Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Herpesvirus 1, Suid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Communicable DiseasesCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Pseudorabies: A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)EuropeHost-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.AfricaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Animal DiseasesAlphaherpesvirinae: A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.South AmericaBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Rabies: Acute VIRAL CNS INFECTION affecting mammals, including humans. It is caused by RABIES VIRUS and usually spread by contamination with virus-laden saliva of bites inflicted by rabid animals. Important animal vectors include the dog, cat, bat, fox, raccoon, skunk, and wolf.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Bluetongue: A reovirus infection, chiefly of sheep, characterized by a swollen blue tongue, catarrhal inflammation of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Plant Viral Movement Proteins: Viral proteins that facilitate the movement of viruses between plant cells by means of PLASMODESMATA, channels that traverse the plant cell walls.North AmericaPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mice, Inbred BALB CPopulation Control: Includes mechanisms or programs which control the numbers of individuals in a population of humans or animals.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Basic Reproduction Number: The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Stochastic Processes: Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Rabies virus: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Carbapenems: A group of beta-lactam antibiotics in which the sulfur atom in the thiazolidine ring of the penicillin molecule is replaced by a carbon atom. THIENAMYCINS are a subgroup of carbapenems which have a sulfur atom as the first constituent of the side chain.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Tobacco Mosaic Virus: The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)ArgentinaAircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.IndiaSpace-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Release: Release of a virus from the host cell following VIRUS ASSEMBLY and maturation. Egress can occur by host cell lysis, EXOCYTOSIS, or budding through the plasma membrane.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Measles virus: The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.
Spread. Lassa virus commonly spreads to humans from other animals, specifically the natal multimammate rat or African rat ... The disease is usually initially spread to people via contact with the urine or feces of an infected multimammate rat. ... As of 2013, the spread of Lassa outside of West Africa had been very limited. Twenty to thirty cases had been described in ... An outbreak of Lassa fever occurred in Nigeria during 2018 and spread to 18 of the country's states; it was the largest ...
The spreading of the moth leads to attack corn all around the country within weeks. On 6 January 2019, caterpillars spread ... It has since spread to 28 countries in Africa. In 2018, it began to spread widely in India. ... Spread to China. As of 2019, the pest has reached China. ... "Sri Lanka: Drone technology to be used to control spreading of 'Sena' Caterpillar". preventionweb. Retrieved 28 January 2019.. ...
Expansion and spread. The Unemployment Insurance Act 1920 created the dole system of payments for unemployed workers. ...
1906-1911: Casa dei Bambini and the spread of Montessori's ideas. The first Casa. In 1906 Montessori was invited to ... Spread of Montessori education in Italy. The first Casa dei Bambini was a success, and a second was opened on April 7, ... 1.5 1906-1911: Casa dei Bambini and the spread of Montessori's ideas *1.5.1 The first Casa ... Montessori's reputation and work began to spread internationally as well, and around that time she gave up her medical practice ...
Worldwide spread. The breed is exceptionally adaptable to varying climatic conditions and is presently well established ... The South Devon of today originated in South West England, in an area of Devon known as the South Hams from where they spread ...
Spread. Infestation is rarely caused by a lack of hygiene. Transfer to new places is usually in the personal items of ... They spread by crawling between nearby locations or by being carried within personal items. Infestation is rarely due to a ... the Chicago City Council passed a bed bug control ordinance to limit their spread. Additionally, bed bugs are reaching places ... and pets are not believed to be a factor in their spread. ...
Spread of production. Sassanid inspired two-sided silk cloth, with winged lions and tree of life, from the early Islamic ... Silk cultivation spread to Japan around 300 AD, and, by 522 AD, the Byzantines managed to obtain silkworm eggs and were able to ... After the start of the Crusades, techniques of silk production began to spread across Western Europe. In 1147 while Byzantine ... As a result of the spread of sericulture, Chinese silk exports became less important, although they still maintained dominance ...
Mid-oceanic ridge spreading and convection. Further information on Mid-ocean ridge: Seafloor spreading ... Plate movement is thought to be driven by a combination of the motion of the seafloor away from spreading ridges due to ... Le Pichon, Xavier (15 June 1968). "Sea-floor spreading and continental drift". Journal of Geophysical Research. 73 (12): 3661- ... Oceanic crust is formed at sea-floor spreading centers, and continental crust is formed through arc volcanism and accretion of ...
In the spread of disease. Rats can serve as zoonotic vectors for certain pathogens and thus spread disease, such as bubonic ... Initially, tons of arsenic trioxide were spread around thousands of farm yards to poison rats, but soon after the program ... Rats are seen as vicious, unclean, parasitic animals that steal food and spread disease. However, some people in European ... Rats are frequently blamed for damaging food supplies and other goods, or spreading disease. Their reputation has carried into ...
Flu spread, by season. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly ...
Spreading around and nationwide. In 1965, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri tasked Kurien to replicate the dairy's ' ... Amul's cooperative dairying venture succeeded and word spread around. Dignitaries, researchers & trainees, and common folk ...
Rise to power and initial international spread of fascism (1922-1929). Beginning in 1922, Fascist paramilitaries ... In 1941, the Axis campaign spread to the Soviet Union after Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa. Axis forces at the height of ... 1.4 Rise to power and initial international spread of fascism (1922-1929) ...
... tracts serve as tool to spread gospel to children (Curry), Baptist Press ... Wearing costumes and playing pranks at Halloween spread to England in the 20th century. Traditionally, pranksters used ... an initiative known as Night of Light seeks to further spread the Vigil of All Hallows throughout Christendom. After ... In the 20th century they spread to other parts of England and became generally known as jack-o'-lanterns. ...
The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals. Spread may ... Although it is not entirely clear how Ebola initially spreads from animals to humans, the spread is believed to involve direct ... Spread of EBOV by water, or food other than bushmeat, has not been observed. No spread by mosquitos or other insects ... Most people spread the virus through blood, feces and vomit. Entry points for the virus include the nose, mouth, eyes, open ...
Spread elsewhere. Continental Europe. Diligencia that was used between Igualada and Barcelona, Spain. A dedicated ...
Symptoms of spread. Cross section of a human liver, at autopsy, showing many large pale tumor deposits, that are ... For this reason, non-functioning PanNETs are often diagnosed only after the cancer has spread to other parts of the body. ... Pain in the upper abdomen or back, often spreading from around the stomach to the back. The location of the pain can indicate ... Cancers in the pancreas may also be secondary cancers that have spread from other parts of the body. This is uncommon, found in ...
Rule 1: Spread requires sex and outbreeding. Sexual reproduction involves the mixing of genes from two individuals. ... The idea of spreading a gene into a population as a means of population control is actually quite old, and models for the ... Such gene drives ought to have the ability to rapidly spread in a population (see Gene drive systems), and one practical ... Both papers emphasized that genes can spread in a population regardless of their effect on organismal fitness as long as they ...
Mass production and spread of printed books. See also: Global spread of the printing press and List of early modern newspapers ... The printing press spread within several decades to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries. By 1500, printing ... Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second ... From a single print shop in Mainz, Germany, printing had spread to no less than around 270 cities in Central, Western and ...
Species and geographic spread. In Europe and places with a Mediterranean climate, two species in particular are widely ...
"Calories in Fruit Spread". SPARKPEOPLE. SparkPeople, Inc. Retrieved 9 April 2018.. *^ a b c "Grading Manual for Fruit Jelly ... Fruit spread. Although the FDA has Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Butters, Jellies, Preserves, and Related ... Other names include: chutney, confit, conserve, fruit butter, fruit curd, fruit spread, jelly, and marmalade. ... Fruit curd is a dessert topping and spread usually made with lemon, lime, orange, or raspberry. The basic ingredients are ...
... this pest spreads about 13 miles per year. A study published in 2012 suggests that storms can accelerate the spread, ... Spread. The small larvae of the gypsy moth take to the air and are carried by the wind.:10 The larvae spin silken ... Progressive spread of the gypsy moth (L. dispar) across north east US from 1900-2007; compiled from county data by US Forest ... Firewood transport is a common way for the eggs to spread, since the moths will lay their eggs on dead wood. Attempts have ...
Spaniards spread cultivation of jícama from Mexico to the Philippines (where it is known as singkamas, from Nahuatl xicamatl),[ ...
... spreading Western culture and styles. Fast fashion clothing has also become a global phenomenon. These garments are less ...
Spread. Over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries, borscht's popularity spread beyond its Slavic homeland, largely ... Its popularity has spread throughout Eastern Europe and the former Russian Empire, and - by way of migration - to other ... and has spread as far as Hong Kong. In Shanghai's Haipai cuisine, tomatoes are the main ingredient; beef and its broth, ... and did not spread to Eastern Europe before the 16th century. Mikołaj Rej, a Polish Renaissance poet and moralist, ...
Spreading the martial art. As Karate grained prominence in Japan many karate masters exported the martial art to the ... It is said that this was the beginning of a systematized martial practice that eventually spread to other Asian countries via ...
As word spread in the fleet about the incidents onboard the Kitty Hawk, many of the black sailors on the Constellation were " ... As news of the efforts to stop the sailing of the Constellation spread, crewmen aboard the USS Coral Sea, an aircraft carrier ... "The fighting spread rapidly, with bands of blacks and whites marauding throughout the ship's decks and attaching each other ... who combined escalating protests and rebellions with a wide-spread campaign of sabotage." ...
... by touching germs present on medical equipment or high touch surfaces and then carry the germs on their hands and spread to a ...
Capacity for person-to-person transmission increases the potential for wider spread of this highly lethal pathogen and ... This spread would provide the seed for a substantial regional or global public health problem and highlights the need for local ... Capacity for person-to-person transmission increases the risk for wider spread of this highly lethal pathogen. In an ... Capacity for person-to-person transmission increases the potential for wider spread of this highly lethal pathogen and ...
Education and information about infections unlikely to be spread through water such as head lice, mrsa, and pin worm. ... Infections Unlikely to be Spread by Swimming Pools. Head Lice Head lice are unlikely to be spread through the use of swimming ... Although there have been no reports of MRSA spreading through recreational water, there is a potential risk of spreading MRSA ... Can MRSA be spread at recreational water facilities?. MRSA does not survive long in recreational water (for example, pools or ...
In the study of men receiving apalutamide, it took, on average, 40.5 months for cancer to spread to the point where it could be ... While some patients in these trials might have had cancer spread that was not detected by conventional scans, Dr. Smith said ... Prostate Cancer Drugs Can Delay the Spread of the Disease, Trials Show. Order Reprints , Todays Paper , Subscribe ... For men receiving the placebo, the cancer spread in 16.2 months, on average. In the enzalutamide study, metastasis took 36.6 ...
Zika virus evolution and spread in the Americas.. Metsky HC1,2, Matranga CB1, Wohl S1,3, Schaffner SF1,3,4, Freije CA1,3, ...
... including interpolated spread (I-spread), zero-volatility spread (Z-spread), and option-adjusted spread (OAS). ... Yield spread analysis. Yield spread analysis involves comparing the yield, maturity, liquidity and creditworthiness of ... The TED Spread is one commonly-quoted credit spread. The difference between Baa-rated ten-year corporate bonds and ten-year ... In finance, the yield spread or credit spread is the difference between the quoted rates of return on two different investments ...
Each option is referred to as a leg of the spread; the Greeks Delta, Vega and Theta can be used to evaluate the spreads risk ... Find out more about option spread strategies, and how to set the strike prices for bull call spreads and bull put spreads ... ... Whats the difference between a credit spread and a debt spread? Learn about debit and credit option spread strategies, how ... BREAKING DOWN Atlantic Spread. The Atlantic spreads name comes from the body of water that separates the United States and ...
Stop the spread. Measures to stop the spread of highly pathogenic bird flu at its source. ...
Main articles: Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and Spread of Islam in Indonesia ... In Africa it spread along three routes, across the Sahara via trading towns such as Timbuktu, up the Nile Valley through the ... Trading played an important role in the spread of Islam in several parts of the world, notably southeast Asia. ... The spread of Islam in Africa began in the 7th to 9th century, brought to North Africa initially under the Umayyad Dynasty. ...
... (Apocynum androsaemifolium). By Jack Greenlee. Spreading dogbane is a showy member of the dogbane family ( ... Spreading dogbane, as the name suggests, tends to spread from underground rhizomes and form distinct patches. Although it is ... Spreading dogbane is found in a variety of habitats, from native plant communities to weedy roadsides and waste areas. The ... Be sure to watch for spreading dogbane in the fall as well. It is one of the first species to change color, turning a brilliant ...
Add crunch by coating the finished spread with almonds. ... creamy version of standard pesto that makes a great spread for ... Back to Pesto Herb Spread All Reviews for Pesto Herb Spread ... Reviews for: Photos of Pesto Herb Spread. Reviews: Most Helpful ... My only suggestion would be to thin it out with a teeny bit of milk (I always do with cream cheese spreads) Read More ... I use the cheaper powdered pesto and like it much better that way! This is a tasty spread with bagel chips or toasted peta ...
We are all the victims of this great spreading tragedy. Now is not the time to flagellate your own country, Mr Snow. ...
Do flies spread malaria. ?. No. While flies spread or help to spread a vast number of different diseases, malaria isnt one of ... Can malaria be spread from person to person. ?. Yes malaria can be spread to another person by using the same needle or syringe ... Which will spread faster malaria or sickle-cell. ?. Malaria is spread by Mosquitos & Sickle cell is an inherited disease so it ... Can malaria spread from one person to another. ?. hey malaria is not contagious disease but can only be spread through the ...
... By Emily @ Planned Parenthood , Dec. 20, 2017, 6:03 p.m. ...
... and spicy seasonings give this cream cheese based holiday spread a distinctively delicious flavor! Happy New Year! ... Back to Holiday Cheese Spread All Reviews for Holiday Cheese Spread ... This is an awesome spread recipe! The flavors meld beautifully.I made half the recipe exactly as it was called for and the ... This is an awesome spread recipe! The flavors meld beautifully.I made half the recipe exactly as it was called for and the ...
Wipes Can Spread Bacteria. About 100,000 cases of invasive MRSA occur each year in the United States, according to the CDC, and ... Disinfectant wipes are among the products used in such settings in an effort to prevent the spread of MRSA and other infectious ... Frequent hand washing is one of the best ways to prevent the spread of infectious illness, but new research suggests that ... Germicidal Wipes Can Spread Bacteria. Its All in How You Swipe, Says Study Examining Antibacterial Products ...
... its network of schools to spread the religion. ... Use schools to spread Christian story. Christianity is in ... its network of schools to spread the religion. The bishop said church schools were "under attack" from all corners but the ...
... is spread through a mechanism we call droplets. So anytime you cough or sneeze, that little bit of spit that comes out is what ... Question: How does swine flu spread? Answer: So swine flu, like most influenza viruses, is spread through a mechanism we call ... The way it actually spreads is that your hands then come into contact with this droplets on the surfaces, and then you touch ... And thats where the virus can attach and then begin to spread and cause infection. ...
How this leads to cancer spread has now been illuminated in mouse models. ... Transition states that allow cancer to spread. Cancers of epithelial-cell origin often contain some tumour cells that have ... How this transition occurs and the implications of EMT for metastasis, the process by which cancer spreads, are not fully ... The authors identified two cell populations that were the most likely to spread and form tumours elsewhere in the process ...
Ebola continues to spread in West Africa as Sierra Leone voted to pass a new amendment imposing jail time for anyone caught ... Underestimated Ebola outbreak spreads. Ebola continues to spread in West Africa as Sierra Leone voted to pass a new amendment ... Underestimated Ebola outbreak spreads Ebola continues to spread in West Africa as Sierra Leone voted to pass a new amendment ... Underestimated Ebola outbreak spreads. Natalie DiBlasio, USA TODAY Published 9:25 a.m. ET Aug. 23, 2014 , Updated 7:56 p.m. ET ...
Preventing or slowing the spread of prostate cancer to the bones is a major goal of treatment if the cancer has grown outside ... Treating Prostate Cancer Spread to Bones. If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it nearly always goes to the ... Radium-223 has also been shown to help men who have prostate cancer spread only to their bones (as opposed to spread to other ... If the cancer has grown outside the prostate, preventing or slowing the spread of the cancer to the bones is a major goal of ...
Diseases Spread by Ticks. Information about various tick-related diseases in the Northeast ... However, if left untreated, infection can spread to joints, the heart, and the nervous system. ...
Throughout the district last year, HRS provided 18 school nurses for 120 schools, spreading thin the health care and education ...
With 300 people already sickened by a salmonella outbreak in Foster Farms chicken, consumers are being reminded to take extra precautions when handling raw poultry. High on that list is something
New research in mouse models of human-derived cancers has found a new key factor that supports the growth and spread of ... This neurotransmitter helps aggressive tumors spread. Written by Maria Cohut, Ph.D. on April 26, 2019. - Fact checked by Jasmin ... A chemical messenger could be helping aggressive cancers grow and spread.. A team at Johns Hopkins Medicine in Baltimore, MD ... Higher-grade cancer tumors are characterized by faster growth and spread rates. ...
BacteriaMigratory birdsPinterestMosquitoesMosquitoZikaFlavorful spreadCancersBeer Cheese SpreadGermsEpidemicsFacebookCoronavirusButterLethalPathogenSwine fluNorth AmericaRecipeReutersWorseMRSAAvian influenzaStop the spreadInfectionsCancerDengueTypically offerInfectious diseasesEpidemicPoultryDebitCloselyScientistsPandemicContagious diseaseAggressiveBirdsUnderstoodContentRoom temperatureIllnessViruses can spreadH5N1StemCulexCheddarGreatHealth
- In a study that focused solely on wipes, researchers concluded that instead of preventing hospital-acquired infections like methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( MRSA ) the wipes could actually be spreading bacteria when used improperly by hospital staffers. (webmd.com)
- But in a study presented today in Boston at the annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, researchers from Cardiff University's Welsh School of Pharmacy reported that when used improperly the wipes may spread bacteria rather than remove or kill them. (webmd.com)
- But weeks would go by without an infection, suggesting that the bacteria were not simply spreading from baby to baby in the unit. (freerepublic.com)
- WASHINGTON, Dec. 11, 2018 - If you're cooking for friends and family this holiday season, it's important to make sure you're not spreading bacteria that can cause harmful foodborne illnesses. (usda.gov)
- Participants also spread potentially harmful bacteria from raw meat and poultry onto other surfaces or food items in the kitchen. (usda.gov)
- MRSA bacteria are spread through skin-to-skin contact and often strike people who are prone to cuts and scrapes like children and athletes. (webmd.com)
- Bacteria that causes meningitis can spread to other people through close contact with infected people. (reference.com)
- Such people can easily spread the bacteria to others. (reference.com)
- Thomas says this raises the question: are migratory birds mainly responsible for spreading the disease to chickens, as is conventionally believed? (rferl.org)
- Regardless of whether it was chickens from China or migratory birds that first began spreading bird flu, the likelihood that wild birds this spring could become infected remains high. (rferl.org)
- In contrast, spread to most (20/23) countries in Europe was most likely through migratory birds. (pnas.org)
- If the risk of H5N1 spread to a country is highest through the movement of migratory birds, then surveillance at migratory stopovers such as Alaska will likely yield the first evidence of introduction, a strategy that matches current U.S. Department of Interior and Agriculture policy ( 11 ). (pnas.org)
- Malaria is spread by infected mosquitoes. (answers.com)
- Mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles spread malaria when they draw blood from an infected person. (answers.com)
- Malaria is a serious disease spread by mosquitoes. (answers.com)
- Malaria is an infectious and parasitic disease that is generally spread through mosquitoes, which is why it would be unusual (if at all possible) to hear of a case of malaria spread through smoking or tobacco use. (answers.com)
- Mosquitoes are the prime vector in the spread of Malaria. (answers.com)
- What's more, nine new germs spread by mosquitoes and ticks were discovered or introduced into the United States during the 12-year span, the years covered in the CDC's report. (aarp.org)
- The flying insect that can spread the disease Malaria is the Anopheles Mosquito. (answers.com)
- It is spread by the bite of a mosquito. (answers.com)
- While Plague and malaria is spread via fleas and mosquito. (answers.com)
- Not all mosquito species are able to spread malaria. (answers.com)
- Some mosquito species belonging to the genus Anopheles are able to spread the parasite that causes malaria. (answers.com)
- culex mosquito spread malaria in sparrow but anopheles mosquito spread malaria in human beings. (answers.com)
- Malaria was most likely spread through the bite of a female mosquito. (answers.com)
- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Aedes aegypti , the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can spread dengue fever , chikungunya , Zika fever , Mayaro and yellow fever viruses , and other disease agents. (yahoo.com)
- The data show that we're seeing a steady increase and spread of tick-borne diseases and an accelerating trend of mosquito-borne diseases introduced from other parts of the world," said Lyle Petersen, M.D., director of the Division of Vector-Borne Diseases in the CDC's National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases. (aarp.org)
- New research has looked at human cancer cells implanted into mice, human tumor samples, and other assays in an attempt to better understand what drives the spread of certain aggressive cancers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A new study in mice has suggested that a disrupted gut microbiome may influence the spread of hormone receptor positive breast cancers. (forbes.com)
- A molecule present in many spreading cancers has been identified as key to helping stem cells to become mobile, reveal UK scientists. (newscientist.com)
- As cancers grow, cells often move out of the original tumour and spread around the body using the blood or lymphatic system, a process called metastasis. (newscientist.com)
- For example, healthcare provider hands become contaminated by touching germs present on medical equipment or high touch surfaces and then carry the germs on their hands and spread to a susceptible person when proper hand hygiene is not performed before touching the susceptible person. (cdc.gov)
- For guidelines and resources on how to prevent the spread of other germs at your facility, please visit the Information for Aquatics Professionals page. (cdc.gov)
- The agency said that greater investment could help state agencies and their partners fight the spread of the bugs and their germs, and better track related illnesses and their spread. (aarp.org)
- In the Seattle case, public health officials said the germs apparently spread from patient to patient by endoscopes used to treat liver and pancreatic illnesses. (scientificamerican.com)
- Although initial epidemics were located in urban areas, increased dengue spread has involved suburban and rural locales in Asia and Latin America. (medscape.com)
- Professor Yamir Moreno of the University of Zaragoza, who studies complex networks and spreading patterns of epidemics, agrees. (ibtimes.com)
- Now disease also spreads via Facebook statuses and Google results-not just the droplets from a sneeze or the particles that linger in the air when we forget to cough properly into our elbow crease-and around the world, digital health misinformation is having increasingly catastrophic impacts on physical health. (theatlantic.com)
- Chinese stocks came under pressure Tuesday after the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that coronavirus, a new illness that surfaced last month in Wuhan, China, had spread to the United States. (investopedia.com)
- Today, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is announcing several actions aimed at limiting the spread of the Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). (cms.gov)
- You can make garlic bread quick in a wink with this garlic butter spread. (bellaonline.com)
- Savour the delicious buttery taste often missing from other butter alternatives with Flora Buttery spread. (tesco.com)
- and linseed), water, salt, plant-based emulsifier (sunflower lecithin), vinegar, natural flavourings and vitamin A. Flora Buttery also contains 61% less saturated fat than butter, making this buttery spread an ideal alternative. (tesco.com)
- Cheese spread can be packaged in many ways: in plastic tubs, in small foil-wrapped triangles or squares grouped together in a cardboard container, in a pressurized can in which the cheese product comes out in a string-like form, such as Easy Cheese, in a jar in semi-liquid form, such as Cheez Whiz, and as a solid in a butter-like bar. (wikipedia.org)
- In Europe and North America, public-health officials began screening blood supplies in the early 1990s, at least eliminating the virus's spread. (newsweek.com)
- I think this indicates that spreading of USA300 may be related with problems in North America, specifically," says study researcher Yoshitsugu Iinuma, MD, PhD, professor in the department of infectious diseases at Kanazawa Medical University in Ishikawa, Japan, in an email. (webmd.com)
- Head lice, MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ), and pin worm are unlikely to be spread through the use of swimming pools. (cdc.gov)
- Can MRSA be spread at recreational water facilities? (cdc.gov)
- There have been no reports of MRSA spreading through contact with recreational water. (cdc.gov)
- However, MRSA can be spread at recreational water facilities and other places by direct and indirect contact with infected persons. (cdc.gov)
- MRSA is most likely to spread when it comes into contact with an uncovered cut or scrape. (cdc.gov)
- If you are a pool or hot tub operator and would like more information on how to properly disinfect your facility and prevent MRSA from spreading, visit the Cleaning and Disinfecting Athletic Facilities for MRSA and the Cleaning and Disinfecting Laundry for MRSA pages. (cdc.gov)
- Disinfectant wipes are among the products used in such settings in an effort to prevent the spread of MRSA and other infectious pathogens. (webmd.com)
- It suggests that these ointments may be one of the factors behind the spread of an especially severe MRSA strain, called USA300, around the world. (webmd.com)
- Experts who reviewed the study say that while its findings are intriguing, they need to be duplicated on a larger scale before any firm conclusions can be made about the role of antibiotic ointments in MRSA spread or resistance. (webmd.com)
- How is avian influenza spread? (usgs.gov)
- State and federal government experts continue to evaluate how Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) viruses can spread and impact wild and domestic birds. (usgs.gov)
- Can wild birds spread avian influenza to domestic poultry? (usgs.gov)
- Although it is possible for domestic poultry to become infected with avian influenza from direct contact with wild birds, it is more likely that avian influenza viruses are spread indirectly to poultry on contaminated feed, clothing, and equipment. (usgs.gov)
- The spread of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza into Asia, Europe, and Africa has resulted in enormous impacts on the poultry industry and presents an important threat to human health. (pnas.org)
- Highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza emerged in Hong Kong in 1996-1997 ( 1 ) and by early October 2006 had subsequently caused outbreaks in poultry or wild birds in 53 countries and 256 human cases, including 151 deaths ( www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en/ ). (pnas.org)
- Pinworm infections are rarely spread through the use of swimming pools. (cdc.gov)
- Though it is rare for infections to spread in a dental practice, the Oklahoma and Tulsa health departments have urged Dr. W. Scott Harrington's 7,000 patients to have their blood analyzed for signs of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV. (yahoo.com)
- Such infections, if not promptly treated, can spread to the blood , lungs , and other organs and may become life-threatening. (webmd.com)
- They are among the most challenging prostate cancer patients to treat: about 150,000 men worldwide each year whose cancer is aggressive enough to defy standard hormonal therapy, but has not yet spread to the point where it can be seen on scans. (nytimes.com)
- In the study of men receiving apalutamide, it took, on average, 40.5 months for cancer to spread to the point where it could be detected by conventional scans. (nytimes.com)
- For men receiving the placebo, the cancer spread in 16.2 months, on average. (nytimes.com)
- How this leads to cancer spread has now been illuminated in mouse models. (nature.com)
- How this transition occurs and the implications of EMT for metastasis, the process by which cancer spreads, are not fully understood. (nature.com)
- If prostate cancer spreads to other parts of the body, it nearly always goes to the bones first. (cancer.org)
- If the cancer has grown outside the prostate, preventing or slowing the spread of the cancer to the bones is a major goal of treatment. (cancer.org)
- Osteoclasts often become overactive when prostate cancer spreads to the bones, which can cause problems. (cancer.org)
- Sometimes other bisphosphonates are used to treat prostate cancer that has spread to bone. (cancer.org)
- Higher-grade cancer tumors are characterized by faster growth and spread rates. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Can White Blood Cells Spread Cancer? (npr.org)
- Reporting in The Journal of Clinical Investigation , Lorenzo Ferri of McGill University Health Centre and colleagues write of a new way that cancer might spread in the body. (npr.org)
- But here's where it gets interesting, because in a new study, researchers say they have shown that these nets might actually activate and spread the cancer cells. (npr.org)
- What was the first clue that the white blood cells might be spreading the cancer? (npr.org)
- the cancer spreads. (npr.org)
- But the implication of the nets themselves, this web of DNA is an entirely novel approach, or at least newly described approach in order - the way this cancer can spread. (npr.org)
- Earlier this year, an ambitious $25 million project was launched to determine the role of the microbiome in colorectal cancer, but perhaps more surprisingly, a new study in mice has linked the health of the gut microbiome to the spread of breast cancer. (forbes.com)
- The mice were treated with antibiotics to disrupt the microbiome before testing for the spread of the mouse breast cancer cells as well as inflammation. (forbes.com)
- In addition to the antibiotics, the researchers also performed fecal transplants from mice with disrupted microbiomes, finding a similar effect on the spread of the breast cancer cells in the mice that received the transplants. (forbes.com)
- A main question which comes from this research appears to be whether dysbiosis (an imbalance of the microbiome) and hence the proposed increased risk of cancer spreading is present before the cancer diagnosis or is a result of the cancer and treatments. (forbes.com)
- Although this work is at an early stage, if a disrupted microbiome is found to promote the spread of HR+ breast cancer cells in humans, it is hoped that there may be scope for manipulating the microbiome in order to reduce the risk of this. (forbes.com)
- Dr Rutkowski has found that an unhealthy microbiome promotes the spread of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in mouse models. (forbes.com)
- Peter Stern and colleagues, at Cancer Research UK's Paterson Institute in Manchester, found the 5T4 produced by mouse ESCs made the cells spread across culture plates. (newscientist.com)
- We think we've found a common factor in the movement of embryonic cells during development and of cancer cells during the spread of disease," he says. (newscientist.com)
- By studying fundamental developmental biology, the new study has highlighted a potentially exciting strategy to prevent cancer from spreading - one of the great challenges faced by scientists. (newscientist.com)
- The implant has only been used in mice, but it could be used in humans to detect and warn about spreading cancer cells. (www.nhs.uk)
- The problem is cancer spread from one part of the body to another (metastasis) usually only becomes apparent after it has happened, and when it is often too late to do much about it. (www.nhs.uk)
- In this latest study, researchers injected mice with breast cancer cells and then put a tiny biological implant or "scaffold" into their abdomen to see if it could catch the cells before they spread to other organs. (www.nhs.uk)
- Subsequent tests confirmed the scaffold became infiltrated with cancer cells soon after the cancer had developed, and also reduced the spread of cancer to other organs, such as the lungs and liver. (www.nhs.uk)
- It could provide an "early warning system", alerting clinicians the cancer is beginning to spread, and it could also possibly slow the spread. (www.nhs.uk)
- This laboratory and animal study investigated the potential use of an implant to capture cancer cells spreading through the body to cause metastases - cancer in body sites distant from the original. (www.nhs.uk)
- Her prognosis was bleak, until Dr. Richard Alexander, a surgical oncologist at the Greenebaum Cancer Center at the University of Maryland Medical Center, recommended she try a new treatment he had worked on at the National Institutes of Health , specifically designed to target melanoma that has spread to the liver. (cnn.com)
- If the bull call spread is done so that both the sold and bought calls expire on the same day, it is a vertical debit call spread. (wikipedia.org)
- An international team of scientists led by Oxford University and Public Health England analyzed viral migration patterns and found a correlation between the war-related movement of 1.7 million people and the spread of HIV. (voanews.com)
- He says scientists still have many questions about how bird flu is spread. (rferl.org)
- Once melanoma -- in particular ocular melanoma -- has spread to the liver, it can be very aggressive and extremely difficult to treat,' said Alexander. (cnn.com)
- Our work is the first to look at the spatial spreading of contagion processes at early times, and to propose a predictor for which 'nodes' -- in this case, airports -- will lead to more aggressive spatial spreading,' said Ruben Juanes, the ARCO Associate Professor in Energy Studies in CEE. (ibtimes.com)
- Americans now spend an estimated $1 billion a year on these and other antibacterial products, but their direct impact on the spread of infectious disease is not well understood. (webmd.com)
- Some of the diseases spread by them can be cured by using medicine , however some still aren't fully understood or treatment not available to completely resolve them yet. (yahoo.com)
- However, their role in individual H5N1 introduction events and in future spread is not well understood and has been debated extensively ( 3 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 9 ). (pnas.org)
- In the United States, the amount of cheese products used in pasteurized process cheese spread must be at least 51 percent, must contain at least 20 percent milkfat, and the moisture content must be between 44 percent to 60 percent, not exceeding 60 percent. (wikipedia.org)
- To serve, let cheese stand at room temperature 30 minutes or until soft enough to spread. (womansday.com)
- Serve at room temperature as a spread for crisp crackers and raw vegetables or use as a sandwich spread. (seriouseats.com)
- Let spread stand at room temperature for about 30 minutes before serving. (dispatch.com)
- Frequent hand washing is one of the best ways to prevent the spread of infectious illness, but new research suggests that commercially available hand sanitizers and disinfecting wipes can also help reduce the spread of infectious disease in schools. (webmd.com)
- To him, it was a sign that the stay-at-home order was working to curtail the spread of the illness. (medscape.com)
- Russia's Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper says it's feared visitors may cause the illness to spread throughout Europe. (rt.com)
- This Pimento Cheese Spread from Amanda Hesser 's The Essential New York Times Cookbook adds a few extra ingredients to the mix, elevating the classic Southern spread with two types of cheddar and homemade mayonnaise. (seriouseats.com)
- This is a yummy, creamy version of standard pesto that makes a great spread for get togethers. (allrecipes.com)
- We are all the victims of this great spreading tragedy. (telegraph.co.uk)
- It's been clear since 2009 that NDM-1 is spreading around the world with great speed. (wired.com)
- Great on corn on the cob or spread on hot corn muffins. (bellaonline.com)
- Information about the potential risk for spread of these health issues is included below. (cdc.gov)
- Throughout the district last year, HRS provided 18 school nurses for 120 schools, spreading thin the health care and education provided to the schools. (sun-sentinel.com)
- You might call these phenomena "misinfodemics"-the spread of a particular health outcome or disease facilitated by viral misinformation. (theatlantic.com)
- Their findings demonstrated that strong ties on digital social networks galvanizing behind a severely flawed study about fluoridation led to people forming group identities online that continue to fuel the spread of health misinformation. (theatlantic.com)
- Subsequently, the health departments recommended Harrington's patients be screened for three viruses that are spread through blood - HIV, hepatitis C and B. Officials noted it was very rare for such viruses to be transmitted through dental work, and the screenings were precautionary. (yahoo.com)
- This year the project has been extended to examine actual examples of how innovations have spread, from immunization to elderly care, in eight health systems around the world. (huffingtonpost.com)