Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Weed Control: The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.Sporangia: A structure found in plants, fungi, and algae, that produces and contains spores.Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.WingPigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Persea: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The tree, Persea americana Mill., is known for the Avocado fruit, the food of commerce.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Herbicide Resistance: Diminished or failed response of PLANTS to HERBICIDES.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phytophthora infestans: A species of parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Peronosporaceae that is the causative agent of late blight of potato.Aphrodisiacs: Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Compound Eye, Arthropod: Light sensory organ in ARTHROPODS consisting of a large number of ommatidia, each functioning as an independent photoreceptor unit.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate: Specialized cells in the invertebrates that detect and transduce light. They are predominantly rhabdomeric with an array of photosensitive microvilli. Illumination depolarizes invertebrate photoreceptors by stimulating Na+ influx across the plasma membrane.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cistaceae: A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.Amber: A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.Radar: A system using beamed and reflected radio signals to and from an object in such a way that range, bearing, and other characteristics of the object may be determined.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Veronica: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. Members contain bis-sesquiterpene and iridoid glucosides.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Marantaceae: A plant family of the order ZINGIBERALES, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Corpora Allata: Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Clitoria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains ternatins (anthocyanins) and preternatins, antifungal proteins, stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dione, and clitoriacetal (ROTENONE).Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Geranium: A plant genus of the family GERANIACEAE. Geranium is also used as a common name for PELARGONIUM.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Territoriality: Behavior in defense of an area against another individual or individuals primarily of the same species.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Mating Preference, Animal: The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Centaurea: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain 5-methyl-8-hydroxycoumarin. The common name of centaury is more often used for CENTAURIUMRod Opsins: Photosensitive proteins expressed in the ROD PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS. They are the protein components of rod photoreceptor pigments such as RHODOPSIN.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Nuclear power accident that occurred following the Tohoku-Kanto earthquake of March 11, 2011 in the northern region of Japan.Passiflora: A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis: The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.Pedicularis: A plant genus of the family Orobanchaceae. Members contain phenylpropanoid glycosides and iridoids.Costa RicaMikania: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Amaranthus: A plant genus, in the family AMARANTHACEAE, best known as a source of high-protein grain crops and of Red Dye No. 2 (AMARANTH DYE). Tumbleweed sometimes refers to Amaranthus but more often refers to SALSOLA.Striga: A plant genus of the family Orobanchaceae that is parasitic on the roots of other plants. Members contain the flavones, APIGENIN and LUTEOLIN.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.PanamaCnidium: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. Members contain osthol.Pastinaca: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The roots are used as food.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chenopodium album: A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gentiana: A plant genus of the family Gentianaceae whose members contain SECOIRIDOIDS and have been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE for suppressing INFLAMMATION.Climatic Processes: Characteristic events occurring in the ATMOSPHERE during the interactions and transformation of various atmospheric components and conditions.Crotalaria: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.Sex Ratio: The number of males per 100 females.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Malvaceae: The mallow family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members include GOSSYPIUM, okra (ABELMOSCHUS), HIBISCUS, and CACAO. The common names of hollyhock and mallow are used for several genera of Malvaceae.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.EcuadorApicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Central AmericaGenetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Aristolochia: A plant genus of the family ARISTOLOCHIACEAE. Species of this genus have been used in traditional medicine but they contain aristolochic acid which is associated with nephropathy. These are sometimes called 'snakeroot' but that name is also used with a number of other plants such as POLYGALA; SANICULA; ASARUM; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Echinochloa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is grown mainly as a hay crop.Dicamba: A chlorinated organic herbicide.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Datura stramonium: A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Orobanche: A plant genus of the family OROBANCHACEAE. Lacking chlorophyll, they are nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants. The common name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM) or Brome (BROMUS).ADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Ambrosia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.Plant Dormancy: The state of failure to initiate and complete the process of growth, reproduction, or gemination of otherwise normal plants or vegetative structures thereof.Vitellogenesis: The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Chromolaena: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of thoroughwort is also used for other plants including EUPATORIUM; CHROMOLAENA, Hebeclinium and Koanophyllon. Eupolin is the aqueous extract of the leaves.Chlorpropham: A carbamate that is used as an herbicide and as a plant growth regulator.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Raphanus: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE known for its peppery red root.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Ageratina: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of snakeroot is also used for POLYGALA; SANICULA; ARISTOLOCHIA and others.Orobanchaceae: The broom-rape plant family of the order Lamiales.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Solanum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.Humulus: A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.Cyperus: A plant genus of the family CYPERACEAE. SESQUITERPENES are found in some of the species.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Tree mulch was spread, and continues to be spread, on the ground in order to recycle plant matter, suppress weeds, retain ... Urban wildlife observed on the site includes raccoons, possums, rabbits, skunks, rodents, grasshoppers, butterflies, moths, and ... spread mulch over the entire property by hand and planted over 2000 native plants during 2 "Plant-ins", each attended by over ... As of May 2012 only the Oak trees have been replanted, with the rest of the park consisting of open dirt and weeds. In 2016, ...
... larvae subsist on winter pasture crops and wild crop weeds such as cape weeds within bogong moth breeding grounds, ... Bogong moth eggs and larvae are primarily found in self-mulching soils (soil that mixes itself) and crop pastures, where both ... During dawn and dusk, portions of the population become active, first crawling around and spreading out, and then flying out of ... similar to the diurnal monarch butterfly. During the winter and autumn seasons, it is found in Southern and Western Australia, ...
The alligator weed flea beetle and two other biological controls were released in Florida, greatly reducing the amount of land ... They quickly spread to cover over 25 million hectares of Australia by 1920, increasing by 1 million hectares per year. Digging ... Things as simple as leaving a layer of fallen leaves or mulch in place provides a suitable food source for worms and provides a ... butterfly), Coleopteran (beetle) and Dipteran (true fly) insect pests. The bacterium is available to organic farmers in sachets ...
Weeds can also host pests and diseases that can spread to cultivated crops. Charlock and Shepherd's purse may carry clubroot, ... A 5-10 centimetres (2.0-3.9 in) layer of wood chip mulch prevents some weeds from sprouting. ... "Australian Weeds Strategy". Australian Weeds Strategy. Retrieved 11 September 2018.. *^ Cloutier, Daniel. "European Weed ... Strategic Weed Management. Strategic weed management is a process of managing weeds at a district, regional or national ...
Monarch butterflies use eucalyptus in California for over-wintering, but in some locations have a preference for Monterey pines ... The absence of great rivers or mountain chains meant that there were no geographic barriers to check the spread of fires. From ... The material remaining after processing can be safely used as mulch or fertiliser. Eucalyptus trees in the ... Williams, Ted (January 2002). "America's Largest Weed". Audubon Magazine. Archived from the original on 2006-07-08. Henter, ...
The annual cost of removing Chinese privet in the United States is estimated to be $737 per acre when a mulching machine and ... This will prevent the spread of the privet but will not eradicate it. Even methods such as controlled burning have proven ... For example, one study found the abundance and diversity of butterflies increased following privet removal to almost the same ... Greene, B.T., Blossey, B. (2011). Lost in the weeds: Ligustrum sinense reduces native plant growth and survival. Biological ...
Monarch butterflies use eucalyptus in California for over-wintering, but in some locations have a preference for Monterey pines ... A marlock is a shrub or small tree with a single, short trunk, that lacks a lignotuber and has spreading, densely leafy ... The material remaining after processing can be safely used as mulch or fertiliser. ... "America's Largest Weed". Audubon Magazine. Archived from the original on 2006-07-08. ...
... partly in response to the global emergence and spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds.:1 ... Monarch butterfly populationsEdit. Use of 2-4 D and other herbicides like glyphosate to clear milkweed along roads and fields ... application is usually combined with a selective herbicide and traditional methods of weed eradication such as mulching to ... It is used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses that compete with crops. It was discovered to be an ...
... partly in response to the global emergence and spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds. Glyphosate is absorbed through foliage, ... Use of glyphosate to clear milkweed along roads and fields may have contributed to a decline in monarch butterfly populations ... application is usually combined with a selective herbicide and traditional methods of weed eradication such as mulching to ... It is used to kill weeds, especially annual broadleaf weeds and grasses that compete with crops. It was discovered to be an ...
This growth will break down the mulch that is left on the soil surface. The breaking down of this mulch will produce a high ... CA has not spread as quickly as most conservationists would like. The reason for this is because there is not enough pressure ... 2007). This process will not allow pests such as insects and weeds to be set into a rotation with specific crops. Rotational ... the layer of mulch that is built up over time will become like a buffer zone between soil and mulch and this will help reduce ...
Removing top growth of weeds; Flame weeding and thermal weeding - Using heat to kill weeds; and Mulching - Blocking weed ... Birds, butterflies, soil microbes, beetles, earthworms, spiders, vegetation, and mammals are particularly affected. Lack of ... In this book he adopted Northbourne's terminology of "organic farming." Howard's work spread widely, and he became known as the ... Organic weed management promotes weed suppression, rather than weed elimination, by enhancing crop competition and phytotoxic ...
Different areas of the city have tool banks where resources like tools, compost, mulch, tomato stakes, seeds, and education can ... Urban agriculture as a method to mediate chemical pollution can be effective in preventing the spread of these chemicals into ... Most urban farms agree on the main challenges that they face; production costs, managing pests, managing weeds, and climate. ... The idea has spread the concept of city farm to other schools in the city. ...
Unwanted living plants (or weeds) can be discouraged by covering with mulch/compost. The "microbial pesticides" in compost may ... Unlike feces, urine does not attract disease-spreading flies (such as houseflies or blowflies), and it does not contain the ...
Unwanted living plants (or weeds) can be discouraged by covering with mulch/compost. The "microbial pesticides" in compost may ... Unlike feces, urine does not attract disease-spreading flies (such as houseflies or blowflies), and it does not contain the ... "This Natural Fertilizer Deters Pests, Kills Weeds & Makes Your Garden Grow Like Crazy!". David Avocado Wolfe. Retrieved 21 ...
Ground cover layer' of edible plants that spread horizontally.. *'Vertical layer' of vines and climbers. ...
Flame weeding and thermal weeding - Using heat to kill weeds; and. *Mulching - Blocking weed emergence with organic materials, ... In this book he adopted Northbourne's terminology of "organic farming." Howard's work spread widely, and he became known as ... butterflies, soil microbes, beetles, earthworms, spiders, vegetation, and mammals are particularly affected. Lack of ... Weed managementEdit. Organic weed management promotes weed suppression, rather than weed elimination, by enhancing crop ...
Commit: Volunteer to help maintain a pesticide-free playground, park, or school by pulling weeds, spreading mulch, etc. ... Do you love the bees and butterflies? Pledge: Provide food sources and habitat for pollinators ... Commit: Use manual and non-toxic techniques to remove weeds. Learn more. Small hands are great for pulling young weeds (but ... Easy: Spread clover seeds in your lawn to attract and support bees. Let the dandelions flower. Both dandelions and clover are ...
In the hope of attracting butterflies and birds, butterfly weed and blueberry shrubs were included in the plant list. Since the ... The village agreed to supply mulch to conserve moisture and hinder the growth of weeds. As the summer progressed, the plants ... 4. SPREAD THE WORD by sharing this email with friends, family and colleagues. Each persons interest, efforts and caring will ... In the spring of 2010, the Greenacres Association plans to form a group of residents to plant, weed and maintain the garden. ...
Protect offsets for next years growth by keeping plants free from heavy mulch and all weeds in fall. Mulch with pine straw or ... Spreads to form colonies over time. Use in borders, moist meadows or open woods. Shadier rain garden plant. Butterfly plant. ... Smothers weeds. Spreads too quickly for a planned border. Rust may disfigure leaves but plants survive. Thimbleweed is a good ... Height: 8-15. Spread: 6-15. Part shade. Best in moist, fertile soil, but adaptable. Butterfly plant. Rain garden plant. Deer ...
Butterfly Weed) milkweed has attractive, bright orange flowers in late spring and is a nectar source for bees and butterflies. ... They dont need mulching (except in very hot climates).. *These are moisture-loving perennials and do well in wet to moderately ... Asclepias syriaca and A. speciosa will spread to make big patches of plants and are best planted in parts of the landscape ... Asclepias tuberosa (Orange Butterfly Weed) - this perennial stays dormant until later in the spring than many other plants, ...
Butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds love milkweed. Low-maintenance, deer resistant, and drought tolerant. ... Hello Yellow Butterfly Weed (Asclepias tuberosa) is a native, pollinator-friendly perennial with cheerful yellow flowers and ... They dont need mulching (except in very hot climates).. *These are moisture-loving perennials and do well in wet to moderately ... Asclepias syriaca and A. speciosa will spread to make big patches of plants and are best planted in parts of the landscape ...
Butterfly weeds blossoms range from orange to red to yellow; Gay Butterflies is a seed mix including all three colors. ... Spreads rapidly by rhizomes.. *A. tuberosa (butterfly milkweed): Eastern and Southwestern native. Grows to 3 feet with showy ... Replant the rhizome at the same depth in sun or part shade; keep it watered and mulched; and trim back wilted growth. New ... In nurseries, youre most likely to come across butterfly weed (A. tuberosa). Its showy, adaptable to poor soil, and well ...
BUTTERFLY WEED. Asclepias tuberosa. Bright orange, tubular blossoms held in clusters high above foliage. Also attracts butterfy ... To deter ants, we recommend petroleum jelly spread on the mounting hook or on the body of the feeder just below the rubber ... Winter hardy with correct planting and adequate mulch. Partial to full shade. Average to moist soils. July-October. ... Spreads to a clump in sun or part shade. Average, moist or dry soils. July-Sept. ...
Mulch them with 3 or 4" of straw in the fall. The mulch can be left on the next season to retain moisture and keep down weeds. ... Mulch the first winter to prevent soil from heaving. Height: 2-3, Spread: 2, Space: 15-20" apart. Make excellent bouquets if ... So fragrant it will attract many bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. Prune in spring to remove dead or broken vines. ... It also eliminates weeds that compete for moisture.. MULCH - A mulch of peat, grass clippings, manure with straw, marsh hay, or ...
... including butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa). Yarrows (Achillea), calamints (Calamintha), and meadow sage (Salvia nemorosa) ... Mulch is a great help in conserving moisture on dry soils. Choose a porous mulch so that water will quickly filter through and ... If the spot is always wet, spread a 10- to 12-inch layer of compost over the existing soil, and plant right into the compost. ... and joe-pye weed (Eupatorium) are magnets for butterflies. ... A protective mulch of chopped leaves can help the garden ...
Why bother with this apparent weed? For one, it is a native plant, and it is attractive to monarch butterflies and other ... Finally, spread the cleaned seeds onto a paper plate or a piece of wax paper to dry. Drying may take a week or two. Trade some ... Use the pine needles later this fall after ground has frozen to mulch flower and shrub borders. ...
Tree mulch was spread, and continues to be spread, on the ground in order to recycle plant matter, suppress weeds, retain ... Urban wildlife observed on the site includes raccoons, possums, rabbits, skunks, rodents, grasshoppers, butterflies, moths, and ... spread mulch over the entire property by hand and planted over 2000 native plants during 2 "Plant-ins", each attended by over ... As of May 2012 only the Oak trees have been replanted, with the rest of the park consisting of open dirt and weeds. In 2016, ...
... keeping weeds down and mulching the soil so it doesnt get too hot. Remove badly infected plants to avoid spreading infection. ... Snails, slugs and White Butterfly caterpillars will chew the seedlings, leaves and flower buds. Pick them off by hand, or dust ... Weed them until they have spread enough to shade out weeds. Give small amounts of water regularly in hot weather.. What attacks ... Mulch around herbs to keep the weeds down and keep the soil moist. Give them a little compost monthly. Water all these plants ...
The species epithet divaricata means spreading. Woodland phlox attracts butterflies and hummingbirds. ... Appreciates a light summer mulch which helps retain moisture and keep roots cool." As with any new planting, be sure to give it ... tall joe-pye weed (Eupatorium altissimum) - few species will attract more pollinators than this Eupatorium ... Butterfly Milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa) Butterfly milkweed is a stout one to two foot tall perennial with a deep, coarse, ...
The weeding alone, Tara says, is "intense." But, she adds, its worth it. "Theres such a big payoff when it all blooms. Its ... notably butterfly bushes, hydrangea, irises, and roses. Crocosmia is another "theme" plant that Tara has added - "because I ... they dont like bare spaces and dont want to see mulch; the husband likes bright oranges and reds and dislikes daisies; the ... and the vigorously spreading plants themselves. ... Even if you dont get to plant and are just weeding a patch, it ...
As widely reported, 2019 has been a bumper year for painted lady butterflies in Britain. Once every decade, this annual ... I grow these wilder blooms alongside low-spreading perennials such as Alchemilla mollis or geranium Rozanne. ... This astonishing journey is dependent on the availability of such "weeds", urging us to reconsider their eradication from our ... gravel-mulched bed. ...
Finish by mulching and watering well. Problems. Fungi : Rusts Most rusts are host specific and overwinter on leaves, stems and ... Caused by fungi and spread by splashing water or rain, rust is worse when weather is moist.. Prevention and Control: Plant ... Prevention and Control: Keep weeds down and scout individual plants for tell-tale squiggles. Pick and destroy these leaves and ... Caterpillars are the immature form of moths and butterflies. They are voracious feeders attacking a wide variety of plants. ...
But what he and I see when we look at a butterfly weed or a coneflower, or what we mean when we say familiar words like " ... It requires multiple applications of bark mulch a year, pre-emergent herbicides and lots and lots of weeding. ... They rank a plants predilection to spread on a scale of 1 to 5. A low-sociability plant is one that in the wild is almost ... Take a butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa, named this years Perennial Plant of the Year by the industry group the Perennial ...
Spreads slowly if left undisturbed. Yellow Wakerobin is excellent massed in a shade garden or naturalized wooded area. It mixes ... This woodland species appreciates a generous application of leaf mulch in the fall. ... Sweet Joe Pye Weed Eupatorium purpureum. *. Queen of the Prairie Filipendula rubra ... Butterflyweed Asclepias tuberosa. *. Butterflyweed for Clay Asclepias tuberosa, var. Clay. *. Whorled Milkweed Asclepias ...
A very common weed of grassland and cultivated ground. Range Throughout most of the northern hemisphere, including Britain. ... Form: Spreading or horizontal.. Physical Characteristics. Taraxacum officinale is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 ... A valuable bee plant and an important food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species[4, 24, 30, 54], it ... used as fertilizer or to improve mulch. ... Weed Potential. Right plant wrong place. We are currently ...
A 3 inch layer of mulch will help to maintain soil moisture and studies have shown that mulched plants grow faster than non- ... Prevention and Control: Keep weeds down and remove infested plants. Dry air seems to worsen the problem, so make sure plants ... Dig a planting hole big enough to spread out the roots completely, once the center of plant has been set atop a mound. Fill ... Caterpillars are the immature form of moths and butterflies. They are voracious feeders attacking a wide variety of plants. ...
... must aim to be an area where the created garden will inhibit the growth of unwanted weeds through close planting and mulching. ... The garden should be alive with chattering birds, fluttering butterflies and lizards lounging on warm rocks. Underfoot should ... others contain flammable bark or have other strategies that promote the spread of fire - so this must be considered if you live ... Mossy bush rocks, winding paths and leafy, bark mulches add to the bushland effect. ...
Butterflies and hummingbirds like it. This sage tolerates a lot including mulch, rocks, drought and some water. This plant is ... It will spread by roots, so do allow room or keep it contained in a parking strip or large pot. It is known to be deer ... It likes full sun and sandy soil, with no weeds. Deer dont seem to like it much. The foliage is silver colored and is ... This fast spreading one ft high and 3 ft wide perennial is native along the California roadsides, but adapts well to our ...
Rounded, spreading trees, such as live oaks and Norway maples, need lots of space to extend their branches. Columnar or conical ... Replace mulch under the tree each fall. Spray the tree with Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel, Thuricide, Javelin). For ... The flowers, attractive to butterflies, hummingbirds, and colonial gardeners, ranged in color from nearly red to deep pink to ... Discovered in the 1930s, it has now spread throughout the South. Remove infected trees. Do not plant new mimosas in the same ...
Attracts birds and butterflies and after all the blooming is done provides huge amounts of deliscious seeds to roast and snack ... Weed control is practiced for the first four to five weeks after seed emergence. For the home garden, hand weeding and mulching ... In Russia it is probably the most wide spread snack. It is also sold as food for birds and can be used ... They grow best in fertile, moist, well-drained soil with a lot of mulch. In commercial planting, seeds are planted 45 cm (1.5 ...
Mine is a little 10 inch high rag doll poking out of the mulch. Did you ever see such a cute tree?. ... Im waiting for the Spicebush Swallowtail butterflies to show up; sassafras is a host plant for them! So far mine attract a lot ... Left to their own devices, they easily sucker, they spread like crazy, theyre the pioneers that reclaim abandoned fields. ... Ive been determined, and out of my many, many attempts, I now have 5 growing in the weeds in the meadow behind our yard, soon ...
Layer of mulchPollinatorsAsclepiasHummingbirdsMonarch butterfliesMothsBees and butterfliesInsectsBirds and butterfliesPlantCompostBedsPESTSMoistureSeedsNectarCaterpillarsBark mulchFragrantGardenAttract ButterfliesSpeciesDiseasesFlowersBloomsShrubRootsGroundcoverSoilsHerbicidesNutrientsLawnsDandelionsRhizomesGrassPlantingStemsGardenersBlossomsPersistentNoxiousGrassesPrevent weed growthAttracts butterfliesGrowthControlThickResistantPerennialClumpMeadowRoundupTurfOverrunGardensLeavesSlowlyGlyphosateDrought tolerantSmother
- A 3 inch layer of mulch will help to maintain soil moisture and studies have shown that mulched plants grow faster than non-mulched plants. (backyardgardener.com)
- Spread a 2- to 3-inch layer of mulch over the soil surrounding ginger lily plants to insulate the soil, increase moisture retention and reduce the growth of weeds. (gardenguides.com)
- Apply a 3-inch thick layer of mulch around the plant to help control weed growth. (blogspot.com)
- Use a thick layer of mulch between the plants to get them established. (naturehills.com)
- For one, it is a native plant, and it is attractive to monarch butterflies and other pollinators whose populations have declined in recent years. (manchesterjournal.com)
- 11. Pollinators Many insects pollinate flowers: wild bees, flower flies, butterflies. (fao.org)
- The flowers are small but in large groups can be quite impressive and the pollinators and butterflies love them. (floralencounters.com)
- Of course butterflies are more than just pretty, and while bees are recognized as the most effective pollinators of food crops, butterflies also perform an important role in the pollination of flowers. (thegardenerseden.com)
- Both Garden phlox and Creeping phlox produce fragrant blooms that attract a variety of pollinators, including butterflies and hummingbirds. (americanmeadows.com)
- Asclepias tuberosa (Butterfly Weed) milkweed has attractive, bright orange flowers in late spring and is a favorite nectar source for bees and butterflies. (highcountrygardens.com)
- Asclepias (Milkweed) are sun loving plants that are essential perennials for monarch butterflies providing food for caterpillars and nectar for adult butterflies. (highcountrygardens.com)
- Hello Yellow' Butterfly Weed (Asclepias tuberosa) is a native, pollinator-friendly knock-out with cheerful butter-yellow flower clusters. (highcountrygardens.com)
- Hello Yellow' Butterfly Weed (Asclepias tuberosa) is a member of the milkweed genus and a worthy addition to a pollinator-friendly garden. (highcountrygardens.com)
- It belongs to the subfamily of tropical milkweed butterflies, which are named after their host plant, the milkweeds ( Asclepias species). (bbg.org)
- North America's prairies have given us such beautiful plants as blazing stars ( Liatris ), sunflowers ( Helianthus ), and milkweeds, including butterfly weed ( Asclepias tuberosa ). (bbg.org)
- Take a butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa, named this year's Perennial Plant of the Year by the industry group the Perennial Plant Association), for example. (nytimes.com)
- Butterflyweed for Clay Asclepias tuberosa, var. (prairienursery.com)
- The flowers, attractive to butterflies, hummingbirds, and colonial gardeners, ranged in color from nearly red to deep pink to flesh-pink to white. (southernliving.com)
- Bright, fragrant blooms draw in hoards of butterflies and hummingbirds. (fast-growing-trees.com)
- The large, elongated clusters of blooms provide ample nectar for all varieties of butterflies and hummingbirds. (fast-growing-trees.com)
- Help the birds, bees, butterflies & hummingbirds by planting wildflowers. (americanmeadows.com)
- Our group rounded a bend in the trail, and there it was-a grove of oyamel fir trees, their boughs weighed down by huge clusters of resting Monarch butterflies. (bbg.org)
- Queen and Monarch butterflies use desert milkweed as a host plant. (livingdesert.org)
- For example, huge numbers of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) roost in some groves of Eucalyptus globulus in coastal California. (cal-ipc.org)
- Milkweeds make a natural connection with the monarch butterflies they feed. (fafard.com)
- Then there's the ever-popular milkweeds, which are essential to monarch butterflies. (fafard.com)
- Shiny, medium green leaves cover branches throughout the growing year and then come late summer, Seven-Son Flower welcomes migrating Monarch butterflies. (thegardenerseden.com)
- Caterpillars are the immature form of moths and butterflies. (backyardgardener.com)
- While not as prolific and efficient in pollinating as bees, butterflies, and moths are still very useful in the garden. (homestead.org)
- You can also attract bees, butterflies, and moths by providing shelter. (homestead.org)
- Moths and butterflies hang as cocoons on plants, and in winter drop into and shelter in leaves until adults emerge when temperatures are above 50°F. When we mulch leaves, we are destroying these beneficial insects or removing the shelter they need. (greenerevanston.org)
- It also attracts butterflies and is a host plant for moths. (growwild.co.za)
- Do you love the bees and butterflies? (ecocenter.org)
- apply them to undersides of leaves where bugs hide, late in the day when bees and butterflies are gone. (cdispatch.com)
- Maintaining healthy numbers of bees and butterflies is just one reason to avoid or reduce the use of pesticides and insecticides in your garden. (homestead.org)
- A solid IPM program wards off pests, but it has minimal impact on the environment and beneficial garden creatures such as birds, bees and butterflies you want to stick around. (gardentech.com)
- Bees and butterflies play an extremely important role in the garden and their pollination provides us with many of our favorite foods. (espoma.com)
- 65. Weeds aren't normally welcomed in gardens, but many weeds attract birds and butterflies in abundance because of their seeds, nectar, or the insects they attract! (organicgardentips.com)
- If you can water the seeds and small transplants, using mulch to keep the soil cool and moist, and control insects, you can get a great harvest this fall. (cdispatch.com)
- After weed kill a mulch forms which hosts a thriving population of insects, arthropods etc. (wiretrip.net)
- They have beautiful flowers and play an important role as a nectar source for many species of butterflies and other insects. (dyckarboretum.org)
- We seek to lead the industry in the reduction of pesticides by using beneficial insects, natural microorganisms and organic mulches. (monrovia.com)
- All pests, from weeds and insects to diseases, have natural enemies. (gardentech.com)
- They attract various insects such as butterflies and bees. (growwild.co.za)
- Remove any diseased plants to avoid the spread of disease, and keep the garden weeded as weeds may carry diseases that are spread by insects or contact. (botanicalinterests.com)
- Attracts birds and butterflies and after all the blooming is done provides huge amounts of deliscious seeds to roast and snack on. (wordpress.com)
- If you love color, birds and butterflies, but really need a low-maintenance option for your garden. (naturehills.com)
- The flowers attract birds and butterflies. (growwild.co.za)
- Butterfly plant. (aswp.org)
- Unlike the plant, however, the butterfly can't survive cold winters and must return south to wait out the cold months. (bbg.org)
- Plant any of the following milkweeds in your garden and you'll be helping the beleaguered Monarch butterfly. (bbg.org)
- When holes are dug in sod for trees or shrubs, work up 2 or 3' around the plant and keep this cultivated or mulched for good plant growth. (vendio.com)
- Organizing grants, donations and volunteers the Committee cleared a 2.75-acre (11,100 m2) portion of the site of non-native plants, spread mulch over the entire property by hand and planted over 2000 native plants during 2 "Plant-ins", each attended by over 150 community volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
- Tree mulch was spread, and continues to be spread, on the ground in order to recycle plant matter, suppress weeds, retain moisture, and provide an attractive appearance. (wikipedia.org)
- Dig a planting hole big enough to spread out the roots completely, once the center of plant has been set atop a mound. (backyardgardener.com)
- Before you plant your garden, you'll need to remove turf and weeds. (farmanddairy.com)
- Plant the butterfly bush in groupings or in rows for a summer long spectacular show. (fast-growing-trees.com)
- Butterflies love any plant that has any nectar at all. (tuscaloosanews.com)
- Different shires have different weed problems, so, in some cases, a weed is declared in one shire and not in another, or a plant may fall into several different categories depending on which shire they are in. (anpsa.org.au)
- In my humble dictionary, a weed is defined as being: "a plant considered troublesome or useless, esp. (anpsa.org.au)
- This plant quickly found its way into local waterways and spread rapidly. (anpsa.org.au)
- Trust me, it is worth waiting to plant until this weed is removed permanently. (dyckarboretum.org)
- You can expect the plant to spread somewhere within this range estimate. (jacksonsnurseries.co.uk)
- For Conifers and Trees this may be the spread in 10-20 years, eventually the plant may exceed this. (jacksonsnurseries.co.uk)
- Ginger lily, also known as butterfly ginger or by its scientific name, Hedychium coronarium, is an herbaceous flowering plant native to India. (gardenguides.com)
- Ronald Smith of the North Dakota State University Department of Plant Sciences said, "Weed and seed" combinations in particular are typically weak and practically useless on home gardens and lawns. (care2.com)
- However, anything that can be done to promote the growth of the desirable plant will reduce weed problems. (care2.com)
- These landscape spaces - the Great Meadow, the Orchid Range and Coach Barn Meadow, the Hay Barn Meadow, and the Woodlands along Dukes Parkway West from the turreted gates at Route 206 to the South Gate - will showcase the stewardship of native plant communities, including butterfly meadows, warm season grasslands, oak woodlands, wet sedge and fern meadows, and flowering woodland edges. (issuu.com)
- Amazingly, they know the whereabouts of every plant and object in the garden, despite the plants, etc. having been shrouded in weeds for decades. (blogspot.com)
- Little pruning is needed if the plant is properly located to allow for its spread. (blogspot.com)
- Placing mulch against the trunk or applying too thick a layer above the root ball can kill the plant by oxygen starvation, death of bark, stem and root diseases, prevention of hardening off for winter, vole and other rodent damage to the trunk, keeping soil too wet, or repelling water. (blogspot.com)
- Add mint to containers or plant it in an area where you can control its spread. (espoma.com)
- The plant is hardy to zone 4 above this mulching and care needs to be taken with overwintering rosettes. (floralencounters.com)
- A weed is generally considered a plant that is undesirable in a lawn for any reason, often due to aesthetics. (umn.edu)
- They attract birds, the insect eaters as well as butterflies as it is the larval host plant for the Yellow, Brown and Blue Pansy butterfly. (growwild.co.za)
- It is the larval host plant for the Orange-barred Playboy butterfly. (growwild.co.za)
- As sustainable gardeners we are probably relying quite a bit on commercially sourced compost, manures and mulch to help promote healthy plant growth. (sgaonline.org.au)
- Keep your garden beds well mulched and top-dressed with compost to ensure healthy plant development. (greenerideal.com)
- This makes it difficult for plant specific pests to propagate and spread throughout your garden bed. (greenerideal.com)
- Once a plant has a disease you can generally only manage the spread of the disease, making early identification and treatment so important. (botanicalinterests.com)
- They feed by sucking plant sap, which causes distorted leaves, buds, and flowers, sometimes spreading plant viruses in the process. (botanicalinterests.com)
- Break the soil up as described above, then spread 2 inches each of compost and sharp builder's sand over the planting bed. (bbg.org)
- They can be used as mulch or a compost for your landscape beds and garden areas. (twincities.com)
- We need 2 or more people and shovels on site to unload compost and woody debris/mulch. (alchemicalnursery.org)
- So if you want to add butterfly weed to your garden, you might drift it in beds several feet apart and tuck some low grasses in as companions, like prairie dropseed, blue grama grass or buffalo grass. (nytimes.com)
- The organic substances such as bark, wood chips, pine needles, leaves can keep the weeds at bay, decreasing the need for weeding in flower beds. (designbuzz.com)
- Move leaves to flower and shrub beds instead of mulching or discarding them. (greenerevanston.org)
- Use Around Flower Beds, Walkways Or Plantings Scatterproof Mulcb Always Looks Crisp Suppresses Mourning Better Than Bark Mulch Lasts For Years Length Is 10 Feet We Also Offer 5-1/2" Edge Border For Tighter Curves Choice Of Walnut Or Redwoood 100% Recycled Rubber Click Here For More Green Products Made Of Recycled Tire Rubber 10' L X 12" W X Approx. (supershopsite.com)
- But when you plop these species into a nutrient-rich, urban prairie garden with mulch and plenty of moisture, they grow seemingly with reckless abandon. (dyckarboretum.org)
- These are large shrubs, 12 to 15 ft. in height and width for full sun or part shade that appreciate some rich amended and well-mulched soil with a little summertime moisture. (idyllwildgardenclub.net)
- A mulch of leaves or pine straw will help control weeds and conserve soil moisture. (bossierpress.com)
- Summer mulch helps retain moisture, keeps roots cool and discourages weeds. (missouribotanicalgarden.org)
- This grass is a slow spreading, clump-forming perennial that prefers organic, moisture retentive soil. (songsparrow.com)
- Weeds can take the fun out of gardening, and during years with so much moisture, like 2016, they spread like a wildfire. (dyckarboretum.org)
- True, it will keep down weeds and keep in soil moisture, but mulch is supposed to decompose and build the soil. (5acresandadream.com)
- Mulching helps the soil retain moisture and assists with regulating the soil's temperature keeping what you have planted alive and healthy. (designbuzz.com)
- Keeping mulch to the drip line under trees keeps moisture in the root space but decreases the lawn's footprint. (designbuzz.com)
- Spread clover seeds in your lawn to attract and support bees. (ecocenter.org)
- Finally, spread the cleaned seeds onto a paper plate or a piece of wax paper to dry. (manchesterjournal.com)
- These genetically modified seeds have resulted in even stronger super weeds that are resistant to Roundup. (easyecoblog.com)
- Collect them before they get a chance to release their seeds and spread throughout your garden. (thompson-morgan.com)
- Disturb the soil as little as possible, to maintain its structure and to avoid bringing buried weed seeds to the surface to germinate. (fafard.com)
- I Genetic pollution from transgress spreads into other organisms through pollen, seeds and microbial processes. (wiretrip.net)
- Since many weeds are already dead late in the season, there is less competition for space as grass seeds try to take root. (care2.com)
- Tilling may simply rotate weed seeds. (care2.com)
- However, dormant weed seeds may be brought back to life with tilling. (care2.com)
- Milkweeds certainly are a must for every butterfly garden. (bbg.org)
- Keeping your garden healthy and weed-free is an on-going challenge, so why not tap into our horticultural knowledge banks to find some solutions. (gardensonline.com.au)
- In this kind of heat we go to the garden early morning and late evenings to harvest & weed. (homestead-blessings.com)
- That's one of the keys to a successful mulch garden- keep the mulch coming on! (homestead-blessings.com)
- Despite a few weeds, our little garden is just beautiful with all the butterflies flittering around the zinnias & cosmos. (homestead-blessings.com)
- And this year they helped set up a butterfly garden at Alberta Elementary. (tuscaloosanews.com)
- Mulch with beneficial amendments (such as Fafard Garden Manure Blend ) and fertilize with organic materials that support beneficial soil microbes and boost organic matter. (fafard.com)
- This is an area I hope to shape into a butterfly garden. (blogspot.com)
- These weeds can be relentless and you need to remove them from your garden as if you were trying to remove the plague. (dyckarboretum.org)
- One thing you can see from the above photos is how little of the garden is actually mulched. (5acresandadream.com)
- Fortunately weeds aren't taking over in this garden. (5acresandadream.com)
- Making an edible forest around the grade school was a bigger project for which we had no budget, no staff -other than ourselves - and just a wee bit of permission from the school garden coordinator. (eurozine.com)
- Some leaf diseases, such as common garden fungal diseases or black spot on roses , spread with the help of water. (gardentech.com)
- A little bit of weeding here and there will prevent your garden from becoming overrun with invasive weeds. (espoma.com)
- Organic gardener F.P. Hughes writes about his experiments using 1 1/2 mil sheets of black polyethylene plastic mulch to warm the soil, reduce evaporation and prevent weed growth in the garden. (motherearthnews.com)
- We planted early peas in this narrow "slot" and finished off that section of the garden by spreading about an inch of loose soil over the plastic to hold it down out of the wind. (motherearthnews.com)
- I love to watch them in the garden in the clear blue light of September, when they seem to rise and fall with a single flick of the wings and with none of the mad frenzy of smaller butterflies. (washingtonpost.com)
- Some ecologists say that the extensive garden plantings in balmy Gulf States are causing monarchs to get sidetracked on their southward migration and that this is contributing to the spread of a pathogen that is killing or weakening the monarch. (washingtonpost.com)
- Sweet-smelling Garden Phlox is a favorite of butterflies, like this Giant Swallowtail. (americanmeadows.com)
- This woodland species appreciates a generous application of leaf mulch in the fall. (prairienursery.com)
- Many butterfly and moth species take shelter over the winter as pupae in leaf litter - so clearing out all the leaves will clear them out, too. (twincities.com)
- WARROAD, Minn. - The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources on Friday confirmed it has found larval zebra mussels from one of three sites on Lake of the Woods, a disappointing turn of events in the ongoing spread of aquatic invasive species. (twincities.com)
- Keep in mind that the ultimate purpose of a weed control program is to further the goal of preserving a species, community, or functioning ecosystem. (cal-ipc.org)
- A number of thistle species are on the Kansas noxious weed list, including bull thistle ( Cirsium vulgare ), Canada thistle ( Cirsium arvense ), and musk thistle ( Carduus nutans ). (dyckarboretum.org)
- The bogong moth (Agrotis infusa) is a temperate species of night-flying moth, notable for its biannual long-distance seasonal migrations towards and from the Australian Alps, similar to the diurnal monarch butterfly. (wikipedia.org)
- Wet leaves can promote fungus, and soil splashed onto leaves can spreads soil-born diseases. (botanicalinterests.com)
- Roses need less weeding and watering and have fewer diseases if you lay down 1 to 2 inches of organic mulch, such as wood chips, pine needles, grass clippings or other biodegradable material. (pjstar.com)
- Attractive flowers bring lots of butterflies & bees. (herbsociety-stu.org)
- Prairie flowers such as butterfly weed store water in their fleshy taproots. (howstuffworks.com)
- They call your flowers 'weeds' and go to great lengths to kill them and replace them with grass. (blogspot.com)
- The specific epithet refers to the flowers-blooming in panicles or loose spreading clusters. (gardenclubofsc.org)
- A profusion of both pure white and solid purple flowers cover this widely spreading groundcover nearly year-round! (monrovia.com)
- Often found as a weed of acid soils. (pfaf.org)
- Yet soils spread beneath us as important historical artefacts. (eurozine.com)
- These choices ensure that local beneficial wildlife, birds, butterflies will be attracted, and they will be acclimated to the climate, rainfall, soils, and other natural elements. (designbuzz.com)
- Bogong moth eggs and larvae are primarily found in self-mulching soils (soil that mixes itself) and crop pastures, where both wild and agricultural larval food sources are abundant during the autumn and winter seasons. (wikipedia.org)
- For example, cutting and herbicides or prescribed fire and herbicides have been used successfully in combination in many weed control programs. (cal-ipc.org)
- Sustainable organic agriculture creates much needed jobs in depressed rural Opposing GM crops forces farmers to use herbicide resistant varieties which have not been made by GM such as those resistant to selenographer herbicides which more readily give rise to herbicide resistant weeds. (wiretrip.net)
- I The total herbicides used with herbicide tolerant crops kill all weeds thus reducing biodiversity in the field. (wiretrip.net)
- We combat weed growth by hand and through organic mulches, reducing the amount of herbicides required. (monrovia.com)
- Grass and weeds grow rapidly in summer, and the string trimmers we use to control them can be very damaging to young trees, which have relatively thin bark. (bossierpress.com)
- Shorn turf grass doesn't feed native birds, bees, butterflies and it doesn't sustain people in a city with high poverty and malnourishment rates in the midst of a pandemic. (eurozine.com)
- A yard of grass creates a massive waste of water where using mulch in various placements can shrink usage considerably. (designbuzz.com)
- Drip irrigation promotes less weed growth since water is delivered to single spots instead of broadcast sprayed. (livingdesert.org)
- Here are seven strategies for preventing weed growth, and four methods of controlling existing weeds, with the advantages and disadvantages of each method. (care2.com)
- Most weeds don't have specific requirements for growth other than open areas. (care2.com)
- A weed control program is best viewed as part of an overall restoration program, so focus on what you want in place of the weed, rather than simply eliminating the weed. (cal-ipc.org)
- In this approach, weed control is begun in portions of the site with the best stands of desirable native vegetation (those with few weeds) and proceeds slowly to areas with progressively worse weed infestations. (cal-ipc.org)
- In Australia, the cost of weed control gets passed on to the consumer, so we pay for weed control everyday with our meat and vegetables. (anpsa.org.au)
- In this state, the Rural Lands Protection Board oversees the control of weeds and they have a classification system which I need to explain to you before we go any further. (anpsa.org.au)
- AS with weed control, control of insect damage is achievable with properly designed crop rotation and other forms of good husbandry such as interloping. (wiretrip.net)
- The difficulty is that every weed seems to require a different control measure. (dyckarboretum.org)
- Fortunately, there are better ways to prevent and control weeds before they take over. (care2.com)
- The simplest way to control weeds is to eliminate the open niches that they take advantage of. (care2.com)
- Carefully hoeing the topsoil can effectively control some weeds but, like tilling, hoeing has its limits. (care2.com)
- Its naturally spreading form is excellent for bank cover and erosion control. (monrovia.com)
- The weed killer Roundup is facing lawsuits over claims that it gave people cancer, non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. (easyecoblog.com)
- Roundup is a popular herbicide that is used to kill weeds. (easyecoblog.com)
- Roundup and other chemicals may seem like the best weapon in the arsenal against weeds . (care2.com)
- Glyphosate is a controversial herbicide, antibiotic and active ingredient in Roundup weed killer. (greenerevanston.org)
- Mulch, mow or bag leaves on lawn? (twincities.com)
- Mowing your leaves into mulch is an option that's typically easier than raking and bagging - but conditions need to be right. (twincities.com)
- Wet leaves don't mulch well. (twincities.com)
- After throwing away the leaves, they buy mulch, haul it home, and spread it around in place of the leaves. (blogspot.com)
- ST. FRANCIS: After throwing away the leaves, they go out and buy Something which they call mulch. (blogspot.com)
- They haul it home and spread it around in place of the leaves. (blogspot.com)
- The leaves can be used for mulching, green manuring of rice fields and for binding sandy soil. (plantnet-project.org)
- If the bed is badly infested with tough weeds, like bermudagrass, torpedograss or nutsedge (nutgrass, cocograss), you should spray the weeds with glyphosate to kill them and wait a few days until they're dead before proceeding further. (bossierpress.com)
- Over use of Glyphosate has lead to an 81% decline in the Monarch Butterfly population. (easyecoblog.com)