: Percentages of satisfactory sputum samples and of patients who produced more than one satisfactory sample; clinical or radiological features identified from subsequent review of patients' notes and radiographs associated with satisfactory samples; final diagnosis of bronchial cancer. RESULTS: 588 sputum samples were requested and 477 received. Patients in the group receiving additional written instructions produced 75(34%) satisfactory samples and 43(39%) of them one or more sets of satisfactory samples. Corresponding figures for the group receiving only oral advice (80(31%) and 46(40%) respectively)were not significantly different. Logistic regression showed that radiological evidence of collapse or consolidation (p<0.01) and hilar mass (p<0.05) were significant predictors of the production of satisfactory samples. Sputum cytology confirmed the diagnosis in only 9(17%) patients with bronchial carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of outpatients' sputum samples was poor and was not improved by written instructions. Sputum cytology should be limited to patients with probable bronchial cancer unsuitable for surgery. IMPLICATIONS: Collection of samples and requests for sputum cytology should be reviewed in other hospitals.  (+info)

Induced sputum cell counts are a non-invasive, reliable method for evaluating the presence, type, and degree of inflammation in the airways of the lungs. Current reference values for induced sputum cell counts in healthy adults do not account for the effects of circadian rhythm, including diurnal variation. The objective of this study was to describe the diurnal variation in induced sputum cell counts, compared between early morning and late afternoon, in healthy adult individuals. 100 healthy adult subjects with no history of lung disease and normal bronchial reactivity proceeded with induced sputum testing at 7 am and 4 pm on different days. The order of testing was randomized. The cytotechnologist preparing and performing the cell counts was blinded to the sample collection time and subject characteristics. 65 subjects were included in the final analyses. There was no significant change in the total and differential sputum cell counts between the 7 am and 4 pm collections. There was good inter
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteomic profile of cystic fibrosis sputum cells in adults chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. AU - Pattison, SH. AU - Gibson, DS. AU - Johnston, E. AU - Peacock, S. AU - Rivera, K. AU - Tunney, MM. AU - Pappin, DJ. AU - Elborn, JS. N1 - UIR Compliant dates from UIR added to PURE link. Replaced manuscript as QUB front cover was on original uploaded version. PY - 2017/7/5. Y1 - 2017/7/5. N2 - Lung disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) andinvolves chronic infection and perturbed immune responses. Tissue damage ismediated mostly by extracellular proteases, but other cellular proteins may alsocontribute to damage through their effect on cell activities and/or release into sputumfluid by means of active secretion or cell death.We employed Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology to identify sputumcellular proteins with consistently altered abundance in adults with CF, chronicallyinfected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ...
BD Sputum Collection System Sputum Collection System Gloves, Glasses and Safety:First Aid and Medical:Patient Care Products:Sputum Specimen Collection
Cystic Fibrosis Sputum DNA Has NETosis Characteristics and Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Release Is Regulated by Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory ...
Little is currently known regarding sputum smear reversion (acid-fast smear becomes positive again after negative conversion) during anti-tuberculous treatment. This study aimed to evaluate its occurrence in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and identify factors predicting results of mycobacterial culture for smear-reversion of sputum samples. The retrospective review was performed in a tertiary referral center and a local teaching hospital in Taiwan. From 2000 to 2007, patients with smear-positive culture-confirmed pulmonary TB experiencing smear reversion after 14 days of anti-tuberculous treatment were identified. The 739 patients with smear-positive pulmonary TB had 74 (10%) episodes of sputum smear reversion that grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 22 (30%) (Mtb group). The remaining 52 episodes of culture-negative sputum samples were classified as the non-Mtb group. The anti-tuberculous regimen was modified after confirming smear reversion in 15 (20%). Fourteen episodes in the Mtb group and
Induced sputum differential cell counts have been advocated as a method of non-invasively assessing airway inflammation in asthma and other airway diseases. Since sputum induction usually involves delivering hypertonic saline via a high output ultrasonic nebulizer there have been concerns about its safety in asthma. There are relatively little data on the effects of sputum induction in large numbers of patients. We have examined the success rate and effect of sputum induction on forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) in 100 inductions performed on 79 patients using a low output nebulizer. Thirty-seven patients had asthma, 29 had miscellaneous conditions (mainly chronic cough) and 13 were subjects without respiratory symptoms. Sputum was induced 10 min after 200 micrograms of inhaled salbutamol by sequential 5-min inhalations of 3, 4 and 5% saline delivered via a Fisoneb ultrasonic nebulizer and FEV1 was measured after each inhalation. Sputum induction resulted in a sample suitable for analysis in 92%
Roflumilast is a targeted, oral, once-daily administered phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor with clinical efficacy in COPD. Results from in vitro studies with roflumilast indicate that roflumilast has anti-inflammatory properties that may be applicable for the treatment of COPD. In this cross-over study, 38 patients with COPD (mean (SD) age 63.1 (7.0) y, post-bronchodilator FEV1 61.0 (12.6) %predicted) received 500 μg roflumilast or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Induced sputum samples were collected prior to and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Differential and absolute cell counts were determined in whole sputum samples. Markers of inflammation were determined in sputum supernatants and blood. Spirometry was performed weekly. Roflumilast significantly reduced the absolute number of neutrophils and eosinophils per gram of sputum, compared with placebo, by 35.5% (95%CI 15.6, 50.7; p=0.0017) and 50.0% (26.8, 65.8; p=0.0005), respectively. The relative proportion of sputum neutrophils and ...
Objective - To improve the aetiological diagnosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) increased efforts were made to obtain expectorated sputum specimens from patients with CAP. Design - A prospective, clinical study. Patients were encouraged to cough spontaneously and to expectorate a sputum specimen. If unsuccessful, they were asked to inhale nebulized hypertonic saline to induce secretion and cough. Setting - One primary health care centre in Örebro, Sweden. Subjects - Patients attending the Health Centre with acute symptoms of CAP. Main outcome measures - Availability and quality of sputum specimen from patients with CAP in primary care. Results - 177 patients were included, 63% were women and the mean age was 51years. 28% were smokers and 46% showed infiltrates on chest X-ray. Sputum specimens were obtained from 125 patients. Fifty-nine were expectorated spontaneously and 66 were induced. Ninety-one of the specimens were found to be acceptable, whereas 34 were discarded. Potential ...
Rapid sputum tests are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) when other tests show that a person probably has TB. Rapid sputum tests are also called nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs).. One of the best ways to diagnose TB is through a sputum culture. A sputum culture is a test to find germs (such as TB bacteria) that can cause an infection. A sample of sputum is added to a substance that promotes the growth of bacteria. If no bacteria grow, the culture is negative. If bacteria grow, the culture is positive. If TB bacteria grow, then the person has tuberculosis. The test also can show if a lung infection is caused by some other kind of bacteria. A sputum culture can take 1 to 8 weeks to provide results.. Rapid sputum tests can tell if a person has TB within 24 hours. A test may be done when:footnote 1. ...
Sputum aspirators are suction machines that are used for the removal of mucus from the body by creating partial vacuum. These devices are prescribed by the physicians to remove mucus form the respiratory airway. Sputum is a thick mucus that is coughed up from the lower respiratory airways while coughing. Sputum is also called as phelgem that is thick, slippery and sticky substance which is produced by the throat, lungs or bronchial passages.. Phelgem which primarily constitutes sputum might also contain other substance such as dust, dead cells, blood cells and foreign particles like dust. Viral illness, infections of the upper airway passage or lungs, chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) can trigger the production of sputum. Furthermore, smoking or tobacco usage, gastroesophageal reflux disease and nasal discharge are other factors that can stimulate the production of sputum. Under serious conditions sputum are always used for microbial culture tests for ...
BACKGROUND: Eosinophils in induced sputum and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are currently used as non-invasive markers in the assessment of airway inflammation in asthma. As both sputum eosinophils (%) and exhaled NO are raised in asthmatic subjects not receiving inhaled steroids and decreased following corticosteroid therapy, a relationship between them is plausible. METHODS: Exhaled NO was measured by chemiluminescence analyser, sputum induction by 3.5% saline inhalation, and bronchial responsiveness was measured as PC20FEV1 methacholine in 35 stable asthmatic patients using beta 2 agonist alone and the correlation between these non-invasive markers of airway inflammation was studied. RESULTS: There were significant correlations between exhaled NO and PC20 (r = -0.64), exhaled NO and sputum eosinophils (%) (r = 0.48), and also between sputum eosinophils (%) and PC20 (r = -0.40). CONCLUSION: The correlation between exhaled NO and PC20 suggests that exhaled NO or the mechanisms leading to its ...
In this study, we assigned adult asthmatic patients into four groups based on their sputum cell profiles: G1, only eosinophilic; G2, mixed granulocytic, both eosinophilic and neutrophilic; G3, only neutrophilic; and G4, paucigranulocytic asthma. This is an easier diagnostic method in real practice, compared to flow cytometry techniques. G1 and G3 were the predominant groups, followed by G2 and G4. There have been variable differences in the prevalence of sputum cell profiles between studies, which are mainly due to differences in study populations, and the cut-offs of sputum eosinophil/neutrophil counts used. We used the same cut-off values as those of a previous study: , 3% eosinophils for eosinophilic asthma, and age-dependent cut-offs for neutrophils as neutrophilic asthma [21]. However, other studies have used different cut-off points for neutrophilic asthma: , 61% of sputum neutrophils [22] and a different cut-off point for eosinophilic asthma, , 1.1% of sputum eosinophils [18]. Another ...
Tuberculosis is on the increase in Africa. A key area of weakness in TB control efforts is the inability to make a rapid diagnosis. This is, in part, due to the inability to obtain representative biological samples and the non-availability of cheap, effective, rapid and field-friendly diagnostic tools. Indeed, in HIV positive patients, where the sensitivity of sputum smear is as low as 20%, culture results take several weeks and a significant proportion of patients do not expectorate sputum. Sputum induction for the diagnosis of TB has been evaluated in several studies, has been shown to have a good yield, feasibility and safety when performed correctly, and with diagnostic comparability to bronchoscopy. Few studies have evaluated the performance of induced sputum outside of the hospital environment and the tolerability, yield and performance outcome of sputum induction in a primary care facility has yet to be evaluated. The objective of this study is two-fold. We seek to evaluate, through a ...
Tuberculosis is on the increase in Africa. A key area of weakness in TB control efforts is the inability to make a rapid diagnosis. This is, in part, due to the inability to obtain representative biological samples and the non-availability of cheap, effective, rapid and field-friendly diagnostic tools. Indeed, in HIV positive patients, where the sensitivity of sputum smear is as low as 20%, culture results take several weeks and a significant proportion of patients do not expectorate sputum. Sputum induction for the diagnosis of TB has been evaluated in several studies, has been shown to have a good yield, feasibility and safety when performed correctly, and with diagnostic comparability to bronchoscopy. Few studies have evaluated the performance of induced sputum outside of the hospital environment and the tolerability, yield and performance outcome of sputum induction in a primary care facility has yet to be evaluated. The objective of this study is two-fold. We seek to evaluate, through a ...
Question - Pulmonary tuberculosis,sputum examination negative, taking Fixcom 4, orange urine, itchy. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Rifampin, Ask a Pulmonologist
Background- Sputum cytology is noninvasive and is the most easily obtainable of the cytologic techniques available. Spontaneous production of significant amounts of sputum often indicates pulmonary disease, both tuberculosis and other respiratory conditions present with similar symptoms. Objective- To describe cytomorphologic changes in sputum samples submitted by TB suspect patients. Settings and Design- Cross-sectional descriptive study. A total 196 TB suspect patients seen at Ngong Sub-District Hospital and Ongata Rongai Health Centre in Kajiado County between December 2011 and March 2012 were assessed for criteria and enrolled in the study. Materials and Methods- Two pre-fixed sputum (Spot and morning) samples were obtained from 196 consecutive pulmonary TB suspect patients, pooled, centrifuged and processed for H&E, Pap and Concentration ZN techniques. Statistical analysis- The data was presented in percentages and charts. The significance of difference was tested using Chi- square test. ...
We evaluated long-lived oxidant potential in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by quantitating the methionine-inhibitable, long-lived oxidant fraction of sputum, referred to as the chloramines. Taurine, the preferred amino acid substrate for chloramine formation, and myeloperoxidase ( …
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BACKGROUND: Sputum induction is an important non-invasive technique for measuring airway inflammation in asthma. Cell numbers are often too low for flow cytometric analysis. Laser scanning cytometry (LSC) is a novel technique that allows objective multicolour fluorescence analysis of cells on a microscope slide. METHODS: LSC was used to determine sputum eosinophil and bronchial epithelial cell counts. We first confirmed that we could measure eosinophil counts accurately in peripheral blood using alpha-major basic protein (MBP) immunofluorescent staining. Sputum induction was performed according to standard protocols. Sputum samples from eight normal controls and 12 asthmatic patients were analysed by LSC and manual counting by two independent observers. Octospot cytospins were fixed and stained with mouse-alpha-human-MBP monoclonal antibody or mouse-alpha-human-cytokeratin antibody and goat-alpha-mouse Oregon Green conjugated second antibody. RESULTS: Sputum induction provided a mean (SE) of 0.99 (0.2)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Mtb cells contain intracellular lipid bodies (LBs) in sputum and the levels vary between patients. Previous reports showed the essential role of nitric oxide (NO) in killing Mtb in vivo and that Mtb forms LBs in vitro upon NO treatment. These treated populations are tolerant to isoniazid and rifampicin, but the reasons for varing LB levels in vivo are not understood. The objective of this study was to determine the association between fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) concentrations with the proportion of LB[superscript +ve] tubercle bacilli in sputum. The majority of TB patients (65%) showed ≤ 20.6 ppb FeNO concentration. FeNO concentration was weak but significantly associated with the proportion of LB[superscript +ve] tubercle bacilli in sputum. FeNO concentration was also significantly associated with the proportion of LB[superscript +ve] tubercle bacilli among HIV[superscript +ve] P[superscript -] and ...
Rationale: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis is difficult in patient who do not produce sputum spontaneously, or who have AFB smear (-) sputum. Bronchoscopy is helpful in these patients, but in many cases cannot be readily available. We prospectively compared the diagnostic yield of sputum induction test with bronchoscopy.. Methods: From February 1 to July 31, 2010, we included the patients suspected active pulmonary tuberculosis, who could not produce sputum spontaneously, or who had a pair of AFB smear (-) sputum. They underwent sputum induction test and bronchoscopy. We calculated the sensitivity of AFB smear, culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, TB-PCR of each test, and evaluated the concordance rate by kappa test.. Results: Sensitivities of AFB smear were 36.1% in sputum induction test and 33.3% in bronchoscopy. Sensitivities of culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 69.4% and 75.0%, and TB PCR were 52.8% and 58.3% in sputum induction and bronchoscopy, respectively. The results of ...
Background. It is standard practice for laboratories to assess the cellular quality of expectorated sputum specimens to check that they originated from the lower respiratory tract. The presence of low numbers of squamous epithelial cells (SECs) and high numbers of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells are regarded as indicative of a lower respiratory tract specimen. However, these quality ratings have never been evaluated for induced sputum specimens from children with suspected pneumonia. Methods. We evaluated induced sputum Gram stain smears and cultures from hospitalized children aged 1-59 months enrolled in a large study of community-acquired pneumonia. We hypothesized that a specimen representative of the lower respiratory tract will contain smaller quantities of oropharyngeal flora and be more likely to have a predominance of potential pathogens compared to a specimen containing mainly saliva. The prevalence of potential pathogens cultured from induced sputum specimens and quantity of oropharyngeal flora
A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi that are infecting the lungs or breathing passages. Sputum is a thick fluid produced in the lungs and in the airways leading to the lungs. A sample of sputum is placed in a container with substances that promote the growth of bacteria or fungi. If no bacteria or fungi grow, the culture is negative. If organisms that can cause infection (pathogenic organisms) grow, the culture is positive. The type of bacterium or fungus will be identified with a microscope or by chemical tests. If bacteria or fungi that can cause infection grow in the culture, other tests may be done to determine which antibiotic will be most effective in treating the infection. This is called susceptibility or sensitivity testing. This test is done on a sample of sputum that is usually collected by coughing. For people who cannot cough deeply enough to produce a sample, a suction tube or needle may be inserted in the airway to collect the sputum. In a hospital ...
Pulmonary Tuberculosis (Pulmonary TB) is one of the most contagious diseases affecting the lungs. The disease is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis with morphology that is shaped basil that is resistant to alcoholic acid if stained with Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Sputum examination of pulmonary TB patients with Centrifugation Technique is examination with a certain rotational speed that is affected by gravity to produce precipitate. The purpose of this research is to know the microscopic picture of acid proof bacillus (BTA) examination by using centrifugation technique and conventional technique. This type of research is descriptive to see the microscopic picture of smear from sputum pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Sample collection that is accidental sampling amounted to 14 samples of sputum which have been checked by conventional technique of laboratory of RSUP. Prof. Dr. R. D. Kandou and re-examined at the BPPK Laboratory of North Sulawesi Province using centrifugation technique ...
Background: The use of early morning sputum samples (EMS) to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) can result in treatment delay given the need for the patient to return to the clinic with the EMS, increasing the chance of patients being lost during their diagnostic workup. However, there is little evidence to support the superiority of EMS over spot sputum samples. In this new analysis of the REMoxTB study, we compare the diagnostic accuracy of EMS with spot samples for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis pre- and post-treatment. Methods: Patients who were smear positive at screening were enrolled into the study. Paired sputum samples (one EMS and one spot) were collected at each trial visit pre- and post-treatment. Microscopy and culture on solid LJ and liquid MGIT media were performed on all samples; those missing corresponding paired results were excluded from the analyses. Results: Data from 1115 pre- and 2995 post-treatment paired samples from 1931 patients enrolled in the REMoxTB study were ...
Sputum /spju.təm/ is mucus and is the name used for the coughed-up material (phlegm) from the lower airways (trachea and bronchi). In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections and cytological investigations of respiratory systems. It is critical that the patient not give a specimen that includes any mucoid material from the interior of the nose. Naked eye exam of sputum can be done at home by a patient in order to note the various colors (see below). Any hint of yellow color suggests an airway infection (but does not indicate between the types of organisms causing it). Such color hints are best detected when the sputum is viewed on a very white background such as white paper, a white pot, or a white sink surface. The more intense the yellow color, the more likely it is a bacterial infection (bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, or pneumonia). The best sputum samples contain very little saliva, as saliva contaminates the ...
SETTING: Urban health clinic, Nairobi. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact on tuberculosis (TB) case detection and laboratory workload of reducing the number of sputum smears examined and thresholds for diagnosing positive smears and positive cases. DESIGN: In this prospective study, three Ziehl-Neelsen stained sputum smears from consecutive pulmonary TB suspects were examined blind. The standard approach (A), , or = 2 positive smears out of 3, using a cut-off of 10 acid-fast bacilli (AFB)/100 high-power fields (HPF), was compared with approaches B, , or = 2 positive smears (, or = 4 AFB/100 HPF) out of 3, one of which is , or = 10 AFB/100 HPF; C, , or = 2 positive smears (, or = 4 AFB/100 HPF) out of 3; D, , or = 1 positive smear (, or = 10 AFB/100 HPF) out of 2; and E, , or = 1 positive smear (, or = 4 AFB/100 HPF) out of 2. The microscopy gold standard was detection of at least one positive smear (, or = 4 AFB/100 HPF) out of 3. RESULTS: Among 644 TB suspects, the alternative approaches ...
A community engagement project was designed and implemented to reach 10.6 million population in 13 districts of Uttarakhand state-India, to identify presumptive TB patients (PTBPs) and link to free diagnostics services, either through referral or sputum collection and transportation (SCT). The objective of this study is to determine additional yield of TB patients achieved by providing SCT services in comparison to referrals of PTBPs identified in hard-to-reach areas. This was before and after comparative study conducted between April-June 2014 (2Q2014-before) to July-September 2014 (3Q2014-after). SCT was advised for all PTBPs identified from community level interventions between July-September 2014 (3Q2014-after). In 3Q2014, additional 279 (34%) PTBPs were examined in the microscopy centre with an additional 36 (51%) new smear positive (NSP) patient diagnosed. A total of 46 NSP (128%) were contributed by SCT alone. Higher proportion (94%) of TB patients was initiated on treatment in 3Q2014 in
RNTCP Lab Technician/ Sputum Microscopist Recruitment 2018, RNTCP Lab Technician/ Sputum Microscopist Syllabus, RNTCP Lab Technician/ Sputum Microscopist Previous Papers, Sample Papers - Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme, RNTCP Lab Technician/ Sputum Microscopist Recruitment 2018, Syllabus, Sample Paper
We evaluated the intra- and inter-rater reliability and the agreement of the Sputum Color Chart for 3 evaluators from 6 categories of caregivers who can be routinely faced with sputum evaluation in their clinical practice. Our study highlighted a non-uniform reliability and agreement with the Sputum Color Chart. This observation was not related to the category of caregivers.. Sputum color is considered to be a key element in clinical evaluation of subjects with respiratory diseases. Indeed, sputum color appears to be regularly used in routine practice and in research.14,15 Changes in sputum are included in the widely accepted Anthonisen definition of exacerbations in COPD7 and in their evaluation.16 In a large study on COPD exacerbations, sputum color was used as a marker of exacerbation, and the authors demonstrated that sputum purulence was strongly associated with bacterial growth.17 Although this criterion has lower sensitivity and more limited applicability in children than in adults due to ...
in Thorax (2010), 65(12), 1039-1044. Background It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma. However, the FeNO threshold value that ... [more ▼]. Background It has been claimed that exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be regarded as a surrogate marker for sputum eosinophil count in patients with asthma. However, the FeNO threshold value that identifies a sputum eosinophil count ,/=3% in an unselected population of patients with asthma has been poorly studied. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in 295 patients with asthma aged 15-84 years recruited from the asthma clinic of University Hospital of Liege. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between sputum eosinophil count and FeNO, taking into account covariates such as inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), smoking, atopy, age and sex. Results Derived from ...
SHAFAQNA - The Grand Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi answered a question about the duty of a person who is fasting when sputum enters his mouth whilst performing Salaat.. Question: What is the duty of a person who is fasting and performing Salaat when sputum enters his/her mouth?. The Grand Ayatollah Makarem: When sputum enters the mouth of a person who is fasting and performing Salaat, he/she must get rid of it and if it was not possible, cut the Salaat (of course can change the intention from Wajeb Salaat to Mostahab Salaat and leave the Salaat) and then after getting rid of sputum, perform the Salaat again.. Source: PERSIAN SHAFAQNA. ...
We decentralized sputum smear AFB EQA from 4 Regional Laboratories (RRLs) to 82 EQA centers and enrolled 956 health facilities in EQA schemes. Enrollment of HFs in EQA was gradual because it required training and mentoring laboratory professionals, institutionalizing internal QA measures, equipping all HFs to perform diagnosis, and establishing more EQA centers. From 2012 to 2014 (Phase I), the FP rate declined from 0.6% to 0.2% and FN fell from as high as 7.6% to 1.6% in supported health facilities (HFs). In HFs that joined in Phase II, FN rates ranged from 5.6 to 7.3%. The proportion of HFs without errors has increased from 77.9% to 90.5% in Phase I HFs and from 82.9% to 86.9% in Phase II HFs. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 95.0% and 99.7%, respectively. PPV and NPV were 93.3% and 99.7%, respectively.. ...
Background:We and others have shown that the gamma tocopherol (γT) isoform of vitamin E has multiple anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions and that γT supplementation reduces eosinophilic and endotoxin (LPS)-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation in animal models and healthy human volunteers.O
The 7-month continuation phase is recommended for the following 3 groups: patients with cavitary pulmonary tuberculosis caused by drug-susceptible organisms and with positive sputum culture at the end of the 2-month initial treatment phase; patients whose initial phase of treatment did not include pyrazinamide; and patients with positive sputum cultures at the end of the initial phase and are treated with isoniazid and rifapentine once weekly for the continuation phase ...
Background Home-initiated tuberculosis (TB) evaluation could improve test uptake and linkage to care among at-risk contacts of active TB index patients. However, there is a need to systematically explore why contacts accept, decline, or are unable to complete these services. We sought to describe the barriers to home-based sputum collection as part of enhanced household contact investigation for TB in Kampala, Uganda. Methods Using a parallel convergent mixed-methods design, we collected quantitative data describing home sputum collection among 82 household contacts of active TB patients and qualitative interviews from a sub-sample of 19 of those contacts. Data were analyzed in parallel to produce a more complete picture of the underlying barriers to home sputum collection. Results Men were significantly more likely than women to provide sputum when eligible (p=0.04). Contacts who reported risk factors for or symptoms of TB but no active cough where significantly less likely to provide sputum (p=0.05).
Background: Leukotriene-E4 (LTE4) and prostaglandin-D2 (PDG2) are lipid mediators associated with Type-2 inflammation in asthma. Both are increased in the urine of patients with asthma. We have assessed concentrations in induced sputum in patients with asthma and tested the hypothesis that concentrations vary according to the pattern of inflammation.. Methods: Induced sputum was obtained from 7 healthy volunteers and 44 patients with asthma (GINA steps 2-5), and processed according to our usual procedures. LTE4 and PGD2 were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. Patients with asthma were stratified by induced sputum eosinophil count, with counts , 3% classified as eosinophilic.. Results: Geometric mean (log SD) LTE4 concentration was 218 (0.47), 1237 (0.44) and 5541 (0.94) pg/ml and PGD2 concentration 2289 (0.2), 3366 (0.33) and 4575 (0.3) pg/ml in controls, patients with non-eosinophilic and patients with eosinophilic asthma respectively (figure). LTE4 was significantly different ...
Sputum Evaluation (and Sputum Induction) - an easy to understand guide covering causes, diagnosis, symptoms, treatment and prevention plus additional in depth medical information.
Background. Few studies have examined the relationships between sputum inflammatory markers and subsequent annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (dFEV1). This study investigated whether indices of airway inflammation are predictors of dFEV1 in a general population-based sample.. Methods. The study, conducted from 2003 to 2005, included 120 healthy Norwegian subjects aged 40 to 70 years old. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administered respiratory questionnaire and underwent a clinical examination that included spirometry, venous blood sampling, and induced sputum examination. From 2015 to 2016, 62 (52%) participants agreed to a follow-up examination that did not include induced sputum examination. Those with a FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio < 0.70 underwent a bronchial reversibility test. The levels of cytokines, pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage phenotypes were measured in induced sputum using bead-based multiplex analysis. The associations between cytokine ...
Sputum is a thick fluid that is produced in the lungs and in the airways that lead to the lungs. Sputum is different than saliva.. A person who has an infection or disease of the respiratory system may cough up sputum. Some diseases can cause pus, blood, or bacteria to show up in the sputum.. ...
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Our today topic is black sputum.We will talk about black sputum.We will discuss about black sputum reasons and treatments of black sputum.The wall of the respiratory system is covered by the protective mucus layer and all the way from the respiratory system to the lungs down to the lungs is established with small air bags. Continue reading ...
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Our today topic is black sputum.We will talk about black sputum.We will discuss about black sputum reasons and treatments of black sputum.
Tuberculosis has been & continues to be one of the most significant pathogens in term of human morbidity & mortality. Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis represents a significant proportion of mycobacterial infections, in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts, however MOTT patients are initially treated with conventional antituberculous treatments, before the results of culture to identify the bacteria as non tuberculous are available, resulting in a period of time in which patients are treated with drugs to which the bacteria are frequently resistant. The reappearance of positive smear at the end of treatment may be due to relapse of tuberculosis or disease by non tuberculous mycobacteria (MOTT).. The aim of the study is to evaluate the possible role of MOTT in treatment failure cases of pulmonary TB. The study includes 50 patients with treatment failure on basis of persistant positive sputum culture for more than 5 months. Sputum examination by ZN stain, culture of mycobacterial ...
Background The accurate diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients, particularly with advanced immunosuppression, is difficult. Recent studies indicate that a lipoarabinomannan (LAM) assay (Clearview-TB®-ELISA) may have some utility for the diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected patients; however, the precise subgroup that may benefit from this technology requires clarification. The utility of LAM in sputum samples has, hitherto, not been evaluated. Methods LAM was measured in sputum and urine samples obtained from 500 consecutively recruited ambulant patients, with suspected TB, from 2 primary care clinics in South Africa. Culture positivity for M. tuberculosis was used as the reference standard for TB diagnosis. Results Of 440 evaluable patients 120/387 (31%) were HIV-infected. Urine-LAM positivity was associated with HIV positivity (p = 0.007) and test sensitivity, although low, was significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to uninfected patients (21% versus 6%; p|0.001), and also in HIV-infected
Other articles where Sputum is discussed: respiratory disease: Signs and symptoms: A cough productive of sputum is the most important manifestation of inflammatory or malignant diseases of the major airways, of which bronchitis is a common example. In severe bronchitis the mucous glands lining the bronchi enlarge greatly, and, commonly, 30 to 60 ml of sputum are produced in a…
The influence of acetylation status of tuberculosis patients on the isoniazid serum concentrations and sputum conversion after intensive phase therapy
Looking for online definition of sputum culture and sensitivity test in the Medical Dictionary? sputum culture and sensitivity test explanation free. What is sputum culture and sensitivity test? Meaning of sputum culture and sensitivity test medical term. What does sputum culture and sensitivity test mean?
Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is characterized by persisting mucoid biofilms in hypoxic endobronchial mucus. These biofilms are surrounded by numerous polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), which consume a major part of present molecular oxygen (O(2)) due to production of superoxide (O(2)(-)). In this study, we show that the PMNs also consume O(2) for production of nitric oxide (NO) by the nitric oxide synthases (NOS) in the infected endobronchial mucus. Fresh expectorated sputum samples (n = 28) from chronically infected CF patients (n = 22) were analysed by quantifying and visualizing the NO production. NO production was detected by optode measurements combined with fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and spectrophotometry. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthases (NOS) with N(G) -monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) resulted in reduced O(2) consumption (P , 0·0008, n = 8) and a lower fraction of cells with fluorescence from the NO-indicator ...
Culture contamination with environmental bacteria is a major challenge in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories in hot and humid climate zones. We studied the effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) preservation on culture results and performance of Xpert MTB/RIF. Consecutive sputum samples from microscopy smear-positive TB patients were collected. Two-hundred samples were equally split in two aliquots, one aliquot was treated with CPC and stored at ambient temperature for 7 days. The second aliquot was immediately processed. Samples were decontaminated for 20, 15 or 10 min, and subsequently cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium. Furthermore, 50 samples were stored for 7, 14 and 21 days, and 100 CPC-pretreated samples tested by Xpert MTB/RIF. CPC pretreated samples showed a higher culture yield compared to non-treated sputum samples across all decontamination times: 94% vs. 73% at 10 min (p = 0.01), 94% vs. 64% at 15 min (p = 0.004), and 90% vs. 52% at 20 min (p < 0.001). The quantitative culture grading was
Culture contamination with environmental bacteria is a major challenge in tuberculosis (TB) laboratories in hot and humid climate zones. We studied the effect of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) preservation on culture results and performance of Xpert MTB/RIF. Consecutive sputum samples from microscopy smear-positive TB patients were collected. Two-hundred samples were equally split in two aliquots, one aliquot was treated with CPC and stored at ambient temperature for 7 days. The second aliquot was immediately processed. Samples were decontaminated for 20, 15 or 10 min, and subsequently cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium. Furthermore, 50 samples were stored for 7, 14 and 21 days, and 100 CPC-pretreated samples tested by Xpert MTB/RIF. CPC pretreated samples showed a higher culture yield compared to non-treated sputum samples across all decontamination times: 94% vs. 73% at 10 min (p = 0.01), 94% vs. 64% at 15 min (p = 0.004), and 90% vs. 52% at 20 min (p , 0.001). The quantitative culture ...
Effective treatment for chronic infections is undermined by a significant gap in understanding of the physiological state of pathogens at the site of infection. Chronic pulmonary infections are responsible for the morbidity and mortality of millions of immunocompromised individuals worldwide, yet drugs that are successful in laboratory culture are far less effective against pathogen populations persisting in vivo. Laboratory models, upon which preclinical development of new drugs is based, can only replicate host conditions when we understand the metabolic state of the pathogens and the degree of heterogeneity within the population. In this study, we measured the anabolic activity of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus directly in the sputum of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), by combining the high sensitivity of isotope ratio mass spectrometry with a heavy water labeling approach to capture the full range of in situ growth rates. Our results reveal S. aureus generation times with a ...
Looking for online definition of Culture, Bacterial, Sputum in the Medical Dictionary? Culture, Bacterial, Sputum explanation free. What is Culture, Bacterial, Sputum? Meaning of Culture, Bacterial, Sputum medical term. What does Culture, Bacterial, Sputum mean?
Background : Mycoplasma pneumoniae is implicated in acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma and is also a factor in the chronicity of asthma. This study was conducted to determine the significance of this association and to estimate the incidence of M.pneumoniae in the airways of asthmatics by isolation of the organism in sputum by culture method. Methods: In our study we have tried to isolate M.pneumoniae in sputum specimen samples by culture technique in one hundred asthmatic patients and fifty non-asthmatics who served as controls. Results : In out study we were able to isolate M.pneumoniae by sputum culture in 18% of the asthmatics. Among the culture positive patients, 16% had acute exacerbation of asthma. Conclusions: Our study compares favorably with the earlier studies done using serology and PCR in the diagnosis of M.pneumoniae infections in asthma emphasizing the usefulness of sputum cluture as a reliable investigative tool for isolation of M.pneumoniae in asthmatics. It also suggests a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Measurement of sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis messenger RNA as a surrogate for response to chemotherapy. AU - Desjardin, Lucy E.. AU - Perkins, Mark D.. AU - Wolski, Kathy. AU - Haun, Shirley. AU - Teixeira, Luciléia. AU - Chen, Ying. AU - Johnson, John L.. AU - Ellner, Jerrold J.. AU - Dietze, Reynaldo. AU - Bates, Joseph. AU - Cave, M. Donald. AU - Eisenach, Kathleen D.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - Effective treatment regimens for pulmonary tuberculosis are difficult to assess because of the slow growth rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in culture and its protracted clearance from sputum. A rapid method that reflects effective antimicrobial activity would markedly advance evaluation of treatment and promote the assessment of new antituberculosis drugs. Conventional methods measure the progressive reduction of numbers of acid- fast bacilli in the sputum smear and the clearance of organisms in sputum culture. In this study, we measured levels of M. tuberculosis 85B (alpha ...
Of 2613 patients, 2439 (93%) were screened for TB and 682 (28%) screened positive. Only 90 (13.2%) had a sputum order. Of this group, 83% completed the diagnostic cascade, 13% were diagnosed with TB, and 50% had a sputum result within 1 day of their visit. Sputum ordering was associated with WHO stage 3 or 4 HIV disease and greater number of symptoms. The main identifiable reasons for lack of sputum order in chart review were treatment of presumed malaria (51%) or bacterial infection (43%).. CONCLUSIONS ...
Inhibition of LPS induced sputum neutrophil percentage. The reduction in sputum neutrophil percentage caused by active treatments compared to placebo are shown;
Matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, although its link to disease severity is unclear. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between disease severity assessed by lung function and computed tomography (CT) and sputum MMP-9 expression, concentration and activity in patients with COPD. In 53 COPD subjects, smokers and ex-smokers; 46 healthy controls, smokers and never smokers, we measured sputum MMP-9 concentrations (ELISA) and enzyme activity (FRET), sputum MMP-9 mRNA expression, spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) and CT assessment of emphysema (% low attenuation areas below-950 Hounsfield units). Sputum MMP-9 concentrations and mRNA expression in COPD subjects were significantly greater than in healthy never-smokers (p = 0.007 and p = 0.001 respectively) and similar to those in healthy smokers. Disease severity when assessed by the extent of emphysema measured by CT, but not by spirometry or DLco values, was directly
In many pulmonary diseases, sputum is a valuable sample material for use in disease characterisation and diagnostics. However, due to its high viscosity and uneven consistency (lumpiness), it is difficult to obtain reproducible/repeatable results during compound extraction and analysis. We subsequently investigated and compared four sputum pre-extraction preparation methods using: 1) Sputolysin; 2) a combination of N-acetyl-l-cysteine and sodium hydroxide (NALC-NaOH); 3) NaOH alone, and 4) a simple ethanol homogenisation method, prior to sputum extraction and metabolomics analyses. The simple ethanol homogenisation approach proved to be the comparatively superior sputum pre-extraction preparation method, considering its repeatability, the number of characteristic compounds extracted, its ability to extract those compounds best differentiating the sample groups (Mycobacterium tuberculosis-spiked and clinically confirmed TB-positive patient samples from each of the controls respectively), and its ...
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Background & Objectives: Tuberculosis is a bacterial disease that gets created by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Pulmonary tuberculosis constitutes more than 80% of the Tuberculosis cases. Despite the availability of effective treatment for pulmonary TB, sputum smear negative time course of patients affected by various factors is not as expected. The aim of ...
A total of 103 samples of sputum from 20 patients with bronchial asthma were examined for appearance of basophils and eosinophils. The results are as follows: 1) Basophilic leucocytes were found in the sputum of patients with bronchial asthma. 2) Basophils appeared in sputum during asthma attacks and disappeared during nonattack stages. 3) The number of basophils in sputum tended to increase at the end of attack stages. 4) High incidence of basophils in sputum was observed in asthmatic patients with low serum IgE levels. 5) Appearance of basophils in sputum was accompanied with that of eosinophils. 6) Appearance of basophils in sputum was related to the number of peripheral basophils, but not to the daily volume of sputum. These results suggest that basophils migrate from the blood stream into bronchial tissues and appear in sputum during attack stages of bronchial asthma ...
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Author. By Mogahid M Elhassan, Ahmed H Ibrahim, Miskelyemen A Elmekk.. Abstracts. This study aimed to use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a rapid tool for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis from sputum samples. Clinically suspected tuberculosis patient in Khartoum state were targeted. Materials and Methods: Sputum specimens were collected from patients attending Abu Anga Hospital, Alsha ab Teaching Hospital and Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory. Patients were consented and informed. Sputum samples were stained with ZN stain, then decontaminated and cultured on LJ medium. Part of the sputum was used for DNA extraction by isopropanol method for PCR. Results: 37(21.6%) smears from the collected 171 sputum samples showed positive ZN smears while 134 (78.4%) showed negative result. On LJ medium, 23.4% showed MTC-like colonies, 5.8% were considered rapidly growing Mycobacteria and 70.8% samples revealed contamination or no growth. The MTC-like colonies were confirmed by conventional ...
Tuberculosis patients may have Mycobacterium tuberculosis in their sputum at the end of treatment, and may show new drug resistance, due to either inadequate treatment of the original episode or reinfection with a new strain during therapy. In a cohort study of mineworkers with tuberculosis in South Africa, 57 of 438 patients had positive sputum cultures 6 months after recruitment in 1995. Of the 31 patients who initially had fully sensitive strains, 3 developed multidrug resistance (MDR) and 3 single-drug resistance (SDR). Of the 6 who started with SDR, 3 became MDR. HIV infection was not associated with drug resistance at enrollment or 6 months later. We compared pairs of DNA fingerprints from isolates of M. tuberculosis at recruitment and 6 months later in the 48 patients for whom we had both available. In 45, the pairs were identical. In 1 patient, although both isolates were fully sensitive, the later fingerprint had 1 less band (transposition). In 2 pairs, the fingerprint patterns were ...
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Kebron Isayas, Patrick Forsythe, and Cesar Romero react at the moment of the big win. Another victory for a team that has gotten used to winning...never having lost a game at either the state competition in July in Waco at the TSRC meeting, or at the Congress in Indianapolis. A remarkable feat for competitors in any sport, let alone one with such a degree of difficulty as the National Sputum Bowl...I know, having competed myself at an AARC sputum bowl (we didnt make it to the semi-finals). This win shows the strength not only of Collin Colleges program but of uncompromising educational standards of Texas schools. The Lone Star state should be proud of this accomplishment. This is not a first national win for Collin, their instructors Julie Boganwright and Angie Switzer together with Grant Pipes won 1st place in the practitioner level at the national Sputum Bowl at the Congress in Las Vegas in 2014 although this is the first national win by a Texas student team in many years, (Collin students ...
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Chest radiographs are used for diagnosis and severity assessment in tuberculosis (TB). The extent of disease as determined by smear grade and cavitation as a binary measure can predict 2-month smear results, but little has been done to determine whether radiological severity reflects the bacterial burden at diagnosis. Pre-treatment chest x-rays from 1837 participants with smear-positive pulmonary TB enrolled into the REMoxTB trial (Gillespie et al., N Engl J Med 371:1577-87, 2014) were retrospectively reviewed. Two clinicians blinded to clinical details using the Ralph scoring system performed separate readings. An independent reader reviewed discrepant results for quality assessment and cavity presence. Cavitation presence was plotted against time to positivity (TTP) of sputum liquid cultures (MGIT 960). The Wilcoxon rank sum test was performed to calculate the difference in average TTP for these groups. The average lung field affected was compared to log 10 TTP by linear regression. Baseline markers
When I worked in a microbiology laboratory in Glasgow we hardly ever reported antibiotic susceptibilities on Staphylococcus aureus when cultured from sputum. Now I am working in New Zealand, and we almost always do…. So who is right and who is wrong?. The problem is that Staphylococcus aureus in the sputum can mean several different things:. ...
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Survival rates for lung cancer are low because patients have disseminated disease at diagnosis; therefore tests for early diagnosis are highly desirable. This pilot study investigated occurrence of chromosomal aneusomy in sputum from a 33 case-control cohort matched on age, gender, and date of sample collection. Subjects had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and , or = 30 pack-years of tobacco use, and aneusomy was tested using a multi-target DNA FISH assay (LAVysion, Abbott/Vysis). In specimens collected within 12 months of lung cancer diagnosis, abnormality was more frequent among the 18 cases (41%) than the 17 controls (6%; P = 0.04). Aneusomy had no significant association with cytologic atypia, which might indicate that molecular and morphological changes could be independent markers of tumorigenesis. Combining both tests, abnormality was found in 83% of the cases and 20% of the controls (P = 0.0004) suggesting that FISH may improve the sensitivity of cytologic atypia as a predictor of ...
Acid-fast microscopy examination (24 hours) The smear microscopy is the most rapid method for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in clinical specimens. Smears detect viable and non-viable organisms; with a threshold of 10,000 organisms /ml of sputum, .This Centre receives 80 to 120 pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary specimens per day. The specimens were digested and decontaminated by petroff s (using 4% NAOH) method. The results of smear microscopy mailed or faxed to other hospital , correctional facilities, and intermediate laboratories of Iran immediately .. Smear : indirect after decontamination by Petroff method Staining : Ziehl-nelson staining. Specimens : Sputum ,BAL,Body fluid,gastric aspirate ,tissue Comments : The form ( called number-6) has to completely field by attending doctor Collection : See the table .1. Instruction Volume: 5-10 ml smear results: within 24 hours of receiving specimens. ...
View details of top bloody sputum hospitals in Gurgaon. Get guidance from medical experts to select best bloody sputum hospital in Gurgaon
Background: Vitamin D (vitD) and L-arginine have important antimycobacterial effects in humans. Adjunctive therapy with these agents has the potential to improve outcomes in active tuberculosis (TB).. Methods: In a 4-arm randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled factorial trial in adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Timika, Indonesia, we tested the effect of oral adjunctive vitD 50,000 IU 4-weekly or matching placebo, and L-arginine 6.0 g daily or matching placebo, for 8 weeks, on proportions of participants with negative 4-week sputum culture, and on an 8-week clinical score (weight, FEV1, cough, sputum, haemoptysis). All participants with available endpoints were included in analyses according to the study arm to which they were originally assigned. Adults with new smear-positive PTB were eligible. The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00677339.. Results: 200 participants were enrolled, less than the intended sample size: 50 received L-arginine + active ...
Ordering Patterns, Collection, Transport, and Screening of Sputum Cultures in a Community Hospital: Evaluation of Methods to Improve Results - Volume 2 Issue 4 - Julie T. Jacobson, John P. Burke, Jay A. Jacobson
ICD-9 code 011.83 for Other specified pulmonary tuberculosis tubercle bacilli found (in sputum) by microscopy is a medical classification as listed by
The two groups were newly diagnosed, previously untreated patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis receiving antituberculosis treatment (after one year, patients receiving a retreatment regimen were also eligible) and clinically healthy people previously treated for tuberculosis but no longer receiving any treatment.All participants had a permanent address, were not pregnant, and were willing to give informed consent. We excluded patients with WHO stage 4 HIV disease who were unlikely to survive more than two weeks as well as those with a history of sulphonamide allergy and those who needed treatment with or were already receiving co trimoxazole for other indications.Screening, informed consent, and randomisationAll newly diagnosed, previously untreated adult patients with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis seen routinely in a diagnostic clinic and patients who had participated in an earlier trial of tuberculosis treatment were potentially eligible. Patients were referred to the ...
Hypertonic saline nebulization is a relatively non-invasive procedure to collect sputum for airway diseases even in the presence of moderate to
Acute disease is characterized by a strong cough and yellowish sputum, usually accompanied by the following problems: chills, fever, nausea, fatigue, fever of 37.2 degrees -38, chest pain, back pain. In the beginning of the cough it is without the mucus, but during the next few days there is a yellowish, tough sputum that becomes massive. If it is purulent sputum, chances are it comes to bacterial bronchitis. It is usually caused by adenovirus that can fully mimic a bacterial infection (cough it can take up to several weeks, sputum is also yellow and thick.). In some patients, there may be a strong incandescent pain behind the chest wall, which are particularly unfavorable when coughing. These bronchitis symptoms usually subside a few days after the application of therapy, less often persist up to several weeks ...
Comparison of Chest X-Ray Findings of Smear Positive and Smear Negative Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis - Iranian Journal of Radiology - - Kowsar
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Manual screening by light microscopy is the most widely used method for tubercle bacilli detection in the developing country. However, it is a time consuming and labour-intensive process. In this paper, a method using image processing technique and neural network classification has been proposed for automated tubercle bacilli detection in sputum slide images. The method mainly consists of three main stages: image segmentation, feature extraction and identification. Hybrid multilayered perceptron (HMLP) network using modified recursive prediction error training algorithm have been used to perform TB identification. Experimental results demonstrated that the HMLP network achieved the classification accuracy with percentage of 73.9 ...
If the chest X-ray or tuberculin test results suggest that TB is possible, the next test will be to look for TB bacteria from the lung. This is done by sending samples of sputum to the laboratory.. A smear of the sputum is examined in a laboratory, under a microscope using a special dye (stain) to show the TB bacteria. The results are obtained quite quickly, usually within a few days.. Another test for the sputum samples is a culture test. This involves growing (culturing) the TB bacteria in the laboratory. This can take several weeks because TB bacteria grow slowly. There are two important reasons for doing this test. First, to detect TB bacteria that may not be found on the smear test. Second, the culture test can check whether the TB bacteria are resistant to any antibiotic medicines. (Antibiotic resistance is explained below.). Its considered that sputum results should be awaited before treatment is started, unless the illness is thought to be life-threatening.. It is sometimes difficult to ...
Symptoms of salt water aspiration syndrome include: Post-dive cough, with or without sputum, usually suppressed during the dive ... In serious cases the sputum may be bloodstained, frothy and copious. Over time further symptoms may develop, including: rigors ... tremors or shivering; nausea or vomiting; hot or cold sensations; dyspnoea; cough; sputum; shortness of breath; headaches; ...
The cough is often worse soon after awakening, and the sputum produced may have a yellow or green color and may be streaked ... The most common symptom is a cough, that may or may not produce sputum. Other symptoms may include coughing up mucus, wheezing ... Excess mucus shows itself as a chronic productive cough and its severity and volume of sputum can fluctuate in periods of acute ... Chronic bronchitis is defined as a productive cough - one that produces sputum - that lasts for three months or more per year ...
"SubGenius SPUTUM vs. Spammers". Netsurfer Digest. Online Culture. Netsurfer Communications, Inc. 03 (28). 1997-09-06. Archived ... SPUTUM). This group of Internet-savvy people embarked on a successful campaign to drive the warez traders out of the newsgroup ...
It modules the sputum viscosity in the respiratory tract, making it more fluid and less thick, bringing to an increase of ... It modules the sputum viscosity. Erdosteine efficacy is significant in reducing symptoms associated with Chronic Obstructive ...
The presence of pneumolysin in sputum, urine, CSF and blood can be indicative of an S. pneumoniae infection. Rossjohn, J; ... September 1999). "Detection of pneumolysin in sputum". Journal of Medical Microbiology. 48 (9): 863-6. doi:10.1099/00222615-48- ...
Biosafety level 1. First isolated from sputum, Koblenz, Germany. strain 1389/90 = ATCC 49920 = CIP 105510 = DSM 44017 = JCM ...
Rarely is Brucella isolated from sputum. Genitourinary infection can include epidydemoorchitis or pyonephrosis (rare). ...
Myo Lwin (16-22 March 2009). "Sputum microscopy centre opens in Tarmwe". The Myanmar Times. Archived from the original on 24 ...
Moreover, sputum samples might be less frequently obtained in the elderly. Aspiration (both of microscopic drops and ... New or progressive infiltrate on the chest X-ray with one of the following: Fever > 37.8 °C (100 °F) Purulent sputum ... This is based on studies using sputum samples and intensive care patients, in whom these bacteria were commonly found. cefepime ... Other symptoms may include: A cough with greenish or pus-like phlegm (sputum) Fever and chills General discomfort, uneasiness, ...
Part 2: sputum, vomit, blood, sweat, autopsies". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 43 (1): 90-96. doi:10.1515/CCLM. ... Part 2: sputum, vomit, blood, sweat, autopsies". Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. 43 (1): 90-96. doi:10.1515/CCLM. ...
Egg production begins about three weeks later, and eggs are coughed up and expelled in sputum, or excreted in feces. Larvae may ... Finding M. laryngeus eggs in the sputum or feces is another sure sign of infection. The eggs closely resemble hookworm eggs, ... Eggs do not develop at body temperature, and are expelled in sputum or reswallowed and excreted in feces. Hypothesis #2: The ... Eggs are expelled in sputum or feces. Most often, travelers to tropical climate places become exposed to contaminated sources ...
"Curschmann's spiral in sputum from asthma patient". Archived from the original on 2009-04-29. Retrieved 2008-11-25. Academic ... They are elongated microscopic mucous casts from small bronchi and are often found in sputum samples from patients with ... Cenci M, Giovagnoli MR, Alderisio M, Vecchione A (November 1998). "Curschmann's spirals in sputum of subjects exposed daily to ... Curschmann's spirals are a microscopic finding in the sputum of asthmatics. They are spiral-shaped mucus plugs from ...
... is the production of more than 100 mL per day of watery sputum. Chronic bronchitis is a common cause, but it may ... Shimura S, Sasaki T, Sasaki H, Takishima T (1988). "Chemical properties of bronchorrhea sputum in bronchial asthma". Chest. 94 ...
Laennec's pearls refer to sputum produced by asthmatics. Hamman's murmur, also known as Laënnec-Hamman symptom, Laënnec-Müller- ...
First isolated in Japan from soil and human sputum. Strain 49005 (previously, strain 5545) = ATCC 27280 = CIP 106808 = DSM ... rapidly growing mycobacterium first isolated from soil and human sputum in Japan. It has not been formally associated with ...
Casual resident in human sputum and gastric lavage specimens. Colony characteristics Smooth, with yellow or orange ...
"Characteristics of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae isolated from purulent sputum samples". J Clin Microbiol. 44 (3): 923-927. ...
Cui, Zelin; Zhou, Yuhua; Li, Hong; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Shulin; Tang, Shenjie; Guo, Xiaokui (2012). "Complex sputum microbial ...
Also recovered from gastric juice, sputum and urine samples. Strain 2186/92 = ATCC 51985 = CCUG 42422 = CCUG 42559 = CIP 105465 ...
Sampling of sputum from the lungs for sputum culture. It can be performed by special techniques of coughing, or by a protected ... Obtaining excretions or materials that leave the body anyway, such as urine, stool, sputum, or vomitus, by direct collection as ...
This stimulates the cough reflex, and sputum is brought out. This is called postural drainage. Paradoxical Respiration: during ...
from the sputum of a patient with hemoptoic pneumonia". J. Clin. Microbiol. 42 (12): 5493-5501. doi:10.1128/JCM.42.12.5493- ... The type strain was isolated from the sputum of a patient with hemoptoic pneumonia. Strain CCUG 48898 = CIP 108297. Adékambi; ...
In 1860 he found and described cancer cells in sputum. Beale pioneered differential staining. From observing the differences in ...
Suddenly, she starts drooling blood and sputum from her mouth. At Princeton-Plainsboro, House orders the team to do an MRI. ...
1881 Über Myelin, Pigment, Epithelien und Micrococcen im Sputum (Med. Dissertation), Leipzig: J.B. Hirschfeld, 1881. Düstre ... where he completed his medical studies in 1880 with a dissertation on microorganisms in sputum. After some months in Paris ...
Sabin, Albert B. (May 20, 1933). "Immediate Pneumococcus Typing Directly from Sputum by the Neufeld Reaction". Journal of the ...
The routine diagnosis for TB patient is sputum culture based. But culture need 6-8week with 10-20% false positive results. A ...
Microfilariae have been recovered from spinal fluids, urine and sputum. During the day, they are found in peripheral blood, but ...
However, sometimes blood and sputum cultures may not detect blastomycosis. Itraconazole given orally is the treatment of choice ... of blastomycosis can usually be confirmed by demonstration of the characteristic broad based budding organisms in sputum or ...
Sometimes the coughing can produce rusty or blood-streaked sputum. In 25% of cases, a parapneumonic effusion may occur. Chest X ...
Sputum is mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways (the trachea and bronchi). In medicine, sputum samples are usually ... Sputum can be (when examined by the naked eye):[citation needed] Bloody (hemoptysis) Blood-streaked sputum - inflammation of ... If there is any blood in the sputum, this should also be on the swab.[citation needed] Microbiological sputum samples are used ... Pink sputum - sputum evenly mixed with blood from alveoli and/or small peripheral bronchi. Massive blood - cavitary ...
A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi that infect the lungs or breathing passages. Sputum is a ... Normally, fresh morning sample is preferred for the bacteriological examination of sputum. A sample of sputum is collected in a ... In a hospital setting, a sputum culture is most commonly ordered if a patient has a pneumonia. The Infectious Diseases Society ... One reason for such a discrepancy is that normal, healthy lungs have bacteria, and sputum cultures collect both normal and ...
This MNT Knowledge Center article explains the types of sputum, what causes these variations, and when to see a doctor. ... Sputum is a type of thick mucus that is produced by the lungs when they are diseased or damaged. It is a substance known as ... Sputum that is a different color from saliva may be a sign of a lower RTI. With bacterial RTIs, sputum may also have a thick ... What is a sputum culture test?. If someone does visit a doctor, they might be asked to undergo a sputum culture test. This test ...
A sputum analysis is a group of tests performed in a laboratory on a sputum specimen obtained from a sick patient. A portion of ... Some of the sputum may be placed in special solutions to test for specific diseases. Source for information on Sputum Analysis ... the sputum specimen is stained and put on a slide for examination of cells and organisms. Another portion of the specimen is ... Sputum analysisDefinitionSputum is a substance comprised of mucous, foreign matter, and saliva that is found in the lungs or ...
Spu"tum (?), n.; pl. Sputa (#). [L., from spuere, sputum, to spit.] That which is expectorated; a salival discharge; spittle; ... They are located at www.sputum.com.. SPUTUM(TM) has indicated to the Lumber Cartel that smacking spammers with clue-by-4s IS ... SPUTUM(TM) is the SubGenius Police, Usenet Tactial Unit (Mobile), an elite force of SubGenii dedicated to eraticating spam in ...
... sputum - 5 dictionary results. sputum ... or see sputum on Thesaurus .... Full article >>>. Sputum is not the ... Sputum is ... Sputum is not the same as saliva. Sputum is produced in the lungs and in ... Sputum cytology may be done to help detect certain ... A sputum sample may be collected: ... Sputum is not the same as saliva. Sputum is produced in the lungs and in the airways ... A sputum sample is needed. .... Full article >>>. It involves taking a sputum (what you cough up) sample, ... sputum sample ...
A sputum CF respiratory screen or culture helps doctors detect, identify, and treat infection-causing bacteria or fungi. ... Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Respiratory Screen: Sputum. Resources. Please Note: By clicking a link to any resource listed on this page ...
A sputum CF respiratory screen or culture helps doctors detect, identify, and treat infection-causing bacteria or fungi. ... The sputum sample is collected into a sterile container and sent to a laboratory. The sample is then placed on a special plate ... A sputum culture can help identify specific causes of infections in the lungs and airways. Such infections can lead to coughing ... A sputum (mucus) CF respiratory screen or culture helps doctors detect and identify these bacteria or fungi so they can ...
Sputum stain for mycobacteria is a test to check for a type of bacteria that cause tuberculosis and other infections. ... This makes you cough more deeply and produce sputum.. *If you still do not produce enough sputum, you might have a procedure ... Sputum stain for mycobacteria is a test to check for a type of bacteria that cause tuberculosis and other infections. ... This test requires a sample of sputum. *You will be asked to cough deeply and spit any substance that comes up from your lungs ...
... reduces the number of 3-NT positive sputum cells as well as the amount of 3-NT in sputum supernatant in patients with COPD [74 ... have often spontaneous sputum as well. Sputum induction is a semi-invasive process that is safe, effective, and relatively ... Assessment of sputum cell profile provides direct information on the inflammatory cells present in the airways. Sputum is ... measurement of oxidative stress products in sputum may have clinical relevance. Sputum samples, however, need to be processed ...
Alternative Names: Sputum culture. Learn more about this test here. ... Routine sputum culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs that cause infection. ... Sputum culture. How the Test is Performed. A sputum sample is needed. You will be asked to cough deeply and spit any phlegm ... Routine sputum culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs that cause infection. Sputum is the material that comes up ...
samples sputum, specimens sputum, sputum specimen, sputum sample, Sputum sample, Sputum specimen (specimen), Sputum specimen. ... abnormaal sputum, Abnormaal sputum/slijm, abnormaal; sputum, afwijking; sputum, sputum; abnormaal, Afwijkend sputum, sputum ... Abnormal sputum, [D]Abnormal sputum NOS, Sputum abnormal NOS, abnormal findings in sputum, Abnormal;sputum, [D]Abnormal sputum ... Abnormal sputum, Sputum examination: abnormal, Abnormal sputum (finding), Sputum examination: abnormal (finding), Sputum/phlegm ...
The sputum Grams stain is a laboratory test that your doctor can use to diagnose a bacterial infection in your respiratory ... How is your sputum sample analyzed?. At the laboratory, a technician will analyze your sputum sample using a sputum Grams ... Then breathe deeply and cough hard until sputum comes up. *Spit out the sputum into your sample cup. Keep coughing up sputum ... To complete a sputum Grams stain, your doctor will need to a collect a sample of your sputum and send it to a laboratory for ...
Acoustofluidic sputum liquefaction device. An artists conception of an acoustofluidic sputum liquefaction device used to mix ... The device is the first and most difficult component in a miniaturized system for low-cost analysis of sputum from patients ...
Changes Set for National Sputum Bowl. 2017 Sputum Bowl Student Winners (Texas Team) Since 1978, the Sputum Bowl has been a key ... Sputum Bowl Champions Share Tips for Competition Success. National and State Sputum Bowl Champions from Collin College visited ...
... Gary Lum glum at ozemail.com.au Sat May 27 06:42:23 EST 2000 *Previous message: Sputum for C&S ... who thinks sputum for C&S is , a useless test and should not be done, because it is always full of , normal respiratory flora ... Its horses for course, Id never dismiss the value of a well collected sputum in a patient actually productive of sputum, ... I wouldnt say sputum for microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing is always useless. But pretty close to useless in some ...
... sputum im Englisch-Deutsch-Wörterbuch, mit echten Sprachaufnahmen, Illustrationen, Beugungsformen, ... ... mouthful of sputum. maulvoller Auswurf {m}. [bei. Bronchiektasen]. med.. cough, sputum production and shortness of breath. AHA- ... strawberry jelly-type / jelly sputum. Erdbeergeleesputum {n}. med.. strawberry jelly-type / jelly sputum. Himbeergeleesputum {n ... sputum. sputum cytology. spv. spy. spy basket. spy drone. spy fiction. spy film. spy gondola. Spy Hard. spy hop. ...
Make research projects and school reports about Sputum easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... spu·tum / ˈspyoōtəm/ • n. a mixture of saliva and mucus coughed up from the respiratory tract, typically as a result of ... sputum (spew-tŭm) n. material coughed up from the respiratory tract. Its colour, consistency, and other characteristics often ... sputum The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English © The Oxford Pocket Dictionary of Current English 2009, originally ...
Three sputum samples were collected from each of 133 smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients (399 sputum samples). ... Storage of Sputum in Cetylpyridinium Chloride, OMNIgene.SPUTUM, and Ethanol Is Compatible with Molecular Tuberculosis ... We compared cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), ethanol (ETOH), and OMNIgene.SPUTUM (OMNI) for 28-day storage of sputum at ambient ... lytA Quantitative PCR on Sputum and Nasopharyngeal Swab Samples for Detection of Pneumococcal Pneumonia among the Elderly ...
View a variety of sputum specimen collection and handling products for collecting deep lung secretions to test for the presence ... Sputum originates in the trachea and bronchi of the lower airways. Sputum specimens may be assessed for adequacy and lack of ... Fisherbrand™ Sputum Collection System The Fisherbrand™ Sputum Collection System features a specially designed collection tube ... Sputum specimen collection and handling products are used to help collect deep lung secretions to test for the presence of ...
Learn the various diseases and conditions that cause bloody sputum (hemoptysis), such as acute bronchitis, pneumonia, and lung ... Bloody sputum can be a result of lung cancer. Whenever bloody sputum is present and cannot be attributed to a curable condition ... Bloody sputum is also referred to as hemoptysis.. Causes of bloody sputum include lung infection with pneumonia, bronchitis, ... Bloody Sputum (Hemoptysis): Symptoms & Signs. *Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR William C. Shiel Jr., MD, ...
Sputum Analysis. A sputum analysis may reinforce the diagnosis of bronchiectasis and add significant information regarding ... Once sputum is allowed to settle, the examination may reveal Dittrich plugs, small white or yellow concretions. A Gram stain ... A sputum analysis may be used to further strengthen clinical suspicion.. Radiographic studies, specifically CT scanning, then ... Tagaya E, Tamaoki J, Kondo M, Nagai A. Effect of a short course of clarithromycin therapy on sputum production in patients with ...
The most common pathogens detected with a sputum culture are bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae ... encoded search term (Sputum Culture) and Sputum Culture What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * ... Overall, sputum specimens are observed for mucopurulent strands, leukocytes, and blood and culture results. [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] ... Sputum culture is used to diagnose pneumonia, bronchiectasis, bronchitis, or pulmonary abscess. It assists in the diagnosis of ...
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... long-lived oxidant fraction of sputum, referred to as the chloramines. Taurine, the preferred amino acid substrate for ... We evaluated long-lived oxidant potential in the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) by quantitating the methionine- ... As compared with the sputum of asthmatic subjects, the sputum of CF patients contained high concentrations of chloramines along ... Neutrophil-derived long-lived oxidants in cystic fibrosis sputum Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Dec;152(6 Pt 1):1910-6. doi: ...
Blood in ones sputum is reason for concern but I would be reluctant to conclude that it is a sign of recurrent TB. The matter ... Finding blood in sputum is always alarming. It can be caused by lung infection, cancers, or or simply by a coughing jag. wen ... Your doctors approach to this incident, should be to rule-out recurrent TB with the X-ray and sputum exam and then do whatever ... Keep an eye on your sputum production and always-always-always report this back to your doctor. Is the blood bright red or does ...
Sometimes a sputum culture test is done, but Mycoplasma dont grow well in a culture. The more common sputum test is called ... This test is done with a sample of your sputum. To collect the sample, you will need to cough deeply into a sterile container. ... Mycoplasma (Sputum). Does this test have other names?. Mycoplasma culture, antigen capture-enzyme immunoassay, Ag-EIA ... This test looks at sputum, or the mucus from your lower airways. It finds out whether you have a lung infection caused by ...
... and sputum induction. Sputum cell counts were categorized as high if greater than (and low if less than or equal to) the ... Sputum interleukin-8 and eosinophil cationic protein levels were higher in high-exposure workers than in low-exposure workers ( ... There were no relationships between sputum characteristics and the presence of airways obstruction. High exposure to popcorn ...
... Test Overview. A sputum culture is a test to detect and identify bacteria or fungi (plural of fungus) that are ... Sputum is a thick fluid produced in the lungs and in the airways leading to the lungs. A sample of sputum is placed in a ... Sputum culture. Normal:. Sputum that has passed through the mouth normally contains several types of harmless bacteria, ... Determine whether the sputum sample is adequate for culture. For example, a sputum sample that is not collected properly may ...
Sputum is a thick mucus made in your lungs. It is not the same as spit or saliva. You may cough up sputum if you have an ... A sputum culture is a test that helps diagnose infections of the lungs or airways. ... What is a sputum culture?. A sputum culture is a test that checks for bacteria or another type of organism that may be causing ... Sputum may be referred to as phlegm or mucus. All terms are correct, but sputum and phlegm only refer to the mucus made in the ...
  • Sputum stain for mycobacteria - Overview, Sputum stain for mycobacteria is a test to check for a type of bacteria that cause tuberculosis and other kinds of infection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • citation needed] Microbiological sputum samples are used to look for infections, such as Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The device is the first and most difficult component in a miniaturized system for low-cost analysis of sputum from patients with pulmonary diseases such as tuberculosis and asthma. (nsf.gov)
  • We compared cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), ethanol (ETOH), and OMNIgene.SPUTUM (OMNI) for 28-day storage of sputum at ambient temperature before molecular tuberculosis diagnostics. (asm.org)
  • Three sputum samples were collected from each of 133 smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients (399 sputum samples). (asm.org)
  • If tuberculosis is suspected, an acid-fast stain should be performed immediately, and the sputum cultured on special media, which are incubated for at least 6 weeks. (medscape.com)
  • A new study from southern Africa has said that an on-the-spot sputum test for tuberculosis works better than the commonly-used, 125-year-old microscope method, but did not reduce illness. (medindia.net)
  • In developing countries with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis, sputum induction can increase the diagnostic yield, resulting in better categorization of patients for treatment purposes. (sgs.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of sputum microscopy by the concentration method using spot and morning and same-day smears for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Rapid sputum tests are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) when other tests show that a person probably has TB. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Participaron del estudio pacientes con sospecha de tuberculosis pulmonar, sintomáticos respiratorios por más de 3 semanas, mayores de 18 años, de los dos sexos y sin antecedente de tuberculosis en los últimos dos años. (scielo.br)
  • Los resultados evidenciaron un importante aumento de las muestras con partículas purulentas, volumen mayor que 5mL y aumento en la tasa de pacientes diagnosticados con tuberculosis, después de la intervención educativa. (scielo.br)
  • The DIAGNOSTIC Lung Flute is designed to be an alternative to hypertonic saline for sputum induction in respiratory diseases such as Cystic Fibrosis, Pneumonia, Lung Cancer, Tuberculosis and Asthma. (medicalsearch.com.au)
  • This was a preliminary trial to evaluate the usefulness of the Lung Flute for sputum sampling in patients suspected of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). (medicalsearch.com.au)
  • The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, CA, USA) is a cartridge-based test that can be implemented at the peripheral level to rapidly diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex from sputum as well as detect rifampicin resistance. (nature.com)
  • Conversion of sputum mycobacterial cultures from positive growth to negative growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is considered the most important interim indicator of the efficacy of anti-TB pharmacologic treatment for multidrug-resistant disease. (annals.org)
  • Your doctor may order a sputum culture or cytology study to screen and diagnose bacterial infections of the lungs such as tuberculosis. (midmichigan.org)
  • The article also said that the identification and diagnosis of tuberculosis are very hard because the symptoms resemble many other pulmonary conditions and that the only sure diagnosis can be made with sputum. (steadyhealth.com)
  • I am wondering how tuberculosis sputum is used for tuberculosis identification. (steadyhealth.com)
  • This sputum differs from the sputum in another infection only by the content of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (steadyhealth.com)
  • You can see that the tuberculosis sputum is very important in the treatment of tuberculosis. (steadyhealth.com)
  • Angul: A Sputum Testing Center, under Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP), has been inaugurated at the Occupational Health Center (OHC) of Jindal Steel and Power Ltd. (JSPL) situated at Jindal Nagar Township. (orissadiary.com)
  • Sputum -A substance coughed up from the airway, bronchi or lungs comprised of saliva, foreign matter, and mucous. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Your child will be asked to rinse his or her mouth out with water, then breathe deeply and cough deeply to produce sputum from the airway. (kidshealth.org)
  • If your child is scheduled for a bronchoscopy (a test done with a small telescope to evaluate the upper airway and bronchi), a sputum screen is likely to be done at this time. (kidshealth.org)
  • Sputum samples have been used to quantify the degree of airway inflammation in human diseases such as asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • To collect the sputum sample, a salt solution may be washed into the airway and then suctioned into a container. (cardiosmart.org)
  • The aim of sputum induction is to collect an adequate sample of secretions from lower airways in subjects who do not produce sputum spontaneously in order to study the features of airway inflammation in asthma and other respiratory disorders. (ersjournals.com)
  • Airway inflammation in asthma could be categorized into four inflammatory subtypes based on sputum eosinophil and neutrophil proportions. (nih.gov)
  • Eosinophilic bronchitis is a common cause of chronic cough, which like asthma is characterized by sputum eosinophilia, but in contrast to asthma there is no variable airflow obstruction or airway hyperresponsiveness. (nih.gov)
  • Sputum induction has long been established as the best available non-invasive method to evaluate airway inflammation. (sgs.com)
  • For people who cannot cough deeply enough to produce a sample, a suction tube or needle may be inserted in the airway to collect the sputum. (wikidoc.org)
  • To isolate airway macrophages, induced sputum was processed according to a standard technique (Pizzichini et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In addition, the high IL-8 levels and free neutrophil elastase activity observed in asthmatic sputum suggests that IL-8 may mediate airway neutrophilia in acute asthma and that neutrophil elastase may mediate mucin glycoprotein hypersecretion in acute asthma, as has been proposed for the mucin hypersecretion in CF. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Aims and objectives were identified and working groups established to deal with individual aspects of sputum induction and its safety, processing for cell and fluid-phase analysis, clinical application, use in the study of airway inflammation in children and use in clinical trials. (ersjournals.com)
  • This study hypothesized that sputum biomarkers relevant for airway inflammation in asthma (IL-13), COPD (MPO, NGAL), or in both asthma and COPD (YKL-40, IL-6) could be used to differentiate ACOS from COPD and asthma. (dovepress.com)
  • In conclusion, sputum biomarkers reflecting both airway inflammation and remodeling of the tissue show potential in differentiation between asthma, COPD, and ACOS. (dovepress.com)
  • To compare the effects of pretreatment with fluticasone 250 microg 30 min before allergen inhalation and two weeks of 250 microg twice daily (last dose 24 h before challenge) with single and regular (twice daily) placebo doses on early and late asthmatic responses, induced sputum cell counts and measures of eosinophil activation at 7 h and 24 h, and methacholine airway responsiveness at 24 h. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Regular fluticasone also attenuated the late asthmatic response (11.1+/-2.5) compared with regular placebo (19.6+/-4.5), but this was not statistically significant and did not protect against the induced increase in airway responsiveness or the sputum eosinophilia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Two weeks of regular inhaled fluticasone discontinued 24 h before allergen challenge does not offer any additional protection against the early or late asthmatic responses, increased airway responsiveness or sputum eosinophilia compared with a single dose of 250 microg immediately before allergen challenge, despite increasing baseline PC20 and decreasing sputum eosinophilia prechallenge. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Protective effects of fluticasone on allergen-induced airway responses and sputum inflammatory markers. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Induced sputum is a useful way to monitor airway inflammation in asthma, but cell counts are time-consuming and labour intensive. (wiley.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel processing method using eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biochemical marker of sputum eosinophil number and activation in subjects with asthma and other airway diseases. (wiley.com)
  • ECP was measured in sputum supernatant and in the lysed cell pellet and was compared with sputum eosinophil counts in 31 adults with asthma, chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), bronchiectasis and healthy controls. (wiley.com)
  • Regular airway clearance by chest physiotherapy and/or exercise is critical to lung health in cystic fibrosis (CF). Combination of cycling exercise and chest physiotherapy using the Flutter® device on sputum properties has not yet been investigated. (springer.com)
  • Sputum is not saliva but the thick mucus - sometimes called phlegm - which is coughed up from the lungs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sputum that is a different color from saliva may be a sign of a lower RTI. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sputum is a substance comprised of mucous, foreign matter, and saliva that is found in the lungs or bronchial tree. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sputum is matter that is expectorated from the respiratory tract, such as mucus or phlegm, mixed with saliva, which can then be spat from the mouth. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Sputum is not the same as saliva. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The best sputum samples contain very little saliva, as saliva contaminates the sample with oral bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sputum is different than saliva. (rexhealth.com)
  • Sputum is a mixture of saliva and mucus that you cough up from your respiratory tract. (healthline.com)
  • Sputum specimens may be assessed for adequacy and lack of contamination before further testing is performed and should contain a minimal amount of nasal secretions or saliva. (fishersci.com)
  • The client should be instructed to avoid adding saliva or nasopharyngeal secretions to the sputum sample. (medscape.com)
  • Sputum is the mixture of saliva and mucus that is produced in your body's airways. (patientslikeme.com)
  • Sputum is not saliva (spit). (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Sputum is produced when a person's lungs are diseased or damaged. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sputum is produced in the lungs and in the airways leading to the lungs. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A sputum culture can help identify specific causes of infections in the lungs and airways. (kidshealth.org)
  • You or the health professional helping your child may need to tap gently on your child's chest to loosen the sputum in the lungs. (kidshealth.org)
  • You will be asked to cough deeply and spit any substance that comes up from your lungs (sputum) into a special container. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sputum is a thick fluid that is produced in the lungs and in the airways that lead to the lungs. (rexhealth.com)
  • The sputum sample must come from deep inside your lungs for the test to be accurate. (healthline.com)
  • If you still can't cough up enough sputum, your doctor will likely do a bronchoscopy to collect sputum directly from your lungs. (healthline.com)
  • Your doctor will use the scope to look into your lungs and collect a sample of your sputum to send to the lab for testing. (healthline.com)
  • Sputum is a thick fluid produced in the lungs and in the adjacent airways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sampling may be performed by sputum being expectorated (produced by coughing), induced (saline is sprayed in the lungs to induce sputum production), or taken via an endotracheal tube with a protected specimen brush (commonly used on patients on respirators) in an intensive care setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • One reason for such a discrepancy is that normal, healthy lungs have bacteria, and sputum cultures collect both normal and pathogenic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bloody sputum (coughing up blood or bloody mucus or Hemoptysis) can come from common forms of infection in the lungs and airways, such as acute bronchitis or pneumonia . (medicinenet.com)
  • The health professional collecting the sample may tap on your chest to help loosen the sputum in your lungs before you cough. (cardiosmart.org)
  • A sputum sample is obtained by coughing deeply and expelling the material that comes from the lungs into a specimen container. (floridahealthfinder.gov)
  • If your doctor thinks you have pneumonia, he or she might examine a sample of your sputum, the phlegm that you cough out of your lungs, to try to determine what type of bacteria or other infectious agent might be the cause. (drugs.com)
  • Sputum is mucous that you cough up from deep inside your lungs. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • The reasons for the discrepancy is that normal, healthy lungs have bacteria, and sputum cultures collect both normal bacteria and the bacteria causing disease. (wikidoc.org)
  • A culture uses a sample of mucus from the lungs (sputum) that is placed under special conditions that allow TB bacteria to grow. (cardiosmart.org)
  • sputum specimen a sample of mucous secretion from the bronchi and lungs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This tapping helps loosen the sputum in your lungs before you cough. (conehealth.com)
  • Although it has been known for decades that sputum produced spontaneously by asthmatic individuals contains numerous eosinophils, it is only recently that attempts have been made to validate and standardise the use of sputum induced using hypertonic saline as a tool to study inflammatory events in the lungs. (ersjournals.com)
  • Sputum is mucus that comes up from the lungs and can be a symptom of infection. (healthtap.com)
  • True bloody sputum coughed from the lungs should be evaluated as it could arise from infections or even cancer . (healthtap.com)
  • A sputum test, also known as a sputum culture, is a test that your doctor may order when you have a respiratory tract infection or other lung-related disorder to determine what is growing in the lungs. (mercy.com)
  • Sputum is a thick substance that accumulates when bacteria or fungi grows and multiples in the lungs or bronchi. (mercy.com)
  • Expectorate sputum from your lungs into the sterile collection container. (midmichigan.org)
  • A sputum analysis, however, is also used to identify disease-producing organisms that may be causing pneumonia , bronchitis, lung abscess , or other respiratory disease. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A sputum (mucus) CF respiratory screen or culture helps doctors detect and identify these bacteria or fungi so they can prescribe the most effective antibiotics to target a specific infection. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you have questions about the sputum respiratory screen, speak with your doctor. (kidshealth.org)
  • In medicine, sputum samples are usually used for naked eye exam, microbiological investigations of respiratory infections and cytological investigations of respiratory systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person who has an infection or disease of the respiratory system may cough up sputum. (rexhealth.com)
  • A sputum Gram's stain is a laboratory test that allows your doctor to diagnose a bacterial infection in your respiratory tract. (healthline.com)
  • For this reason, laboratory processing of sputum for respiratory pathogens are performed with the aid of a biological safety cabinet. (wikipedia.org)
  • sputum ( spew -tŭm) n. material coughed up from the respiratory tract. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The presence of normal upper respiratory tract flora should be expected in sputum culture. (medscape.com)
  • A next-generation lower respiratory tract sputum polymerase chain reaction (PCR) film array panel identified etiologic pathogens in 100 percent of a group of patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. (philstar.com)
  • Fifty percent of the subjects with asthma reported that their asthma exacerbation was precipitated by a respiratory tract infection, and these subjects had a significantly higher percentage of neutrophils in their sputum (85% +/- 6% vs 57% +/- 12%, p = 0.05). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The initiative to organise the second formal workshop involving all the major contributors in the field of sputum induction finally matured by the time of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) meeting in Berlin, Germany, in 1997. (ersjournals.com)
  • What medicine can I get for my white sputum infection and lower respiratory infection with cough? (drugs.com)
  • The Top Five results of team members Joseph Moncado, Tuanh Truong, Gabby Pearsons and Allis Guerrero in the Texas Sputum Bowl timed knowledge test of all things respiratory were one highlight of the team's 2018 Texas Society for Respiratory Care convention experience June 10 at the New Braunfels Civic/Convention Center. (alamo.edu)
  • Sputum is the substance expelled from your respiratory tract when you cough or clear your throat. (midmichigan.org)
  • Many current and former smokers have increased bronchial secretions that result in the regular production of sputum containing exfoliated cells from the lower respiratory tract. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Researchers of a large international study consisting of more than 3,400 patients in 13 countries investigated whether discolored sputum and feeling unwell are associated with antibiotic prescribing and whether there are benefits from antibiotic treatment for acute cough/lower respiratory tract infection. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • A sputum analysis is a group of tests performed in a laboratory on a sputum specimen obtained from a sick patient. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A portion of the sputum specimen is stained and put on a slide for examination of cells and organisms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A sputum specimen should not be collected immediately following a meal because the sputum or the process of collecting the sputum may cause gagging and vomiting. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Good hand washing and the use of gloves are necessary when collecting a sputum specimen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Sputum that is coughed up should be spit directly into the sterile specimen cup. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Coughing to produce the sputum specimen may be mildly uncomfortable, but there are no risks associated with this procedure. (kidshealth.org)
  • Specimen adequacy is assessed by the laboratory technologists by examining a Gram stain or cytology stain of the sputum. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a sputum specimen is plated out in microbiology, it is best to get the portion of the sample that most looks like yellow pus onto the swab. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whitish gray sputum color against a white color background (such as a white sink surface) tends to indicate either a specimen from someone who is dehydrated, and/or from an older person, and/or a specimen with a mixed, modest number of eosinophils and maybe some acute inflammatory neutrophil cells (this last choice tends to suggest a chronic allergic bronchitis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sputum specimen collection and handling products are used to help collect deep lung secretions to test for the presence of bacteria and abnormal cells. (fishersci.com)
  • Sputum specimen collections are performed for patients whose treatment is being monitored or who are suspected of having lung infections, inflammation, or other disease processes. (fishersci.com)
  • Sputum specimen collection products include sputum collection devices and digestants . (fishersci.com)
  • induced sputum a sputum specimen produced for diagnostic tests by aerosol administration of a hypertonic saline solution. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The optimum time for collection of a sputum specimen is in the morning before eating or drinking anything. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • specimen Candida species Oropharyneal, Atypical forms Mucosal oesophageal scrapings, and vulvo- brushings or vaginal biopsy mucosa Cryptococcus Meninges and All suspected Cerebrospinal species brain cases fluid Blood (or serum) Pneumocystis Pulmonary All suspected Induced sputum , jirovecii cases bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy, etc. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A culture means that the specimen (in this case sputum) is plated on a plate with growth medium and incubated to test for any bacteria (or fungi ). (healthtap.com)
  • Before collecting a sputum specimen for the culture or study, contact your nearest lab to obtain a sterile collection container. (midmichigan.org)
  • Red, jelly-like sputum - pneumonia caused by Klebsiella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor may order a sputum Gram's stain to help identify the cause of pneumonia. (healthline.com)
  • Given the most common cause of pneumonia worldwide is Streptococcus pneumoniæ and that laboratories are pretty poor at culturing the organism from well collected sputa, it's no wonder some requesting medical practitioners dismiss the value of sputum for m/c/s. (bio.net)
  • In a hospital setting, a sputum culture is most commonly ordered if a patient has a pneumonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Infectious Diseases Society of America recommends that sputum cultures be done in pneumonia requiring hospitalization, while the American College of Chest Physicians does not. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a typical patient, bronchiectasis is suspected on the basis of the clinical presentation, especially if purulent sputum is present and other conditions (eg, pneumonia, lung abscess) have been ruled out. (medscape.com)
  • Sputum culture is used to diagnose pneumonia , bronchiectasis , bronchitis , or pulmonary abscess . (medscape.com)
  • sputum that is reddish, indicative of blood or certain bacteria, such as pneumococcal bacteria, in pneumonia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 7) Analysis of CLAT from induced sputum by Bottone and colleagues recorded 2/9 patients with proven cryptococcal pneumonia having a positive sputum CLAT. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sputum samples from 33 patients with acute pneumonia were collected and subjected to culture, PCR, and C-polysaccharide antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (asm.org)
  • If this is a change in your sputum color, it may be indicative of infection like acute bronchitis , pneumonia , sinus infection with post-nasal drip. (healthtap.com)
  • Sputum cytology may be done to help detect certain noncancerous lung conditions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Utility of quantitated sputum cytology to detect the effects of exposure in smokers and nonsmokers. (cdc.gov)
  • The results indicated that quantitative sputum cytology was able to detect measurable differences in subpopulations of nonsmokers with and without exposure to occupational irritants. (cdc.gov)
  • sputum cytology is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary . (tabers.com)
  • Taber's Medical Dictionary, Taber's Online, https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/742082/all/sputum_cytology. (tabers.com)
  • The reproducibility of the method has been repeatedly questioned however, and the preparation of the obtained sputum samples for bio-analysis is labor intensive and demanding for technicians trained in the procedure 3 . (sgs.com)
  • Sputum is a type of mucus that may be expelled when coughing. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sputum is mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways (the trachea and bronchi). (wikipedia.org)
  • This test looks at sputum, or the mucus from your lower airways. (rochester.edu)
  • Your throat may feel sore after providing a mucus or sputum sample. (rochester.edu)
  • Sputum is the mucus that you cough up. (healthtap.com)
  • Rinse your mouth with water before providing a sputum sample. (rochester.edu)
  • Others may require an aerosol treatment with saline or medications to open the air sacs and allow drainage of the sputum before it can be collected. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The technique of sputum induction consists of inhaling an aerosol of saline (either normal or hypertonic) over different time-periods. (ersjournals.com)
  • Adult non-smokers with asthma and healthy controls underwent sputum induction and hypertonic saline challenge. (nih.gov)
  • By administering 5% hypertonic saline through an ultrasonic nebulizer for 10 or 20 minutes, sputum could be induced in the majority of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (sgs.com)
  • In recent years, sputum induction by hypertonic saline and its subsequent processing has been refined as a noninvasive research tool and, increasingly, as a clinical tool to provide important information about inflammatory events in the lower airways. (sgs.com)
  • Sputum induction by inhalation of hypertonic saline is a simple, cost effective and safe procedure, and has several advantages over other techniques. (sgs.com)
  • The technique of sputum induction consists of inhaling an aerosol of hypertonic saline with increasing concentrations of 3, 4, and 5% over different time-periods. (sgs.com)
  • Ultrasonic nebulizers are recommended for inducing sputum since other nebulizers do not usually have sufficient saline aerosol output. (sgs.com)
  • In the present study, 3% hypertonic saline induced sputum in 97. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sputum induction is performed through the inhalation of hypertonic saline. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This makes you cough more deeply and produce sputum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For those unable to produce sputum for examination, an aerosol may be used to increase the flow of secretions and stimulate coughing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The sputum color of patients with acute cough and no underlying chronic lung disease does not imply therapeutic consequences such as prescription of antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa thrives in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung sputum. (pnas.org)
  • Bloody sputum can be a result of lung cancer . (medicinenet.com)
  • Whenever bloody sputum is present and cannot be attributed to a curable condition, a complete lung evaluation is warranted. (medicinenet.com)
  • Symptoms of a lung infection may include difficulty breathing, pain when breathing, or a cough that produces bloody or greenish brown sputum . (cardiosmart.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of fibrogenic cytokines and mediators in the analysis of induced sputum and determine if their levels correlated with previous decline in lung function in asbestosis and silicosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Recent clinical data show that the automated 3-D cell imaging platform Cell-CT from VisionGate Inc. of Phoenix detects lung cancer in sputum samples with high sensitivity and specificity. (photonics.com)
  • The pilot study analyzed sputum samples from patients with confirmed lung cancer and from healthy individuals. (photonics.com)
  • The results show that VisionGate's Cell-CT platform and LuCED sputum test accurately detected the presence or absence of lung cancer cells in patient sputum from a spontaneous cough. (photonics.com)
  • The Lung Flute is a safe, effective, convenient and rapid method of sputum induction. (medicalsearch.com.au)
  • By increasing the sensitivity of a PCR approach to detect methylated DNA sequences, we now demonstrate that aberrant methylation of the p16 and/or O 6 - methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoters can be detected in DNA from sputum in 100% of patients with squamous cell lung carcinoma up to 3 years before clinical diagnosis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, the prevalence of these markers in sputum from cancer-free, high-risk subjects approximates lifetime risk for lung cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent studies from our laboratory suggest that gene-specific methylation changes in sputum could be good intermediate markers for the early detection of lung cancer and defining the efficacy of chemopreventive interventions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Perceptronix Medical Inc. May 26 announced receipt of CE Mark for its ClearSign Sputum Test for the detection of early lung cancer, allowing it to be marketed in the European Union. (fdanews.com)
  • Overall, sputum specimens are observed for mucopurulent strands, leukocytes, and blood and culture results. (medscape.com)
  • METHODS: Three sputum specimens (spot, second spot and morning) were collected from study participants. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Specimens collected for bacteriologic culture must be placed in a sterile container and handled with care to avoid contamination from sources other than the sputum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If you have trouble, they may give you a breathing treatment to help loosen the sputum in your airways. (healthline.com)
  • Sputum originates in the trachea and bronchi of the lower airways. (fishersci.com)
  • 95%. There were no relationships between sputum characteristics and the presence of airways obstruction. (cdc.gov)
  • With sputum induction, samples can be obtained from the lower airways with minimal discomfort to the patient, and is thought to provide a better representative sample of several proximal airways. (sgs.com)
  • 1 , there has been an impressive increase in the number of papers in which researchers have used induced sputum to study various aspects of airways inflammation, focusing initially on bronchial asthma and extending the research more recently into COPD. (ersjournals.com)
  • Breakdown of airways such as is seen with environmental pollution or tobacco smokers increases damage and therefore increased production of sputum . (healthtap.com)
  • Background: Induced and spontaneous sputum are used to evaluate the airways microbiota. (uib.no)
  • While the appearance of occasional dark gray spots in your sputum or phlegm may be related to air pollution, it is also well known that smoking makes the natural cleaning mechanisms of airways inefficient, by removing the fine hair like structures (cilia) which act as brooms. (ndtv.com)
  • deeply and spit any sputum into a sterile cup. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The sputum sample is collected into a sterile container and sent to a laboratory. (kidshealth.org)
  • A sample of sputum is collected in a sterile, wide-mouthed, dry, leak-proof and break-resistant plastic-container and sent to the laboratory for testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collect the expectorated sputum in a leak-proof sterile container. (medscape.com)
  • The sputum sample is collected in a sterile container. (drugs.com)
  • Inflammatory subtypes in asthma: assessment and identification using induced sputum. (nih.gov)
  • A treatment strategy directed at normalisation of the induced sputum eosinophil count reduces asthma exacerbations and admissions without the need for additional anti-inflammatory treatment. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: The induced sputum levels of certain inflammatory cells and IL-1β correlate with the decline in pulmonary function associated with asbestosis and silicosis. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • We conclude that neutrophils predominate more frequently than eosinophils as the major inflammatory cell in sputum from patients with asthma in acute exacerbation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It was agreed that the first in a series of workshops would be held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1998, just prior to the ERS meeting, at which four aspects of sputum induction would be discussed: 1) sputum induction and processing, 2) read-outs from sputum (inflammatory markers), 3) the value of induced sputum in clinical trials, and 4) its value in clinical practice. (ersjournals.com)
  • Allergen-induced changes in methacholine PC(20) were also significantly negatively correlated to allergen-induced change in sputum eosinophils at 24 h (r = -0.434, P = 0.002), but not to changes in any other inflammatory cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • There were no significant correlations between sputum eosinophils or other inflammatory cells and the allergen-induced early or late asthmatic responses. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Exacerbations of asthma without sputum eosinophilia. (bmj.com)
  • While treatment of asthmatic patients with the GATA3-specific DNAzyme SB010 attenuated sputum eosinophilia after allergen challenge, this specific treatment has not been evaluated in patients with COPD. (springer.com)
  • Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of inhaled SB010 in COPD patients with sputum eosinophilia. (springer.com)
  • We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre clinical trial in COPD-patients with sputum eosinophilia (≥2.5% non-squamous cells). (springer.com)
  • In recent years, it has been conceptualized that oxidative stress markers in sputum should be employed to monitor oxidative processes in patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or cystic fibrosis (CF). In this review, the use of sputum-based oxidative markers was explored and potential clinical applications were considered. (hindawi.com)
  • The authors sought to investigate the detection of non-eosinophilic asthma using induced sputum. (nih.gov)
  • Non-eosinophilic asthma was defined as symptomatic asthma with normal sputum eosinophil counts. (nih.gov)
  • Induced sputum eosinophil proportion is a good discriminator for eosinophilic asthma, providing a reproducible definition of a homogenous group. (nih.gov)
  • Asthma exacerbations and sputum eosinophil counts: a randomised controlled trial. (nih.gov)
  • We recruited 74 patients with moderate to severe asthma from hospital clinics and randomly allocated them to management either by standard British Thoracic Society asthma guidelines (BTS management group) or by normalisation of the induced sputum eosinophil count and reduction of symptoms (sputum management group). (nih.gov)
  • Asthma exacerbations and sputum eosinophil counts. (nih.gov)
  • Use of sputum eosinophil count decreases asthma exacerbations. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine whether proximity to major roads or highways is associated with an increase in sputum neutrophils or eosinophils, and to evaluate the effect of proximity to roads on spirometry and exacerbations in patients with asthma. (hindawi.com)
  • We measured the concentration of various proinflammatory mediators in induced sputum cell-free supernatant in eight patients with eosinophilic bronchitis, 17 patients with asthma matched for sputum eosinophil count, and 10 normal subjects. (nih.gov)
  • Sputum cys-LT and ECP were a mean (95% CI) 1.6-fold (1.1, 2.5) and 6.4-fold (1.4, 28) higher in eosinophilic bronchitis and 1.9-fold (1.3, 2.9) and 7.7-fold (1.2, 46) higher in asthma compared with that in control subjects (geometric mean, 5.9 and 95 ng/ml, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • In eosinophilic bronchitis the mean concentration of sputum PGD(2) (0.79 ng/ml) and histamine (168 ng/ml) were significantly higher than in asthma (mean absolute difference in PGD(2) concentration, 0.47 ng/ml [95% CI, 0.19 to 0. (nih.gov)
  • Prominent neutrophilic inflammation in sputum from subjects with asthma exacerbation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Induced sputum levels of IL-13, MPO, NGAL, YKL-40, and IL-6 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/Luminex assay in a Finnish discovery cohort (n=90) of nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with asthma, COPD, and ACOS and validated in a Japanese cohort (n=135). (dovepress.com)
  • Although sputum induction has been used extensively since the 1990s, few methodological studies have examined the influence of various technical factors on the feasibility and repeatability of sputum induction and collection. (ersjournals.com)
  • There have been only a few methodological studies that have examined the influence of various technical factors on the repeatability of sputum induction and collection, and as such, there is no 'gold standard' practice for this technique. (sgs.com)
  • In certain cases the physician may elect to perform a bronchoscopy to collect the sputum for analysis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some people may need bronchoscopy to collect a sputum sample. (cardiosmart.org)
  • A sputum fungal smear is a laboratory test that looks for fungus in a sputum sample. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There are no risks associated with a sputum fungal smear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Perform a smear and culture of sputum for mycobacteria and fungi. (medscape.com)
  • Same-day sputum smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary t. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Bacterial burden is reflected by the number of bacteria in the sputum as estimated by smear or culture. (nature.com)
  • Sputum smear microscopy tests and sputum cultures were performed once a month for the first 6 months following initiation of antituberculosis treatment and once every 2 months thereafter until the end of therapy. (dovepress.com)
  • Patients having 2-month sputum smear conversions (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 7.19, 95% CI: 2.60-19.84) or culture conversions (adjusted OR: 2.88, 95% CI: 1.11-7.45) were more likely to experience good outcomes. (dovepress.com)
  • The sensitivity and specificity obtained when using two-month sputum smear conversions to predict treatment outcomes were 67.6% (95% CI: 50.2-82.0) and 76.4% (95% CI: 63.0-86.8), respectively. (dovepress.com)
  • Thus, sputum smear conversion results obtained 2 months after treatment initiation may provide a potential means for predicting MDR-TB treatment outcomes. (dovepress.com)
  • Fifty-nine workers with high exposures and 22 patients with low exposures to flavoring vapors completed a questionnaire, spirometry, and sputum induction. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, this hypothesis has not been confirmed, and only preliminary measurements of sputum osmolarity after induction have been reported with conflicting results 4 . (ersjournals.com)
  • As with other techniques, the lack of a "gold standard" makes it hard to evaluate the influence of these technical factors on the adequacy and accuracy of sputum induction. (ersjournals.com)
  • and 8) frequency of sputum induction. (ersjournals.com)
  • Sputum induction requires a high degree of cooperation from the patient. (ersjournals.com)
  • if this is available, it must be immediately adjacent to the laboratory in which the sputum induction is performed. (ersjournals.com)
  • Although relatively safe, BAL is an invasive procedure and more expensive than sputum induction, and is not easily applicable on a large scale in clinical studies. (sgs.com)
  • Sputum induction requires a high degree of cooperation from the patient, and only an experienced technician under the supervision of an experienced physician should conduct the procedure 3 . (sgs.com)
  • As a general rule, sputum is dark green in the early stages of an infection and gradually lightens as the infection improves. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is the presence of an enzyme called myeloperoxidase that gives the sputum its green color, during an infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Routine sputum culture is a laboratory test that looks for germs that cause infection. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • wen ever I observe blood in any of my patients sputum, I always send of cultures to rule out infection. (medhelp.org)
  • A sputum culture is a test to find germs (such as TB bacteria) that can cause an infection. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Green sputum means that you should be checked to see if you have an infection. (healthtap.com)
  • A sputum sample was also examined, and all the polymorphonuclear leukocytes observed were eosinophils. (asthmaallergieschildren.com)
  • sputum eosinophils 8.0 ± 8.4%) and 19 patients completed the study (10 placebo, 9 SB010. (springer.com)
  • In patients with eosinophilic COPD, sputum eosinophils could be reduced by inhalation of SB010. (springer.com)
  • There was a significant negative correlation between the baseline methacholine PC(20) and baseline sputum eosinophils (r = -0.512, P = 0.0001). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The most common pathogens detected with a sputum culture are bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella species . (medscape.com)
  • It has a higher yield in comparison to spontaneous sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), bronchial washing and gastric lavage. (sgs.com)
  • Evidence of these changes has been found in both noninvasive samples, such as induced sputum , and in biopsies in the bronchial region. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The relationship between loss of heterozygosity, at 9p and p16 methylation in bronchial epithelium and the prevalence for methylation of these four genes in sputum from cancer-free, current and former smokers were also determined. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In a normal sputum sample there will be no disease-causing germs. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • ECP measured in the cell pellet lysate correlated closely with sputum absolute eosinophil counts across a range of subject groups ( r = 0.72, P = 0.004). (wiley.com)
  • The measurement of ECP in the sputum cell pellet provides a reliable and efficient estimate of sputum eosinophil counts which can potentially be used in clinical trials and epidemiological surveys. (wiley.com)
  • People with this condition may cough up yellow-grey or greenish sputum. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Such infections can lead to coughing that produces yellow, greenish, or blood-tinged sputum, in addition to fever and difficulty breathing. (kidshealth.org)
  • List of 246 disease causes of Sputum symptoms, patient stories, diagnostic guides, medical books excerpts online about Sputum symptoms. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Induced sputum was collected from two patients having signs and symptoms of LRTI. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A nasal-pharyngeal mucous trap is used to collect sputum from an infant or young child that cannot understand instructions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To complete a sputum Gram's stain, your doctor will need to a collect a sample of your sputum and send it to a laboratory for testing. (healthline.com)
  • At the laboratory, a technician will analyze your sputum sample using a sputum Gram's stain. (healthline.com)
  • Here, we define the essential genome of two P. aeruginosa strains in laboratory media and in CF sputum. (pnas.org)
  • In this paper, using a Monte Carlo simulation-based method to analyze high-throughput transposon sequencing data, we establish the P. aeruginosa essential genome with statistical precision in laboratory media and CF sputum. (pnas.org)
  • All subjects attended the laboratory for a clinical evaluation, pulmonary function tests and induced sputum sampling. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Your sputum sample will be sent to a laboratory within one to hours of production. (mercy.com)
  • Patients with yellow or green sputum were prescribed antibiotics more than three times as frequently as those who had clear or white sputum. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Patients with yellow or green sputum feeling mildly unwell reported initial symptom scores of 23.3 out of 100 (patients not prescribed antibiotics) and 21.3 (patients prescribed antibiotics). (physiciansweekly.com)
  • This step is called a sputum culture. (drugs.com)
  • If bronchoscopy will be used to collect your sputum sample, your doctor will tell you how soon before the test to stop eating and drinking. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Do not use mouthwash before you collect your sputum sample. (conehealth.com)
  • If you wear dentures, you will need to take them out before you collect your sputum sample. (conehealth.com)
  • Ozone responsive, defined as ≥ 20% relative increase in sputum neutrophils cell count after 3 h ozone challenge. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The primary outcomes were the number of severe exacerbations and control of eosinophilic inflammation, measured by induced sputum eosinophil count. (nih.gov)
  • The ability to study inflammation has changed considerably with the development of the induced sputum technique as a research and, increasingly, clinical tool. (ersjournals.com)
  • The sputum produced may be green, yellow, or bloody. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Bloody sputum is also referred to as hemoptysis. (medicinenet.com)
  • What does bloody sputum mean? (healthtap.com)
  • Giving the cough ample time to clear is advisable but if you develop fevers, shortness of breath, chest pains, or bloody sputum , it may be time to see your doc. (healthtap.com)
  • METHODS: A retrospective study of 485 sputum cell counts from patients attending a tertiary chest clinic in Hamilton, Ontario, identified eosinophilic or neutrophilic bronchitis. (hindawi.com)
  • and Streptococcus pneumoniae, nucleic acid amplification testing for S. pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus, and blood and sputum cultures. (philstar.com)
  • Here we evaluate adherence to these guidelines with regard to antibiotic prescription in AECOPD in primary care and the use of sputum cultures. (dovepress.com)
  • Regional data including 3,638 sputum samples showed that pathogens relevant in AECOPD were detected in 19% of cultures. (dovepress.com)
  • Sputum cultures were performed in a small minority of cases. (dovepress.com)
  • When white blood cells fight bacteria in the sputum they release peroxideases--enzymes similar to hydrogen peroxide--that change the color and the smell of sputum. (healthtap.com)
  • You may be asked to cough to provide the sputum sample. (conehealth.com)
  • During a sputum test, you will be asked to cough deeply enough to bring up a large quantity of sputum so your doctor can evaluate it. (mercy.com)
  • Sometimes the health care provider will tap on the chest to loosen deep sputum . (bio-medicine.org)
  • With bacterial RTIs, sputum may also have a thick consistency and an unpleasant odor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • thick sputum) than of antibiotic-responsive micro-organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then rinse your mouth with water, take a deep breath, and then cough deeply to produce a sample of sputum. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Next, take a deep breath and cough deeply to get a sample of sputum. (conehealth.com)
  • If the sputum sample is abnormal, the results are called "positive. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Pathological examination of sputum for microorganisms and abnormal cells may add further information. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A sputum sample is needed. (bio-medicine.org)
  • sputum sample. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This test requires a sample of sputum. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor may ask you to collect a sample of your own sputum, but if you can't they may collect one using a bronchoscopy. (healthline.com)
  • If you're at home, your doctor may ask you to collect the sputum sample yourself. (healthline.com)
  • How is your sputum sample analyzed? (healthline.com)
  • Normally, fresh morning sample is preferred for the bacteriological examination of sputum. (wikipedia.org)
  • This test is done with a sample of your sputum. (rochester.edu)
  • A sample of sputum is placed in a container with substances that promote the growth of bacteria or fungi. (cardiosmart.org)
  • This test is done on a sample of sputum that is usually collected by coughing. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Do not use mouthwash before collecting a sputum sample because it may contain antibacterial substances that could affect your results. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Usually, the sputum sample is collected early in the morning before you eat or drink anything. (cardiosmart.org)
  • If you wear dentures, you will need to remove them before collecting a sputum sample. (cardiosmart.org)
  • A sputum sample can also be collected using suction. (cardiosmart.org)
  • Suction is applied for up to 15 seconds to collect the sputum sample. (cardiosmart.org)
  • This method of collecting a sputum sample is often used for people who are very sick or unconscious. (cardiosmart.org)
  • A sputum test examines a sample of this mixture under a microscope to identify any abnormalities. (patientslikeme.com)
  • You need to cough up a sample of sputum. (drugs.com)
  • The rest of the sputum sample is incubated to grow the bacteria or other germs in it for further testing. (drugs.com)
  • Write the date and time you collected the sputum on the label of the sample bottle. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • What should I do with the sample bottles after I have collected my sputum? (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • A sample of sputum is added to a substance that promotes the growth of bacteria. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Suction can also be used to collect a sputum sample. (conehealth.com)
  • The sputum sample will be placed in a container with a growth medium or culture medium. (conehealth.com)
  • If you have some pain when you take a deep breath or when you cough, giving a sputum sample may be uncomfortable. (conehealth.com)
  • to evaluate the quality of the sputum sample before and after the Nursing guidance to patients. (scielo.br)
  • The educational intervention consisted of individualized guidance on the collection of sputum sample, which was based on the guidelines of the Ministry of Health of Brazil and on the explanatory folder delivery. (scielo.br)
  • I wouldn't say sputum for microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing is always useless. (bio.net)
  • Culture of the sputum on blood agar frequently reveals characteristic colonies, and identification is made by various serologic or biochemical tests. (medscape.com)
  • The matter could be settled with a high degree of certainty by a chest X-ray and then culture of your sputum for TB. (medhelp.org)
  • Sometimes a sputum culture test is done, but Mycoplasma don't grow well in a culture. (rochester.edu)
  • One of the best ways to diagnose TB is through a sputum culture. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • A sputum culture can take 1 to 8 weeks to provide results. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • A person is thought to have TB, but confirmation is needed before sputum culture results will be ready. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • What's a sputum culture? (healthtap.com)
  • How long does the sputum culture take? (healthtap.com)
  • Your physician may order an IgE, sputum culture, and obtain a genetic as well as travel history to determine the cause. (healthtap.com)
  • How is a sputum culture obtained when you are being tested? (healthtap.com)
  • This is the first national survey based entirely on targeted next-generation sequencing performed directly on sputum, without the need for culture. (nature.com)
  • To evaluate and compare time to and predictors of initial sputum culture conversion with predictors of treatment outcome for patients with multidrug-resistant TB. (annals.org)
  • Although there are not any major side effects associated with having a sputum culture, deep coughing can cause some minor discomfort. (mercy.com)
  • The alternative choices were not based on culture results because only in 67 AECOPD events (2.9%) sputum samples were taken. (dovepress.com)
  • Sputum is the phlegm produced from coughing and expectoration. (fishersci.com)
  • Does smoking lead to spotted phlegm or sputum? (ndtv.com)
  • Home » Frequently asked Questions on Health » Does smoking lead to spotted phlegm or sputum? (ndtv.com)
  • Analysis of fluid phase chemicals in asthmatic and CF sputum samples showed that despite overall lower mean values of neutrophil elastase (27 +/- 11 micrograms/ml vs 466 +/- 121 micrograms/ml, p = 0.0001) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) (55 +/- 15 ng/ml vs 186 +/- 24 ng/ml, p = 0.0001), some of the asthmatic samples had values for these variables that overlapped those in the CF samples. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Some infections may cause sputum to be yellow, gray, or rusty colored. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Is this type of sputum different than the ones in other pulmonary infections? (steadyhealth.com)
  • Sputum samples may be examined visually, cultured for the presence of microbes or parasites, or further processed for cytological examination. (fishersci.com)
  • The quality of sputum samples is determined by the minimum number of squamous epithelial cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes per low power field. (medscape.com)
  • Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in sputum samples by PCR. (asm.org)
  • A method for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in sputum samples by PCR has been developed. (asm.org)
  • The assay was capable of detecting between 10 and 100 CFU of S. pneumoniae in distilled water and 1.4 x 10(4) CFU/ml in simulated sputum samples. (asm.org)
  • it was shown that after the educational intervention, it was observed sputum samples with better quality, with satisfactory aspect and volume for the effectiveness of the bacilloscopic examination. (scielo.br)
  • Sputum samples were collected from 1,545 new and 163 previously treated patients. (nature.com)
  • Finding blood in sputum is always alarming. (medhelp.org)
  • The color of sputum appears to be commonly misinterpreted by both physicians and doctors to mean that antibiotics are needed. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The process is repeated until the required amount of sputum is collected. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It may take several attempts at coughing to produce the amount of sputum needed for the test. (kidshealth.org)